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Viewing 1 to 30 of 8944
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0312
ZiQiang Sheng, Pankaj Mallick
For many reasons, the well-known Forming Limit Diagram (FLD) is still widely used by sheet metal forming industry and academia to identify stretching failure. Based on findings from micromechanical studies, a Ductile Failure Criterion (DFC) was proposed. Under proportion strain path assumption, a method to calculate Forming Limit Curve (FLC) by using tension test only is derived from this DFC. The method was validated by calculating FLCs for several sheet metal materials different in grades and initial sheet thickness. The calculated FLCs are further used to predict failure in drawing processe. Comparison shows that the prediction by using those calculated FLCs matches quite well with experimental observations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0292
Ana M. Djuric, Ruth Urbanic
Additive manufacturing process planning is in its infancy. Many new additive manufacturing platforms are being developed using a robotic based system for the positioning. It is proposed to use a collaborative robot solution to teach a ‘median line’ based travel path for a bead deposition based system. In lieu of machining a block to result in a thin-walled component, thin walls can be built up using laser cladding or a similar process to generate a near net shape. Then this can be used as a stock model for machining. The logic for these tool paths is challenging algorithmically, but a process designer may have a solution in mind that it would be easier to teach; hence, integrating collaborative robots as part of the solution to generate the data required for the deposition system. Traditional robot systems require you to know the solution approach, while the manual teaching involves intuition, and personal experience.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0316
Kiran Mallela, Andrey Ilinich, S Luckey, Danielle Zeng, Yuan Gan
Aluminum extrusions are used in the automotive industry for body structure applications requiring cross-section design flexibility, high section stiffness, and high strength. Heat-treatable 6xxx series extrusion alloys have typically been used in automotive due to commercial availability, competitive cost, high strength, and impact performance. This paper presents a characterization study of mechanical properties of 6xxx series aluminum extrusions using digital image correlation (DIC). DIC has been used to capture spatial strain distribution and its evolution in time during material deformation. The materials of study were seamless and structural 6061 and 6082 extrusions. The alloys have been tensile tested using an MTS load frame with a dual optical camera system to capture the stereoscopic digital images. Notable results include the differing anisotropy of seamless and structural extrusions, as well as the influence of artificial aging on anisotropy.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0480
Mingde Ding
For structural application, composite parts structure is much more affected by load cases than steel part structure. Engine room bracket of EV, which is structural part and is used to bear Motor Controller, Charger and so on, has different load cases for different EV. Three commonest load cases that are Case 1: bearing 65kg (without suspension part), Case 2: bearing 68kg(including 3.5kg suspension part) and Case 3: bearing 70.1kg (including 5.6kg suspension part). According to topology optimization, structurel 1 was obtained, and then CAE analysis including (strength, stiffness and model) was carried out for abovement three load cases. For Case 1 and Case 2, the analysis result can meet the requirement. However, for Case 3, the stiffness and model analysis result can not satisfy the requirement. To meet the analysis result of Case 3, Structure 1 was optimized and structure 2 was obtained. The CAE analysis was conducted and the results can satisfy the requirements.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0499
Mingde Ding
Recently, for automotive industry, weight reduction is increasingly needed to improve fuel efficiency and to meet emission requirement. Substituting heavy metallic materials with strong and light composites seems to be the most viable choice to achieve vehicle weight reduction. Because of a high level of styling flexibility and simple process, injection molding is the concern of OEMS. However, injection molding part especially for large part would have large deformation. Therefore, the deformation must be controlled within the requirement during development. According with topology optimization result, we get the structure of IP carrier. The result of moldflow analysis showed that the largest deformation in X direction is 19.4mm, in Y direction is 9.5mm, in Z direction is 13.7mm, which were not satisfy the deformation requirement that was the deformation of the core area must be less than 3mm. By structure optimization, the deformation reduction was obviously.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1704
D.J. Branagan, A.E. Frerichs, B.E. Meacham, S. Cheng, A.V. Sergueeva
Demand is growing for advanced high strength steels (AHSS) in the automotive industry driven by a desire for lightweighting solutions to meet increasingly stringent fuel economy standards. Formability is a critical factor for producing reduced gauge steel parts with the complex geometries required to maintain stiffness. Global formability represents the ability of a sheet material to be deformed under various stress conditions and to be formed into a part without failure. It can be estimated using forming-limit diagrams or ductility measurements from conventional uniaxial tensile tests. However, these tests cannot reliably assess the local formability at the edges or at the internal holes of the blanks during stamping. Numerous correlations have been previously developed to predict local formability such as yield strength to tensile ratio, true strain at fracture, and post uniform elongation but they are often inaccurate – particularly for AHSS grades.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1707
