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Viewing 1 to 30 of 8952
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0231
Shih-Po Lin, Yijung Chen, Danielle Zeng, Xuming Su
In the conventional approach, the material properties of laminate composites for crash simulations are typically obtained from standard coupon tests, where the test results only provide single layer material properties. However, the lay-up effects for the failure behaviors of the real structure were not considered in numerical simulations. Hence, there was discrepancy between the crash simulations and experimental tests. Consequently, an intermediate stage is required for accurate predictions. Some component tests are required to calibrate the material models in the intermediate stage. In this paper, a laminate cylinder tube under high-impact velocity in the direction of tube axis is chosen as an example for the crash analysis. The tube consists of 24 layers of uni-directional (UD) carbon fiber composite materials, in which 4 layers are perpendicular to, while the other layers are parallel to the impact direction.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0396
Guobiao Yang, Changqing Du, Dajun Zhou, Hao Wang, Elizabeth Lekarczyk, Lianxiang Yang
Abstract Vehicle weight reduction is a significant challenge for the modern automotive industry. In recent years, the amount of vehicular components constructed from aluminum alloy has increased due to its light weighting capabilities. Automotive manufacturing processes, predominantly those utilizing various stamping applications, require a thorough understanding of aluminum fracture predictions methods, in order to accurately simulate the process using Finite Element Method (FEM) software or use it in automotive engineering manufacture. This paper presents the strain distribution of A5182 aluminum samples after punch impact under various conditions by Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system, its software also measured the complete strain history, in addition to sample curvature after it was impacted; therefore obtaining the data required to determine the amount of side-wall-curl (Aluminum sheet springback) present after formation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0467
Wei Yuan, Brian Jordon, Bita Ghaffari, Harish Rao, Shengyi Li, Min Fan
Abstract Lightweight metals such as Al and Mg alloys have been increasingly used for reducing mass in both structural and non-structural applications in transportation industries. Joining these lightweight materials using traditional fusion welding techniques is a critical challenge for achieving optimum mechanical performance, due to degradation of the constituent materials properties during the process. Friction stir welding (FSW), a solid-state joining technique, has emerged as a promising method for joining these lightweight materials. In particular, high joining efficiency has been achieved for FSW of various Al alloys and Mg alloys separately. Recent work on FSW of dissimilar lightweight materials also show encouraging results based on quasi-static shear performance. However, coach-peel performance of such joints has not been sufficiently examined.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0472
Gyoko Oh
Abstract To prevent corrosion of the inlet part with aqueous ammonia injection, high chromium corrosion-resistant materials have been applied for welded joints of mufflers. Bending fatigue strength of welded joint samples of flange pipes was defined through fatigue experiments, modeling that high fluctuating stresses exist in the inlet and outlet flange pipes of a muffler caused by the vibration of a moving vehicle. Factors that caused fatigue to failure such as welding bead shape and metallographic structure were identified through local stress measurements, FEM stress simulations, microscopic observations, and SEM-EDS composition analyses. By comparing with sample A having a smaller flank angle and sample B having a larger flank angle, the results suggested that the difference of bending fatigue strengths at 200,000 cycles was 24% when based on nominal stress, and the difference was 10% when based on measured maximum stress.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0474
Chady Khalil, Yannick Amosse, Guillaume Racineux
Abstract In this study, a proposed new 3-in-1 process using the magnetic pulse welding (MPW) for welding similar and dissimilar metals and for hybrid joining between FRC and metals is developed. Welding between (a) AA1199 sheets and XES, (b) AA1199 and XSG which is zinc coated steel, (c) 5754-aluminum alloy and XES were performed and (d) hybrid joint between PA66-glass-FRC and 5754-aluminum was achieved. SEM observations and EDX analysis for the weld interface between aluminum and steel showed where detectable very thin layers of intermetallics and the wavy interface pattern typical for impact welding was identified. X-Ray microtomography observation for the joining region in the FRC showed the good state of the composite structure after joining. 3D numerical simulation using LS-Dyna was used for the selection of the welding parameters. Quasi-static lap shear testing for the welds revealed a failure in the weak metal sheet and not in the weld.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1372
