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Viewing 271 to 300 of 8952
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1560
Bo Lin, Chinedum E. Okwudire
Abstract Ball nut assemblies (BNAs) are used in a variety of applications, e.g., automotive, aerospace and manufacturing, for converting rotary motion to linear motion (or vice versa). In these application areas, accurate characterization of the dynamics of BNAs using low-order models is very useful for performance simulation and analyses. Existing low-order contact load models of BNAs are inadequate, partly because they only consider the axial deformations of the screw and nut. This paper presents a low-order load distribution model for BNAs which considers the axial, torsional and lateral deformations of the screw and nut. The screw and nut are modeled as finite element beams, while Hertzian Contact Theory is used to model the contact condition between the balls and raceways of the screw and nut. The interactions between the forces and displacements of the screw and nut and those at the ball-raceway contact points are established using transformation matrices.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0066
Vishad Uttam, Nitin Jain, Kislaya Ravi
Abstract Chrome plated plastic parts are extensively used across the automobile industry. Being exterior parts they are subjected to harsh environmental condition. Washing of vehicle will also make these parts more prone to corrosion. Thus the main aim while deciding chemical composition is to decelerate the process of corrosion. This paper describes the process of corrosion and general chemical composition of the overall layers to inhibit and delay the process of corrosion. An experimental study is done to establish the effect of variation in composition of plating layers.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0069
Praveen Kumar Gupta, Pankaj Maheshwari, Sarita Kumari
Abstract Automotive textile is an integral aspect of technical textile. Seating fabric plays an important part in defining the interior theme in a car cabin which is being perceived by a customer. Aesthetic appeal in a fabric is achieved by interlacing/interlooping of yarns. Monofilament yarns are used to enhance the aesthetic appearance of the fabric for creating high low effect. This study involves the importance of monofilament yarn at fabric and seat trim levels in automotive seating application. Monofilament in fabric imparts aesthetic and strength to the seat trim. Apart from design & engineering evaluation, manufacturing feasibility for evaluation of fabric during stitching process is critical when evaluating fabrics with monofilaments. Main parameters considered are: 1 Importance of monofilament yarn.2 Evaluation criteria for monofilament yarn.3 Performance of monofilament yarn at fabric level & seat trim level.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0211
Prasad M. Rao, Shailesh S. Kulkarni
Abstract The paper talks about machining techniques and solution approaches while machining Aluminium grade gearbox housings. Mahindra’s next generation gearbox housings are made totally of Aluminium; along with the higher strength to weight ratio that comes with using Aluminium come highly optimized ribbed structures that aid in achieving the said strength. While machining such Aluminium structures, it is imperative that the clamping forces do not load the component in ways it is not intended to. The paper talks about finish machining and proving out a semi-finished gearbox housing set (front, intermediate plate and rear) on a conventional Horizontal Machining Center (HMC). The input to the machine is the semi-finish housing that is already machined before with stock for finish operations.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0176
Rajesh Siva, C. Janarthanan, P. Muthuvel, Gopkumar Kuttikrishnan, Gidugu Ramadass, Malayath Atmanand
Abstract The hybrid robot, will be a battery operated four wheel drive vehicle with a rigid chassis for all terrain operation. The vehicle will be suited for various payloads based on applications with geological, atmospheric sensors such as oxygen measurement, glacier thickness measurement, CO2 measurement, thermal properties measurement, salinity, buried object identification at a depth of 8 to 100 m., etc . The vehicle will be remotely controlled through a RF signal which allows it to maneuver up to 5 km. The novelty of the design, is its capability for all terrain and ease of trafficability based on skid steering, self alignment of sensors and vehicle traction in spite of possible inverted conditions and the vehicle can travel from land, snow, water and vice versa. The vehicle can be used in survey at coastline of water bodies, borderlines and can also be extensively used in polar region for studying glacier aging and as advance vehicle for the convoys and polar mapping.
2016-01-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9085
Vinod Upadhyay, Xiaoning Qi, Nick Wilson, Dante Battocchi, Gordon Bierwagen, Joy Forsmark, Robert McCune
Abstract This work reports on measurement and analysis of the galvanic interaction between steel self-piercing rivets (SPRs) having several different surface conditions and magnesium alloy substrates under consideration for use in automotive structural assemblies. Rivet surface conditions included uncoated steel, conventional Zn-Sn barrel plating and variations of commercial aluminizing processes, including supplemental layers and sealants. Coating characteristics were assessed using open circuit potential (OCP) measurement, potentiodynamic polarization scanning (PDS), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The degree of galvanic coupling was determined using zero-resistance ammeter (ZRA) and the scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET), which also permitted characterization of galvanic current flows in situ.
