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Viewing 1 to 30 of 8551
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0347
Alev Osma
Conventional indices and formulas require normal distributions for process capability analysis. These conventional approaches can result in erroneous interpretations for non-normal distributed data sets. One of the solutions is to transform a non-normal into a normal distribution by applying an appropriate data transformation formula and the other solution is to identify the best distribution for a non-normal data. This study presents an approach to demonstrating individual distribution analysis of process capability on a real automotive component with non-normal data. Also, an over-riding theme of this study is to employ process capability indices to understand the effectiveness tool renewing/refurbishing. Achieved results provide a new roadmap for process capability analysis with non-normal data, and outline a validity of a process capability application on a specific area, renewing / refurbishing of a tool in manufacturing environment.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0502
Yuyang Song, Umesh Gandhi
Fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites have great potential as the substitute materials for metals in the automotive industry as for structural applications due to its lightweight. One bottle neck to preventing adoption of advanced lightweight composite materials is the joining of the dissimilar materials. The application of adhesively bonded joints has increased significantly in order to improve the integrity of structural components in vehicle design. In this paper, finite element analysis is used to model the adhesive behavior of the adhesive joining between steel to composite, and composite to composite. The standard lap shear and peeling test are firstly conducted to estimate the adhesive properties using reverse engineering. Next, these adhesive properties are applied and validated on the FE model of a 3D part for complex loading condition.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0329
Piyush Bubna, Michael P. Humbert, Marc Wiseman, Enrico Manes
Conventional car manufacturing is extremely capital and energy-intensive. Due to these limitations, major auto manufacturers produce very similar, if not virtually identical, vehicles at very large volumes. This limits potential customization for different users and acts as a barrier to entry for new companies or production techniques. Better understanding of the barriers for low volume production and possible solutions with innovative production techniques is crucial for making low volume vehicles viable and accelerating the adoption of new production techniques and lightweight materials into the competitive marketplace. Additive manufacturing brings benefits of innovative design with minimal capital investment in tooling and hence should be ideal for low and perhaps high volume parts. However the technique is currently process intensive, uses relatively expensive raw materials and has to prove the capability to produce parts of acceptable quality.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1260
Shubhangi S. Nigade
The fossil fuels are depleting rapidly and the prices are going up day by day. The vegetable oils converted into biodiesel have the potential of alternative fuels. There are several types of vegetable oils, edible & non-edible, which can be used for biodiesel production. Very little published work has been found on utilization of Madhuca Indica oil for biodiesel production including optimization of transesterification process. Very little research has been done on utilization of oil in general and optimization of transesterification process for biodiesel production using acid, base and heterogeneous (micro & nano) catalyst. In the present study, transesterification process with use of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalyst has been optimized.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1347
S. Khodaygan
Fixtures play a key role in locating workpieces to manufacture high quality products within many processes of the product lifecycle. Inaccuracies in workpiece location lead to errors in position and orientation of machined features on the workpiece, and strongly affect the assemblability and the final quality of the product. The accurate positioning of workpiece on a fixture is influenced by rigid body displacements and rotations of the workpiece. In this paper, a systematic approach is introduced to investigate the located workpiece position errors. A new mathematical formulation of fixture locators modeling is proposed to establish the relationship between the workpiece position error and its sources. Based on the proposed method, the final locating errors of the workpiece can be accurately estimated by relating them to the specific dimensional and geometric errors or tolerances of the workpiece and the related locators.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1380
S. Khodaygan, Amir Ghasemali, Hamed Afrasiab
