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Viewing 1 to 30 of 8351
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Venkatesan C, Arun S, Faustino V
The automotive industry needs for sustainable seating products which offer good climate performance and superior seating comfort. The safety requirement is always a concern for current seating systems. The life of the present seating system is low and absorbs moisture over a period of time which affects seat performance (cushioning effect). Recycling is one of the major concern as per as polyurethane (PU) is concern. This paper presents the development of an alternative material which is eco-friendly and light in weight. Thermoplastic materials were tried in place PU for many good reasons. The newly developed material is closed cell foam which has better tear and abrasion resistance. It doesn’t absorb water and has excellent weathering resistance. Also it has got better cushioning effect and available in various colours. Because of superior tear resistance, we can eliminate upholstery and reduce system level cost. The development involves testing and characterization of the materials, making of prototypes and validations.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Rajendra Hosamath, Muralidhar Nagarkatte
All top ranking automobile companies in the world believe in single world “Quality” and maintaining quality standards is a philosophy, a belief in which we live, a task which cannot be put aside for another day .To achieve the world class quality standards Divgi-Warner meticulously follows a highly effective tool known as Quality System Basics (QSB) QSB helps Divgiwarner to preserve integrity of commitment to achieve manufacturing excellence. This case study covers the Quality System Basics implementation experience of DivgiWarner Pvt. Ltd. India, one of the BorgWarner's plant based in Pune and Sirsi, India. A quality System basic consists of following 10 Key elements to establish world class quality. 1. Fast Response  Lessons Learned  Practical Problem Solving  8-D 2. Control of Non-Conforming Product 3. Verification Station 4. Standardized Operations  Work Place Organization – The 7 Wastes  Standardized Work Instructions – SOS  Operator Instructions – JES 5. Standardized Operator Training 6.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Armin Förg, Moritz Wolter, Matthias Kreimeyer, Markus Lienkamp
Introduction & problem description Profoundly new commercial vehicle concepts for improved transport efficiency, better TCO and decreasing environmental impact are a key issue in current research. Although being showcased more and more as first concept studies and prototypes by OEMs these new concepts do hardly find their way into public traffic. Beside their non-conformance to today's legislation another reason is manufacturers being cautious and reserved when it comes to new concepts that require far-reaching changes in engineering and methods of production. In the context of sensitive markets manufactures can't afford low volume vehicle concepts that in addition include a lot of exclusive components and interfaces i.e. extra investments and engineering efforts. In order to pave the way for radical innovation in commercial vehicle concepts, manufacturers need to be able to analyze new concepts on their compatibility with the existing product portfolio and if necessary redesign their product architecture to avoid unmanageable overflow of variance.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Louis Columbus
Aerospace suppliers face the daunting task of constantly improving time-to-market, reducing cost of quality and turning compliance into a competitive advantage. Managing to these constraints while staying profitable is a challenge faced by the entire aerospace supply chain face today. The intent of this presentation is to share five lessons learned on how aerospace suppliers can optimize for these three constraints while growing their businesses. The first is electronically enabling traceability both within a multi-tier supply chains and throughout suppliers. Automating traceability at the shop floor improves quality management and accelerates compliance. Specific methodologies and metrics used to accomplish this will be provided. Second, lessons learned from implementing Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES) showing how shop floor visibility has a direct effect on supplier performance is illustrated with case studies and metrics. Third, lessons learned in making compliance pay by benchmarking performance to AS9100C, ISO9001, and ITAR standards is provided.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Nelson W. Sorbo, Jason J. Dionne
The use of composite materials and composite stackups (CO-Ti or CO-Al) in aerospace and automotive applications has been and will continue to grow at a very high rate due to the high strength and low weight of the materials. One key problem manufacturers have using this material is the ability to efficiently drill holes through the layers to install fasteners and other components. This is especially true in stackups of CFRP and titanium due to the desire of drilling dry for the CFRP layer and the need for cooling when drilling the high strength Ti layer. By using CO2 through tool cooling, it is possible to protect both layers. Through work supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and Department of Energy (DOE) it is shown that CO2 through tool cooling productivity can be significantly increased while maintaining required hole tolerances in both the composite and Ti layers. Improvements in tool life are expected when compared to either emulsion or dry drilling. By providing dry CO2 cooling through the tip of the drill, resin binders in the CFRP don’t soften, and cool Ti chips don’t degrade the composite at either exit or mid-levels.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Todd Rudberg, Justin Nielson