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0717
Govardan Daggupati, Dora Karedla, Gagandeep Risam, N Kuppan
The welded structures have a broad applicability in automotive industry. The welding being an assembled process, presents both advantages and disadvantages for the two wheeler motor structure. A simple existing defect after welding can generate a catastrophic fracture. Recently all major fabricated structures in two wheelers are optimized by Computer Aided Engineering - Finite Element Analysis techniques to meet the constricted weight to strength and stiffness targets. Local reinforcements in the main structure with unequal member thickness are playing major role to meet these requirements. Various critical parameters which affect the weld structure life are not being modeled in FE analysis to minimize the modeling complexity and computation times.
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0720
N. Hirose, Y. Takahashi, S. Kambe
Our company adopts a cylinder-bore which is composite plated for weight saving and high output characteristics of the motorcycle engines. The composite-plated-cylinder has good wear resistance in an efficient performance while there are some problems to control the composite plating solution since this solution contains particles which make filtration and electrolysis difficult. Therefore we need to renew the solution within the stated periods, which brings about high cost and environment impact. Thus we developed a recycle and reuse system by the used composite-plating-solution. This method will cut costs by 50% approximately and reduce environment impact by reducing waste of plating solution.
2015-11-17
Journal Article
2015-32-0850
Edmond Ilia, Giorgio Lanni, Kevin Tutton, Doug Sinclair, Michinari Suemasu
The introduction of direct injection turbocharged engines has increased the need for higher performance connecting rods, able to withstand higher compressive loads in operation. In this respect, new materials with high compressive yield strength and fatigue performance for powder-forged connecting rods, such as HS150, HS160, and HS170M, were developed and successfully introduced in production. Among them, HS170M, currently used to manufacture connecting rods for several high performance engines, not only has exceptional strength, but less variation in mechanical properties as a function of its chemical composition variation within the specified limits compared to other powder-forged materials.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2794
Meng-Huang Lu, Figen Lacin, Daniel McAninch, Frank Yang
Abstract Diesel exhaust after treatment solutions using injection, such as urea-based SCR and lean NOx trap systems, effectively reduce the emission NOx level in various light vehicles, commercial vehicles, and industrial applications. The performance of the injector is crucial for successfully utilizing this type of technology, and a simulation tool plays an important role in the virtual design, that the performance of the injector is evaluated to reach the optimized design. The virtual test methodology using CFD to capture the fluid dynamics of the injector internal flow has been previously developed and validated for quantifying the dosing rate of the test injector. In this study, the capability of the virtual test methodology was extended to determine the spray angle of the test injector, and the effect of the manufacturing process on the injector internal nozzle flow characteristics was investigated using the enhanced virtual test methodology.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2865
Damodar Kulkarni, Pankaj Deore
Abstract Cost-reduction and cost competitiveness have emerged as major strategic tools to an enterprise and are being used all over the world to fight for survival as well as maintain sustainable growth. Maximization of value-creation by enriching the planet, people and the economy should be the key drivers leading to cost-reduction strategies in any business. The main objectives of this paper are to explain the Processes and Principles of Cost-reduction in technology-transfer to low-cost emerging economies to achieve sustainable cost-reduction and create a culture of cost-consciousness throughout an organization.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2860
Xinyu Ge, Jonathan Jackson
The application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the automotive industry can dramatically reshape the industry. In past decades, many Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) applied neural network and pattern recognition technologies to powertrain calibration, emission prediction and virtual sensor development. The AI application is mostly focused on reducing product development and validation cost. AI technologies in these applications demonstrate certain cost-saving benefits, but are far from disruptive. A disruptive impact can be realized when AI applications finally bring cost-saving benefits directly to end users (e.g., automation of a vehicle or machine operation could dramatically improve the efficiency). However, there is still a gap between current technologies and those that can fully give a vehicle or machine intelligence, including reasoning, knowledge, planning and self-learning.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2861
Burcu Guleryuz, Martin Raper, Cagkan Kocabas