One of the most important characteristics of industrial products, especially mechanical set-ups, is considering the tolerances of production and assembly of these set-ups, which it directly influences the products’ operations. In sheet metal structures, due to the high flexibility of the sheets, the errors appeared while assembly will be as highly influential as the errors due to the production tolerance of the sheets. As a result, having a comprehensive model which could analyze the assembly process of these structures and also clarifies the relation between the tolerance of the parts and the ultimate changes of the set-up will be of considerable importance. During the assembly process, the contact effect between the components is inevitable. If such effect is not considered, the contact surfaces will permeate. The purpose of this paper is to present a method to analyze the tolerance of flexible sheet structures, considering the contact effect between surfaces.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0355
Takashi Iwama
Dent resistance and surface distortion were deteriorated by reduction of outer panel thickness. While aluminum or resin use for outer panel are increasing, it is not spread in the car of cost low price, steel is used. However, even in vehicles of lower price it has been required weight reduction of body, weight reduction has become necessary with steel using. Therefore, it becomes difficult to reduce automotive body weight. To investigate the weight reduction potential with steel using, effective factors on surface distortion and dent resistance properties were evaluated quantitatively with the aim of securing these properties. Materials used for experiment were tensile strength(TS) 340 MPa grade bake hardenable (BH) steel sheet, which is often used in the door outer and TS 440 MPa grade BH steel sheet for outer panel which developed by JFE Steel.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0291
Chad W. Chichester, Aleksandra Nevskaya
When designing and employing lubricants, film thickness modeling techniques must be used as part of an overall design approach to insure mating components, in relative motion have proper lubricating films to separate surface asperities. Improper asperity separation will lead to increased friction and wear, and overall reduce system reliability, serviceability, and efficiency. Many of the tools to model tribofilms used today are rooted in empirical studies completed with hydrocarbon based fluids as the lubricating medium. Generally, these modeling techniques have also been applied to non-hydrocarbon based lubricants, and this may not be an accurate method to model such fluids. As demands for improved lubricant performance continue to rise, so too does the need for improved tribofilms modeling techniques. This paper will discuss a modeling techniques developed, in which, silicone based polymer molecular structures are designed with tribological film performance in mind.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1359
R. Pradeepak, Shyamsundar Kumbhar, Nainishkumar Barhate
At present, vehicle testing in laboratory is one of the important phase to quicken the product validation process. In the early phase of laboratory testing it is required to evaluate the strength of the vehicle structure through physical rig setup which represents the consumer’s usage. Two and multiple poster input excitation are among the laboratory rig testing to represent the actual road are used to predict the durability of vehicle components. The road inputs through the poster are known as drive files, a feedback controlled system which reproduces the track or real road recorded specimen’s accelerations, displacements and strains in lab. Derivation of drive files in poster testing requires iteration of physical specimen to exactly replicate the actual road. This paper discusses about generation of drive files as inputs for poster actuation with virtual model(as a substitute for actual model)which is applicable in areas of vehicle durability and ride comfort studies.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1358
Jerry Lai, Youssef Ziada, Juhchin Yang
During the planetary gear assembly, staking is a widely-used method for affixing pinion shafts into the position. A reliable staking process not only prevents the movement of the shaft during transmission operation, but also minimizes the distortion of the assembly due to the staking process. The quality of staking operations is determined by the component designs, the process parameters, and the staking tool geometry. It would be extremely time-consuming and tedious to evaluate these factors empirically; not to mention the requirement of prototypes in the early stage of a new program. A Non-linear Finite Element methodology has been developed to simulate the complete staking process including shaft press in, staking, and after staking tool release. The critical process parameters, such as staking force, staking length, shaft and holes interference amount, etc., are then evaluated systematically.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0271
David A. Warren
The objective of the paper is to outline the steps taken to change the reliability and maintenance environment of a plant from completely reactive to proactive. The main systems addressed are maintenance function fulfillment with existing staffing; work order management, planning, and scheduling; preventive maintenance (PM) definition and frequency establishment; predictive maintenance (PdM) scheduling and method definition; and shutdown planning and execution. The work order management methods were evaluated and modified to provide planning and scheduling of work orders on a weekly basis. The computerized maintenance and management system (CMMS) was updated to automatically insert work orders into the backlog of work for completion. A failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) was performed and the results of the FMEA led to implementation of the following PM and PdM activities: vibration analysis, thermal imaging, and temperature monitoring.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0106