C. Matthew Enloe, Jason Coryell, Jeff Wang
Retained austenite stability to both mechanically induced transformation and athermal transformation is of great importance to the fabrication and in-vehicle performance of automotive advanced high strength steels. Selected cold-rolled advanced high strength steels containing retained austenite with minimum tensile strengths of 980 MPa and 1180 MPa were pre-strained to pre-determined levels under uniaxial tension in the rolling direction and subsequently cooled to temperatures as low as 77 K. Room temperature uniaxial tensile results of pre-strained and cooled steels indicate that retained austenite is stable to athermal transformation to martensite at all tested temperatures and pre-strain levels. To evaluate the combined effects of temperature and pre-strain on impact behavior, stacked Charpy impact testing was conducted on the same steels following similar pre-straining in uniaxial tension.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1269
Xian Wu, Shuxian Zhang
Studies have shown that under in-plane impact loading, negative Poisson's ratio of honeycomb sandwich structure has a good energy absorption compared with the conventional cellular sandwich structure. So, it can be used to protect the key components and the crew from being hurt in the crash accidents. In the design of collision avoidance, both of the energy absorption and the deformation should be considered. In this paper, we designed a honeycomb structure with density gradient which had a good behavior in crashworthiness. Based on the honeycomb sandwich structure with negative Poisson's ratio, we changed the density gradient of the core and studied the energy absorption and the deformation of the structure under impact loading. First, we divided the core into three layers which had different densities. And each layer had the same thickness and the same kind of material. Then, we gave the different permutation and combination of the three layers.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1264
Edward John Vinarcik
6061-O temper extruded rod may be used as feed stock in forming processes for automotive pressure vessel applications. Key parameters for forming are the strength and hardness of the material. The purpose of this paper was to reduce variation in hardness to achieve a process capability index of 1.33 or greater. Among the process steps affecting hardness, annealing is the most critical. Initially, the process showed unacceptable hardness variation. Initial anneal recipes called for a 4-hour soak at 775°F. Initial process capability for hardness was a Cpk of 1.12, with tensile strength readings very close to the upper specification limit. Initial temperature uniformity surveys of the anneal oven showed a large variation in temperature distribution, with some areas of the oven staying below 650°F. Initial improvement efforts focused on soak time. While this did greatly improve the material, the improvement did not have enough of an effect on hardness to achieve a good capability.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1664
Yong Tak Kim, Yeongpyo Kim, Namyeul Ryu
Vehicle brake friction output is influenced by the performance of many brake corner system components. For the highest and most table friction output, each component needs to work properly. For each component of the brake corner system, there are many factors related to the final corner friction value. This paper focuses on the relationship between the chemical composition of a cast iron brake rotor chemical contents and the friction output value. Alloying elements have complex interaction effects. In this paper, a numerical analysis tool is applied to dyno bench test results to forecast braking friction values for specific cast rotor chemical compositions. To see why some rotors can achieve high friction values, the rotor microstructure is analyzed. An optimal rotor casting chemical composition recipe, based on set formula and DFSS method, is recommended.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0301
Lu Huang, Ming Shi
Forming limit curve (FLC) is a useful tool to characterize the formability of sheet metals. It can be used as a failure criterion in a laboratory setting or computer simulation for forming/stamping studies and in actual production in a press shop to assess the formability severity. Digital image correlation (DIC) technique has been proved as a potent tool to determine the FLC of sheet metals. Despite of its rising popularity, one of the major technical challenges using the DIC to generate FLC is to accurately pinpoint the onset of localized necking based on DIC data analysis. In addition to the commonly applied ISO 12004-2 standard, a plethora of DIC data analysis approaches have been developed. In this study, five different approaches have been practiced to determine the limit strains at the onset of localized necking, including: ISO12004-2 standard, second derivative, gliding correlation coefficient, linear best fit, and curvature assisted necking zone methods.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0305
Liang Huang, Charles Yuan
This paper focus on the design approach of mapping the equivalent bead to the physical bead geometry. In principle, the physical character and geometry of equivalent bead is represented as restraining force (N/mm) and a line (bead center line). During draw development, the iterations are performed to conclude the combination of restraining force that obtains the desired strain state of a given panel. The objective of physical bead design to determine a bead geometry that has the capacity to generate the same force as specified in 2D plane strain condition. The software package ABAQUS/CAE/iSight is utilized as primary tool. In the approach, the bead geometry is sketched and parameterized in ABAQUS/CAE and optimized with iSight to finalize the bead geometry. This paper also discuss the special consideration of lock bead design.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0311
