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Viewing 1 to 30 of 8631
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0024
Daisuke Sugio, Shinpei Okazaki, Mitsuo Kaneko
Injection molding is a common molding method for plastic parts and is widely applied to outer parts of motorcycles. To make it stiff enough to hold a large load, glass fibers are usually mixed in it. However, when a plastic part contains glass fibers, the appearance of the outer surface becomes deteriorated after molding. It is because the glass fibers come out of the surfaces. Therefore, the surfaces of these parts are painted to conceal the exposed fibers. Moreover, in the case of glass fiber reinforced plastic made from polypropylene (PP-GF), glass fibers easily come out of the surface and painting is not easily applied. Accordingly, PP-GF hardly satisfies the requirements for outer appearances. In this development, a method that fulfills the appearance requirement and is applicable to mass production was established using rapid heat and cool molding (H&C molding) while eliminating painting process for cost reduction.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8116
Mrudula Uday Orpe, Monika Ivantysynova
Abstract Mobile Earth Moving Machinery like Skid-steer loaders have tight turning radius in limited spaces due to a short wheelbase which prevents the use of suspensions in these vehicles. The absence of a suspension system exposes the vehicle to ground vibrations of high magnitude and low frequency. Vibrations reduce operator comfort, productivity and life of components. Along with vibrations, the machine productivity is also hampered by material spillage which is caused by the tilting of the bucket due to the extension of the boom. The first part of the paper focuses on vibration damping. The chassis’ vibrations are reduced by the use of an active suspension element which is the hydraulic boom cylinder which is equivalent to a spring-damper. With this objective, a linear model for the skid steer loader is developed and a state feedback control law is implemented.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8138
Pranav Shinde, K Ravi, Nandhini Nehru, Sushant Pawar, Balaji Balakrishnan, Vinit Nair
Abstract Body in white (BIW) forms a major structure in any automobile. It is responsible for safety and structural rigidity of the vehicle. Also, this frame supports the power plant, auxiliary equipments and all body parts of the vehicle. When it comes to judging the performance of the vehicle, BIW is analyzed not only for its strength and shape but also the weight. Light weight BIW structures have grown rapidly in order to fulfill the requirements of the best vehicle performance in dynamic conditions. Since then lot of efforts have been put into computer-aided engineering (CAE), materials research, advanced manufacturing processes and joining methods. Each of them play a critical role in BIW functionality. Constructional designing, development of light materials with improved strength and special manufacturing practices for BIW are few research areas with scope of improvement. This paper attempts to review various factors studied for BIW weight reduction.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8137
Amrut A. Patki
Abstract The overall cost of ownership of a product is dependent on the life of the product and the cost. To keep the cost of ownership down, it is important to understand how the life of the product can be increased while lowering the cost at the same time. We are also challenged to reduce the carbon footprint and improve energy requirements to become more sustainable and green. How can both of these necessities be achieved? “Remanufacturing” is a simple answer to this complex question. Remanufacturing can improve the useable life of a part or product by multiple times. It is cost effective compared to new part production and is reasonably inexpensive to end customer. The energy required for remanufacturing is less compared to its original manufacturing. Remanufacturing reuses/salvages most of the original content. Design for Remanufacturing is a fundamental change in design engineering process to meet remanufacturing requirements.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2077
Fatih Burak Sahin, Hans-Juergen Borchers, Cagatay Ucar
Abstract CFRP has been widely used in aerospace industries because of its high strength-to-weight ratio. However, drilling CFRP laminates is difficult due to the highly abrasive nature of the carbon fibers and low thermal conductivity of CFRP. Therefore for the manufacturers it is a challenge to drill CFRP materials without causing any delamination within the high quality requirements while also considering the costs of the process. This paper will discuss the process of drilling CFRP-Al stack ups within tight tolerances using a seven axis drilling robot. All components required for drilling are integrated in the drill end-effector. The pressure foot is extended in order to clamp the work piece, and then holes are drilled. The drilling process has four steps: moving to the fast approach level, controlled drill feed, countersink depth reach and drill retract. The cutter diameter range chosen for this paper is Ø 4.0 mm and Ø 7.9 mm.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2083
