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Viewing 271 to 300 of 8952
2016-01-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9085
Vinod Upadhyay, Xiaoning Qi, Nick Wilson, Dante Battocchi, Gordon Bierwagen, Joy Forsmark, Robert McCune
Abstract This work reports on measurement and analysis of the galvanic interaction between steel self-piercing rivets (SPRs) having several different surface conditions and magnesium alloy substrates under consideration for use in automotive structural assemblies. Rivet surface conditions included uncoated steel, conventional Zn-Sn barrel plating and variations of commercial aluminizing processes, including supplemental layers and sealants. Coating characteristics were assessed using open circuit potential (OCP) measurement, potentiodynamic polarization scanning (PDS), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The degree of galvanic coupling was determined using zero-resistance ammeter (ZRA) and the scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET), which also permitted characterization of galvanic current flows in situ.
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0720
N. Hirose, Y. Takahashi, S. Kambe
Our company adopts a cylinder-bore which is composite plated for weight saving and high output characteristics of the motorcycle engines. The composite-plated-cylinder has good wear resistance in an efficient performance while there are some problems to control the composite plating solution since this solution contains particles which make filtration and electrolysis difficult. Therefore we need to renew the solution within the stated periods, which brings about high cost and environment impact. Thus we developed a recycle and reuse system by the used composite-plating-solution. This method will cut costs by 50% approximately and reduce environment impact by reducing waste of plating solution.
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0717
Govardan Daggupati, Dora Karedla, Gagandeep Risam, N Kuppan
The welded structures have a broad applicability in automotive industry. The welding being an assembled process, presents both advantages and disadvantages for the two wheeler motor structure. A simple existing defect after welding can generate a catastrophic fracture. Recently all major fabricated structures in two wheelers are optimized by Computer Aided Engineering - Finite Element Analysis techniques to meet the constricted weight to strength and stiffness targets. Local reinforcements in the main structure with unequal member thickness are playing major role to meet these requirements. Various critical parameters which affect the weld structure life are not being modeled in FE analysis to minimize the modeling complexity and computation times.
2015-11-17
Journal Article
2015-32-0850
Edmond Ilia, Giorgio Lanni, Kevin Tutton, Doug Sinclair, Michinari Suemasu
The introduction of direct injection turbocharged engines has increased the need for higher performance connecting rods, able to withstand higher compressive loads in operation. In this respect, new materials with high compressive yield strength and fatigue performance for powder-forged connecting rods, such as HS150, HS160, and HS170M, were developed and successfully introduced in production. Among them, HS170M, currently used to manufacture connecting rods for several high performance engines, not only has exceptional strength, but less variation in mechanical properties as a function of its chemical composition variation within the specified limits compared to other powder-forged materials.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2830
Shashank Agarwal, Michael Olson, Tim Meehan, Nachiket Wadwankar
Abstract Fuel economy is one of the major challenges for both on and off-road vehicles. Inefficient engine operation and loss of kinetic energy in the form of heat during braking are two of the major sources of wasted fuel energy. Rising energy costs, stringent emission norms and increased environmental awareness demand efficient drivetrain designs for the next generation of vehicles. This paper analyzes three different types of powertrain concepts for efficient operation of a forklift truck. Starting from a conventional torque convertor transmission, hydrostatic transmission and a hydraulic hybrid transmission (Eaton architecture) are compared for their fuel economy performance. Eaton hydraulic hybrid system is seen to perform much better compared to other two architectures. Improved fuel economy is attributed to efficient engine operation and regeneration of vehicle kinetic energy during braking.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2865
Damodar Kulkarni, Pankaj Deore
Abstract Cost-reduction and cost competitiveness have emerged as major strategic tools to an enterprise and are being used all over the world to fight for survival as well as maintain sustainable growth. Maximization of value-creation by enriching the planet, people and the economy should be the key drivers leading to cost-reduction strategies in any business. The main objectives of this paper are to explain the Processes and Principles of Cost-reduction in technology-transfer to low-cost emerging economies to achieve sustainable cost-reduction and create a culture of cost-consciousness throughout an organization.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2861
Burcu Guleryuz, Martin Raper, Cagkan Kocabas