Pedro Stemler, Anoop Samant, Dennis Hofmann, Taylan Altan
The capabilities of the servo press for varying the ram speed during stroke and for adjusting the stroke length are well known. Also during the blanking operation, the servo can help to slow down the press at the critical moment of blanking without losing overall productivity. The overall objective of this study is to determine, for a selected sheet material and hole diameter, the servo press motion that possibly could provide the “Best” possible blanked/sheared edge quality to improve the Hole Expansion Ratio (HER) in hole flanging. The specific objectives are to determine the effect of ram (blanking) speed upon the edge quality, and the effect of multiple step blanking (as much as possible with the servo press available) using several punch motions, during one blanking stroke. The material used in these studies was 1.4 mm thick 780 MPa TRIP steel and the blanked hole had a diameter of 75 mm.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0486
Daniel Frantz
In light of growing global awareness of environmental concerns, automotive manufacturers have received pressure from governmental regulations and consumer demand to incorporate more recycled materials into vehicle production. Polyamide 6 (nylon 6, PA6), a polymer used in many automotive components, is a prime target for the incorporation of recycled materials. PA6 is used and recovered by the carpet industry, and can be processed into a usable recycled polymer (RPA6). To evaluate the potential use of RPA6, injection molded samples comprised of RPA6, glass fiber, and one of three recycled fillers (rice husk ash, micronized rubber powder, and torrefied biomass) will be prepared and subjected to mechanical, thermal, morphological, and rheological testing. It is predicted that these materials will meet the requirements for automotive door handles, engine fan shrouds, and turn signal arms, which are typically made from glass-reinforced nylons.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0297
Alan Baumgartner, Bruce Barth, Timothy Hajduk
Current data monitoring techniques used by typical plant floor systems are good for collecting data, but operators have little visibility to what that data might be indicating. Processing the data into a story that leads to corrective action is usually done by specialists (e.g. Black Belts, Quality Analysts, etc.), requires mining and integration of data from multiple systems, and is typically only triggered by the occurrence of systemic poor quality (e.g. scrap production / rework cycles / waste). It was theorized that significant improvements in 1) throughput; 2) quality (consistency of throughput); and 3) reduction of waste could all be achieved if operators could be notified of the onset of variation before rather than after it cascades into a systemic failure mode. A new methodology for automating the traditional analysis practices and eliminating the need for operators to step aside to query any systems for current quality diagnostics was developed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0502
Mingde Ding
The IP carrier plays a very important structural and safety role in the vehicle. Functionally, it forms the skeleton of the cockpit, providing the base architecture off which IP components are attached and function. At present, the IP carrier is commenly used steel, and is welded by more than 20 parts. Its weight is usually 8-14kg. For the reason of fuel efficiency and enviromental friendly, lightweight of the IP carrier is very necessary. Various lightweight technologies have been applied to IP carrier: Magnesium alloy part, Alluminum alloy part, Hybrid composite part, Composite material injection part. For Magnesium alloy part, the IP carrier which have the equal performance compared to steel part can be integrated to one part, therefore the production process is simplified. Weight can be reduced 40%-60% However, the magnesium injection part have high process requirement and need postreatment which will add cost obviously. These disadvantages limited the mass production.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0296
Oberti Dos Santos Almeida
One of the biggest challenges for the Product Development Engineers is to have a clear understanding of the Quality Principles and Disciplines they should follow while they are engineering. In general, the current Product Development System guides of the Automakers companies are mostly focused on provide guidance for the Engineers on the following areas: Design Efficiency; Design Rules for Product Robustness; Design Validation; Product Reliability; Testing Procedures. The introduction of a new/advanced technology system alone does not mean low incidence of customer complaints. The only way to get that is plan/execute Consumer Driven Design with excellence. Global Vehicles are more sensitive to Quality since they must satisfy diverse cultural customers without compromise reliability. When a new vehicle is being developed to be sold in many markets around the world – Global Product - this problem is even bigger. Different markets mean different customer expectations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0287
Djuric, Ana M. Djuric, Scott Walter
The objective of this research is to develop a Virtual Teach Pendent for Android Cellphone (VTPAC) that is able to communicate with the robot model at the Visual Components software. The VTPAC is a force multiplier that allows users to gain valuable teach pendant experience in labs with few robots, and makes the actual real-world robot time more valuable. It is also like a graduated driver license where the student must prove some proficiency with the VTPAC before being allowed to get behind the wheel. The VTPAC will be used to operate the real robot system too and will allow people to be trained without using real robotic systems in very safe environment. The VTPAC can be used for industrial training and can be integrated in the academic programs, especially for on-line courses. In this research the Fanuc LR Mate 200iC robot has been selected as a case study.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0288
