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Viewing 1 to 30 of 8633
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2091
Raul Cano, Oscar Ibanez de Garayo, Miguel Angel Castillo, Ricardo Marin, Hector Ascorbe, Jose Ramon de los Santos
In the last years, Aeronautical Industry has made a significant effort for the automation of different manufacturing tasks. One of the most important is the drilling process of material stacks prior to the installation of rivets, due the great advantages of progressing from manual to automatic operation. In particular, the robotic drilling for manufacturing medium-size subassemblies allows not only to improve productivity and efficiency of the process, but also to reduce repetitive tasks for the operator, usually performed under poorly ergonomic conditions. For this purpose, some solutions based on industrial robots with highly sensorized end-effectors have been already explored. Nevertheless, these proposals are frequently lack of technological maturity or imply an investment difficult to recover.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2101
Burak Deger, Fazli Melemez, Aykut Kibar lng
A hybrid drilling process of multi material stacks with one shot drilling recently emerge as an economical and time efficient method in aerospace industry. Even though the comprehensive experience and knowledge is available for the cutting parameters of composites and metals alone, significant gap exist for the hybrid drilling parameters. Determination of these parameters such as feed rate, spindle speed and pecking depth has vital importance so as to provide a robust and optimal process to ensure dimensionally high quality, burr and delamination free holes. Main challenge of hybrid drilling operation is to obtain required hole diameter with adequate homogeneity and repeatability. In this study, effect of cutting parameters on dimensional hole quality was investigated. In addition to the hole diameter tolerances, CFRP hole enlargement phenomena which is encountered as a specific drawback of metal-exit stack configurations is also addressed within the scope of this study.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2102
André Baumann
Broetje-Automation has developed a new production organization for the A320neo Pylon assembly. The main goal of this turnkey solution was to reduce the lead time of the assembly phase and the use of lean principles. The assembly line consist of several manual working stations as well as a fully automated drilling cell. The different processes, machines and tools are directly connected to a comprehensive overhead conveyor and a line management system.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2104
Robert Flynn, Kevin Payton-Stewart, Patrick Brewer, Ryan W. Davidge
The customer’s assembly philosophy demanded a fully integrated flexible pulse line for their Final Assembly Line to assemble their new business jets. Major challenges included the material handling system, developing capable positioners and implementing an automated metrology system. Crane based material handling presents certain collision and handover risks and also present a logistics challenge as cranes become overworked. Automated guided vehicles can be used to move large parts such as wings, but the resulting sweep path becomes a major operational limitation. The customer did not like the trade-offs for either of these approaches. A unique lifting system (ATLAS) based on in-floor rails was developed to offer a solution that provides highly controlled, low risk and accurate moves that allow workers and tools to remain in the assembly area.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2114
Matthias Meyer
Carbon composites have been on an odyssey within the past 15 years. Starting on the highest expectations regarding the performance, reality was hitting a lot of programs hard. Carbon composites were introduced on a very high technical level and industry has shown of being capable to handle those processes in general. In particular, production never sleeps and processes undergo a continuous change. Within these changes costs remain the most critical driver. As products are improving during their lifetime, they usually increase the degree of complexity, too. According to the normal cost improvement, this has drastic consequences for production. When setting up the first generation of composite production, the part being produced has been in the centre of attention.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2113
Raphael Reinhold
Resin transfer molding (RTM) is gaining importance as a particularly economical manufacturing method for composites needed in the automotive and aerospace industries. With this method, the component is first shaped with dry fiber reinforcements in a so-called “preforming process” before the mold is placed in a RTM tool, injected with resin and cured. In recent years, Brotje-Automation have been developing innovative product solutions that are specially designed for these preforming processes and suitable for industrial use. For the first time ever, Broetje’s Composite Preforming Cell (CPC) makes large-quantity serial production of complex and near-net-shape preforms for composite components using this RTM process possible. With the additional integration of the patented 3D Composite Handling System Broetje impressively demonstrates its service and product portfolio in the area of innovative composite manufacturing technology and its know-how as a complete system integrator.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2141
Dale J. McDonald
