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Viewing 271 to 300 of 9023
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0543
Takashi Hara, Masaki Kato, Kazuki Mizutani
Abstract There are such outside door handles called smart handles which have a transmitting antenna, a lock/unlock sensor, and a sensor detection circuit, with which operation of door lock is possible just by "touching" the electrostatic-capacitance type sensor of the handles.As the design of the outside handles, body color painting and Cr plating are adopted. However, if plating is applied over the entire surface of a smart handle, electromagnetic waves transmitted from the antenna will be blocked since plating material is electrically conductive. In addition to this, touching a part other than the sensor may change the electrostatic-capacitance of the sensor, which results in unwanted functioning of the lock/unlock sensor. Because of this, only part of the handle, which does not hinder the transmission of electromagnetic waves and does not cause unwanted functioning, is covered by plating, that is called, "Partially plated specifications" (Figure 1).
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0542
Hiroshi Kawaguchi, Osamu Funatsumaru, Hiroyoshi Sugawara, Hiroshi Sumiya, Takanobu Iwade, Tomitaka Yamamoto, Takashi Koike, Ryuta Kashio
Abstract Trivalent chromium passivation is used after zinc plating for enhancing corrosion resistance of parts. In the passivating process, the amount of dissolved metal ions (for example zinc and iron) in the passivation solution increases the longer the solution is used. This results in a reduced corrosion resistance at elevated temperatures. Adding a top coat after this process improves the corrosion resistance but has an increased cost. To combat this, we strove to clarify the mechanism of decreased corrosion resistance and to develop a trivalent chromium passivation with a higher corrosion resistance at elevated temperatures. At first, we found that in parts produced from an older solution, the passivation layer has cracks which are not seen in parts from a fresh/new solution. These cracks grow when heated at temperatures over 120 degrees Celsius.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0506
Daisuke Tomomatsu
Abstract This study developed technology for simultaneously welding heterogeneous resin tubes in order to weld and integrate resin tubes with two different specifications (low temperature and high temperature). The aim of integration was cost and weight reduction. The cost reduction due to reducing the number of parts exceeded the increase in material cost due to a change to resin materials. Base material fracture of the resin tubes was set as the breaking format condition, and the welding parameters of the joint part rotations and the friction time between the joint part and the resin tubes were specified as the weld strength judgment standard. In addition, the fused thickness determined by observing the cross-section after welding was specified as the weld quality judgment standard. The range over which weld boundary peeling does not occur and weld strength is manifest was clarified by controlling the welding parameters and the fused thickness.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1560
Bo Lin, Chinedum E. Okwudire
Abstract Ball nut assemblies (BNAs) are used in a variety of applications, e.g., automotive, aerospace and manufacturing, for converting rotary motion to linear motion (or vice versa). In these application areas, accurate characterization of the dynamics of BNAs using low-order models is very useful for performance simulation and analyses. Existing low-order contact load models of BNAs are inadequate, partly because they only consider the axial deformations of the screw and nut. This paper presents a low-order load distribution model for BNAs which considers the axial, torsional and lateral deformations of the screw and nut. The screw and nut are modeled as finite element beams, while Hertzian Contact Theory is used to model the contact condition between the balls and raceways of the screw and nut. The interactions between the forces and displacements of the screw and nut and those at the ball-raceway contact points are established using transformation matrices.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1538
Vaibhav V. Gokhale, Carl Marko, Tanjimul Alam, Prathamesh Chaudhari, Andres Tovar
Abstract This work introduces a new Advanced Layered Composite (ALC) design that redirects impact load through the action of a lattice of 3D printed micro-compliant mechanisms. The first layer directly comes in contact with the impacting body and its function is to prevent an intrusion of the impacting body and uniformly distribute the impact forces over a large area. This layer can be made from fiber woven composites imbibed in the polymer matrix or from metals. The third layer is to serve a purpose of establishing contact between the protective structure and body to be protected. It can be a cushioning material or a hard metal depending on the application. The second layer is a compliant buffer zone (CBZ) which is sandwiched between two other layers and it is responsible for the dampening of most of the impact energy.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1394