Hai Wu
Robots are widely used in industry in the repeating tasks to free human from the tedious labor. There are some tasks that are either complex itself or simple but interacting with complex environment. In these cases, human are not replaceable and human/robot interactions are inevitable. Design and developing human performance enhancing robotic devices is applicable to not only industrial assembling robots and moving/carrying assist devices, but also can be extended to areas like medical surgical robots, exo-skeleton etc. The benefit is to utilize the human perceiving and analyzing capability to the difficult tasks and environments, thereby the main purpose and challenge of such system is to implement the intuitivity of the operator in the system control. The admittance control approach is often adopted in human/robot interaction control. It is noticed that the control designed with a fixed pair of virtual mass and damping cannot reach desirable performance of handling.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1663
Alan Druschitz, Christopher Williams, Erin Connelly, Bob Wood
Binder jetting of sand molds and cores for metal casting provides a scalable and efficient means of producing metal components with complex geometric features made possible only by Additive Manufacturing. Topology optimization software that can mathematically determine the optimum placement of material for a given set of design requirements has been available for quite some time. However, the optimized designs are often not manufacturable using standard metal casting processes due to undercuts, backdraft and other issues. With the advent of binder-based 3D printing technology, sand molds and cores can be produced to make these optimized designs as metal castings.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0230
Louise A. Powell, William E. Luecke, Matthias Merzkirch, Katherine Avery, Tim Foecke
If carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) are to be used as structural components in lightweight automotive bodies, a robust understanding of how these materials absorb and dissipate energy during crash events must be developed. CFRPs are characterized by highly variable modulii and strengths and low ductilities, and thus mechanical measurements can be difficult. In this presentation we will detail novel experiments and equipment developed at NCAL for characterizing the interlaminar Mode I and II fracture energy release rates, the fracture stresses normal to the interfaces, and the high rate stress-strain behavior of unidirectional and woven composites. Digital image correlation (DIC) was used with unique test geometries to observe the micromechanisms of failure in these configurations, and these results will be discussed in light of numerical simulations of CFRP materials in crash conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0298
Allen Dobryden, Brian Rutter, Derek Hartl, Eric Bramson
Integration of a new, complex technology which crosses several powertrain subsystem boundaries (and thereby involves multiple organizations), without introducing inadvertent failure modes, can be a difficult task. This paper illustrates an approach to addressing this task at a system level using an example new technology. In product development activities involving primarily reuse of known technologies, perhaps with minor improvements, organizational and subsystem boundaries are generally clear. Interfaces are well established and responsibilities for failure mode avoidance are generally known. Implementation of a new technology which involves multiple parts of the organization, however, presents unique challenges to failure mode avoidance. The example technology primarily impacts the exhaust system, the powertrain cooling system, and the powertrain control system. It can affect engine operation, emissions, and performance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0304
Ganesh Paramasivam, Daniel Bharathy
Fuel tanks are designed to perform and withstand under sloshing forces, extreme event load cases and vapor pressure for the life of vehicle without any leak. Present design considers the design parameter to meet the structural strength of the fuel tank. The dimensional modifications, thickness variation and pre-stresses generated during manufacturing processes are not fully incorporated in design. This actually reduces the life of the fuel tanks than the intended life. Customizing or sophisticating the manufacturing process to obtained design intended part will increase the product cost which is not accordant with cost competitive automotive industry. This paper presents the improved design methodology to enhance the fatigue life of the fuel tanks by considering the manufacturing process potential. A detailed study has been made to understand the changes in the dimensions and profile of the sub- parts during manufacturing process.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1665
Qigui Wang, Peggy Jones, Yucong Wang, Dale Gerard
With the increasing use of aluminum shape castings in structural applications in the automotive and aerospace industries, assurance of cast product integrity and performance has become critical in both design and manufacturing. In this paper, the latest understanding of the relationship between casting quality and mechanical properties of aluminum castings is summarized. Newly developed technologies for alloy design, melting and melt treatment, casting and heat treatment processes in aluminum casting are reviewed. Robust design and development of high integrity aluminum castings through Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) approach is also discussed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0291
Tennakoon Tennakoon, Scott Walter, Ana M. Djuric