EI was selected to design and build a turnkey outer wing assembly system for the single aisle China 919 (C919) wing factory located near Xi’an China. During the design and development phase for this wing box project, the need to machine flat, three surfaces in aluminum spacers integral to the wing’s flap track mounting structures arose. The three planes would need to be determined according to the CAD nominal and “floating” tooling features for the flap connection fittings. These three interface planes are unique for every airplane build due to the tolerance stacks of the 3 to 4 material plies. Traditionally, small scale portable milling equipment used for this purpose indexed into tooling features for “touch-off” part references.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2078
Torsten Logemann
To bring automation into today’s complex assembly processes of aircraft structures a highly flexible solution is needed. Therefore, Broetje-Automation has developed a mobile robot assembly cell for high accuracy drilling and fastening. The system uses a standard 6 axis articulated arm robot extended with a lifting unit and equipped with special compensation package developed by Broetje Automation. The whole system can be moved either on wheels for longer distance or on air cushions why it can be easily integrated or combined with existing assembly processes.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2077
Fatih Burak Sahin, Hans-Juergen Borchers, Cagatay Ucar
Owing to high strength to weight ratio CFRP composite materials has been widely use in aerospace industries. However drilling CFRP laminates is difficult owing to the highly abrasive nature of the carbon fibers and low thermal conductivity of CFRP. Therefore for the manufacturers it is a challenge to drill CFRP materials without causing any delamination within the high quality requirements while also considering the costs of the process. This paper will discuss the process of drilling CFRP-Al stack ups within tight tolerances using a seven axis drilling robot. All components required for drilling are integrated in the drill end-effector. The pressure foot is extended in order to clamp the work piece, and then holes are drilled. The drilling process has four steps as moving to fast approach level, controlled drill feed, countersink depth reached and lift the drill. This paper will discuss the process of drilling CFRP-Al stack ups within tight tolerances using a Robot.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2081
Rodrigo Pinheiro, Robert Gurrola
The installation of common threaded aerospace fasteners by the application of a tightening torque to a nut or deformable locking collar is made possible by an internal wrenching element or recess feature adapted to the threaded end of a pin which accepts a mating anti-rotation key designed to partially balance or counter the applied torque. In highly-demanding applications such as the mechanical joining of composite structures accomplished by wet clearance fit installations of permanent fasteners, high nut or collar seating torques not adequately opposed by frictional resistance at the contact surfaces of the fastener and joint members effectively shift a greater proportion of the torque reaction requirement onto the recess and mating anti-rotation key which in turn can experience high torsional stresses exceeding their design capability and result in frequent service failures.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2093
Rainer Mueller, Matthias Vette, Ortwin Mailahn
Many assembly processes, particularly in the manufacture of aircraft components, are still carried out by humans manually. In addition to rationalization aspects, high quality requirements, non-ergonomic activities, the lack of well-qualified workers etc. may require the use of automation technology. Through novel possibilities of human-robot-cooperation these challenges can be met through a skills-based division of labor. Tasks are assigned to humans and robots in a way that the respective strengths can be used most efficiently. This article presents, how assembly processes can get empowered for human-robot-cooperation, using a specific work description for humans and robots, an assembly priority chart and suitable robot programs, to prepare for a skills-based task assignment. In the area of formerly exclusively manual assembly, the operations for the assembly of the product must first be described in detail.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2089
Jose Guerra cEng, Miguel Angel Castillo
During the year 2003 Aernnova decided to invest in automated machines procuring and installing a Broetje automatic machine (known in Aernnova as CIMPA) in Aernnova Berantevilla facility in order to perform operations such as drilling, countersinking or riveting in aircraft structures during its assembly. Due to the high load of work at that time in Aernnova mainly due to work packages from Embraer and Sikorsky, a solution was needed in order to assemble all the products required by our customer and deliver them on properly in terms of time and good quality. Several ideas came to our engineering team always having in mind the idea of reducing time being more competitive specially in repetitive operations and at the same time keeping good quality. Finally after a depth search, the option selected was an automated machine from Broetje that after some adjustments and customizations regarding our purposes could provide us the best solution.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2090
Sergey Lupuleac, Margarita Petukhova, Julia Shinder, Alexander Smirnov, Mariia Stefanova, Nadezhda Zaitseva, Tatiana Pogarskaia, Elodie Bonhomme
Perspective way of solving the problem of aircraft assembly optimization is global simulation of junction process using efficient numerical algorithms. Specialized software complex [1] was developed within the framework of cooperation between Airbus SAS and Saint Petersburg Polytechnic University. This tool allows engineers to simulate the aircraft assembly process and solve the number of tasks: • Calculation of resulting gap under given initial disposition of riveted parts and distribution of fastening elements; • Determination of fastening element pattern that provides sufficient quality of assembly; • Shimming prediction; • Evaluation of stresses caused by assembly. The tool is based on special approach that necessitates solving contact problem arising when aircraft parts are being joined. This problem can be described by several simplifying assumptions such as ommiting tangential displacements and friction from consideration and creating substructure for junction area.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2106