In an effort to improve the floor-to-floor manufacturing rate of our Automated Fiber Placement (AFP) manufacturing cells, we analyzed data taken in an actual high production facility and categorized time consumed. Actual part program execution time is approximately 25-30% of total time for this cell. We found that huge improvements could be made by improving only a few basic items. This paper will describe the data taken and our recommendations for improving the throughput of AFP cells.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Julian Lonfier, Côme De Castelbajac
As aircraft programs currently ramp up, productivity of assembly processes needs to be improved while keeping quality, reliability and manufacturing cost requirements. Efficiency of the drilling process still remains an issue particularly in the case of CFRP/metal stacks: hot and long metallic chips are difficult to remove and often damage the surface of CFRP holes. Low frequency axial vibration drilling has been proposed to solve this issue. This innovative drilling process allows breaking up the metallic chips in such a way that jamming is avoided. This paper presents a case of CFRP/Ti6Al4V drilling on a CNC machine where productivity must be increased. A comparison is made between the current regular process and the MITIS drilling process. First the analysis and comparison method is presented. The current process is analyzed and its limits are highlighted. Then the vibration process is implemented and its performances are studied. Both processes are compared according to the following criteria: chip morphology, thrust force, power consumption, tool life, cycle time, holes quality and manufacturing costs.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Yanbin Yao
Drilling plays a significant process in the aircraft manufacturing. This paper develops a robot automatic drilling system for processing the titanium alloy, aluminum alloy and laminated composites component of aircraft. The accurate robot drilling system is comprised of ABB IRB6640-235 robot, drilling end-effector, end-effctor control system and vision system. Experimental results show that the system absolute location precision is within 0.3mm, and the drilling efficiency can be up to four holes per minute. The drilling efficiency and quality of the aircraft component can be increased immensely by the developed robot automatic drilling system.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Thomas G. Jefferson, Svetan Ratchev, Richard Crossley
The paper presents a flexible assembly cell concept design for wing structure assembly. A leading Aircraft Manufacturer is planning to increase rate to meet future demand. The current static system restricts the deployment of new technologies and production ramp-up requires additional fixtures which require large investment and long lead times. The aim is to allow production rates to be increased or decreased as demand requires, thereby reducing the requirement for extra fixtures. Improvements in metrology and tooling systems means a flexible system may now be feasible. The proposed system concept allows implementation of new technologies as they become viable. This research focusses on developing conceptual designs of the system architecture. Axiomatic Design (AD) is a design methodology that maps requirements to physical elements. AD principles are used to produce a decoupled cell design that meets the requirements of flexible production and new technology introduction. Designs are presented as DELMIA models and factory layouts.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Sylvain Laporte, Etienne Gueydon, Alain Auffret, Cosme De Castelbajac
In today’s aircraft assembly process several new features make drilling operations very challenging according to production requirements. Parts are made of thin or thick multi-material stacks with a large scope to cover and complex assembly sequences. In addition, the current ramp-up in aircraft programs involves improving productivity while keeping process quality and reliability. In this context robotic solution answers perfectly to all these requirements as it is flexible, reconfigurable, fast and agile. Among the possible end-effectors, the barrel multifunction end effector (MFEE) is the flexible solution to allow many different process configurations. The latest developments have been focused on the drilling equipment of this barrel MFEE. In fact the drilling process efficiency can be constantly improved especially in terms of quality and productivity. Therefore vibration-assisted drilling system has been integrated into the barrel MFEE drilling module. This innovative drilling process allows breaking up the metallic chips in such a way that jamming is avoided.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Eric Barton, Dan Hasley, Joey Jackson
This presentation is a case-study describing the implementation of a Fastening Automation system at Center Industries, a Tier-2 Aerospace supplier, to assemble the Boeing 737 panels outsourced to them by a Tier 1 supplier, due to rate increases. The presentation will focus particularly on the implementation of new automation equipment for fastening of the panel assemblies as well as the related CAD/CAM software; it will outline the challenges faced by Center Industries and the contributions of key project partners to overcome them. From the Tier 2 supplier perspective, doing this level of automation for the first time; how do they take paper-2D part drawings, tribal knowledge of the process at the Tier 1, and relatively little automation experience in-house, and produce first-time quality product, meeting delivery dates at expected rate? Aerospace panels are expensive components with very tight manufacturing tolerance requirements that do not provide room for error, or scrap. The audience will hear from key members of the launch team and learn what tools and methods were used to overcome these challenges resulting in a successful conclusion.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Riley HansonSmith, Alan Merkley
