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Viewing 1 to 30 of 8429
2015-05-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9083
Salah A. Elmoselhy
In order to strike a balance between cost and availability, the present study presents the strategic implementation of the hybrid lean-agile manufacturing system. The proposed implementation is based on literature review and statistical analysis. The study presents short term and long term proposed plans for implementing this newly developed system in a sustainable way. It shows how the strategic facet of the hybrid lean-agile manufacturing system addresses the key manufacturing competitive dimensions. The paper presents as well a cost-benefit analysis in comparison with the lean manufacturing system and agile manufacturing system based on the net present value. The study shows that the expectedly most efficient among the manufacturing systems is the Hybrid Lean-Agile Manufacturing System with normalized comparative improvement of about 58% and 42%, respectively.
2015-05-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9082
Branislav Sredanovic, Djordje Cica
Abstract The most efficient way to reduce friction and heat generation at the cutting zone is to use advanced cooling and lubricating techniques. In this paper, an experimental study was performed to investigate the capabilities of conventional, minimal quantity lubrication (MQL) and high pressure cooling (HPC) in the turning operations. Process parameters (feed, cutting speed and depth of cut) are used as inputs to the developed artificial neural network (ANN) and the adaptive networks based fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) model for prediction of cutting forces, tool life and surface roughness. Results obtained by the models have been compared for their prediction capability with the experimentally determined values and very good agreement with experimental results was observed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1313
Donald Jasurda
Abstract The effects of thermal expansion and gravity on assembly processes in automotive manufacturing can and often do cause unexpected variation. Not only do these effects cause assembly issues, they can also create non-conformance and warranty problems later in the product lifecycle. Using 3D CAD models, advances in simulation allow engineers to design out these influences through a combination of tooling, process and tolerance changes to reduce costs. This whitepaper examines the process of simulating the effect of both thermal expansion and gravity on automotive structures. Using real life examples, a number of solutions were determined and tested in a simulated environment to reduce product variation and account for unavoidable environmental variation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0715
Terry Lynn Chapin, Van Thomas Walworth
Abstract Balancing the fill sequence of multiple cavities in a rubber injection mold is desirable for efficient cure rates, optimized cure times, and consistent quality of all molded parts. The reality is that most rubber injection molds do not provide a consistent uniform balanced fill sequence for all the cavities in the mold - even if the runner and cavity layout is geometrically balanced. A new runner design technique, named “The Vanturi Effect”, is disclosed to help address the inherent deficiencies of traditional runner and cavity layouts in order to achieve a more balanced fill sequence. Comparative analysis of molded runner samples reveals a significant and positive improvement in runner and cavity fill balancing when the Vanturi Effect is integrated into the runner design.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0497
Monika Filiposka, Ana M. Djuric, Waguih ElMaraghy
Abstract Gantry robots are mainly employed for applications requiring large workspace, with limited higher manipulability in one direction than the others. The Gantries offer very good mechanical stiffness and constant positioning accuracy, but low dexterity. Common gantries are CNC machines with three translational joints XYZ (3DOF) and usually with an attached wrist (+3DOF). The translational joints are used to move the tool in any position in the 3D workspace. The wrist is used to orient the tool by rotation about X, Y and Z axis. This standard kinematic structure (3T3R) produces a rectangular workspace. In this paper a full kinematic model for a 6DOF general CNC (gantry) machine is presented, along with the Jacobian matrix and singularity analysis. Using Denavit-Hartenberg convention, firstly, the general kinematic structure is presented, in order to assign frames at each link. The forward kinematic problem is solved using Maple 17 software.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0499
Nagarjun Jawahar, Sangamitra Manoharan, Harish Chandran