Bo Wang, Smruti Panigrahi, Mayur Narsude, Amit Mohanty
Abstract Increasing number of vehicles are equipped with telematics devices and are able to transmit vehicle CAN bus information remotely. This paper examines the possibility of identifying individual drivers from their driving signatures embedded in these telematics data. The vehicle telematics data used in this study were collected from a small fleet of 30 Ford Fiesta vehicles driven by 30 volunteer drivers over 15 days of real-world driving in London, UK. The collected CAN signals included vehicle speed, accelerator pedal position, brake pedal pressure, steering wheel angle, gear position, and engine RPM. These signals were collected at approximately 5Hz frequency and transmitted to the cloud for offline driver identification modeling. A list of driving metrics was developed to quantify driver behaviors, such as mean brake pedal pressure and longitudinal jerk. Random Forest (RF) was used to predict driver IDs based on the developed driving metrics.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0471
Yasuo Kadoya, Yuki Oshino
Abstract By implementation of the core technology of capacitor-resistance welding, RingMash technology, metallic bonding, is developed to manufacture various components. It is the best suited for powertrain components such as transmission gears at low cost. Components made by RingMash are attributed to smaller and lighter transmission. The technology is recommended to manufacture co-axle male-female work pieces bonding, male side diameter is slightly larger than female side hole. RingMashing is a solid state bonding without melting work pieces. The actual RingMashing process is done in ambient atmosphere and does not use filler. RingMashing process itself takes only 100 milliseconds, results very minimum Heat-Affected Zone (HAZ), normally no more than 1 mm. The minimum HAZ achieves excellent structural integration for better performance of transmission. If two work pieces are same metals, spattering free bonding is possible.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0479
Soichi Hareyama, Ken-ichi Manabe, Makoto Nakashima, Takayuki Shimodaira, Akio Hoshi
Abstract This investigation describes a method for estimating the absolute lock effect in bolted joint. Observation results of loosening phenomenon in industrial vehicle are analyzed for the linear relation by the proposed regression formula. Based on the relation, in early stages of the development test, the rate of clamping force decrease can be estimated accurately after prolonged operation by measuring the clamping force behavior. The tendency to decrease is observed about the depression type and working load type loosening. For evaluation design bases, the residual clamping force estimation chart is established. The L-N (Loosening Lifetime - Number of Cycles to Loosening N) diagram is proposed for the loosening lifetime prediction for working load type loosening also. Using the loosening damage (cumulative decrease of clamping force) and L-N diagram, the lifetime to loosening failure can be predicted accurately for the locking device and method as an absolute evaluation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0506
Xueyuan Nie, Jimi Tjong
Abstract Ultra-high strength steel (UHSS) and magnesium (Mg) alloy have found their importance in response to automotive strategy of light weighting. UHSS to be metal-formed by hot stamping usually has a hot-dipped aluminum-silicon alloy layer on its surface to prevent the high temperature scaling during the hot stamping and corrosion during applications. In this paper, a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process was used to produce ceramic oxide coatings on aluminized UHSS and Mg with intention to further improve their corrosion resistances. A potentiodynamic polarization corrosion test was employed to evaluate general corrosion properties of the individual alloys. Galvanic corrosion of the aluminized UHSS and magnesium alloy coupling with and without PEO coatings was studied by a zero resistance ammeter (ZRA) test. It was found that the heating-cooling process simulating the hot stamping would reduce anti-corrosion properties of aluminized UHSS due to the outward iron diffusion.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0489
Hyunkwon Jo, Jongsoo Kim, Jaemin Park, Heeseung Yang, Hyunmin Park