Abstract Dimensional Variation Analysis (DVA) is a decision-making methodology for tolerance analysis, and is employed to evaluate assembly variations and identify problems in manufacturing assembly processes at early stages of design. In this study, the impact of component tolerances on manufacturing and assembly process variations is presented on a case study. The case study includes the alignment analysis between crankshaft and input shaft for clutch systems. The impact of component tolerances on axial alignment measurements in regard to these applications is discussed. The study shows that when combined with effective tolerance combinations, Variation Simulation Analysis (VSA) facilitates operational visibility; thus improve quality, reduce manufacturing cost, and enable reduction of production release time. The case study presents the impact of component tolerances at two levels: 1. Pre-Design, 2. Optimized Design.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2794
Meng-Huang Lu, Figen Lacin, Daniel McAninch, Frank Yang
Abstract Diesel exhaust after treatment solutions using injection, such as urea-based SCR and lean NOx trap systems, effectively reduce the emission NOx level in various light vehicles, commercial vehicles, and industrial applications. The performance of the injector is crucial for successfully utilizing this type of technology, and a simulation tool plays an important role in the virtual design, that the performance of the injector is evaluated to reach the optimized design. The virtual test methodology using CFD to capture the fluid dynamics of the injector internal flow has been previously developed and validated for quantifying the dosing rate of the test injector. In this study, the capability of the virtual test methodology was extended to determine the spray angle of the test injector, and the effect of the manufacturing process on the injector internal nozzle flow characteristics was investigated using the enhanced virtual test methodology.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2860
Xinyu Ge, Jonathan Jackson
The application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the automotive industry can dramatically reshape the industry. In past decades, many Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) applied neural network and pattern recognition technologies to powertrain calibration, emission prediction and virtual sensor development. The AI application is mostly focused on reducing product development and validation cost. AI technologies in these applications demonstrate certain cost-saving benefits, but are far from disruptive. A disruptive impact can be realized when AI applications finally bring cost-saving benefits directly to end users (e.g., automation of a vehicle or machine operation could dramatically improve the efficiency). However, there is still a gap between current technologies and those that can fully give a vehicle or machine intelligence, including reasoning, knowledge, planning and self-learning.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0356
Uile Silva, Caio Diniz, Said Rocha, Juliano Filho, Romulo Pereira, Alencar Filho, Patrícia Maia
Abstract Nowadays the industries are using in large-scale the modeling of components by the finite element method to predict and anticipate events with the control variables of a project, such as, forces, displacements, moments, stress, etc. In machining processes, the control of these variables makes the process more stable and effective, therefore the use of CAE tools promotes better control of time and costs in the process. The CAE tools are designed to derive a computational model to predict strain, stresses and the forces on the work-piece, as well as the load on the cutting tool according to specific machining parameters, such as cutting speed, tool advance, machined material, tool geometry and others.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0154
Leonardo Coriteac, Alisson Sarmento, Edgar Rocha, Raphael Gonçalves
Abstract Welding is the longest automotive manufacturing process in terms of time. Approximately 95% of an actual body structure joining is consisted by spot welds. In this specific joining process, the panels are joined one against the other, via pressure and an electric current released by the welding machine. Some case studies are demonstrating that, by using CAE optimization algorithm, it is possible to reduce significantly the amount of spot welds, without loss of function or performance. This paper demonstrates a case study with a reduction of approximately ∼ 14 % of spot-welds in a body region of a vehicle, using these tools.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0296
Ana Márcia Barbosa da Silva Antunes, Carlos Antonio Reis Pereira Baptista, Miguel Justino Ribeiro Barboza, André Luis Moreira de Carvalho
Abstract Fatigue is the main cause of mechanical failure in aircraft structures, in which aluminum alloys are employed in approximately 70% of their structural components. Among the microstructural characteristics of aluminum alloys, the hardening precipitates provided by the ageing heat treatment have an important influence in their mechanical properties. In this context, current studies have shown that the two-step ageing heat treatment (T6I4) improves the mechanical properties of 6xxx and 7xxx aluminum alloys. This investigation presents a study of high cycle fatigue behavior of aluminum alloys AA 6351 (T6 and T6I4) and AA 7050 (T7451 and T6I4) as well the influence of microstructural characteristics and two-step ageing heat treatment in the fatigue properties of these alloys. Fatigue tests were performed on smooth and notched specimens.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0303
Metal André Pereira, Bruno Bennati, Carlos Barbieri, Caue Morais, Luiz Gustavo