Abstract Material energy and cost minimization has been the need of the hour off late. The work aims at designing a micro gripping device which has suitable application in bio medical industry; specifically surgical operation of comminuted fracture using CAE software. Being a combination of an inverter and a clip, the ability of the compliant mechanism to be used as a gripper as well as positioner constitutes its rare versatility. The compliant mechanisms are single-piece structures, having no backlash as in case of rigid-body, jointed mechanisms and comparatively cheaper to manufacture. Designed in MATLAB R2008a using the concept of topological optimization, modeled in AutoCAD Mechanical 2011 and analyzed in ANSYS Workbench 13.0; the mechanism is initially designed with a geometrical advantage of 2. The MATLAB code which is an improvement of the 99 line code written by O.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0506
Toshiyuki Kondo, Shinichiro Watanabe, Nobuhiro Nanba
Abstract Today, conventional requests for automation and modern requests for flexibility in handling product diversity and changes in production volume regarding assembly operation are increasing. In order to satisfy those, the “Innovative Automation Cell” (Refer to Figure 1) has been proposed as an innovative assembly production system in lieu of an assembly line operation, which has been continuing with the use of automatic conveyance. Furthermore, technical developments were implemented, such as “Real-time Position Attitude Correction Technology” and “High-speed Emergency Recovery System”, as well as “Assembly Operation Support System”, to make an easy system for an operator, so as to minimize reduction of run rate in mass production practices. This article addresses the concept of the “Innovative Automation Cell”, the details of the developed technology, the effects of introduction to mass production, and future issues.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0505
Miguel Angel Reyes Belmonte, Colin D. Copeland, Drummond Hislop, George Hopkins, Adrian Schmieder, Scott Bredda, Sam Akehurst
Abstract Pressure and temperature levels within a modern internal combustion engine cylinder have been pushing to the limits of traditional materials and design. These operative conditions are due to the stringent emission and fuel economy standards that are forcing automotive engineers to develop engines with much higher power densities. Thus, downsized, turbocharged engines are an important technology to meet the future demands on transport efficiency. It is well known that within downsized turbocharged gasoline engines, thermal management becomes a vital issue for durability and combustion stability. In order to contribute to the understanding of engine thermal management, a conjugate heat transfer analysis of a downsized gasoline piston engine has been performed. The intent was to study the design possibilities afforded by the use of the Selective Laser Melting (SLM) additive manufacturing process.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0507
Taro Nakamura
Abstract During the planning of Honda's new plant in Ogawa Japan, which is the new benchmark for developed countries power train plants, there was a project requirement established for a significant reduction in initial investment. In order to improve the competitive edge of module machines, which is the foundation of Honda's existing powertrain machining lines, Honda targeted a reduction in the number of module machines through concurrent machining of multiple workpieces, and minimization of transfer time. By developing exclusive jigs for cylinder heads and blocks, this project was able to meet the original project reduction requirements. In addition, Honda was able to shorten the loading and unloading times of a module machine by developing an exclusive transfer machine specifically for cylinder heads.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0582
Deepak Ranjan Bhuyan, Sreekanth Netapalli, Sathya Dev, Soundarya Srinivasan
Abstract Springback prediction for stamped components is a challenging task for Automotive Industry. Automotive Manufacturers are working to reduce the springback effect of sheet metal stampings caused due to elastic behavior of materials with the help of changes to manufacturing process and part geometry. Recent development in Finite Element Analysis (FEA) studies made it possible for the industry to rely on stamping simulation. There is always a gap between the springback predicted from stamping simulation and the actual stamped part. Currently FEA techniques are trying to close this gap. The objective of this study is to minimize this gap using DFSS method for predicting the springback and optimizing the simulation parameters with the help of LS-Dyna FEM tool. The behavior of material with different simulation parameters has been studied in this paper and the ones that best correlate with actual data are identified.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0551
Qiuren Chen, Haiding Guo, John V. Lasecki, John Hill, Xuming Su, John J. Bonnen