Robot trajectory represents a set of points determined in the Cartesian coordinate system. In this situation robot controller must have the inverse kinematics solution to allow robot to go through the trajectory. Sometimes robot can run into problems, since the inverse mapping from a Cartesian space to a joint space may cause problems. These are robot positions that are referred to as singularities or degeneracy. For robot manipulators, the Jacobian is defined as the coefficient matrix of any set of equations that relates the velocity state of the end-effector described in the Cartesian space to the actuated joint rates in the joint velocity space. This matrix is important in calculating the singularities of a robot and also in calculating inverse kinematics using Jacobian method. A recent trend in robotics is “collaborative – robots” or cobots who are capable of working with humans sharing the same workspace.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0490
Rodrigo Polkowski, Alper Kiziltas PhD, Marcelo Ueki PhD
In recent years, a special attention has been given to the environment protection, as evidenced by an increased commitment of governments and industries for a better use of energy and for reducing the levels of vehicle emissions (CO2). The use of renewable and bio-based plastics in the automotive sector is being considered as alternative solution to the conventional petroleum-based polymeric materials. In the present work, biobased polymer blends were formulated using two polyamides made from biorenewable resources. Polyamide 10,10 (PA1010) and polyamide 6,10 (PA610) were melt mixed in different compositions and the mechanical properties of the blends were investigated by tensile evaluations. The mechanical properties of the blends show intermediate values compared to the pure polymers. Significant improvements on these properties could be observed with the incorporation of PA610 in the blends.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0485
Sayak Mukherjee
Due to increasing commercial pressure, a need arises to arrive at design solutions that lower in weight and as a result carry more pay load. In commercial vehicle segment almost all the functional components are manufactured of metals which add to the total vehicle weight. Thus, an attempt has been made to replace metal cargo body hinges to plastic. With this approach a target of 40% weight reduction was taken. The other benefits of this design will be functional integration of many child parts & removal of metal joining process like bolting & welding to single part resulting in ease of manufacturing, handling & assembly. The hinges made up of plastic will be inherently resistant to corrosion. The metal to plastic conversion has been studied carefully from a technical point of view which includes proper design, analysis under operating loads and manufacturability. Economic feasibility of the conversion has also been considered.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1272
Nick Parson, Jerome Fourmann, Jean-Francois Beland
One of the main applications for extrusions in the automotive sector is crash structures including crash rails, crash cans, bumpers, and structural body components. The objective is usually to optimize the energy absorption capability for a given structure weight. The ability to extrude thin wall multi-void extrusions contributes to this goal. However, the alloy used also plays a significant role in terms of the ability to produce the required geometry, strength which to a large extent controls the energy absorption capability, and the “ductility” or fracture behavior which controls the strain that can be applied locally during crush deformation before cracking. This paper describes results of a test program to examine the crush behavior of a range of alloys supplied by Rio Tinto Aluminium for automotive applications, as a function of processing parameters including artificial aging and quench rate.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1274
Jason M. Luk, Hyung Chul Kim, Robert De Kleine, Timothy J. Wallington, Heather L. MacLean
This study investigates the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of a set of vehicles using two real-world gliders (vehicles without powertrains or batteries); a steel-intensive 2013 Ford Fusion glider and a multi material lightweight vehicle (MMLV) glider that utilizes significantly more aluminum and carbon fiber. These gliders are used to develop lightweight and conventional models of internal combustion engine vehicles (ICV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), and battery electric vehicles (BEV). Our results show that the MMLV glider can reduce life cycle GHG emissions despite its use of lightweight materials, which can be carbon intensive to produce, because the glider enables a decrease in fuel (production and use) cycle emissions. However, the fuel savings, and thus life cycle GHG emission reductions, differ substantially depending on powertrain type. Compared to ICVs, the high efficiency of HEVs decreases the potential fuel savings.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0313
Praveen Balaj Balakrishnan, Girish Kumar Rajendiran, Ravi Purnoo Munuswamy
In recent years the need of having parts with high strength with low weight has grown exponentially and automotive industry has relied heavily on hot stamping technology to achieve this. Hot stamped parts can provide high strength and very good shape fixability for reduced weight compared to cold formed parts. This paper does a detail investigation Boron steel 22MnB5 and the different thermal parameters such as quenching rate, forming temperature, and quenching force that governs the phase transformation of the material, which in turn will decide the components’ strength and hardness. The paper also will investigate the role of part geometry in phase transformation. Optimizing the above mentioned parameters to achieve a minimum manufacturing time per part is one of the objectives of this paper.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 8944