Abstract Nowadays, meeting the increasing vehicles’ body structure performance requirements without affecting the vehicles’ mass has become a challenge for OEMs. To do so, automakers are deploying new and different sorts of materials combinations on the Body structure. It is known that the usage of high strength steel stamped parts, such as Press Hardened Steel (PHS), in specific Body structure regions, may reduce the need of local reinforcements or further parts, allowing the vehicle to reach the desired performance level while avoiding mass increase. One of the most common methods used to join PHS parts and cold rolled stamped parts is spot welding. This paper studies alternative joint methods between PHS parts and low alloy sheet metal stamped parts, both zinc coated, when spot-weld application is not feasible due to specific body structure joints constructions.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0242
Tiago Sartor, Bruno Daga Cacace, Sergio Ricardo Espada
Abstract Structural integrity is a characteristic that must be evaluated during development of plastic parts as door trim panels. One of the critical areas in door trims is the interface between different parts that often use heat stakes due to process capacity and low costs. To predict issue on those interfaces, a methodology combining finite element analysis (FEA) and physical test results was applied to drive design in two door trim designs, with different material combinations. Aiming to support FEA conclusions, physical tests were performed to determine the maximum retention force that a heat stake withstands, indicating values about 168N for heat stakes of medium impact polypropylene blend >PP+EP(D)M-T<. and 216N for stakes of unfilled polypropylene copolymer >PP<. These values were used as upper limits for reaction forces provided by FEA in each heat stake under a load of 600 N at Pull Handle.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0539
Lucas Travi Farias, Adriano Schommer, Bruno Ziegler Haselein, Paulo Soliman, Leandro Costa de Oliveira
Abstract High performance vehicles are subjected to a high level of loads during short time intervals. Due this situation, manufacturing procedures that conventionally are used in the automotive industry commonly do not achieve the design specifications defined to maximize the overall performance of the vehicle. This situation is highlighted when the overall performance of the system depends on a compromise between variables. The research developed by a German motorsport team aimed to fix the overheating problem found on the front brake system of a Formula SAE prototype using topology optimization combined with the manufacturing processes called Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) to develop and fabricate a new 4 piston monoblock brake caliper. The DMLS process is based on powder metallurgy, using an Yb-fibre laser to melt a powder material and generate the product by a progressive deposition of layers.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0553
Alirio Cavalcanti de Brito, Marcelo Lopes de Oliveira e Souza
Abstract The increasing use of embedded electronics in aerospace and automotive vehicles increases the designers' concern regarding the reliability of the components as well as the reliability of their interconnections. The discussion about the most appropriate method for assessing the reliability of solder joints for a given application is an ever-present theme in the literature. Several methods of prediction have been developed for assessing the reliability of solder joints. The standard method established by the industries for assessing reliability of solder joints is the thermal cycling. However, when the thermal distributions in real applications are studied, particularly in some electronic components used in on-board electronics of space systems, the thermal cycling does not represent what actually happens in practice in the packaging.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0172
George C. Ballardie, Rafael C. Martinez
Abstract Involute splines are widely used in the industry and in the automotive area. Some automotive driveline applications require involute splined couplings with an interference fit (zero backlash). Current methods of production of splines result in relative big dimensional and form deviations, which are increased when parts are heat treated. Grinding process of the spline’s teeth has a high cost and is not suitable for high volume production. There are three methods to achieve an interference fit: 1) Sorting parts with internal spline by using a tapered gage and producing the parts with external spline accordingly;2) Make the external spline with tapered teeth along the spline length;3) Make the external spline with a small helix angle (in the order of minutes of degree) along the spline length. This paper will approach the helix angle method and the process to find the best helix angle value for the interference fit.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0391
Pedro de Paula, Renato Pavanello, Wiliam Su, Alex Rodrigues
Abstract Induction hardening process is widely used to improve fatigue strength of mechanical components that are subjected to cyclic loads in service. The depth of the hardened layer is directed linked with the fatigue and impact strength. So, to improve the mechanical properties in order to preventing fatigue failure in service, it is very important to understand the process and the influence of its parameters. In this paper, a sensitivity study of the influence of some process parameters on the hardness profile of a crankshaft’s crankpin after induction hardening using will be presented. The proposed simulation method include two stages: heating and cooling. In the first stage, the mechanical component, initially at ambient temperature, is heated by electromagnetic induction to a temperature above the steel austenitization. In the second one, the component is cooled by liquid immersion.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2396
Sergey Lupuleac, Margarita Petukhova, Mariia Stefanova, Yulia Shinder, Evgeniy Victorov, Alexander Smirnov, Elodie Bonhomme