Abstract The fatigue strength and failure behavior of A5754-O adhesively bonded single lap joints by a hot-curing epoxy adhesive were investigated in this paper. The single lap joints tested include balanced substrate joints (meaning same thickness) and unbalanced substrate joints, involving combinations of different substrate thicknesses. Cyclic fatigue test results show that the fatigue strength of bonded joints increase with the increasing substrate thickness. SEM and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) were employed to investigate the failure mode of the joints. Two fatigue failure modes, substrate failure and failure within the adhesive were found in the testing. The failure mode of the joint changes from cohesive failure to substrate failure as the axial load is decreased, which reveals a fatigue resistance competition between the adhesive layer and the aluminum substrate.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0545
Jeong Kyun Hong
Abstract As the automotive industry seeks to remove weight from vehicle chasses to meet increased fuel economy standards, it is increasingly turning to composites and aluminum. In spite of increasing demands for quality aluminum alloy spot welds that enable more fuel efficient automobiles, fatigue evaluation procedures for such welds are not well-established. This article discusses the results of an evaluation Battelle performed of the fatigue characteristics of aluminum alloy spot welds based on experimental data and observations from the literature. In comparison with spot welds in steel alloys, aluminum alloy spot welds exhibit several significant differences including a different hardness distribution at and around the weld, different fatigue failure modes, and more. The effectiveness and applicability of the Battelle structural stress-based simplified procedure for modeling and simulating automotive spot welds has previously been demonstrated by Battelle investigations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1371
Samuel T. Bartlett
Abstract With the many model variations produced on the same production line because of increasing power train options, fuel efficiency targets, performance and customer demands we saw limitations with our existing suspension mount equipment. Layout options were limited due to guided shifts and transfers. Large supporting frame work took up valuable floor space. Model wheelbase sizes and suspension pallets were limited to the model requirements of the original equipment. We needed an adaptable system to install the engine/front suspension assemblies and the rear suspension assemblies. We found a solution by utilizing the capabilities of 6-axis industrial robots to make the core components of the equipment simpler; many of the functions of a traditional machine can now be accomplished by the robot. We were able to vary install position to optimize handling characteristics and accommodate the model-to-model varieties on the same production line.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1297
Harveer Singh Pali, Naveen Kumar, Yahaya Alhassan, Amar Deep
Abstract Biodiesel production has been getting global awareness since Petroleum prices are escalating continuously. As biodiesel is gaining considerable demand, standards are vital for its commercialization and market introduction. Feedstocks availability has posed serious challenges, thus the need for non-edible and unexplored feedstocks has risen. In Indian context, Biodiesel is produced using sal seed oil which is potentially available in Indian forest as a non-edible feedstock. The present paper deals with the production optimization using design of experiments and fuel property characterization of Sal biodiesel (sal methyl esters). Transesterification process parameters like catalyst concentration (% w/w), Oil to Methanol molar ratio, reaction time (min) and reaction temperature (°C) were considered the significance factors and the response was taken as the Yield (% w/w). Experiment matrix with several combinations of factors was generated.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1723
Dieter Gabriel, Thomas Hettich
Abstract Fuel economy legislation is requiring further improvements to piston friction reduction as well as additional gains in thermal efficiency. A piston material change from aluminum to steel is enabling advancements in both demands. Furthermore, steel material properties lead to increased piston strength, robustness and durability. All this can be achieved at a lower compression height compared to an aluminum reference piston. Therefore, piston mass can be reduced despite the increase in material density. Since steel pistons require cooling of the combustion bowl region and the ring belt just like the aluminum counterpart, MAHLE implemented a new innovative metal joining technology by using laser welding to generate a cooling gallery. The TopWeld® concept offers design flexibility which cannot be matched by any other welding process.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1725
Gerhard Konrad Flores