The Boeing Company is striving to improve quality and reduce defects and injuries through the implementation of lightweight “Right Sized” automated drilling and fastening equipment. This has lead to the factory adopting Boeing developed and supplier built flex track drill and countersink machines for drilling fuselage circumferential joins, wing panel to spar and wing splice stringers. The next step in this equipment is to use it for drilling and installing fasteners for One Up assembly. The critical component of One Up assembly is keeping the joint squeezed tightly together to prevent burrs and debris at the interface. Traditionally this is done by two-side machines providing concentric clamp up around the hole while it is being drilled. It was proposed that for stiff structure the joint could be held together by beginning adjacent to a tack fastener, and assemble sequentially using the adjacent hole clamp up from the previous hole to keep the joint clamped up. This process would significantly decrease the costs and complexity that is usually associated with two sided equipment involved in One Up drilling and fastening.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Charles J. Habermann
The ever increasing use of composites for aircraft components presents opportunities for new ways to process these parts. There are myriad benefits for use of composites in achieving aircraft performance goals. However, composites come with unique challenges as well. Some of these challenges impact the ability to produce accurate parts. Traditionally, such parts have been trimmed only while clamped in dedicated rigid tools that secure the part in the nominal shape. This results in significant investment in tooling design, production, maintenance, storage, handling, etc. As an alternative, PaR has developed its Adaptive Manufacturing System that incorporates a Robotic Fixture and Precision Motion Machine with Integrated Process Head. The Robotic fixture allows the entire family of parts to be managed with one fixture that remains within the machine footprint. The fixture is programmed to command the 38 individual robots to assume appropriate poses and end effector configuration to accommodate each of the over 400 parts in the family that range in length from 0.5 to 20 meters.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Lucas Irving, Svetan Ratchev, Atanas Popov, Marcus Rafla
The replacement for the current single-aisle aircraft will need to be manufactured at a rate more than double that of current production. Production rate can be increased by reducing the processing time for assembly operations. This paper presents research that was applied to the build philosophy of the leading edge of a laminar flow European wing demonstrator. The aim was to implement determinate assembly for the rib to bracket assembly interface. By optimising the diametric and the positional tolerances of the holes on the two bracket types, and ribs, determinate assembly was successfully implemented. The bracket to rib interface is now secured with no tooling or post processes other than inserting and tightening the fastener. This will reduce the tooling costs and eliminates the need for the local drilling, de-burring and re-assembly of the bracket to rib interface, reducing the cycle time of the operation. The self-indexing components mean that the there is more flexibility as to what point in production the bracket can be attached to the rib.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Lutz Neugebauer
The demand of fulfilling continually increasing customer requirements forces suppliers to constant improve their system solutions to be state of the art after entry into service. The subject Production Optimization via Efficiency Software explains the optimization of Automated Fastening Machines and Systems as well as Assembly Lines for Aircraft structural parts and components used in the production. The paper will describe and focus on the main aspects of improving the system through put rate by using software based analyzing tools without investing in new equipment. The software tool focuses on machine functionalities as well as work organizational issues in the production.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Jason Rediger, Joseph Malcomb, Craig Sylvester
A new portable floor drilling machine, the 767AFDE, has been designed with a focus on increased reach and speed, ease-of-use, and minimal weight. A 13-foot wide drilling span allows consolidation of 767 section 45 floor drilling into a single swath. A custom CNC interface simplifies machine operations and troubleshooting. Four servo-driven, air-cooled spindles allow high rate drilling through titanium and aluminum. An aluminum space frame optimized for high stiffness/weight ratio allows high speed operation while minimizing aircraft floor deflection. A vacuum system, offline calibration plate, and transportation dolly complete the cell.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Joshua Norman, Cesar Moreno, Zhiyu Wang, James Mann, Christopher Saldana
Vibration/modulation-assisted machining processes offer potential for enabling more efficient processing of aerospace alloys. While benefits of these processes have been well documented, sources for the improvements are not well understood. This study explores the nature of energy dissipation during conventional and modulation-assisted machining by characterizing effects of controllable process parameters on chip formation in aerospace alloys. Simultaneous force and tool position measurements are used to show that the processing response in modulation-assisted machining can be described by empirically derived process models. These models accurately predict plastic dissipation over a range of modulation conditions and configurations, including in cases where energy expenditure decreases with the application of modulation. These observations suggest that the underlying plastic response in modulation-assisted machining at low frequency is analogous to that of conventional machining with a time-varying component.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Santiago Droll