Abstract The paper is devoted to further extension and development of numerical approach aimed at simulation of riveting process during aircraft assembly (see [1,2,3,4]). Previous research has shown that developed methodology provides reliable results if the rigid motion of bodies being assembled is forbidden. However, some small parts in the airframe assemblies are not supported prior to the junction and can freely move as a rigid body. This fact introduces additional difficulties when solving corresponding contact problem. The paper is devoted to description and analysis of two different modeling approaches that allow taking unsupported parts into consideration when simulating airframe assembly process.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2429
Rickard Olsen, Kerstin Johansen, Magnus Engstrom
Abstract The increased diffusion of cooperation between humans and robotics in manufacturing systems is one of the next things to implement within robotics. Since the computer power gets more and more powerful, the possibilities increase to achieve safer working environment, due to that all safety signals demands fast management of data. This could lead to a possibility to work closer and more direct with a robot, using the robot as a third hand. Within an EU FW7 funded project called LOCOMACHs (Low Cost Manufacturing and Assembly of Composite and Hybrid Structures) there are one study focusing on how to support a future higher TRL-leveled HMI cell (Human Machine Interaction) in an assembly task. The main objective in this paper is to present how different external safety systems could support the whole HMI assembly cell to work properly in an industrial context.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2488
Derek L. Mickelson
Abstract In the aircraft design process there are the occasional bolted joints with opposing surfaces that are not parallel to each other. This can necessitate manufacturing to machine a spot face into the structural surfaces for the bolt head and nut to seat on. Typically this process is done manually by two workers with all process verification being done visually. Additionally, the nature of airplane structure often requires one worker to be inside a confined space to monitor the process. With this in mind, a tool was requested to reduce the number of workers required, remove workers from confined spaces and ensure a robust method for process validation. The critical technology that would have to be developed was a device that could fix itself into an existing hole, measure the surface of which the hole exited and then machine a spot face into that surface to a specific calculated depth.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2495
N.D. Jayaweera, L.U. Subasinghe, H.G.A.R. Gajanayaka
Abstract Modern aerospace industry is continuously seeking new technologies due to potential increase in demand for new aircrafts which are to be produced on a single production line while reducing model changeover time and improving quality of the assembly process. In mass volume production, this can be achieved by fixing a large number of similar components using special-purpose jigs and fixtures. This type of jigs and fixtures can be largely found in Aerospace industry. In low volume production, improvement of re-configurable fixturing systems becomes a favourable way to reduce the cost of production per unit. A re-configurable fixturing system consists of standard components that can be used to satisfy different fixturing requirements. These fixtures are reusable and this enhances their flexibility and reduces the time and cost of development. It also offers the benefit of eliminating the need for dedicated tooling, dedicated fixturing, associated storage and floor space.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2496
Lucy Agyepong, Marcus Rafla, David Tomlinson, Karl-Otto Strömberg, Alan Howarth
Abstract There is the need to strive towards more advanced aircraft with the use of materials such as composites, and a desire to improve efficiency by achieving and maintaining laminar flow over a large proportion of the aircraft wing. Due to the high tolerances required to achieve laminar flow, the manufacturing processes and tooling will have to be revaluated to enable successful manufacture in a production environment. A major influence in achieving the key characteristics and tolerances is the assembly fixture. This paper details the design and manufacture of a carbon fibre based assembly fixture, required for a one-off build of an innovative leading edge wing concept. The fixture has been designed and optimised in order to make it adaptable, reconfigurable, and suitable for lifting as well as being thermally stable whilst maintaining laminar flow tolerances.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2513
Hans-Juergen Borchers, Kadir Akkuş, Cagatay Ucar
Abstract This paper will discuss the process of drilling large diameter holes within high quality requirements using a Robot positioning concept. This Robot end-effector system provides flexibility to handle different aircraft sections due to its Robot arm design. The material configuration that will be discussed in this paper is a mixed material stack of CFRP and Aluminum. The diameter range is from 7.9 mm to 15.9mm. This paper will focus on the largest diameter (Ø15.9mm). It addresses the process forces to be handled and the solutions. This paper will take an integrated look at the whole process including machine, spindle, cutting tool design and process conditions. Only this integrated view to all process related items enables running an innovative and effective process. The maximum stack size of 40 mm is another condition that requires a specific process to control the chip size to avoid an impact to the material. Here different concepts have been taken under consideration.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2515