Abstract Cost reduction is an important issue in the intense competition automotive industry. Interior parts which are mainly consist of plastic have same issue. The manufacturing main processes of plastic products are injection and assemble and the cost of injection depends on injection cycle time. Therefore many studies for the reduction of injection cycle time have been implemented. However the researches based on engineer's experiences have limits so, nowadays many studies utilize CAE. In this paper, the study for the reduction of cycle time focused on injection molding design. To satisfy appearance quality with the reduction of cycle time, the design of injection molding was optimized by using CAE. The result of CAE showed many causes and effects of problems. The optimization of injection molding design improved the quality with the reduction of cycle time. Finally, the product based on CAE showed good quality and cycle time reduction in comparison with previous products.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1074
Xingfu Chen, Todd Brewer, Cagri Sever, Eben Prabhu, Reda Adimi, Carlos Engler-Pinto
Abstract Cylinder head design is a highly challenging task for modern engines, especially for the proliferation of boosted, gasoline direct injection engines (branded EcoBoost® engines by Ford Motor Company). The high power density of these engines results in higher cylinder firing pressures and higher operating temperatures throughout the engine. In addition to the high operating stresses, cylinder heads are normally heat treated to optimize their mechanical properties; residual stresses are generated during heat treatment, which can be detrimental for high-cycle fatigue performance. In this paper, a complete cylinder head high cycle fatigue CAE analysis procedure is demonstrated. First, the heat treatment process is simulated. The transient temperature histories during the quenching process are used to calculate the distribution of the residual stresses, followed by machining simulation, which results in a redistribution of stress.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1663
Alan Druschitz, Christopher Williams, Erin Connelly, Bob Wood
Abstract Binder jetting of sand molds and cores for metal casting provides a scalable and efficient means of producing metal components with complex geometric features made possible only by Additive Manufacturing. Topology optimization software that can mathematically determine the optimum placement of material for a given set of design requirements has been available for quite some time. However, the optimized designs are often not manufacturable using standard metal casting processes due to undercuts, backdraft and other issues. With the advent of binder-based 3D printing technology, sand molds and cores can be produced to make these optimized designs as metal castings.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1666
David Weiss, Orlando Rios
Abstract Aluminum alloys containing cerium have excellent castability and retain a substantial fraction of their room temperature strength at temperatures of 200°C and above. High temperature strength is maintained through a thermodynamically trapped, high surface energy intermetallic. Dynamic load partitioning between the aluminum and the intermetallic increases mechanical response. Complex castings have been produced in both permanent mold and sand castings. This versatile alloy system, using an abundant and inexpensive co-product of rare earth mining, is suitable for parts that need to maintain good properties when exposed to temperatures between 200 and 315°C.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1240
Koki Matsushita
Abstract For the purpose of improving vehicle fuel efficiency, it is necessary to reduce energy loss in the alternator. We have lowered the resistance of the rectifying device and connecting components, and control the rectifying device with an IC to reduce rectification loss. For the package design, we have changed the structure of the part on which the rectifying device is mounted into a high heat dissipation type. The new structure has enabled optimizing the size of the rectifying device, resulting in the reduction of size of the package. In addition, the rectifying device is mounted using a new soldering material and a new process, which has improved the reliability of the connection. Moreover, since the alternator has introduced a new system, the controller IC has a function for preventing malfunction of the rectifying device and a function for detecting abnormalities, in order to ensure safety.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1537
Ananya Bhardwaj
Abstract Improving brake cooling has commanded substantial research in the automotive sector, as safety remains paramount in vehicles of which brakes are a crucial component. To prevent problems like brake fade and brake judder, heat dissipation should be maximized from the brakes to limit increasing temperatures. This research is a CFD investigation into the impact of existing wheel center designs on brake cooling through increased cross flow through the wheel. The new study brings together the complete wheel and disc geometries in a single CFD study and directly measures the effect on brake cooling, by implementing more accurately modeled boundary conditions like moving ground to replicate real conditions correctly. It also quantifies the improvement in the cooling rate of the brake disc with a change in wheel design, unlike previous studies.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1700