In contemporary industries the demand for very accurate robots is continuously growing. Yet, robot vendors are limited in the achievable accuracy of their robots, as they have no means to provide a direct end-effector feedback. Therefore most approaches aim to evaluate an accurate model of the system, thus providing compensation factors to correct the paths. Models, however, are unable to represent the real physical system in a sufficient manner for path correction. The non-linearities in robotic systems are difficult to model and the dynamics are very fast. A better approach is therefore to use direct end-effector position and orientation feedback from an external sensor. The measured data can directly be compared to the nominal data from the path interpolator. Hence, they are not dependent on the kinematic robot model. The residual errors can be used to calculate correction values for the individual robot joints, thus providing a fast path correction algorithm. In this paper such a method is discussed, implemented and tested.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Samuel Baha II
Hybrid (bolted/bonded) joining is becoming one of the innovative joining processes for light weight structures in the transport industry, especially in the aerospace industry where weight reduction and high joining requirements are permanent challenges. Combining the adhesive bonding with the mechanical joining -riveting for instance- can lead to an enhancement of the properties of the joint compared to the wide established riveting, as a result of a synergistic load bearing interaction between the fastener and the adhesive bondline. The influence of the rivet installation process on a hybrid joint regarding the joint stress state, the change of the bondline thickness as well as its effects on the joint performance and load transfer are some of the factors that drive the users to a better understanding of the hybrid joining process. This paper deals therefore on one hand with the numerical simulation of the rivet installation process in an adhesively bonded joint to understand the phenomena occurring during the installation process and on the other hand with the investigation of the load transfer depending on the joint parameters.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Peter B. Zieve, Osman Emre Celek, John Fenty
The E7000 riveting machine allows fast and efficient installation of NAS1097KE5-5 rivets in fuselage panels. For the thinnest stacks, where the panel skin is 2mm and the stringer is 2mm, the normal process of installing rivets will cause deformation of the panel or dimpling. The dimpling is caused by uneven interference, significant under the formed rivet tail on the stringer side and much less on the skin panel side. Due to the large number of these thin stacks on A320 Section 18 it was important to find a solution to keep the panel flat. We found a solution by forming the rivet with the pressure foot extended. The upper buck is held 0.4mm above the panel work plane surface. This reverse flexes the panel upon upset and evens out the rivet interference. The panel stays flat. More than one hundred A320 Section 18 side panels have been produced with this technique. There was a concern of head gapping between the rivet and the countersink but meticulous inspection showed that this does not occur.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
George Nicholas Bullen
Constant swirls of innovative ideas are starting to push composites and hybrid metal-composite components for use in an ever expanding circle of products. Recent discoveries of Graphene/Au composites have invigorated innovations for its application to aerospace and space products. Attributes such as a low CTE, stiffness, and light weight attract other manufacturers of smaller products to use composites for enhanced performance and durability. The uses and economics of composites is an enormously broad subject. Examples of composite materials will be described in this presentation and paper to provide samples of applications selected for their far reaching potential to enhance product performance. Examples will also be presented to explain the application of carbon based composites where the product performance or application would not be possible without special materials. This presentation and paper will also describe emerging materials such as graphene and some of its applications to enhance the performance of current technologies It is easy become enamored with the composite big parts built for trains, planes, automobiles, ships, and wind turbine blades.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
George Nicholas Bullen
Rapid advances in cloud-based computing, robotics and smart sensors, multi-modal modeling and simulation, and advanced production are transforming modern manufacturing. The shift toward smaller runs on custom-designed products favors agile and adaptable workplaces that can compete in the global economy. This paper and presentation will describe the advances in Digital Manufacturing that provides the backbone to tighten integration and interoperability of design methods interlinked with advanced manufacturing technologies and agile business practices. The digital tapestry that seamlessly connects computer design tools, modeling and simulation, intelligent machines and sensors, additive manufacturing, manufacturing methods, and post-delivery services to shorten the time and cost between idea generation and first successful product-in-hand will be illustrated.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Roger Holden, Paul Lightowler, Simon Andreou
The EU project “COMET” was designed to look at high accuracy robotics in a series of modular “plug-ins” For On-line compensation we looked at different deployment techniques including super-calibrated “dry-run” based on commercially available quasi-static technology; live corrections; and augmented high accuracy using external automation to correct the inherent inaccuracies in the robot.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Janice Meraglia, Mitchell Miller