Abstract Dimensional Variation Analysis (DVA) is a decision-making methodology for tolerance analysis, and is employed to evaluate assembly variations and identify problems in manufacturing assembly processes at early stages of design. In this study, the impact of component tolerances on manufacturing and assembly process variations is presented on a case study. The case study includes the alignment analysis between crankshaft and input shaft for clutch systems. The impact of component tolerances on axial alignment measurements in regard to these applications is discussed. The study shows that when combined with effective tolerance combinations, Variation Simulation Analysis (VSA) facilitates operational visibility; thus improve quality, reduce manufacturing cost, and enable reduction of production release time. The case study presents the impact of component tolerances at two levels: 1. Pre-Design, 2. Optimized Design.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2830
Shashank Agarwal, Michael Olson, Tim Meehan, Nachiket Wadwankar
Abstract Fuel economy is one of the major challenges for both on and off-road vehicles. Inefficient engine operation and loss of kinetic energy in the form of heat during braking are two of the major sources of wasted fuel energy. Rising energy costs, stringent emission norms and increased environmental awareness demand efficient drivetrain designs for the next generation of vehicles. This paper analyzes three different types of powertrain concepts for efficient operation of a forklift truck. Starting from a conventional torque convertor transmission, hydrostatic transmission and a hydraulic hybrid transmission (Eaton architecture) are compared for their fuel economy performance. Eaton hydraulic hybrid system is seen to perform much better compared to other two architectures. Improved fuel economy is attributed to efficient engine operation and regeneration of vehicle kinetic energy during braking.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0154
Leonardo Coriteac, Alisson Sarmento, Edgar Rocha, Raphael Gonçalves
Abstract Welding is the longest automotive manufacturing process in terms of time. Approximately 95% of an actual body structure joining is consisted by spot welds. In this specific joining process, the panels are joined one against the other, via pressure and an electric current released by the welding machine. Some case studies are demonstrating that, by using CAE optimization algorithm, it is possible to reduce significantly the amount of spot welds, without loss of function or performance. This paper demonstrates a case study with a reduction of approximately ∼ 14 % of spot-welds in a body region of a vehicle, using these tools.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0296
Ana Márcia Barbosa da Silva Antunes, Carlos Antonio Reis Pereira Baptista, Miguel Justino Ribeiro Barboza, André Luis Moreira de Carvalho
Abstract Fatigue is the main cause of mechanical failure in aircraft structures, in which aluminum alloys are employed in approximately 70% of their structural components. Among the microstructural characteristics of aluminum alloys, the hardening precipitates provided by the ageing heat treatment have an important influence in their mechanical properties. In this context, current studies have shown that the two-step ageing heat treatment (T6I4) improves the mechanical properties of 6xxx and 7xxx aluminum alloys. This investigation presents a study of high cycle fatigue behavior of aluminum alloys AA 6351 (T6 and T6I4) and AA 7050 (T7451 and T6I4) as well the influence of microstructural characteristics and two-step ageing heat treatment in the fatigue properties of these alloys. Fatigue tests were performed on smooth and notched specimens.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0303
Metal André Pereira, Bruno Bennati, Carlos Barbieri, Caue Morais, Luiz Gustavo
Abstract Nowadays, meeting the increasing vehicles’ body structure performance requirements without affecting the vehicles’ mass has become a challenge for OEMs. To do so, automakers are deploying new and different sorts of materials combinations on the Body structure. It is known that the usage of high strength steel stamped parts, such as Press Hardened Steel (PHS), in specific Body structure regions, may reduce the need of local reinforcements or further parts, allowing the vehicle to reach the desired performance level while avoiding mass increase. One of the most common methods used to join PHS parts and cold rolled stamped parts is spot welding. This paper studies alternative joint methods between PHS parts and low alloy sheet metal stamped parts, both zinc coated, when spot-weld application is not feasible due to specific body structure joints constructions.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0242
Tiago Sartor, Bruno Daga Cacace, Sergio Ricardo Espada
Abstract Structural integrity is a characteristic that must be evaluated during development of plastic parts as door trim panels. One of the critical areas in door trims is the interface between different parts that often use heat stakes due to process capacity and low costs. To predict issue on those interfaces, a methodology combining finite element analysis (FEA) and physical test results was applied to drive design in two door trim designs, with different material combinations. Aiming to support FEA conclusions, physical tests were performed to determine the maximum retention force that a heat stake withstands, indicating values about 168N for heat stakes of medium impact polypropylene blend >PP+EP(D)M-T<. and 216N for stakes of unfilled polypropylene copolymer >PP<. These values were used as upper limits for reaction forces provided by FEA in each heat stake under a load of 600 N at Pull Handle.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0553
Alirio Cavalcanti de Brito, Marcelo Lopes de Oliveira e Souza