Rebekah L. Houser, Willett Kempton, Rodney McGee, Fouad Kiamilev, Nick Waite
Abstract Electric vehicles (EVs) hold the potential to greatly shape the way the electric power grid functions. As a load, EVs can be managed to prevent overloads on the electric power system. EVs with bidirectional power flow (V2G) can provide a wide range of services, including load balancing, and can be used to increase integration of renewable resources into electric power markets. Realizing the potential of EVs requires more advanced communication than the technology that is in wide use. Common charging standards do not include a means for an EV to send key vehicle characteristics such as maximum charge rate or battery capacity to a charging station and thus to the grid.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1706
Sandeep Bhattacharya, Daniel Green, Raj Sohmshetty, Ahmet Alpas
Abstract Automobile body panels made from advanced high strength steel (AHSS) provide high strength-to-mass ratio and thus AHSS are important for automotive light-weighting strategy. However, in order to increase their use, the significant wear damage that AHSS sheets cause to the trim dies should be reduced. The wear of dies has undesirable consequences including deterioration of trimmed parts' edges. In this research, die wear measurement techniques that consisted of white-light optical interferometry methods supported by large depth-of-field optical microscopy were developed. 1.4 mm-thick DP980-type AHSS sheets were trimmed using dies made from AISI D2 steel. A clearance of 10% of the thickness of the sheets was maintained between the upper and lower dies. The wear of the upper and lower dies was evaluated and material abrasion and chipping were identified as the main damage features at the trim edges.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1709
Zhigang Wei, Sarat Das, Ryan Barr, Greg Rohrs, Robert Rebandt, Xiao Wu, HongTae Kang
Abstract Recent stringent government regulations on emission control and fuel economy drive the vehicles and their associated components and systems to the direction of lighter weight. However, the achieved lightweight must not be obtained by sacrificing other important performance requirements such as manufacturability, strength, durability, reliability, safety, noise, vibration and harshness (NVH). Additionally, cost is always a dominating factor in the lightweight design of automotive products. Therefore, a successful lightweight design can only be accomplished by better understanding the performance requirements, the potentials and limitations of the designed products, and by balancing many conflicting design parameters. The combined knowledge-based design optimization procedures and, inevitably, some trial-and-error design iterations are the practical approaches that should be adopted in the lightweight design for the automotive applications.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1708
Saeid Nasheralahkami, Sergey Golovashchenko, Collin Malek, Erika Rugh, Daniel Kowalsky, Weitian Zhou
Abstract In recent years, dual phase (DP) Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) and Ultra High Strength Steels (UHSS) are considered as prominent materials in the automotive industry due to superior structural performance and vehicle weight reduction capabilities. However, these materials are often sensitive to trimmed edge cracking if stretching along sheared edge occurs in such processes as stretch flanging. Another major issue in the trimming of UHSS is tool wear because of higher contact pressures at the interface between cutting tools and sheet metal blank caused by UHSS’s higher flow stresses and the presence of a hard martensitic phase in the microstructure. The objective of the current paper is to study the influence of trimming conditions and tool wear on quality and stretchability of trimmed edge of DP980 steel sheet. For this purpose, mechanically trimmed edges were characterized for DP980 steel and compared with other steels such as HSLA 350 and BH210.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1704
D.J. Branagan, A.E. Frerichs, B.E. Meacham, S. Cheng, A.V. Sergueeva
Abstract Automotive OEMs are compelled by increasingly stringent global emissions standards to find economic solutions for building higher efficiency vehicles without compromising safety and ride quality. This challenge requires new advanced high strength steels (AHSS) that will significantly reduce vehicle weight and improve fuel economy. In addition to providing higher strength, these automotive sheet steels must have exceptional formability to produce reduced gauge parts with increasingly complex geometries. Formability is comprised of two components, global and local. Global formability represents the ability of a sheet material to be deformed under various stress conditions and to be formed into a part without failure. It can be estimated using forming-limit diagrams or ductility measurements from conventional uniaxial tensile tests. However, these tests cannot reliably assess the local formability at the edges or at the internal holes of the blanks during stamping.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1321