Michael Stamper
It is critical to ensure that wiring in automobiles cannot create a catastrophic event should a short circuit occur. Designers incorporate appropriate fusing to prevent such occurrences. This process typically involves calculating the maximum load on each wire manually and then comparing the result to a spreadsheet that may have been created many years ago. Automation allows testing to be performed as the design progresses, producing a correct-by-design solution. The result is a less costly harness that is designed in less time. This paper will address how automation allows testing to be performed as the design progresses, producing a correct-by-design solution. The result is a less costly harness that is designed in less time.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0394
Minghuang Cheng, Norihiko Sawa
This paper describes the development of a fatigue life prediction method for Laser Screw Welding (LSW), which is used to assess the durability of automotive structures in the early design stages to shorten the vehicle development time. The LSW technology is a spot-type joining method such as resistance spot welding (RSW), and has been developed and applied to body-in-white structures in recent years. LSW can join metal panels even when a clearance exists between the panels. However, as a result of this favorable clearance-allowance feature of LSW, a concave shape may occur at the nugget part of the joint. These LSW geometric features, the concavity of nuggets and the clearance between panels, are thought to affect the local stiffness behavior of the joint. Therefore, while assessing the fatigue life of LSW, it is essential to estimate the influence adequately for the representation of the local stiffness behavior of the joint.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0346
Patrick Garcia, Jiri Radous, Artur Krol, Jacek Bosek, Caroline Baeten
Lean Product Development. How to create flow? Reflection after a 4 years Implementation in one Business Unit of Tenneco. Author P. Garcia. Tenneco Artur Krol, Jacek Bosek, Jiri Radous Technical Session; Integrated Design and Manufacturing / Lean Manufacturing. Status 31 August 2015. ABSTRACT. During the 4 last years, Lean has been successfully implemented in one of the Tenneco Business Unit, Ride Performance. This paper reflects on the results and more specifically on the third principle of Lean [Womack] “how to make flow” and on the fifth one “to strive for perfection” obtained in the fields of “Product Development” related to Processes, Tools and People. Processes and hard Tools. How to improve the flow in the engineering processes?
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0384
Andrew Cox, Jeong Hong
Lightweight, optimized vehicle designs are paramount in helping the automotive industry meet reduced emissions standards. Self-piercing rivets are a promising new technology that may play a role in optimizing vehicle designs, due to their superior fatigue resistance compared with spot welds and ability to join dissimilar materials. This paper presents a procedure for applying the mesh-insensitive Battelle Structural Stress method to self-piercing riveted joints for fatigue life prediction. Additionally this paper also examines the development a design Master S-N curve for self-piercing rivets. The design Master S-N curve accounts for factors such as various combinations of similar and dissimilar metal sheets, various sheet thicknesses, stacking sequence, and load ratios. A large amount of published data was collapsed into a single Master S-N curve with reasonable data scattering.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0358
Saeid Nasheralahkami, Sergey Golovashchenko, Kaicen Pan, Lindsay Brown, Bindiya Gugnani
In recent years, implementation of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) such as dual phase steels (DP) are increasing in automotive components due to their superior structural performance and vehicle weight reduction capabilities. However, these materials are often sensitive to trimmed edge cracking if stretching along sheared edge occurs in such processes as stretch flanging. Tool wear is another major issue in the trimming of AHSS because of higher contact pressures at the interface between the cutting edges of the trimming die and sheet metal blank defined by AHSS higher flow stresses. Another reason for tool wear is presence of martensitic particles on the surface of the blank. The objective of the present paper is to study the influence of trimming conditions and tool wear on quality and stretchability of trimmed edge of DP980 steel sheet.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0274
Sharon L. Honecker, David J. Groebel, Adamantios Mettas
In order to accurately predict product reliability, it is best to design a test in which many specimens are tested for a long duration. However, this scenario is not often practical due to economic and time constraints. This paper describes a reliability test in which a limited number of specimens are tested with little time remaining before the scheduled start of production. During the test, an unexpected failure mode that can be mitigated through a product redesign occurs. Because the scheduled start of production is near, there is not time to perform a test with redesigned specimens, so the current test proceeds as planned. We discuss several methods and the associated assumptions that must be made to account for the presence of the unexpected failure mode in the test data in order to make predictions of reliability of the redesigned product.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1130
