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Viewing 1 to 30 of 9002
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2428
Peilin Dai, Ying Huang, Donghao Hao, Ting Zhang
Abstract: The vehicle driveline suffers low frequency torsional vibration because of the abrupt change of torque and torque fluctuation of variable frequency. This problem can be solved by model-based predictive control, so building a control oriented driveline model is extremely important. The traditional off-line identified model which does not consider driveline parameter variation such as damping of tire and suspension during vehicle operation cannot accurately reflect the true characteristics of the driveline vibrations. And usually the fixed stiffness is considered, this will cause modeling errors and worse result of vibration control, in this paper, an on-line recursive identification method is proposed and verified based on an electric car. First of all, as for the low frequency vibration, the control oriented model is simplified into a six-parameter model with double inertia.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2357
Mark Devlin, Jeffrey Guevremont, Chip Hewette, Marc Ingram, Grant Pollard, William Wyatt
Different mechanical components in a vehicle can be made from different types of steel and can even contain different steel alloys or coatings. Lubricant technology is needed to prevent wear and control friction on all of these different surfaces. Phosphorus compounds are the key additives that are used to control wear and they do this by forming tribofilms on surfaces. It has been shown that different operating conditions (pressures and loads) can influence the formation of tribofilms formed by different anti-wear additives. The effect of surface metallurgy and morphology on tribofilm formation is described in this paper. Our results show that additive technology can form proper tribofilms on various surfaces and the right combination of additives can be found for current and future surfaces.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2328
Yuanxu Li, Karthik Nithyanandan, Zhi Ning, Chia-Fon Lee, Han Wu
Bio-butanol has been widely investigated as a promising alternative fuel. However, the main issues preventing the industrial-scale production of butanol is its relatively low production efficiency and high cost of production. Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE), the intermediate product in the ABE fermentation process for producing bio-butanol, has attracted a lot of interest as an alternative fuel because it not only preserves the advantages of oxygenated fuels, but also lowers the cost of fuel recovery for individual component during fermentation. If ABE could be directly used for clean combustion, the separation costs would be eliminated which save an enormous amount of time and money in the production chain of bio-butanol.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1987
Renjie Li, Shengbo Li, Hongbo Gao, Keqiang Li, Bo Cheng, Deyi Li
Abstract Vehicle automation is a fundamental approach to reduce traffic accidents and driver workload. However, there is a notable risk of pushing human drivers out of the control loop before automation technology fully matures. Cooperative driving (or vehicle co-piloting) is a novel paradigm which is defined as the vehicle being jointly navigated by a human driver and an automatic controller through shared control technology. Indirect shared control is an emerging shared control method, which is able to realize cooperative driving through input complementation instead of haptic guidance. In this paper we first establish an indirect shared control method, in which the driver’s commanded input and the controller’s desired input are balanced with a weighted summation. Thereafter, we propose a predictive model to capture driver adaptation and trust in indirect shared control.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2097
Josh Elrod
Installation of collars and nuts onto interference-fit bolts requires complex anvil hardware on the wet side of the spar or wing panel. Many Electroimpact machines are capable of automatically changing riveting and bolting anvils, but operator involvement is required to connect fastener feed equipment. This is unacceptable in a lights-out cell, but is difficult to eliminate. That’s because the nut and collar anvils must be able to rotate with the machine C axis, which rotates about the Z axis. This means that rotation capability must also be built into the fastener feed system. Newly installed lights-out cell machines are equipped with a “Spinner” assembly which rotates with the machine C axis. The Spinner consists of an individual feed path for each size and type of fastener to be fed rotating inside of a stationary annulus. Air is blown into two points in each Spinner path to convey the fasteners along the inner diameter of the annulus.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2073
Rick Calawa
The decision to completely replace a successful automated production system at the heart of a high volume aircraft factory does not come easily. A point is reached when upgrades and retrofits are insufficient to meet increasing capacity demands and additional floor space is simply unavailable. The goals of this project were to greatly increase production volume, reduce floor space, improve the build process, and smooth factory flow without disrupting today’s manufacturing. Two decades of lessons learned were leveraged along with advancements in the aircraft assembly industry, modern machine control technologies, and maturing safety standards to justify the risk and expense of a ground-up redesign. This paper will describe how an automated wing spar fastening system that has performed well for 20 years is analyzed and ultimately replaced without disturbing the high manufacturing rate of a single aisle commercial aircraft program.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2085