Abstract The use of form honing contributes to energy efficiency of modern internal combustion engines, especially to the reduction of CO2. Until now the production of internal combustion engines has required cylindrical bores with high shape and surface quality. This machined macro form is not maintained for the function of the engine due to mechanical and thermal influences. During operation they cause complex distortion mechanisms which significantly deviate from the desired cylinder form. Therefore Gehring developed a form honing process that does not produce the cylindrical bore form as its goal, but gives instead the expected cylindrical deformations having the quasi cylindrical bore geometries under specific operational conditions. Furthermore the current development of form honing considers the friction of the piston skirt of the cylinder operation temperature with specific clearance in the lower part of the bore.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1612
Wei Liu, Gangfeng Tan, Jiafan Li, Xin Li, Fuzhao Mou, Yongqiang Ge
Abstract The hydraulic retarder is a significant auxiliary braking device [1] for the heavy duty vehicle. Traditionally, cooling circulatory system of the hydraulic retarder was coupled with the engine cooling system [2], and the thermal energy of the transmission medium would be cooled by the engine radiator ultimately. For this scheme, radiator's spare heat removal capacity could be fully utilized whereas the cooling system is very complicated and is hard to maintain. Furthermore, the corresponding of thermal management system lags behind the power change of the retarder. In this research, integrated cooling evaporation system is developed for the hydraulic retarder, which makes the cooling water contact with the transmission medium through the stator wall, so that it can rapidly response to the thermal variation of the retarder, keep the stability of the oil temperature and meanwhile reduce the risk of cooling medium leakage.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0459
Vesna Savic, Louis Hector, Hesham Ezzat, Anil Sachdev, James Quinn, Ronald Krupitzer, Xin Sun
Abstract This paper presents an overview of a four-year project focused on development of an integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) toolset for third generation advanced high-strength steels (3GAHSS). Following a brief look at ICME as an emerging discipline within the Materials Genome Initiative, technical tasks in the ICME project will be discussed. Specific aims of the individual tasks are multi-scale, microstructure-based material model development using state-of-the-art computational and experimental techniques, forming, toolset assembly, design optimization, integration and technical cost modeling. The integrated approach is initially illustrated using a 980MPa grade transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel, subject to a two-step quenching and partitioning (Q&P) heat treatment, as an example.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0475
Truong Nguyen, John Bell
Abstract Modern automotive electrical and electronic architecture is comprised of the battery and charging system, power distribution boxes, electronic control units, electrical devices, grounds, and the means of connecting all of these together - the wire harness or Electrical Distribution System (EDS). As automotive electrical content and complexity increases, it becomes imperative to optimize the weight, size, cost, and manufacturability of a vehicle [1]. In terms of an EDS, the most potential gain can be realized if the EDS supplier and vehicle Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) work together during the advanced electrical & electronic architecture development and packaging design process. Traditionally, the electrical content, harness partitioning, and packaging locations are designed by the vehicle OEM with limited advanced input from the EDS supplier.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0524
Maniraj Perumal, Baskar Anthonysamy, Ashokkumar Sundaramoorthy
This method and its special process are particularly suited for the production of Porous free combustion chamber prototype aluminium cylinder head casting. Current methods for producing porous free combustion chamber are graphite coating and CI/Cu metal chill which are moderately effective in achieving porous free combustion chamber. However, these current methods have serious drawbacks like high rejections due to blow holes/gas porosity generated from graphite coating and fine porosity due to prolonged cooling because of slow rate of cooling while peak temperature of metal chills. The present work shows how this goal can be achieved in cylinder head casting of single cylinder high speed engine. Fundamental micro structural investigations are shown as well as the results of tensile tests, high temperature strength, corrosion behavior and static and dynamic component testing.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0737
Sadegh Poozesh, Nelson Akafuah, Kozo Saito