Dan R.W. Vaughan, Otto J. Bakker, David Branson, Svetan Ratchev
Aircraft manufacturers desire to increase production to keep up with anticipated demand. To achieve this, the aerospace industry requires a significant increase in the manufacturing and assembly performance to reach the required output levels. This work therefore introduces the Variation Aware Assembly (VAA) concept and identifies its suitability for implementation into aircraft wing assembly processes. The VAA system concept focuses on achieving assemblies towards the nominal dimensions, as opposed to traditional tooling methods that aim to achieve assemblies anywhere within the tolerance band. It enables control of the variation found in Key Characteristics (KC), which will allow for an increase in the assembly quality and product performance. The concept consists of utilizing metrology data from sources both before and during the assembly process, to precisely position parts using motion controllers.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2112
Hilmar Apmann
As a new material FML made by aluminum foils and Glasfibre-Prepreg is a real alternative to common materials for fuselages of aircrafts. Since experiences within A380 this material has some really good advantages and becomes status as alternative to Aluminum and composite structures. Main goal for an industrial application for a higher production rates of aircrafts (like for single aisle) is the automation of production processes inside the process chain for FML-parts like skins and panels for fuselages. To reach these goals for high production rates first steps of automation inside this process chain have been developed in the last two years. Main steps is the automated lay-up of metallic foils and Glasfibre-Prepreg and also for integration of the bond film. Over this there are some more steps within positioning of i.e. stringers and doublers by automatic integration and shorter process chain to reduce process cost significantly.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2109
Michael Morgan, Caroline McClory, Colm Higgins, Yan Jin, Adrian Murphy
Aerospace structures are typically joined to form larger assemblies using screw lock or swage lock fasteners or rivets. Countersunk fasteners are used widely in the aerospace industry on flying surfaces to reduce excrescence drag and increase aircraft performance. Typically these fasteners are installed to a nominal countersink value which leaves them flush to the surface before being locked into position. The Northern Ireland Technology Centre at Queen’s University Belfast has developed and demonstrated two processes which enable high flushness fastening of countersunk fasteners. The ‘Flush Install’ process produces countersunk holes based on the specific geometry of each individual fastener. The ‘Fettle Flush’ process accurately machines fasteners to match the surrounding surface. Flushness values well within the allowable tolerances have been demonstrated for both Flush Install and Fettle Flush processes.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2107
Rainer Mueller, Matthias Vette, Matthias Scholer, Jan Ball
The global competition challenges aircraft manufactures in high wage countries. The assembly of large components is distinguished by fixed position assembly. Many complex assembly processes such as in the aircraft assembly are manually done by high experienced workers. The aircraft manufacturers deal with a varying number of items, growing product variants and an increase of requirements for their products. During the assembly process hundreds of clips, ties and stringers as well as thousands of rivets must be assembled. An important aspect is the maintenance of a high productivity and ensuring the competitiveness and the existence of manufacturing companies in Germany. To achieve a reduction of cycle times with a simultaneous increase in quality, supportive assistance systems for visual support and for the documentation and organization within the assembly are required. One example for visual assistance systems are laser projection systems.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2124
Sara Nilsson, Jonas Jensen, Mats Björkman, Erik Sundin
For the aerospace industry carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) is one of the fastest developing materials right now. The material has a strength-to-weight ratio that is several times higher than aluminium and steel, which makes it a great fit for applications where a low weight is crucial while maintaining strength and stiffness. It is specifically CFRP in pre-impregnated form, so called pre-preg, which has made its way into the aircrafts. Pre-preg is an anisotropic material that lets the designer control its properties to a high level of detail. Analogously to the material becoming used more widely in the aerospace industry the costs have decreased as the manufacturing methods have developed to follow the demands. However, how material and manufacturing method change the requirements and affect a product's design and performance can be hard to determine.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2120
David Judt, Kevin Forster, Helen Lockett, Craig Lawson, Philip Webb