Sergey Lupuleac, Nadezhda Zaitseva, Margarita Petukhova, Julia Shinder, Sergey Berezin, Valeriia Khashba, Elodie Bonhomme
The paper is devoted to simulation of A320 wing assembly on the base of numerical experiments carried out with the help of ASRP software [1]. The main goal is to find fasteners’ configuration with minimal number of fastening elements that provides closing of admissible initial gaps. However, for considered junction type initial gap field is not known a priori though it should be provided as input data for computations. In order to resolve this problem the methodology of random initial gap generation based on available results of gap measurements is developed along with algorithms for optimization of fasteners' configuration on generated initial gaps. Presented paper illustrates how this methodology allows optimizing assembly process for A320 wing. 1. Lupuleac, S., Petukhova, M., Shinder, J., Smirnov, A. et al., "Software Complex for Simulation of Riveting Process: Concept and Applications," SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-2090, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-2090.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2148
Ho-Sung Lee
This study presents some of current works in manufacturing launcher structural components with solid state welding and superplastic forming technology. The adoption of superplastic characteristics into manufacturing process makes many of aerospace components lighter and stiffer, since aerospace vehicle requires lightweight structures to obtain weight saving for increasing payloads and fuel efficiency. Some of titanium alloys, aluminum alloys and super alloys are typical examples of superplastic materials that have been used to produce complex shapes of aerospace components. The optimum strain rate sensitivity and strain rate range were obtained from biaxial bulging test and this parameters were used to manufacture the components with superplastic blow forming using hydrostatic gas pressure difference.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2099
Peter B. Zieve, Troy Gray, Christopher Wright
Electroimpact has retrofit two E4100 riveting gantry machines and two more are in process. These machines use the EMR riveting process for the installation of slug rivets. We have improved the skin side EMR to provide fast and reliable results. In paper 2015-01-2515 we showed the slug rivet injector using a Synchronized Parallel Gripper that provides good results over multiple rivet diameters. This injector is mounted to the skin side EMR so that the rivet injection can be done at any position of the shuttle table. The EMR is a challenging application for the fingers due to shock and vibration. In previous designs fingers would occasionally be thrown out of the slots. To provide reliable results we redesigned the fingers retainer to capture the finger in a slotted plastic block which slides along the outside diameter of the driver bearing. The various size fingers are pinned to the block in such a fashion as to allow rotation and clamping on the rivet.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2074
Thorsten Dillhoefer
Ever increasing process applications inspire us, as suppliers of aircraft, structural-assembly, and equipment to design innovative and modular, manufacturing cells in compliance with modern specifications. The result is the new flexible C-Frame Panel Assembly Cell (CPAC) Bulkhead riveting System. This paper describes how benchmarks for flexible automated drilling and fastening are being achieved with the CPAC.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2072
Yilian Zhang, Qingzhen Bi, Nuodi Huang, Long Yu, Yuhan Wang
Interference-fit riveting is a critical fastening technique in the field of aerospace assembly. The fatigue and sealing performance of the rivet joint are determined by the interference-fit level of the rivet joint. As a result, it is of great importance to measure the interference-fit level accurately and effectively. Conventional interference-fit level measurement methods can be divided into direct measurement (destructive test on test-piece) and indirect measurement (off-line dimensional measurement of upset rivet head). Both methods cannot be utilized in automatic riveting. In this paper, an on-line non-destructive measurement method is developed to measure the interference-fit level. By taking full advantage of servo-driving riveting integrated with force measurement, the force-deformation data of the deformed rivet can be obtained in real time. The recognized feature points from the force-deformation data can reflect the height of the upset rivet head.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2076
Dave Cobcroft
Paper Title: IPAC 180 Author: Thorsten Dillhoefer, Broetje-Automation GmbH Mailing Address: Broetje-Automation GmbH Am Autobahnkreuz 14 26180 Rastede Germany Phone: +49 (0) 4402 966-300 Fax: +49 (0) 4402 966-289 E-Mail: Thorsten.dillhoefer@broetje-automation.de Paper Content: To increase the accessibility and maintainability of our well known IPAC automation concept, we have designed a new version of this time proven system for 180 degree super panel assemblies. This new design includes also an innovative “T” lower ram configuration, high speed positioning, innovative operator interfaces, as well as an optimized platform concept to reduce the maintenance and set up of the machine thereby increasing overall throughput.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2075
Burton Bigoney, Nicholas Huddleston