Anuj Anand, Hari Prasad Konka, Peter Fritz
Abstract Light weight structures give significant advantages to products in the Industrial sector. Component weight-saving plays a major role in improving the efficiency and performance of assembled systems. The introduction of lighter materials into products using dissimilar material joining techniques can create more weight savings and leads to lighter structures. Structural optimization is another method to optimize the material layout without affecting overall performance of the product. This paper discusses the methods to create lighter structures by the introduction of lighter materials in structures and structural optimization methods. Lighter materials are introduced in the structure using dissimilar material joining techniques. Joining processes such as thermal shrink-fit and mechanical press-fit are useful for metal to metal components. Similarly, adhesively bonded joints are useful for both metal and non-metal (plastics and composites) components.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0503
Evandro Giuseppe Betini, Francisco Carlos Cione, Cristiano Stefano Mucsi, Marco Antonio Colosio, Jesualdo Luiz Rossi, Marcos Tadeu D'Azeredo Orlando
Abstract This paper reports the experimental efforts in recording the 2-dimensional temperature distribution on autogenous thin plates of UNS S32304 steel during welding. The butt-welded autogenous joints were experimentally performed by the GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding) process with either argon or argon-2%nitrogen atmospheres. The temperatures cycles were recorded by means of thermocouples embedded by spot welding on the plate's surfaces and connected to a multi-channel data acquisition system. The laser flash method (LFM) was also used for the determination thermal diffusivity of the material in the thickness direction. The temperature curves suggest a relationship between the microstructures in the solidified and the heat affected zone with the diffusivity variation. This is a region where there had been a major incidence of heat. The obtained results validate the reliability of the experimental used apparatus.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0504
Shin-Jang Sung, Jwo Pan
Abstract Analytical stress intensity factor solutions for welds in lap-shear specimens of equal thickness under pinned and clamped loading conditions based on the beam bending theory are presented and examined. Finite element analyses are also employed to obtain the stress intensity factor solutions for welds in lap-shear specimens under both clamped and pinned loading conditions. The computational solutions are compared well with the analytical solutions. The results of the analytical and computational solutions indicate that the bending moments at the clamped edges reduce the mode I and II stress intensity factor solutions by about 7% to 10% for the given specimen geometry. The effects of the clamped grips depend on the ratio of the weld width to the specimen length. Comparisons of the stress intensity factor solutions suggest that the fatigue lives of the welds in lap-shear specimens under clamped loading conditions should be higher than those under pinned loading conditions.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0501
Seung Hoon Hong, Frank Yan, Shin-Jang Sung, Jwo Pan, Xuming Su, Peter Friedman
Abstract Failure mode and fatigue behavior of flow drill screw (FDS) joints in lap-shear specimens of aluminum 6082-T6 sheets with and without clearance hole are investigated based on experiments and a structural stress fatigue life estimation model. Lap-shear specimens with FDS joints were tested under cyclic loading conditions. Optical micrographs show that the failure modes of the FDS joints in specimens with and without clearance hole are quite similar under cyclic loading conditions. The fatigue lives of the FDS joints in specimens with clearance hole are longer than those of the FDS joints in specimens without clearance hole for the given load ranges under cyclic loading conditions. A structural stress fatigue life estimation model is adopted to estimate the fatigue lives of the FDS joints in lap-shear specimens under high-cycle loading conditions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0502
Yuyang Song, Umesh Gandhi
Abstract The application of adhesively bonded joints has increased significantly in order to improve the integrity of structural components in vehicle design. In this paper, finite element analysis is used to model the adhesive behavior of the adhesive joining between steel and composite. The cohesive element modeling techniques in Abaqus is used to model the adhesive interface. The standard lap shear and peeling test are first conducted to estimate the adhesive properties using reverse engineering. Next, these adhesive properties are applied and validated on the FE model of a 3D part for complex loading condition. The FEA model using reverse engineered cohesive interface properties get closed match to the test results for joining of the complex shape parts.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0499