Meisam Mehravaran, Yi Zhang
Abstract Degas bottles have been extensively used in vehicles in order to act as an air pillow on top of the cooling loop and provide space for expansion. One of the important characteristics of the bottle which defines if it will work in a certain loop is the so called “capacity” of the bottle which defines the flowrate that degas bottle would be able to pass through without any foaming. Considering the complex geometry of degas bottle and the foaming phenomena, predicting the behavior of coolant in the bottle passages is challenging which requires costly tests. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been extensively used in simulating multi-phase flows in automotive components. In the current project, CFD has been used to simulate the behavior of flow in bottle chambers and to provide guidelines for the design team in order to increase the bottle performance/capacity. The CFD guidelines were in agreement with test results and lead to improving the degas bottle capacity.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1323
Jerry Lai, Youssef Ziada, Juhchin Yang
Abstract In the assembly of axles and wheel hubs, a nut is frequently used to fasten them as one unit. In order for the nut to hold the assembly in its final position, crimping is a widely-used method which prevents nut from loosening. A reliable crimping process not only prevents movement of the nut during axle operation but should also minimize the possibility of cracking the rim. If the nut cracks during assembly, it can start to rust and deteriorate. The service life span of the axle assembly hence shortens as a result. The quality of crimping operation is determined by the component designs, the process parameters, and the crimping tool geometry. It would be time-consuming and costly to evaluate these factors empirically; let alone the requirement of prototypes in the early stage of a new program. A dynamic finite element methodology which adopts the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation from ABAQUS explicit solver is developed to simulate the complete crimping process.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0254
Sudeep Chavare, Kevin Thomson, Nitin Sharma
Adopting parametric approach to optimize CAE models for various objectives is a common practice these days. Connection entities such as welds and adhesive play a very important role in overall performance matrix and hence adding them to the pool of design variables during an optimization exercise provides additional design space. This paper evaluates the possibility to use structural adhesives as patches rather than continuous lines. The method presented in this paper offers unique approach to parameterize adhesive lines. The paper discusses an optimization study with structural adhesives patches along with spot weld pitch as design variables. Body in White (BiW) and Trimmed Body in White (TBiW) models are used for analysis .The goal of the study is to reduce total length of structural adhesive as well as number of welds while maintaining baseline NVH performance as constraints.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0255
Malli Kartheek Yalamanchili, Nitin Sharma, Kevin Thomson
The crashworthiness of body-in-white (BIW), plays a very vital role in the full vehicle crash performance. The structural integrity of BIW is controlled via strength of the spot welds and adhesives that are often considered as only entities to hold the parts together. However optimizing the welds and/or adhesives can not only reduce the number of connections but also improve the structural crashworthiness. This paper discusses the optimization of full vehicle structural performance and the length of adhesives in the BIW for the small overlap crash event. The variables included in the study were length of the adhesives and gage variables, defined in the front end structure of the vehicle. A parametric model was created using ANSA and iSight was used to generate design of experiments (DOE). Automated design generation using ANSA followed by automated script based post-processing was done. The optimization was done using metamodel generated for the crash event.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1264
Gregory L. Talbert, Edward John Vinarcik
Abstract 6061-O temper extruded rod may be used as feed stock in forming processes for automotive pressure vessel applications. Key parameters for forming are the strength and hardness of the material. The purpose of this paper was to reduce variation in hardness to achieve a process capability index of 1.33 or greater. Among the process steps affecting hardness, annealing is the most critical. Initially, the process showed unacceptable hardness variation. Initial anneal recipes called for a 4-hour soak at 775°F (413°C). Initial process capability for hardness was a Cpk of 1.12, with tensile strength readings very close to the upper specification limit. Initial temperature uniformity surveys of the anneal oven showed a large variation in temperature distribution, with some areas of the oven staying below 650°F (343°C). Initial improvement efforts focused on soak time.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1274