Steven P. Smith
Abstract This paper traces the development of a temporary blind fastener in the aircraft industry. These are used with automated drilling machines as part of an integrated assembly process where one-way assembly is inappropriate. Traditional blind temporary fasteners have a high protrusion (stand-off) on the side they are installed from, effectively preventing automated drilling. No suitable fastener was available on the market and existing suppliers were uninterested in development at the time. A set of requirements were created out of the need to improve efficiency of A380 wing assembly. However focus changed as the A350XWB programme demanded such a fastener. Testing, development and Stress approval are described leading to full deployment. Finally the paper looks at the additional factors which are required to successfully introduce a new standard of temporary fastening process.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2079
Alexander Janssen, Thorsten Dillhoefer
The industry wide requirement of new highly flexible automated fastening systems in aircraft production has created the need for developing new fastening systems. This paper will focus on the development of the Frame Riveting Assembly Cell (FRAC) by BROETJE-Automation to meet this need. The new FRAC machine configuration is built for automated drilling and fastening of different aircraft type parts. It is highly flexible with a high speed positioning system mounted multifunction end effector. System travel is limited only by installed track length. The FRAC integrates well with conventional and reconfigurable automated fastening work holding tools.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2084
Curtis Hayes
Abstract Successfully riveting aerospace fatigue-rated structure (for instance, wing panels) requires achieving rivet interference between a minimum and a maximum value in a number of locations along the shank of the rivet. In unbalanced structure, where the skin is much thicker than the stringer, this can be particularly challenging, as achieving minimum interference at the exit of the skin (D2) can often be a problem without exceeding the maximum interference at the exit of the stringer (D4). Softer base materials and harder, higher-strength rivets can compound the problem, while standard manufacturing variations in hardness of part and rivet materials can cause repeatability issues in the process. This paper presents a solution that has been successfully implemented on a production commercial aircraft.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2095
Agata Suwala, Lucy Agyepong, Andrew Silcox
Abstract Reduction of overall drag to improve aircraft performance has always been one of the goals for aircraft manufacturers. One of the key contributors to decreasing drag is achieving laminar flow on a large proportion of the wing. Laminar flow requires parts to be manufactured and assembled within tighter tolerance bands than current build processes. Drilling of aircraft wings to the tolerances demanded by laminar flow requires machines with the stiffness and accuracy of a CNC machine while having the flexibility and envelope of an articulated arm. This paper describes the development and evaluation of high accuracy automated processes to enable the assembly of a one-off innovative laminar flow wing concept. This project is a continuation of a previously published SAE paper related to the development of advanced thermally stable and lightweight assembly fixture required to maintain laminar flow tolerances.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2096
Simon Schnieders, Dirk Eickhorst
Abstract Drilling of high-strength titan material and composites in combination creates complex challenges in order to achieve required productivity and quality. Long spiral chips are characteristically for the titan drilling process, which leads to e.g. chip accumulation, high thermomechanical load, surface damages and excessive tool wear. The basic approach is the substitution of today’s peck drilling as current solution to this problem and the implementation of a vibration assisted drilling, so called micro-peck-drilling-process, to generate a kinematic chip breakage in a significant more efficient way. To meet perfectly the requirements regarding rates, quality and automation level, Broetje-Automation as system integrator has investigated and developed the implementation of different alternative high-performance systems and methods to approach the optimal oscillation movement of the tool.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2097
Sylvain Laporte, Cosme De Castelbajac, Mathieu Ladonne