Xu Zhang, Jennifer Johrendt
Abstract Successful manufacture of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) by Long-Fibre Reinforced Thermoplastic (LFT) processes requires knowledge of the effect of numerous processing parameters such as temperature set-points, rotational machinery speeds, and matrix melt flow rates on the resulting material properties after the final compression moulding of the charge is complete. The degree to which the mechanical properties of the resulting material depend on these processing parameters is integral to the design of materials by any process, but the case study presented here highlights the manufacture of CFRP by LFT as a specific example. The material processing trials are part of the research performed by the International Composites Research Centre (ICRC) at the Fraunhofer Project Centre (FPC) located at the University of Western Ontario in London, Ontario, Canada.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0500
Akira Kato, Masayuki Takano, Kohei Hase, Satoko Inuzuka, Toshiyuki Dobashi, Tsuyoshi Sugimoto, Nobuaki Takazawa
Abstract In this report, adhesion mechanism between epoxy resin and primer and between primer and Ni platting in Hybrid vehicle (HV) was investigated. Adhesion forces are thought to be a combination of mechanical bond forces (such as anchor effect), chemical bond forces and physical bond forces (such as hydrogen bonding and Van der Waals force). Currently there is insufficient understanding of the adhesion mechanism. In particular, the extent to which the three bond forces contribute to adhesion strength. So the adhesion mechanism of polyimide primers was analyzed using a number of different methods, including transmission electron microscope (TEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) observation, to determine the contributions of the three bonding forces. Molecular simulation was also used to investigate the relationship between adhesion strength and the molecular structure of the primer.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0498
Yang Li, Qiangsheng Zhao, Mansour Mirdamadi, Danielle Zeng, Xuming Su
Abstract Woven fabric carbon fiber/epoxy composites made through compression molding are one of the promising choices of material for the vehicle light-weighting strategy. Previous studies have shown that the processing conditions can have substantial influence on the performance of this type of the material. Therefore the optimization of the compression molding process is of great importance to the manufacturing practice. An efficient way to achieve the optimized design of this process would be through conducting finite element (FE) simulations of compression molding for woven fabric carbon fiber/epoxy composites. However, performing such simulation remains a challenging task for FE as multiple types of physics are involved during the compression molding process, including the epoxy resin curing and the complex mechanical behavior of woven fabric structure.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0505
Pai-Chen Lin, Shihming Lo
Abstract A concept of combining friction stir spot welding (FSSW) and clinching, denoted as friction stir clinching (FSC), was proposed to join alclad 2024-T3 aluminum sheets. A tool, having a smooth probe and a flat shoulder, and a die, having a circular cavity and a round groove, were used to make FSC joints. The failure loads and fatigue lives of FSC joints made by various punching depths, rotational speeds, and dwelling times, were evaluated to obtain the admissible processing parameters. Optical micrographs of the FSC joints, before and after failure, were examined to understand the effects of processing parameters on the mechanical interlock and alclad layer distribution, which strongly correlate to the failure load, failure mode, and fatigue life of FSC joints. Finally, the static and fatigue performance of FSC joints made by the admissible processing parameters was obtained. The feasibility of the FSC process for alclad 2024-T3 aluminum sheets was confirmed.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0420
Frank Anthony Cuccia, James Pineault, Mohammed Belassel, Michael Brauss
Abstract It is well known that manufacturing operations produce material conditions that can either enhance or debit the fatigue life of production components. One of the most critical aspects of material condition that can have a significant impact on fatigue life is residual stress (RS) [1, 2]. When springs are manufactured, the spring stock may undergo several operations during production. Additional operations may also be introduced for the purpose of imparting the spring with beneficial surface RS to extend its fatigue life and increase its ability to execute the task it was designed to perform. The resultant RS present in production springs as a result of the various fabrication and processing operations applied can be predicted and modeled, however, RS measurements must be performed in order to quantify the RS state with precision.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0384