Abstract The increasing use of embedded electronics in aerospace and automotive vehicles increases the designers' concern regarding the reliability of the components as well as the reliability of their interconnections. The discussion about the most appropriate method for assessing the reliability of solder joints for a given application is an ever-present theme in the literature. Several methods of prediction have been developed for assessing the reliability of solder joints. The standard method established by the industries for assessing reliability of solder joints is the thermal cycling. However, when the thermal distributions in real applications are studied, particularly in some electronic components used in on-board electronics of space systems, the thermal cycling does not represent what actually happens in practice in the packaging.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0539
Lucas Travi Farias, Adriano Schommer, Bruno Ziegler Haselein, Paulo Soliman, Leandro Costa de Oliveira
Abstract High performance vehicles are subjected to a high level of loads during short time intervals. Due this situation, manufacturing procedures that conventionally are used in the automotive industry commonly do not achieve the design specifications defined to maximize the overall performance of the vehicle. This situation is highlighted when the overall performance of the system depends on a compromise between variables. The research developed by a German motorsport team aimed to fix the overheating problem found on the front brake system of a Formula SAE prototype using topology optimization combined with the manufacturing processes called Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) to develop and fabricate a new 4 piston monoblock brake caliper. The DMLS process is based on powder metallurgy, using an Yb-fibre laser to melt a powder material and generate the product by a progressive deposition of layers.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0391
Pedro de Paula, Renato Pavanello, Wiliam Su, Alex Rodrigues
Abstract Induction hardening process is widely used to improve fatigue strength of mechanical components that are subjected to cyclic loads in service. The depth of the hardened layer is directed linked with the fatigue and impact strength. So, to improve the mechanical properties in order to preventing fatigue failure in service, it is very important to understand the process and the influence of its parameters. In this paper, a sensitivity study of the influence of some process parameters on the hardness profile of a crankshaft’s crankpin after induction hardening using will be presented. The proposed simulation method include two stages: heating and cooling. In the first stage, the mechanical component, initially at ambient temperature, is heated by electromagnetic induction to a temperature above the steel austenitization. In the second one, the component is cooled by liquid immersion.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0356
Uile Silva, Caio Diniz, Said Rocha, Juliano Filho, Romulo Pereira, Alencar Filho, Patrícia Maia
Abstract Nowadays the industries are using in large-scale the modeling of components by the finite element method to predict and anticipate events with the control variables of a project, such as, forces, displacements, moments, stress, etc. In machining processes, the control of these variables makes the process more stable and effective, therefore the use of CAE tools promotes better control of time and costs in the process. The CAE tools are designed to derive a computational model to predict strain, stresses and the forces on the work-piece, as well as the load on the cutting tool according to specific machining parameters, such as cutting speed, tool advance, machined material, tool geometry and others.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0172
George C. Ballardie, Rafael C. Martinez
Abstract Involute splines are widely used in the industry and in the automotive area. Some automotive driveline applications require involute splined couplings with an interference fit (zero backlash). Current methods of production of splines result in relative big dimensional and form deviations, which are increased when parts are heat treated. Grinding process of the spline’s teeth has a high cost and is not suitable for high volume production. There are three methods to achieve an interference fit: 1) Sorting parts with internal spline by using a tapered gage and producing the parts with external spline accordingly;2) Make the external spline with tapered teeth along the spline length;3) Make the external spline with a small helix angle (in the order of minutes of degree) along the spline length. This paper will approach the helix angle method and the process to find the best helix angle value for the interference fit.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2619
Karl-Otto Strömberg, Stefan Borgenvall, Mohamed Loukil, Bertrand Noharet, Carola Sterner, Magnus Lindblom, Orjan Festin
Abstract Lightweight Production Technology (LWPT) is today a well-established technology in the automotive industry. By introducing light weight fixtures manufactured from Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) in aeronautical applications, new challenges as well as possibilities of in-situ health monitoring emerges. The present paper present results from experimental investigations using optical fibers with multiplex Bragg gratings (FBG) as strain gauges in an industrial CFRP fixture. Fixtures were manufactured of laminates made from CFRP. Measurements have been performed on a single CFRP beam with dimensions (8000 × 500 × 500 mm), used as a structural part in a larger assembly (9000 × 4000mm). The optical fibers were placed in between two laminates on two sides of the beam. The measurement data from the FBGs were compared and correlated to the measured displacements of the beam and the applied loads.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2618
Bernd-Michael Wolf, Christian Meiners