Abstract The Vibration Assisted Drilling (VAD) process has been implemented in Automated Drilling Equipment (ADE) on an industrial scale since 2011. Today more than 11000 ADEs are currently used on aircraft assembly lines. As well as drawing up a short report on the use of this new process, the authors make an assessment on new challenges that VAD has to face up. Indeed production rates are increasing and ADE manufacturers improve their technologies, one of the most recent and major development concerning the electrical motorization of the machines. These evolutions are as many opportunities for the VAD provided you have a clever understanding as well as an expert knowledge of the process. Thus the authors propose a new dynamic model of the whole VAD system which integrates the behavior of the part, cutting tool/material pair and the machine. The confrontation of model results and experimental validation tests demonstrates the relevance of the works.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2099
Peter Mueller-Hummel, Thomas Langhorst
Abstract On CNC Machines, drilling holes under perfect condition is possible. For drilling holes into titanium, composite and aluminum stacked materials the specific cutting condition can be selected. Furthermore surrounding conditions such as peck cycle, MQL and force and torque monitoring can be easily adapted. When drilling holes in the final assembly, CNC machine tools cannot be employed due to sizes and accessibility. Power Feed Units or Automated Drill Units ADUs are very handy, flexible and depending upon the jig extremely rigid. Whenever a machine tool does not fit, ADUs are highly recommended. In comparison to machine tools, conventional pneumatic ADUs can be used with one fixed set of feed, speed and micro peck only. Due to that a compromise in cutting condition has to be chosen in drilling stacked material with different layers.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2098
Christophe Vandaele, Didier Friot, Simon Marry, Etienne Gueydon
Abstract With more than 10 000 aircrafts in their order backlog Aircraft manufacturers focus on automated assembly is of critical importance for the future of efficient production assembly. Moreover to obtain maximum benefit from automation, it is necessary to achieve not only an automated assembly cell, but also a real breakthrough in fastener technology. The optimum solution, known as “One Side Assembly”, performs the whole assembly sequence from one side of the structure using an accurate robot arm equipped with a multifunction end effector and high performance fasteners. This configuration provides an efficient and flexible automated installation process, superior to current solutions which are typically, large scale, capital intensive systems, which still require operators to complete or control the fastener installation. The search for a technological breakthrough in this domain has been targeted for more than 15 years by many aircraft manufacturers.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2104
Robert Flynn, Kevin Payton-Stewart, Patrick Brewer, Ryan W. Davidge
Abstract Figure 1 Global 7000 Business Jet. Photo credit: Robert Backus. The customer’s assembly philosophy demanded a fully integrated flexible pulse line for their Final Assembly Line (FAL) to assemble their new business jets. Major challenges included devising a new material handling system, developing capable positioners and achieving accurate joins while accommodating two different aircraft variants (requiring a “flexible” system). An additional requirement was that the system be easily relocated to allow for future growth and reorganization. Crane based material handling presents certain collision and handover risks, and also present a logistics challenge as cranes can become overworked. Automated guided vehicles can be used to move large parts such as wings, but the resulting sweep path becomes a major operational limitation. The customer did not like the trade-offs for either of these approaches.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2101
Burak Deger, Fazli Melemez, Aykut Kibar lng
Abstract A hybrid drilling process of multi material stacks with one shot drilling recently emerge as an economical and time efficient method in aerospace industry. Even though the comprehensive experience and knowledge is available for the cutting parameters of composites and metals alone, significant gap exist for the hybrid drilling parameters. Determination of these parameters such as feed rate, spindle speed and pecking depth has vital importance so as to provide a robust and optimal process to ensure dimensionally high quality, burr and delamination free holes. Main challenge of hybrid drilling operation is to obtain required hole diameter with adequate homogeneity and repeatability. In this study, effect of cutting parameters on dimensional hole quality was investigated. In addition to the hole diameter tolerances, CFRP hole enlargement phenomena which is encountered as a specific drawback of metal-exit stack configurations is also addressed within the scope of this study.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2106
Dan R.W. Vaughan, Otto J. Bakker, David Branson, Svetan Ratchev