In the civil aircraft industry there is a continuous drive to increase the production aircraft rate, particularly for single aisle aircraft where there is a large backlog of orders. One of the bottlenecks is the wing assembly process which is largely manual due to the complexity of the task and the limited accessibility. The presented work describes a general wing build approach for both structure and systems equipping operations. A modified build philosophy is then proposed, concerned with large component pre-equipping, such as skins, spars or ribs. The approach benefits from an offloading of the systems equipping phase and allowing for higher flexibility to organize the pre-equipping stations as separate entities from the overall production line. Its application is presented in the context of an industrial project focused on selecting feasible system candidates for a fixed wing design, based on assembly consideration risks for tooling, interference and access.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2118
Patrick Land, Luis De Sousa, Svetan Ratchev, David Branson
With increased demand for composite materials in the aerospace sector, there is a requirement for the development of manufacturing processes that enable larger and more complex geometries, whilst ensuring that the functionality and specific properties of the component are maintained. To achieve this methods such as thermal roll forming are being considered. This method is relatively new to composite forming in the aerospace field, and as such there are currently issues with the formation of part defects during manufacture. Previous work has shown that precise control of the force applied to the composite surface during forming has the potential to prevent the formation of wrinkle defects. In this paper the development of various control strategies that can robustly adapt to different complex geometries are presented and compared within simulated and small scale experimental environments, on varying surface profiles.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2136
Oliver Pecat, Tebbe Paulsen, Philipp Katthöfer, Ekkard Brinksmeier, Sascha Fangmann
Insufficient chip extraction often leads to disruptions of automated drilling processes and degraded surface qualities. One opportunity to avoid chip accumulation is based on a cinematically enforced chip breakage caused by sinusoidal axial oscillations of the drilling tool. Recent investigations have shown that the quality of chip extraction is, amongst others, considerably depending on the chip shape and mass which are defined by the cutting parameters feed, amplitude and number of oscillation per revolution. So far only mechanical systems in the form of tool holders have been available on the market, which are restricted to a fixed number of oscillations per revolution (oscillation frequency is coupled to the spindle speed). In the present study a spindle with magnetic bearings was used which allows to adjust the oscillation frequency independently of the spindle speed and therefore enables all opportunities to affect the generated chip shapes.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2135
Juan Francisco Garcia Amado, Carlos Ramirez Alcala
This article describes briefly an automatic drilling cell concept that uses low cost commercial robots whose accuracy has been improved due to a software treatment. To perform the operation, a low cost drilling head that remotely controls semiautomatic tools has been developed. At last, providing the system with the lack of flexibility occurring in conventional installations causes not to depend on customized items for particular cases, that’s why a reorientation system that guarantees the orthogonality of the tool to de material during de drilling process, using a tripod with mechanical displacement sensors LVDT type, has been developed.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2137
Simon Kothe, Sven Philipp von Stürmer, Hans Christian Schmidt, Christian Boehlmann, Jörg Wollnack, Wolfgang Hintze
Strong market growth, upcoming global competition and the impact of customer-requirements in aerospace industry demand for more productive, flexible and cost-effective machining systems. Industrial robots have already demonstrated their advantages in smart and efficient production in a wide field of applications and industries. However, their use for machining of structural components is still obstructed by the disadvantage of low absolute accuracy and adverse reaction to process loads. For accuracy assessment and optimization of robot-based machining systems, an experimental approach for holistic recording and analysis of inaccuracies and errors is presented. For conventional Cartesian CNC machining systems several methods and guidelines for performance assessment and error identification are available (e.g. VDI 9283, VDI/NCG 5211-2). Due to the attributes of a common 6-axis-robot serial kinematic these methods of decoupled and separated analysis fail.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2127
Sylvain Guerin, Sylvain da Costa
Contribution of 3D printing in tooling and portable tools Application case for a Smart Driller The recent contribution rise in 3D printing is rapidly changing the whole industry. In aeronautics, it has 2 major domains of growth: • Aircraft parts • Tooling and portable tools Aircraft parts in metallic 3D printing have been highly publicized in the media, although they represent only a tiny share of the aircraft cell in the short term. On the other hand, metallic (and non-metallic) 3D printing in tooling and tools bring immediate advantages compared to traditional methods. The advantages • Design made directly from the final function • Optimized for strength vs weight • Weight reduction • Reduction in parts number • Short cycle time from design to use • Low cost for customization The drawbacks • Limited in size We have already applied this new manufacturing technique to obtain real breakthroughs in portable tools.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2131
Karl-Erik Neumann