Electroimpact and Lockheed Martin have developed an automated drilling and fastening system for C-130J aft fuselage panels. Numerous design and manufacturing challenges were addressed to incorporate the system into Lockheed Martin’s existing manufacturing paradigm and to adapt Electroimpact’s existing line of riveting machines for manufacture of these legacy aircraft parts. Challenges to automation included design of a very long yet sufficiently rigid and lightweight offset riveting anvil for fastening around deep circumferential frames, automated feeding of very short, “square” rivets in which the length is similar to the head diameter, creation of part programs and simulation models for legacy parts with no existing 3d manufacturing data, and crash protection for the aircraft part from machine collisions, given the uncertainties inherent in the model and the unique geometry of the aircraft parts.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2077
John McClelland, Michael Morgan, Caroline McClory, Colm Higgins, Rory Collins, Adrian Murphy, Yan Jin
The need to drill several million holes per aircraft through composite and hybrid material stacks is a large challenge for the aerospace assembly process. The ability to produce high quality holes for the lowest tooling costs is at the forefront of requirements for aircraft assembly factories worldwide. Consequently, much research has been conducted into tool design and development, however, the effect of drilling platform characteristics has not been well covered in literature. Respectively, this research has compared the drilling abilities of a 5-axis precision CNC platform, a hybrid parallel kinematic machine and an articulated robotic arm fitted with a drilling module. In-process force measurement and post process hole and tool analysis methods were used to better understand the effect of static and dynamic platform characteristics on the achievable hole quality, cycle time and tool wear when drilling aerospace metal alloy stacks.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2078
Eric Barton, Rick Wolf
The focus of this technical paper is a unique automatic fastening system configuration for loading, positioning & unloading pre-tacked door assemblies within a static C-Frame Drivmatic fastening machine using an off-the-shelf, high accuracy Fanuc robot. In 2011, PMC was awarded a significant contract for supplying commercial OEM aircraft doors and recognized automation was the most feasible approach for fastening each door assembly. At the time of contract award, PMC was an established aero structure supplier with significant automation capability for machining high tolerance parts & assemblies and manual fastening resources to support many different OEM programs however PMC did not have automatic fastening experience or capability. In support of this new Tier-2 contract, PMC reached out to Gemcor to propose a collaborative robot solution for automatically fastening 5 different door assemblies that were historically fastened using a semi-automatic configuration.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2084
Karl-Erik Neumann
True Mobile/Portable Drilling & Machining, a Paradigm Shift in Manufacturing The evolving Aerospace manufacturing environment has created challenges that until now, are not achievable with standard machine tools, large monumental gantry style machines, robots or even manually. The solution is a lightweight, portable, modular, mobile solution capable of machining to high tolerances, with minimal time and effort to relocate to a different area, and capable of machining a different part, or be reconfigured to machine in a different orientation…….at an affordable price. With the carbon fiber PKM mounted on the flexible mobile manufacturing stand, the module can be simply relocated using a standard fork lift to any area of the factory. The module can also be easily removed from the mobile platform and mounted in a desired location, in any orientation. It can also can be disassembled into modules, and reconstructed in an area, that is not typically accessible by machines or robots.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2087
Peter Mueller-Hummel, Alex Hjorten
This article characterizes the special features of machining composites in comparison to machining metal. Simplified theoretic models will demonstrate how CFRP should be machined without delamination, burn marks and cutting tool breakages. Different strategies can be chosen depending on the material removal rate. The paper will present, based on this analytical approach, how a drill should be designed in order to avoid the entrance, inner and exit delamination. While entrance and exit delamination is well understood, the paper will focus more to the delamination inside the bore. The appearance and the avoidance of the so called "Volcano Effect" and the reason why holes in composite becomes smaller after a couple of days will be explained. The comparison between 4 different cutting tool technologies will prove and give a better understanding how to use this theoretical approach.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2088
Long Yu, Qingzhen Bi PhD, Yilian Zhang, Yuhan Wang
A novel normal measurement device for robotic drilling and countersinking has been developed in this paper. This device is mainly composed of three contact displacement sensors and a spherically compliant clamp pad. The compliance of the clamp pad allows it to be perpendicular to the part when the Multi-Function End Effector (MFEE) drives it to clamp the part surface prior to drilling, while the displacement sensors are used to measure the movement of the clamp pad relative to the MFEE. Once the sensors’ position is calibrated, the rotation angle of the clamp pad can be calculated by the displacement of the sensors. Then, the normal adjustment of MFEE is obtained, and the adjustment process can be achieved by the Tool Center Point (TCP) function of robot. Thus, an innovative method based on laser tracker to identify the position of sensors is proposed.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2017
Catherine Ninah, Brian Strevens, Cole Barcia, Isabelle Labbe, Michael Frenna, Austin Faulconer, Keon Habbaba, Katherine Loundy, Louis Schaefer, Alexa Frost, Andrew Foran, Robert Brown, Luis Rabelo