Abstract Aircraft manufacturers desire to increase production to keep up with anticipated demand. To achieve this, the aerospace industry requires a significant increase in the manufacturing and assembly performance to reach required output levels. This work therefore introduces the Variation Aware Assembly (VAA) concept and identifies its suitability for implementation into aircraft wing assembly processes. The VAA system concept focuses on achieving assemblies towards the nominal dimensions, as opposed to traditional tooling methods that aim to achieve assemblies anywhere within the tolerance band. It enables control of the variation found in Key Characteristics (KC) that will allow for an increase in the assembly quality and product performance. The concept consists of utilizing metrology data from sources both before and during the assembly process, to precisely position parts using motion controllers.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2105
Thomas G. Jefferson, Richard Crossley, Anthony Smith, Svetan Ratchev
Abstract This paper presents novel development of a reconfigurable assembly cell which assembles multiple aerostructure products. Most aerostructure assembly systems are designed to produce one variant only. For multiple variants, each assembly typically has a dedicated assembly cell, despite most assemblies requiring a process of drilling and fastening to similar tolerances. Assembly systems that produce more than one variant do exist but have long changeover or involve extensive retrofitting. Quick assembly of multiple products using one assembly system offers significant cost savings from reductions in capital expenditure and lead time. Recent trends advocate Reconfigurable Assembly Systems (RAS) as a solution; designed to have exactly the functionality necessary to produce a group of similar components. A state-of-the-art review finds significant benefits in deploying RAS for a group of aerostructures variants.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2108
Marc Fette, Kim Schwake, Jens Wulfsberg, Frank Neuhaus, Manila Brandt
Abstract The rising demand for civil aircraft leads to the development of flexible and adaptive production systems in aviation industry. Due to economic efficiency, operational accuracy and high performance these manufacturing and assembly systems must be technologically robust and standardized. The current aircraft assembly and its jigs are characterized by a high complexity with poor changeability and low adaptability. In this context, the use of industrial robots and standardized jigs promise highly flexible and accurate complex assembly operations. This paper deals with the flexible and adaptable aircraft assembly based on industrial robots with special end-effectors for shaping operations. By the development and use of lightweight gripper system made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics the required scaling, robustness and stiffness of the whole assembly system can be realized.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2110
Ilker Erdem, Peter Helgosson, Ashwin Gomes, Magnus Engstrom
Abstract The ability to adapt to rapidly evolving market demands continues to be the one of the key challenges in the automation of assembly processes in the aerospace industry. To meet this challenge, industry and academia have made efforts to automate flexible fixturing. LOCOMACHS (Low Cost Manufacturing and Assembly of Composite and Hybrid Structures) - a European Union funded project with 31 partners - aims to address various aspects of aero-structure assembly with a special attention directed to the development of a new build philosophy along with relevant enabling technologies. This paper aims to present the results on the developed wing box build philosophy and the integration of automated flexible tooling solutions into the assembly process. The developed solution constitutes the use of synchronized hexapods for the assembly of front spar to upper cover whereas another hexapod was developed to install a rib by using of a force feedback sensor.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2109
Michael Morgan, Caroline McClory, Colm Higgins, Yan Jin, Adrian Murphy
Aerospace structures are typically joined to form larger assemblies using screw lock or swage lock fasteners or rivets. Countersunk fasteners are used widely in the aerospace industry on flying surfaces to reduce excrescence drag and increase aircraft performance. These fasteners are typically installed to a nominal countersink value which leaves them flush to the surface before being locked into position. The Northern Ireland Technology Centre (NITC) at Queen’s University Belfast has developed and demonstrated two processes which enable high tolerance flush fastening of countersunk fasteners: The ‘Flush Install’ process produces countersunk holes based on the specific geometry of each individual fastener; The ‘Fettle Flush’ process accurately machines fasteners to match the surrounding surface. Flushness values well within the allowable tolerances have been demonstrated for both Flush Install and Fettle Flush processes.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-2112
Hilmar Apmann