Jason M. Luk, Hyung Chul Kim, Robert De Kleine, Timothy J. Wallington, Heather L. MacLean
Abstract This study investigates the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of a set of vehicles using two real-world gliders (vehicles without powertrains or batteries); a steel-intensive 2013 Ford Fusion glider and a multi material lightweight vehicle (MMLV) glider that utilizes significantly more aluminum and carbon fiber. These gliders are used to develop lightweight and conventional models of internal combustion engine vehicles (ICV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), and battery electric vehicles (BEV). Our results show that the MMLV glider can reduce life cycle GHG emissions despite its use of lightweight materials, which can be carbon intensive to produce, because the glider enables a decrease in fuel (production and use) cycle emissions. However, the fuel savings, and thus life cycle GHG emission reductions, differ substantially depending on powertrain type. Compared to ICVs, the high efficiency of HEVs decreases the potential fuel savings.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1275
David Hobbs, Charles Ossenkop, Andy Latham
Abstract Global sales of electric and hybrid vehicles continue to grow as emission legislation forces vehicle manufacturers to build cleaner vehicles, with some 8 million already in service. Hybrid and Electric vehicles contain some of the most complex systems ever used in the automotive field, sophisticated and unique electric hybrid systems are added to modern motor vehicles which are already quite complex. As these vehicles reach the end of their lives they will be processed by the global vehicle recycling industry and the high voltage components will be reused, recycled or re-purposed. This paper explores safe working practices for businesses involved in a global marketplace who are completing battery disabling, removal, disassembly, storage and shipping; includes the various technologies and safe working practices along with some of the legal restrictions on dismantling, storage and shipping of high voltage batteries around the world.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1225
Jayaraman Krishnasamy, Martin Hosek
Abstract An advanced electric motor with hybrid-field topology has been developed for automotive traction applications. Departing from the conventional radial- and axial-field designs, the hybrid-field motor features three-dimensional magnetic flux paths, which are enabled by a novel isotropic soft magnetic material produced by a unique additive-manufacturing process based on spray forming. The motor is expected to offer an unprecedented combination of high power output, compact size, low weight and energy efficiency, achieving more than two times higher power density than state-of-the-art high-performance traction motors.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1472
Niels Pasligh, Robert Schilling, Marian Bulla
Abstract Rivets, especially self-piercing rivets (SPR), are a primary joining technology used in aluminum bodied vehicles. SPR are mechanical joining elements used to connect sheets to create a body in white (BiW) structure. To ensure the structural performance of a vehicle in crash load cases it is necessary to describe physical occurring failure modes under overloading conditions in simulations. One failure mode which needs to be predicted precisely by a crash simulation is joint separation. Within crash simulations a detailed analysis of a SPR joint would require a very high computational effort. The conflict between a detailed SPR joint and a macroscopic vehicle model needs to be solved by developing an approach that can handle an accurate macroscopic prediction of SPR behavior with a defined strength level with less computational effort. One approach is using a cohesive material model for a SPR connection.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1732
Payodh Dwivedi
Abstract The conventional hybrid engine faces one major problem i.e. high cost of production. Although hybrid engines, in many sense proved to be highly efficient and environmental friendly, but high cost of production makes them less feasible and limits their applications. This problem is overcome by a new design in which instead of having Internal Combustion(IC) engine and electric motor separately, these two are incorporated under same housing. This involves a different working mechanism of electric motor which is as described below- This mechanism is applied to a normal engine which has two or more than two cylinders in any configuration or orientation. Taking example of In-line four cylinder engines as it is most widely used. In this the two cylinders work on conventional internal combustion mechanism, but the other two cylinders are electric cylinder and works on electricity.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 8952