Andrew Cox, Jeong Hong
Lightweight, optimized vehicle designs are paramount in helping the automotive industry meet reduced emissions standards. Self-piercing rivets are a promising new technology that may play a role in optimizing vehicle designs, due to their superior fatigue resistance compared with spot welds and ability to join dissimilar materials. This paper presents a procedure for applying the mesh-insensitive Battelle Structural Stress Method to self-piercing riveted joints for fatigue life prediction. Additionally, this paper also examines the development of an interim fatigue design master S-N curve for self-piercing rivets. The interim fatigue design master S-N curve accounts for factors such as various combinations of similar and dissimilar metal sheets, various sheet thicknesses, stacking sequence, and load ratios. A large amount of published data was collapsed into a single interim S-N curve with reasonable data scattering.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0386
HongTae Kang, Abolhassan Khosrovaneh, Xuming Su, Mingchao Guo, Yung-Li Lee, Shyam Pittala, Chonghua Jiang, Brian Jordon
Abstract Friction stir linear welding (FSLW) is widely used in joining lightweight materials including aluminum alloys and magnesium alloys. However, fatigue life prediction method for FSLW is not well developed yet for vehicle structure applications. This paper is tried to use two different methods for the prediction of fatigue life of FSLW in vehicle structures. FSLW is represented with 2-D shell elements for the structural stress approach and is represented with TIE contact for the maximum principal stress approach in finite element (FE) models. S-N curves were developed from coupon specimen test results for both the approaches. These S-N curves were used to predict fatigue life of FSLW of a front shock tower structure that was constructed by joining AM60 to AZ31 and AM60 to AM30. The fatigue life prediction results were then correlated with test results of the front shock tower structures.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0389
Mingchao Guo, Ramchandra Bhandarkar, Weidong Zhang, Guofei Chen, Zhenke Teng
Abstract This paper describes static and fatigue behavior of resistance spot welds with the stack-up of conventional mild and advanced high strength steels, with and without adhesive, based on a set of lap shear and coach peel coupon tests. The coupons were fabricated following specified spot welding and adhesive schedules. The effects of similar and dissimilar steel grade sheet combinations in the joint configuration have been taken into account. Tensile strength of the steels used for the coupons, both as-received and after baked, and cross-section microstructure photographs are included. The spot weld SN relations between this study and the study by Auto/Steel Partnership are compared and discussed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0392
HongTae Kang, Abolhassan Khosrovaneh, Xuming Su, Mingchao Guo, Yung-Li Lee, Sai Boorgu, Chonghua Jiang
Abstract Joining technology is a key factor to utilize dissimilar materials in vehicle structures. Adaptable insert weld (AIW) technology is developed to join sheet steel (HSLA350) to cast magnesium alloy (AM60) and is constructed by combining riveting technology and electrical resistance spot welding technology. In this project, the AIW joint technology is applied to construct front shock tower structures composed with HSLA350, AM60, and Al6082 and a method is developed to predict the fatigue life of the AIW joints. Lap-shear and cross-tension specimens were constructed and tested to develop the fatigue parameters (load-life curves) of AIW joint. Two FEA modeling techniques for AIW joints were used to model the specimen geometry. These modeling approaches are area contact method (ACM) and TIE contact method.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0395
Anindya Deb, Clifford C. Chou, Gunti R. Srinivas, Sanketh Gowda, Goutham Kurnool
Abstract An attractive strategy for joining metallic as well as non-metallic substrates through adhesive bonding. This technique of joining also offers the functionality for joining dissimilar materials. However, doubts are often expressed on the ability of such joints to perform on par with other mechanical fastening methodologies such as welding, riveting, etc. In the current study, adhesively-bonded single lap shear (SLS), double lap shear (DLS) and T-peel joints are studied initially under quasi-static loading using substrates made of a grade of mild steel and an epoxy-based adhesive of a renowned make (Huntsman). Additionally, single lap shear joints comprised of a single spot weld are tested under quasi-static loading. The shear strengths of adhesively-bonded SLS joints and spot-welded SLS joints are found to be similar.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0394
Minghuang Cheng, Norihiko Sawa