Abstract As a new material FML, made by aluminum foils and Glasfiber-Prepreg, is a real alternative to common materials for fuselages of aircrafts like monolithic aluminum or CFRP. Since experiences within A380 this material has some really good advantages and develops to the status as alternative to aluminum and composite structures. To become FML as a real alternative to aluminum and carbon structures there are many things to improve: design, material, costs and process chain. So following one of the main goals for an industrial application for high production rates of aircrafts is the automation of production processes inside the process chain for FML-parts like skins and panels for fuselages. To reach this goal for high production rates first steps of automation inside this new process chain have been developed in the last two years. Main steps is the automated lay-up of metallic foils and Glasfiber-Prepreg.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2111
Juan Carlos Antolin-Urbaneja, Juan Livinalli, Mildred Puerto, Mikel Liceaga, Antonio Rubio, Angel San-Roman, Igor Goenaga
Abstract Gaps in composite structures are a risky factor in aeronautical assemblies. For mechanically joined composite components, the geometrical conformance of the part can be problematic due to undesired or unknown re-distribution of loads within a composite component, with these unknowns being potentially destructive. To prevent unnecessary preloading of a metallic structure, and the possibility of cracking and delamination in a composite structure, it is important to measure all gaps and then shim any gaps greater than 127 microns. A strategy to overcome the high relative tolerances for assemblies lies in the automated manufacturing of shims for the gaps previously predicted through the evaluation of their volumes via a simulation tool. This paper deals with the development of a special end-effector prototype to enable the shimming of gaps in composites structures using a pre-processed geometry.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2113
Raphael Reinhold
Abstract Resin transfer molding (RTM) is gaining importance as a particularly economical manufacturing method for composites needed in the automotive and aerospace industries. With this method, the component is first shaped with dry fiber reinforcements in a so-called “preforming process” before the mold is placed in a RTM tool, injected with resin and cured. In recent years, Broetje-Automation has been developing innovative product solutions that are specially designed for these preforming processes and suitable for industrial use. For the first time ever, Broetje’s Composite Preforming Cell (CPC) makes large-quantity serial production of complex and near-net-shape preforms for composite components using this RTM process possible. With the additional integration of the patented 3D Composite Handling System Broetje impressively demonstrates its service and product portfolio in the area of innovative composite manufacturing technology and its know-how as a complete system integrator.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2117
Rustam M. Baytimerov, Pavel Lykov, Sergei Sapozhnikov, Dmitry Zherebtsov, Konstantin Bromer
Abstract The development of Additive Technologies (SLS/SLM, EBM, DMD) suggests the increase of range expansion of materials used. One of the most promising directions is products manufacturing from composite materials. The technology of composite micro-powders production on the basis of heat-resistant nickel alloy EP648 and Al2O3 is proposed. The aim of this research is to develop a method of producing composite micropowders for additive technology application. This method is based on modification of the metal micropowders surface by the second phase in a planetary mixer (mechanochemical synthesis).The obtained composite micropowders are compared with powders which are recommended for selective laser melting usage (produced by MTT Technology). The equipment used in the research: planetary mixer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical granulomorphometer Occio 500nano.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-2116
Peter Mueller-Hummel
Abstract Drilling holes into metal with MQL (Minimal Quantity Lubrication) is a normal procedure, because the drill is designed for drilling metal and the malleable capability of the metal compensates for the insufficient cutting capability of a worn out drill. Drilling composite materials using the same drill (designed for drilling metal) is a different procedure, because composite fibers are not malleable like metal at all. Due to this fact the tools become very hot trying to forge composite fibers like metal. The elastic behavior of the composite and the delamination inside the hole makes the tool temporary smaller than the diameter of the drill. The hole in the metal part of the stack remains slightly larger due to the heat and the thermal expansion rate. This paper shows how to drill metal and composite with the same diameter, so that achieving H8 quality is no longer a dream.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2123
Matthias Busch, Benedikt Faupel