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is preparing for a manned mission to Mars to test the sustainability of civilization on the planet Mars. Our research explores the requirements and feasibility of autonomously producing fuel on Mars for a return trip back to Earth. As a part of NASA’s initiative for a manned trip to Mars, our team’s work creates and analyzes the allocation of resources necessary in deploying a fuel station on this foreign soil. Previous research has addressed concerns with a number individual components of this mission such as power required for fuel station and tools; however, the interactions between these components and the effects they would have on the overall requirements for the fuel station are still a mystery to NASA. By creating a baseline discrete-event simulation model in a simulation software called Simio, the research team has been able to replicate the fuel production process on Mars.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2098
Didier Friot, Loic Meiffre, Christophe Vandaele
With air traffic demand constantly increasing and several years of aircraft production in backlog, major Aircraft manufacturers are now shifting focus to improving assembly process efficiency. One of the most promising solutions, known as “One Side Assembly”, aims to perform the whole assembly sequence from one side of the structure (drilling, temporary fastener installation and removal, blind fastener installation, assembly control) and with high level of integrated automation. A one-sided, or blind, fastener that is capable of matching the performance of current two sided structural fasteners while meeting volume and cost objectives can be a major driver for assembly process efficiency improvements. To achieve a blind fastener assembly capable of both fully automated and manual installations while providing robust cycle times and assembly cost reductions is full of challenges.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2100
Carter L. Boad
A fully automated off-line cartridge filling station has been commissioned to support the new Boeing SAL production cell. The filing station uses automated fastener feed technology that is typically found on the machines themselves. Incorporating this technology off-line in place of the traditional manual handling processes extends the benefits of automation beyond the main manufacturing cell. A single operator is able to keep up with the demand of eight production fastening machines while maintaining the highest levels of accuracy and quality. Additional benefits to this application of automation include reduction of the operators exposure to risks associated with manual handling and repetitive tasks.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2022
Katherine Loundy, Louis Schaefer, Andrew Foran, Catherine Ninah, Khristopher Bandong, Robert Brown, Hunter Heston, John-Paul Steed, William Young, Mark Heinrich, Luis Rabelo
The future of human exploration in the solar system is contingent on the ability to exploit resources in-situ to produce mission consumables. Specifically, it has become clear that the success of a manned mission to Mars will likely depend on fuel components created on the Martian surface. While several architectures for an un-manned fuel production surface facility on Mars exist in theory, a simulation of the performance and operation of these architectures has not been created. In this paper, the framework describing a simulation of one such architecture is defined. Within this architecture, each component of the base is implemented as a state machine, with the ability to communicate with other base elements as well as a supervisor. An environment supervisor is also created which governs low level aspects of the simulation such as movement and resource distribution, in addition to higher-level aspects such as location selection with respect to operations specific behavior.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2082
Nirosh Jayaweera, Asitha Kulasekera, Posindu Maduranga, Thilina Kasun, Prabodh Seekkuarachchi, Janaka Sampath
Many components used in the aerospace industry are complex shaped, without symmetric axes and parallel surfaces. Fabricating and repairing these components often require fixturing system to support manufacturing processes such as drilling, surface finishing, inspections and assembly. Currently available fixturing systems can be divided into dedicated and flexible fixtures. Among these, the flexible fixtures are suitable for rapidly changing fabricating processes and handling several complex shaped components using same fixturing system. Background research suggested that the pin type fixturing system is the predominant design used in such applications to fix complex shaped components. In pin type fixturing systems, force is applied to a single point of contact. This increases the pressure applied to the work piece and possibility of damaging these components. Further, conventional pins use rigid designs, which cannot adapt to the shape of the work piece.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2081
Richard Kasler, Agata Suwala, Ashwin Gomes
One way assembly of aero structures has the potential to significantly reduce build times. One of the solutions which goes towards achieving this philosophy is the use of a ‘C' clamping automated drilling system. The Manufacturing Technology Centre has developed, manufactured and tested a ‘C' clamping automated drilling unit to overcome many of the limitations of current designs which prevent their use on a broader range of structures. The drilling unit addresses issues with inter-stack burrs, access, size and the weight restrictions as well as economic factors. The technical paper will present the outcomes from the design and manufacture of the drilling unit that is to be used within restricted access areas as either a hand held device or as a robotic end effector, free from any cables or hoses, allowing full and unhindered articulation of any robot motion.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2080