As part of a comprehensive counterfeit mitigation effort, the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) has created a program of four initiatives including the requirement of SigNature DNA marking on microcircuits. The Agency’s efforts began prior to the National Defense Authorization Act of Fiscal Year 2012, Section 818. Also, in the April 26, 2013 memo from Under Secretary Frank Kendall, the Office of Secretary of Defense is clearly focused on “prevention and early warning,” as the “primary” defense against counterfeits. SigNature DNA marking is within the spirit and guidance set forth by both DLA and OSD. Section 818 compels government action and creates real liability for contractors. Among other provisions, Section 818 requires the government and contractors to establish “…policies and procedures to eliminate counterfeit electronic parts from the defense supply chain” and “…mechanisms to enable traceability of parts.” SigNature® DNA provides per part forensic traceability and can be implemented as part of a comprehensive inventory management system.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Roger Holden, Paul Lightowler, Simon Andreou
The EU project “COMET” was designed to look at high accuracy robotics in a series of modular “plug-ins” For Offline compensation we looked at different calibration techniques and offline robot programming methods.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Jamie Skovron, Laine Mears, Durul Ulutan, Duane Detwiler, Daniel Paolini, Boris Baeumler, Laurence Claus
A standard for aluminum-to-aluminum joining in the automotive industry is resistance spot welding. However, spot welding may degrade the structural performance through heat affected zones created by the thermal joining process. Also, achieving the double sided access necessary for the spot welding gun may limit design flexibility. A recently introduced technology called Flow Drill Screwing (FDS) does not have these limitations as through-part connections are formed by one-sided access using a thermo-mechanical flow screwing process with minimal heat. FDS is an automated continuous process that allows multi-material joining by utilizing a screw as both the tool and the fastener. The process uses the friction caused by the rotating screw to pierce and extrude the material. Threads are then created in this formed bushing and allow the fastener to clamp together the sheets of material. This study explores the quality design space as represented by resultant joint geometry as a function of the critical process parameters of downforce and rotational speed profiles.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Karl-Erik Neumann, Robert Reno
Practical and Portable Automated Machining The utilization of new materials and tightening of desired tolerances has driven the advancement of Practical and Portable Automated Machining. Increased demand in volume within the aerospace industry not only requires minimizing the amount of manual operations, but also applying automation inside existing manual fixtures. In the past, manual labor, with drastic limitations on achievable accuracies, has been utilized in areas that machine tools cannot either access or the limited amount of work does not justify the expense of additional machines. Assemblies requiring critical hole alignment or drilling through stack materials often are difficult to achieve using manual operations. The solution is a practical and very portable machining unit that is small enough to fit into otherwise difficult areas and is lightweight enough to be either moved into position by small machines or quickly disassembled/assembled with each subassembly capable of being positioned manually.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Joseph R. Malcomb
Automated countersink measurement methods which require contact with the workpiece are susceptible to a loss of accuracy due to cutting debris and lube build-up. This paper demonstrates a non-contact method for countersink diameter measurement on CFRP which eliminates the need for periodic cleaning. Holes are scanned using a laser profilometer. Coordinates for points along the countersink edge are processed with a unique filtering algorithm providing a highly repeatable estimate for major and minor diameter.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Roger Holden, Paul Lightowler, Simon Andreou, William Thomas, Jon Moran
This is a work package within STeM (Structural Technology Maturity), a UK Government research project aimed at stimulating R&D and innovation activities. STeM is an Industry lead TSB (Technology Strategy Board) & BIS (Business Innovation & Skills) funded initiative that supports new concepts in wing structure and manufacturing, to enable expansion of the boundaries of aerodynamic performance. The project goal was to deliver "one-shot" robotic drilling and fastening of an innovative composite aircraft assembly for GKN Aerospace. The first major technology advance was to prove that a robot can take one tool (drill and countersink) and make the hole (up to ¼" diameter), then pick-up another separate tool (fastener) and go to exactly the same place/vector to apply the fastener. This meant a multi-function end effector wasn't needed - which in-turn meant only a small payload robot is needed, on a small width rail. This dramatically reduces the capital investment in the robot solution, and requires much less energy, so it's a greener solution as well.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Greg Adams
Electroimpact has developed a second generation of mobile robots with several improvements over the first generation. The frame has been revised to a welded plate structure, making the dynamic response of the structure stiffer and reducing load deflections while maintaining the same weight. The deflections of the frame have been optimized to simplify position compensation. The caster mechanism is very compact, offers greater mounting flexibility, and improved maneuverability. The mechanism uses a pneumatic airbag for both lifting and suspension. The robot sled has been improved to offer greater rigidity for the same weight, and dual secondary feedback scales on the vertical axis further improve the rigidity of the overall system. Maintenance access has been improved by rerouting the cable and hose trays, and lowering the electrical cabinet. The mobile robot is sized so it can shipped complete on a lowboy trailer for deliveries that can be completed by truck. It can also be broken down for container shipping, and reassembly at the customers’ site is a straightforward process.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 8351