Abstract This paper describes the development of a fatigue life prediction method for Laser Screw Welding (LSW). Fatigue life prediction is used to assess the durability of automotive structures in the early design stages in order to shorten the vehicle development time. The LSW technology is a spot-type joining method similar to resistance spot welding (RSW), and has been developed and applied to body-inwhite structures in recent years. LSW can join metal panels even when a clearance exists between the panels. However, as a result of this favorable clearance-allowance feature of LSW, a concave shape may occur at the nugget part of the joint. These LSW geometric features, the concavity of nuggets and the clearance between panels, are thought to affect the local stiffness behavior of the joint. Therefore, while assessing the fatigue life of LSW, it is essential to estimate the influence of these factors adequately for the representation of the local stiffness behavior of the joint.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0396
Prasad S. Mehta, Jennifer Solis Ocampo, Andres Tovar, Prathamesh Chaudhari
Abstract Biologically inspired designs have become evident and proved to be innovative and efficacious throughout the history. This paper introduces a bio-inspired design of protective structures that is lightweight and provides outstanding crashworthiness indicators. In the proposed approach, the protective function of the vehicle structure is matched to the protective capabilities of natural structures such as the fruit peel (e.g., pomelo), abdominal armors (e.g., mantis shrimp), bones (e.g., ribcage and woodpecker skull), as well as other natural protective structures with analogous protective functions include skin and cartilage as well as hooves, antlers, and horns, which are tough, resilient, lightweight, and functionally adapted to withstand repetitive high-energy impact loads. This paper illustrates a methodology to integrate designs inspired by nature, Topology optimization, and conventional modeling tools.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0406
Akihiko Asami, Tomoyuki Imanishi, Yukio Okazaki, Tomohiro Ono, Kenichi Tetsuka
Abstract High-tensile steel plates and lightweight aluminum are being employed as materials in order to achieve weight savings in automotive subframe. Closed-section structures are also in general use today in order to efficiently increase parts stiffness in comparison to open sections. Aluminum hollow-cast subframe have also been brought into practical use. Hollow-cast subframe are manufactured using sand cores in gravity die casting (GDC) or low-pressure die casting (LPDC) processes. Using these manufacturing methods, it is difficult to reduce product thickness, and the limitations of the methods therefore make the achievement of weight reductions a challenge. The research discussed in this paper developed a lightweight, hollow subframe technology employing high-pressure die casting (HPDC), a method well-suited to reducing wall thickness, as the manufacturing method. Hollow-casting using HPDC was developed as a method of forming water jackets for water-cooled automotive engines.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0416
Eduardo Bustillos, Haley Linkous, Xin Xie, Laila Guessous, Lianxiang Yang
This paper presents the measurement and analysis of the edge stretching limit of aluminum alloy using digital image correlation. The edge stretching limit, also known as the “edge thinning limit,” is the maximum thinning strain at a point of edge failure resulting from tension; which may be predisposed by edge quality. Edge fracture is a vital failure mode in sheet metal forming, however it is very difficult to measure. A previous study enabled the measurement of edge thinning strain by using advanced digital image correlation but it did not consider how the edge quality could affect the edge stretching limit of aluminum alloy. This paper continues to measure edge thinning strain by comparing polished to unpolished AA5754, thus determining the effect edge quality has on the edge stretching limit. To enable the measurement by optical method for a very long and thin sample, a notch is used to localize where edge failure occurs.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1291
Greig Latham
Abstract Applying the Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment (EIOLCA) method to the question of fielding newly manufactured or remanufactured vehicles provides an illuminating view of the economic and environmental advantages of remanufacturing. Sustained accomplishments of policy and engineering have reduced vehicle emissions such that current work has reached the point of diminishing returns. The macroeconomic, global, unprecedented, debt-supercycle-combined with increasing costs of natural resource extraction and vehicle production-demands improved asset and resource utilization. Expanding and exploiting the entire vehicle life cycle is a profitable and sustainable extension of work to date; such extension calls for remanufacturing to move from vehicle components to the entire vehicle. Stretching service lifetimes delay traditional end-of-life recovery practices while radically challenging the status quo.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1290