Abstract Lack of a precise control over paint droplets released from current coating sprayers has motivated this study to develop an atomizer capable of generating a uniform flow of mono-dispersed droplets. In the current study, a numerical investigation based on CFD incorporating volume of fluid (VOF) multiphase model has been developed to capture the interface between air and paint phases for a typical atomizer equipped with piezoelectric actuator. Effects of inlet flow rate and actuator frequency on ejected droplets' characteristics, droplet diameter and their successive spacing are studied in detail. It will be shown that for a determined flow rate of paint, there is an optimum actuator frequency in which droplet size is minimum. Besides, there exists a direct relationship between the inlet paint velocity and obtained optimal actuator frequency.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1736
Justin Cartwright, Ahmet Selamet, Robert Wade, Keith Miazgowicz, Clayton Sloss
Abstract The heat rejection rates and skin temperatures of a liquid cooled exhaust manifold on a 3.5 L Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) engine are determined experimentally using an external cooling circuit, which is capable of controlling the manifold coolant inlet temperature, outlet pressure, and flow rate. The manifold is equipped with a jacket that surrounds the collector region and is cooled with an aqueous solution of ethylene-glycol-based antifreeze to reduce skin temperatures. Results were obtained by sweeping the manifold coolant flow rate from 2.0 to 0.2 gpm at 12 different engine operating points of increasing brake power up to 220 hp. The nominal coolant inlet temperature and outlet pressure were 85 °C and 13 psig, respectively. Data were collected under steady conditions and time averaged. For the majority of operating conditions, the manifold heat rejection rate is shown to be relatively insensitive to changes in manifold coolant flow rate.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0238
Nick Smith
Abstract Manufacturing companies are benefiting from technology in most key areas of the flow from design through manufacture. This applies to the wire harness industry which is a key element of the modern automotive industry. Wire harness manufacturing engineering, however, is a critical path function that is under severe pressure and yet has been under-served by technology. In some respects it has become the weak link in the chain. Recent innovations in commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) technology are set to change this situation. Software applications are now available to deliver transformational manufacturing engineering automation as well as being able to integrate with technology in other areas of the process. This will enable a digitally continuous data flow that can remove excessive cost, time, and pressure - while helping manufacturers meet the increasing demands of the industry.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0705
Koichi Taniguchi, Hiroshi Matsuda, Rinsei Ikeda, Kenji Oi
Abstract We have developed a new resistance spot welding process with “pulsed current pattern”, which consists of short-time high-current post-heating and short-time cooling to improve joint strength of ultra high strength steel (UHSS) sheets with a tensile strength over 980MPa. The high-current post-heating reheats the heat affected zone (HAZ) near the electrodes and that near the sheet-sheet interface rather than the center of the nugget, and this pulsed current pattern utilizes this procedure to improve the toughness of the nugget. In the case of 980MPa grade steel with a 1.6mm thickness, the pulsed current pattern improved cross tension strength (CTS) from 7.2kN to over 10kN and its failure mode from interface failure to plug failure.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0318
Sonu Thomas, Krishnan Kutty, Vinuchackravarthy Senthamilarasu
Abstract Dense depth estimation is a critical application in the field of robotics and machine vision where the depth perception is essential. Unlike traditional approaches which use expensive sensors such as LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) devices or stereo camera setup, the proposed approach for depth estimation uses a single camera mounted on a rotating platform. This proposed setup is an effective replacement to usage of multiple cameras, which provide around view information required for some operations in the domain of autonomous vehicles and robots. Dense depth estimation of local scene is performed using the proposed setup. This is a novel, however challenging task because baseline distance between camera positions inversely affect common regions between images. The proposed work involves dense two view reconstruction and depth map merging to obtain a reliable large dense depth map.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0701
Anupam Vivek, Bert Liu, Daniel Sakkinen, Mark Harris, Glenn Daehn