If you need a 5-axis machine tool with the capability of making 50 mm diameter holes, 125 mm deep, in titanium, you probably end up with a 20 ton machine, sitting on a 3 meter foundation, but if you also need to; • move it around in your factory to different work stations • perform high speed machining • have the flexibility of a robot • apply 7 kN tool force • run 3G acceleration • have a positioning accuracy of +/- 5 micron • be able to take it apart and put it inside e.g. a wing box • integrate it into production by yourself in 72 hours then you have just wrote the specification of the new XMini, developed by Exechon Enterprises LLC, a Lockheed Martin-Injaz-Tecgrant Joint Venture, in cooperation with Airbus and Boeing. The Exechon XMini is the first Machine Tool & Robot in the world made out of carbon fiber, with a unique capability of high speed/low torque as well as low speed/high torque machining.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2145
Ryan Haldimann
Inspection of fasteners prior to installation is critical to the quality of aerospace parts. Fasteners must be inspected for length/grip and diameter at a minimum. Inspecting the fasteners mechanically just prior to insertion can cause additional cycle time loss if inspection cannot be performed at the same time as other operations. To decrease fastener inspection times and to ensure fastener cartridges contain the expected fastener a system was devised to measure the fastener as it travels down the fastener feed tube. The optics system is designed such that two views 90° apart are captured of the fastener. The fastener is backlit using telecentric illuminators and imaged using a telecentric lens. The processing of the image occurs on the camera. The information as to what fastener the operator has loaded into the bowl is sent to the camera including the expected diameter and overall length.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2138
Gustavo Jose Giardini Lahr, José Savazzi, João Soares, Gustavo Barbosa, Tadeu Taketomi, Glauco A P Caurin
Cooperating robotic paradigm has received much attention lately as response to new demands for flexible automation and ability to meet small scales requirements. Robotic systems working in cooperation with users present new programming and implementations challenges, requiring new types of staff training, and may need the acquisition of additional tools, sensors, and robots. Additional costs ​​that may lead to infeasible projects. We show in this paper a number of resources currently available in industrial robots that allows robot integrators, but also the aeronautical industry, to exploit the equipment already available in their production lines, making them more collaborative and meeting the need for greater flexibility in cooperation with the user.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2140
Long Yu, Yilian Zhang
Slug rivet is widely used in wing assembly due to its longer fatigue life and better sealing performance compared with other connection technologies. As countersinks with dual-angle are widely adopted in this connection, countersink diameter and depth are the key factors that affect assembly quality. As such, it is of great importance to inspect the drilling qualities with high accuracy and efficiency. However, the contact measurements are susceptible to loss of accuracy due to cutting debris and lube build-up, while scanning the hole using laser profilometry is time consuming and complex, in this paper, a non-contact method for countersink diameter and depth measurement based on machine vision system is proposed. The countersink diameter can be directly measured by this system, while the countersink depth is determined through countersink diameter indirectly. First, holes with different depths are countersunk, then the countersink depths are measured by 3D microscope.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2108
Marc Fette, Kim Schwake, Jens Wulfsberg, Frank Neuhaus, Manila Brandt
The rising demand for civil aircraft leads to the development of flexible and adaptive production systems in aviation industry. Due to economic efficiency, operational accuracy and high performance these manufacturing and assembly systems must be technologically robust and standardized. The current aircraft assembly and its jigs are characterized by a high complexity with poor changeability and low adaptability. In this context, the use of industrial robots and standardized jigs promise highly flexible and accurate complex assembly operations. This paper deals with the flexible and adaptable aircraft assembly based on industrial robots with special end-effectors for shaping operations. By the development and use of lightweight gripper system made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics the required scaling, robustness and stiffness of the whole assembly system can be realized.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2117
Rustam M. Baytimerov, Pavel Lykov PhD, Sergei Sapozhnikov, Dmitry Zherebtsov, Konstantin Bromer
The development of Additive technologies (SLS/SLM, EBM, DMD) suggests the increase of range expansion of materials used. One of the most promising directions is products manufacturing from composite materials. The technology of composite micro-powders production on the basis of heat-resistant nickel alloy EP648 and Al2O3 is proposed. The aim of this research is to develop a method of producing composite micropowders for additive technology application. This method is based on modification of the metal micro-powders surface as a second phase in a planetary mixer (mechanochemical synthesis). The obtained composite micropowders are compared with powders which are recommended for selective laser melting usage (produced by MTT Technology). The equipment used in the research: planetary mixer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical granulomorphometer Occhio 500nano.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 8633