J. Groenewald, James Marco, Nicholas Higgins, Anup Barai
Abstract While a number of publications have addressed the high-level requirements of remanufacturing to ensure its commercial and environmental sustainability, considerably less attention has been given to the technical data and associated test strategies needed for any evidence-based decision as to whether a vehicle energy storage system should be remanufactured - extending its in-vehicle life, redeployed for second-life (such as domestic or grid storage) or decommissioned for recycling. The aim of this paper is to critically review the strategic requirements for data at the different stages of the battery value-chain that is pertinent to an Electric Vehicle (EV) battery remanufacturing strategy. Discussed within the paper is the derivation of a feasible remanufacturing test strategy for the vehicle battery system.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1331
Shingo Hanano, Kanehiro Nagata, Yusuke Murase
Abstract The need to add more color variations to the traditional black gloss has increased globally in recent years. The intention is for automobile manufacturers to differentiate their products in terms of appearance design. The most noticeable trend is to add embellishment around the front grill. The same trend can be seen in the areas around vehicle doors. It is most common to use a coating material to emphasize the black gloss. However, in overseas countries it is a challenge to meet the required appearance quality, and under the current circumstances CKD is imported from Japan to meet such requirements. Recently, a new film-transfer technique has been established that can express black gloss as well as any coating material by transferring the roughness of the film surface. It is achieved by crimping the PET film onto the vinyl-chloride surface after the extrusion molding is performed. Moreover, we have successfully localized this technique and reduced the manufacturing cost.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1347
S. Khodaygan
Abstract Fixtures play a key role in locating workpieces to manufacture high quality products within many processes of the product lifecycle. Inaccuracies in workpiece location lead to errors in position and orientation of machined features on the workpiece, and strongly affect the assemblability and the final quality of the product. The accurate positioning of workpiece on a fixture is influenced by rigid body displacements and rotations of the workpiece. In this paper, a systematic approach is introduced to investigate the located workpiece position errors. A new mathematical formulation of fixture locators modeling is proposed to establish the relationship between the workpiece position error and its sources. Based on the proposed method, the final locating errors of the workpiece can be accurately estimated by relating them to the specific dimensional and geometric errors or tolerances of the workpiece and the related locators.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1352
Venkata Suresh Yaparala, B. S. Guru Prasad, Harsha Mottedoddi Puttaswamy
Abstract Residual stresses and thermal distortion are a common phenomenon observed in any welding method. This is a result of non-uniform stresses generated due to highly localized heating at the joint edges, which fuses the base material and leads to considerable amount of changes in mechanical properties. Thus, it is very important to evaluate these effects in any welded structural members before designing for actual loading condition. Therefore, accurate prediction of these stresses and distortion is of critical importance to ensure the in-service structural integrity of welded structures. The recent advancement in Computational simulation and numerical techniques helps in evaluating the weld distortion and residual stresses. The moving heat flux approach and Element birth/death method makes it easier to analyze the weld distortion. This is done with the use of ANSYS® Commercial FE software.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1344
Koushi Kumagai, Masaaki Kuwahara, Tsuyoshi Yasuki, Norimasa Koreishi
Abstract This paper describes the development of a fracture finite element (FE) model for laser screw welding (LSW) and validation of the model with experimental results. LSW was developed and introduced to production vehicles by Toyota Motor Corporation in 2013. LSW offers superb advantages such as increased productivity and short pitch welding. Although the authors had previously developed fracture FE models for conventional resistance spot welding (RSW), a fracture model for LSW has not been developed. To develop this fracture model, many comprehensive experiments were conducted. The results revealed that LSW had twice as many variations in fracture modes compared to RSW. Moreover, fracture mode bifurcations were also found to result from differences in clearance between welded plates. In order to analyze LSW fracture phenomena, detailed FE models using fine hexahedral elements were developed.
Viewing 271 to 300 of 9023