James Merluzzi, Isaac Bahr
Manually changing stringer-side tooling on an automatic fastening machine is time consuming and can be susceptible to human error. Stringer-side tools can also be physically difficult to manage because of their weight, negatively impacting the experience and safety of the machine operator. A solution to these problems has recently been developed by Electroimpact for use with its new Fuselage Skin Splice Fastening Machine. The Automatic Tool Changer makes use of a mechanically passive gripper system capable of securely holding and maneuvering twelve tools weighing 40 pounds each inside of a space-saving enclosure. The Automatic Tool Changer is mounted directly to the stringer side fastening head, meaning the machine is capable of changing tools relatively quickly while maintaining its position on the aircraft panel with no machine operator involvement.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2094
Tyler Everhart
Abstract Electroimpact, in collaboration with Boeing, has developed an advanced robotic assembly cell, dubbed “The Quadbots.” Using Electroimpact’s patented Accurate Robot technology and multi-function end effector (MFEE), each robot can drill, countersink, inspect hole quality, apply sealant, and insert fasteners into the part. The cell consists of 4 identical machines simultaneously working on a single section of the Boeing 787 fuselage, two on the left, and two on the right. These machines employ “collision avoidance” a new feature in their software to help them work more synchronously. The collision avoidance software uses positional feedback from external safety rated encoders mounted to the motors on the robot. From this feedback, safe spaces, in the form of virtual boundaries can be created. Such that a robot will stop and wait if the adjacent robot is in, or going to move into its programmed work envelope.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2095
Timothy Jackson
Abstract The advent of accuracy improvement methods in robotic arm manipulators have allowed these systems to penetrate applications previously reserved for larger, robustly supported machine architectures. A benefit of the relative reduced size of serial-link robotic systems is the potential for their mobilization throughout a manufacturing environment. However, the mobility of a system offers unique challenges in maintaining the high-accuracy requirement of many applications, particularly in aerospace manufacturing. Discussed herein are several aspects of mechanical design, control, and accuracy calibration required to retain accurate motion over large volumes when utilizing mobile articulated robotic systems. A number of mobile robot system architectures and their measured static accuracy performance are provided in support of the particular methods discussed.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2096
Rainer Mueller, Matthias Vette, Aaron Geenen, Tobias Masiak
Abstract Assembly processes in aircraft production are difficult to automate due to technical risks. Examples of such technical challenges include small batch sizes and large product dimensions as well as limited work space for complex joining processes and organization of the assembly tasks. A fully automated system can be expensive and requires a large amount of programming knowledge. For these reasons, ZeMA believes a semi-automated approach is the most effective means of success for optimizing aircraft production. Many methods can be considered semi automation, one of which is Human-Robot-Collaboration. ZeMA will use the example of a riveting process to measure the advantages of Human-Robot-Collaboration systems in aircraft structure assembly. In the assembly of the aircraft aft section the pressure bulkhead is mounted with a barrel section using hundreds of rivets. This assembly process is a non-ergonomic and burdensome task in which two humans must work cooperatively.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2149
Cameron S. Gillespie
As carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) become integrated more and more into the design of aircraft structures, aircraft manufacturers are demanding higher speed and efficiency CFRP deposition systems. To facilitate the manufacture of large surface area and low contour parts (wing skins, in this case) at a high production rate, Electroimpact has developed a new Automated Fiber Placement (AFP) end effector consisting of twenty 1.5” wide pre-preg carbon tows. The new head design has been named the ‘OH20’, short for ‘One and a Half Inch, 20 Tows’. This AFP head format creates a deposition swath over 30 inches wide when all 20 tows are active. Two of these AFP end effectors have been integrated with a quick change robotic tool changer on a high speed, high acceleration, and accurate moving beam gantry. All end effector loading, maintenance, and cleaning can be accomplished in a maintenance cell while the other AFP head is in use depositing CFRP in the part cell.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2150
Joshua Cemenska, Todd Rudberg, Michael Henscheid, Andrew Lauletta, Bradley Davis
In AFP manufacturing systems a large portion of total production time is consumed by inspection. The aerospace industry is responding to this inefficiency by focusing on the development of automated inspection systems. The first generation of automated inspection systems are now entering production. This paper reviews the performance of the first generation system and discusses reasonable expectations. Estimates of automated inspection time will be made, and it will be shown that the automated solution enables a detailed statistical analysis of manufactured part quality and provides the data necessary for statistical process control. Expectations will be set for the accuracy for both ply boundary and lap/gap measurements. The time and resource cost of development and integration will also be discussed.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 9002