Abstract Vaporizing Foil Actuators (VFA) are based on the phenomenon of rapid vaporization of thin metallic foils and wires, caused by passage of a capacitor bank driven current on the order of 100 kA. The burst of the conductor is accompanied with a high-pressure pulse, which can be used for working metal at high strain rates. This paper focuses on the use of VFA for collision welding of dissimilar metals, in particular, aluminum and steel. Aluminum alloy 6061 sheets of 1 mm thickness were launched to velocities in excess of 650 m/s with input electrical energy of 8 kJ into 0.0762 mm thick, dog-bone shaped aluminum foil actuators. Target sheets made from dual phase steel (DP780) were impacted with the aluminum flyer sheet, and solid state impact welds were created. During mechanical testing, many samples failed outside the weld area, thereby indicating that the weld was stronger than the parent aluminum.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0598
Xiaona Li, Changqing Du, Yongjun Zhou, Xin Xie, Xu Chen, Yaqian Zheng, Thomas Ankofski, Rodrigue Narainen, Cedric Xia, Thomas Stoughton, Lianxiang Yang
Abstract Accurate determination of the forming limit strain of aluminum sheet metal is an important topic which has not been fully solved by industry. Also, the effects of draw beads (enhanced forming limit behaviors), normally reported on steel sheet metals, on aluminum sheet metal is not fully understood. This paper introduces an experimental study on draw bead effects on aluminum sheet metals by measuring the forming limit strain zero (FLD0) of the sheet metal. Two kinds of aluminum, AL 6016-T4 and AL 5754-0, are used. Virgin material, 40% draw bead material and 60% draw bead material conditions are tested for each kind of aluminum. Marciniak punch tests were performed to create a plane strain condition. A dual camera Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system was used to record and measure the deformation distribution history during the punch test. The on-set necking timing is determined directly from surface shape change. The FLD0 of each test situation is reported in this article.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0435
S. Khodaygan, M. Hafezipour
Abstract Kinematic accuracy of the robot end-effector is decreased by many uncertainties. In order to design and manufacture robots with high accuracy, it is essential to know the effects of these uncertainties on the motion of robots. Uncertainty analysis is a useful method which can estimate deviations from desired path in robots caused by uncertainties. This paper presents an applied formulation based on Direct Linearization Method (DLM), for 3D statistical uncertainty analysis of open- loop mechanisms and robots. The maximum normal and parallel components of the position error on the end-effector path are introduced. In this paper, uncertainty effects of both linear and angular variations in performance of spatial open-loop mechanisms and robots are considered.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0514
Sugrib K. Shaha, Frank Czerwinski, Wojciech Kasprzak, Jacob Friedman, Daolun Chen
Abstract The uniaxial compression test was used to assess the influence of strain amount on the behavior of precipitates and texture of the Al-7%Si-1%Cu-0.5%Mg alloy, modified with micro-additions of V, Zr and Ti. As revealed through metallographic examinations, fracturing and re-orientation of the second-phase particles increased with increasing compression strain. However, the intermetallic particles experienced substantially more frequent cracking than the eutectic silicon. The crystallographic texture was measured and correlated with deformation behavior of the alloy. The weak texture of 11<211> and 111<110> components, detected after casting transformed to a mixture of 1<110>, 112<110> and 111<110> components after room-temperature compression deformation. The intensity of the texture components depended on the strain amount. It is concluded that the texture formation in the studied alloy is controlled by the precipitates formed during solidification of the alloy.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0510
Joy Hines Forsmark, Zachary Dowling, Kelsey Gibson, Caroline Mueller, Larry Godlewski, Jacob Zindel, James Boileau
Abstract Magnesium die-cast alloys are known to have a layered microstructure composed of: (1) An outer skin layer characterized by a refined microstructure that is relatively defect-free; and (2) A “core” (interior) layer with a coarser microstructure having a higher concentration of features such as porosity and externally solidified grains (ESGs). Because of the difference in microstructural features, it has been long suggested that removal of the surface layer by machining could result in reduced mechanical properties in tested tensile samples. To examine the influence of the skin layer on the mechanical properties, a series of round tensile bars of varying diameters were die-cast in a specially-designed mold using the AM60 Mg alloy. A select number of the samples were machined to different final diameters. Subsequently, all of the samples (as-cast as well as machined) were tested in tension.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 8429