Adlai Felser, Peter B. Zieve, Bryan Ernsdorff
Abstract A new style of rivet injector is in production use on a variety of fastening machines used by major aircraft manufacturers. In this injector the opposing sides of the rivet guide blocks are attached to the arms of a parallel gripper. We have implemented the parallel gripper in both vertical axis and horizontal axis riveting applications. It is equally effective in both orientations. We have implemented the parallel gripper rivet injector on headed rivets, threaded bolts, ribbed swage bolts and unheaded (slug) rivets.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2500
Brigitte Vasques
The drilling of multi layers composite stacks remains a common process in aerospace industry. Research of productive solutions such as one shot and dry drilling operations to avoid reaming and lubrication are contemplated by aerospace customers on titanium multi layers composite applications. Those solutions permit to reduce the number of finishing operation and drilling time. Special ADEs (Advanced Drilling Equipment) machines are used to drill aircraft components in limited access areas. Parameters such as cutters, ADE machines type, rigidity clamping, cutting conditions, speed, feed, chip fragmentation and extraction are related and influence the holes quality. Titanium (TA6V) thickness and cutting configuration influence the cutter wear development. In this work, ADE and specific cutter geometries developed by Apex are used for the one shot dry drilling of titanium. Carbide cutters have been chosen for their resistance to the heat developed by titanium drill.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2503
Thomas Dr. Schneider
Abstract This paper presents an innovative approach for modular and flexible positioning systems for large aircraft assembly, for instance the manufacturing of the fuselage sections from shell panels and floor grids, the alignment of the sections to build the fuselage, and the joining of wings and tail units to the fuselage. The positioning system features a modular, reconfigurable, and versatile solution for various aircraft dimensions and different applications. This includes the positioning units, the controls, the measurement interface and the product supports. It provides the customer with a holistic solution that considers the specific positioning task taking into account high absolute positioning accuracy, repeatability and synchronization of the motion for all manipulators that constitute the positioning system. Various tools and method which were used during the development process are introduced and the developed standardized Positioning Technology is briefly explained.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2507
Rainer Mueller, Aaron Geenen, Matthias Vette
Abstract The automation of assembly processes in aircraft production is, due to technological and organizational boundary conditions, very difficult and is subject to technological challenges and economical risks. The technological challenges are especially the large product dimensions as well as the high amount of variants. At the same time, aircrafts are produced in low quantities with inflexible and expensive fixtures. As part of the research projects TRSE (semi-automated robot welding for single item production) and 4by3 (Modularity, Safety, Usability, Efficiency by Human-Robot-Collaboration) at ZeMA, the goal is to develop new process technologies, planning tools and adequate equipment in order to enable efficient and customized automation for various production processes. The human-robot-cooperation is an approach to a required, adjusted and flexible automation. Worker and robot work together without a separating protection device in an overlapping workspace.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2504
Christian Meiners, Weidong Zhu, Yinglin Ke
Abstract The joining and assembly of barrel sections of large aircraft is always cumbersome. Any means to ease this task are welcome. In recent years The Boeing Co. has invented and licensed their “Flex-Track” system. But however flexible this approach may be, double curved surfaces, large variations of cross-section radius and issues with vacuum cup fixture are problems to be dealt with. Zhejiang University in Hangzhou, China has developed a new, innovative circumferential splicing system in cooperation with Broetje-Automation, Germany. There is a unique, time-saving setup technology and self-stepping actuation for a one up 360° splicing operation. The process endeffector is based on standard, state of the art components in use for large fastening systems. Features are high speed servo drilling spindle with HSK 32 drill chuck holder, tool changer, vacuum chip removal, reference hole detection and correction, surface normality alignment, pressure foot clamp-up, countersink control.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2508
Jason Rediger, Kyle Fitzpatrick, Rob McDonald, Daniel Uebele
Abstract An improved aircraft assembly line incorporates fully automated robotic tool change. Ten machine tools, each with two onboard 6-axis robots, drill and fasten airplane structural components. The robots change 100% of the process tooling (drill bits, bolt anvils, hole probes, and nosepieces) to allow seamless transition across the entire range of hole and fastener sizes (3/16″-7/16″). To support required rate, total tool change time (including automatic calibration) is less than 80 seconds. This paper describes the robots and their end effector hardware, reliability testing, and simulations for both mechanical clearance and cycle time estimation.
Viewing 271 to 300 of 8952