Abstract The integration of omega stringers to panels made of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) by adhesive bonding, which is achieved by baking in an autoclave, must be subject to high quality standards. Failures such as porosity, voids or inclusion must be detected safely to guaranty the functionality of the component. Therefore, an inspection system is required to verify these bonds and detect different kinds of defects. In this contribution, the advantages of a robotic inspection system, which will be achieved through continuous testing, will be introduced. The testing method is the active thermography. The active thermography has major advantages compared with other non-destructive testing methods. Compared to testing with ultrasonic there is no coupling medium necessary, thus testing will be significantly enhanced.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2124
Sara Nilsson, Jonas Jensen, Mats Björkman, Erik Sundin
Abstract Carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) is one of the most commonly used materials in the aerospace industry today. CFRP in pre-impregnated form is an anisotropic material whose properties can be controlled to a high level by the designer. Sometimes, these properties make the material hard to predict with regards to how the geometry affects manufacturing aspects. This paper describes eleven design rules originating from different guidelines that describe geometrical design choices and deals with manufacturability problems that are connected to them, why they are connected and how they can be minimized or avoided. Examples of design choices dealt with in the rules include double curvature shapes, assembly of uncured CFRP components and access for non-destructive testing (NDT). To verify the technical content and ensure practicability, the rules were developed by, inter alia, studying literature and performing case studies at SAAB Aerostructures.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-2118
Patrick Land, Luis De Sousa, Svetan Ratchev, David Branson, Harvey Brookes, Jon Wright
Abstract With increased demand for composite materials in the aerospace sector there is a requirement for the development of manufacturing processes that enable larger and more complex geometries, whilst ensuring that the functionality and specific properties of the component are maintained. To achieve this, methods such as thermal roll forming are being considered. This method is relatively new to composite forming in the aerospace field, and as such there are currently issues with the formation of part defects during manufacture. Previous work has shown that precise control of the force applied to the composite surface during forming has the potential to prevent the formation of wrinkle defects. In this paper the development of various control strategies that can robustly adapt to different complex geometries are presented and compared within simulated and small scale experimental environments, on varying surface profiles.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2121
Pavel Lykov, Rustam M. Baytimerov, Artem Leyvi, Dmitry Zherebtsov, Alexey Shultc
Abstract The copper-nickel alloys are widely used in various industries. The adding of nickel significantly enhances mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and thermoelectric properties of copper. The technology was proposed of production of copper-nickel composite micro-powders by the gaseous deposition of nickel on the surface of copper powder. The vaporization of nickel was implemented by using magnetron. The relationship between mode of processing and the ratio of phases in the powder was investigated. The proposed method allows to modify the powder surface without deformation of the particles. The possibility of using of obtained composite powder in selective laser melting (SLM) was evaluated. It is assumed that the structure of the obtained composite material (SLM) will have inclusions of nickel and continuous chain of copper. This structure will have high mechanical properties and high electrical conductivity.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2128
Henry Guo, Farid Ahdad, DeDong Xie
Abstract In this work we have proposed an interesting clamping solution of V-band which has an important industrial impact by reducing the cost and assembly process as well compare to the traditional V-band. The design what we are focusing for is applied for all size of turbochargers which helps to connect the hot components such as manifold and turbine housing. The cost for V-band is mainly from T-bolt. It is made from special stainless steel which represents 50% of the total cost. In this work it is proposed a new V-band joint by changing bolt clamping status from tension to compression. From tension to compression we change the bolt material from high cost steel to low cost steel. The new total cost is reduced by 40%. The prototype is made and performed in static tests including anti-rotating torque test and salt spray test. The new joint meets the design requirements at static condition. Further work will focus on the dynamic qualification and at high temperature as well.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 8631