Abstract SCALE is a modular, non-contact, in-line measurement system. It measures the diameter of the countersink directly after the drilling, the amount and distribution of sealant in the open hole, and the head height of the fastener as well as pressed out sealant (cf. Figure 1). The system is fast and reliable and the out coming information is reliable and trustworthy. Until now the system could not measure the inner diameter of the hole. The reason for this is that it is not possible to detect the inner diameter with a camera that looks only at the top of the component. But as our customers make the request to us, we decided to develop an optical hole probe system which is fully integrated in the auto fastening process. We think that a mechanical system cannot fulfill the customer expectations in terms of reliability, low maintenance, precision and speed. Only a non-contact system can measure permanently safe and fast the inner diameter of holes.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2617
Raimund Loser, Michael Kleinkes
Abstract Industrial robots are well introduced into automated production processes. Their mechanical design is dominated by some major key factors like required flexibility, different payload demands, working range, working speed, combination with different working tools and robot costs. The final achieved position accuracy of the robot tool centre point (TCP) is based on the combination of these key factors. In general, the smallest movement steps and the repeatability of robots are much lower than the absolute achievable accuracy. The positioning results and especially the programmed paths of the TCP show relatively large differences between the programmed nominal paths related to the final achieved movements in reality. These differences can be detected using the Absolute Tracker with its very high dynamic performance, especially if the 6DoF capability is included.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2616
Richard Lindqvist, Tobias Jansson
Abstract The scope and purpose of this paper is to give input and propose solutions to the creation of an efficient and productive geometrical measurement planning process. The case study outline what is important and how to identify and determine the preconditions and input data which is required to start the preparation and planning activities of geometrical measurements. That is why the following three main research and development questions should be answered: Firstly; What is the need and why does an efficient and productive geometrical measurement planning process contribute to decrease cost upstream as well as downstream in terms of reduced lead times in measurement planning process work? Secondly; Why are reduced uncertainties related to geometrical; functionality, specification and verification, important? And how are they linked to each other and how can they be theoretically modeled and defined in terms of uncertainties?
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2615
Donald Jasurda
The aerospace industry is continually becoming more competitive. With an aircraft's large number of components, and the large supplier base used to fabricate these components, it can be a daunting task to manage the quality status of all parts in an accurate, timely and actionable manner. This paper focuses on a proof of concept for an aircraft fuselage assembly to monitor the process capability of machined parts at an aircraft original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and their supply chain. Through the use of standardized measurement plans and statistical analysis of the measured output, the paper will illustrate how stakeholders can understand the process performance details at a workcell level, as well as overall line and plant performance in real time. This ideal process begins in the product engineering phase using simulation to analyze the tolerance specifications and assembly process strategy, with one of the outputs being a production measurement plan.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2606
Andreas Bjornsson, Jan-Erik Lindback, Daniel Eklund, Marie Jonsson
Abstract With an increased use of composite materials within the aerospace industry follows a need for rational and cost-effective methods for composite manufacturing. Manual operations are still common for low to medium manufacturing volumes and complex products. Manual operations can for example be found in material handling, when picking prepreg plies from a cutter table and stacking them to form a plane laminate in preparation for a subsequent forming operation. Stacking operations of this kind often involves a great number of different ply geometries and removal of backing paper and other protecting materials like plastic. In this paper two different demonstrator cells for automated picking of prepreg plies and stacking of plane laminates are presented. One demonstrator is utilizing a standard industrial robot and an advanced end-effector to handle the ply variants. The other demonstrator is using a dual arm robot which allow for simpler end-effector design.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2608
Joshua Cemenska, Todd Rudberg, Michael Henscheid
Abstract In many existing AFP cells manual inspection of composite plies accounts for a large percentage of production time. Next generation AFP cells can require an even greater inspection burden. The industry is rapidly developing technologies to reduce inspection time and to replace manual inspection with automated solutions. Electroimpact is delivering a solution that integrates multiple technologies to combat inspection challenges. The approach integrates laser projectors, cameras, and laser profilometers in a comprehensive user interface that greatly reduces the burden on inspectors and decreases overall run time. This paper discusses the implementation of each technology and the user interface that ties the data together and presents it to the inspector.
Viewing 271 to 300 of 8952