Mike Johns, Heinz Kamping, Kristian Krueger, James Mynderse, Chris Riedel
Tapered roller bearings used to support pinion and differential gears in automotive drive axles perform best, with accurate assembled preload. If the preload is too high, durability goes down and drag losses go up. If the preload is too low, the result can be poor roller load distribution and edge loading inside the bearing also resulting is lower life. Low preload also results in low system stiffness and noise and vibration issues. The most common assembly methods rely on bearing friction or dimensional measurements to adjust preload. These methods are difficult to automate or result in a wide preload range. Tapered roller bearings require the rotation as the preload is applied, to seat the rollers and avoid uneven load distribution and localized brinelling. To apply preload and measure torque at the same time, requires a specialized machine. In addition friction torque is sensitive to lubricant and rust preventative properties.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0328
Scott Curran, Paul Chambon, Randall Lind, Lonnie Love, Robert Wagner, Steven Whitted, David Smith, Brian Post, Ronald Graves, Craig Blue, Johney Green, Martin Keller
Rapid vehicle powertrain development has become a technological breakthrough for the design and implementation of vehicles that meet and exceed the fuel efficiency, cost, and performance targets expected by today’s consumer. Recently, advances in large scale additive manufacturing have provided the means to bridge hardware-in-the-loop with preproduction mule chassis testing. This paper details a case study from Oak Ridge National Laboratory bridging the powertrain-in-the-loop development process with vehicle systems implementation using big area additive manufacturing (BAAM). For this case study, the use of a component-in-the-loop laboratory with math-based models is detailed for the design of a battery electric powertrain to be implemented in a printed prototype mule. The ability for BAAM to accelerate the mule development process via the concept of computer-aided design to part is explored.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0357
Daniel J. Branagan, Andrew E. Frerichs, Brian E. Meacham, Sheng Cheng, Alla V. Sergueeva
The historical development of autobody steels has demonstrated a paradoxical relationship between strength and ductility, with increasing strength necessary for lightweighting commensurate with reductions in ductility necessary for cold formability. This in turn creates geometric constraints in part design and manufacturing, ultimately limiting usage of these higher strength steel grades in automobiles. Attempts to overcome this paradox have focused on quench and tempering including variants such as quench, partitioning, and tempering to increase strength and three distinct deformation mechanisms including; 1) shear band induced plasticity (SIP), 2) transformation induced plasticity (TRIP), and 3) twinning induced plasticity (TWIP) to increase ductility.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0139
Andreas Himmler, Klaus Lamberg, Tino Schulze, Jann-Eve Stavesand
Developers of safety-critical systems need to verify the output of software tools in order to ensure their suitability for safety-relevant applications. The importance of verification holds specifically for test automation tools that are used to run hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) tests of safety-related software automatically 24/7. This paper will focus on two aspects that maximize the productivity of a COTS test automation tool: (a) Minimize the efforts for tool users for tool certification and (b) maximize the productivity for tool application. The latter refers to a new concept of signal-based test description. It is common sense that a test automation tool that automatically performs tests 24/7 has a tool confidence level of TCL 3. This causes a major initial hurdle for tool users, since the resulting required tool qualification is time-consuming and requires advanced knowledge.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0342
Rushil Batra, Sahil Nanda, Shubham Singhal, Ranganath Singari
This research is an attempt to investigate the significance of Value Stream Mapping (VSM) in the lean transformation of manufacturing units (largely automotive) and then apply the same in a tool room. It is an essential tool used to interpret both material and information flow in a system. The tool room under study specializes in production of a large variety of high precision tools for the automotive industry. A product family is chosen to map and analyze various stages of its production process, starting from the raw material (R/M) to the finished goods’ (F/G) stage. VSM is then implemented in the tool room to correctly identify wastes and thus improvement areas to bridge gaps between current and future states. Both current and future state maps are drafted along with usage of other lean tools to justify its implementation in a small setup like tool room.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0334
Lucas e Silva, Tennakoon Mudiyanselage Tennakoon, Mairon Marques, Ana M. Djuric
A new trend in automation is integration of collaborative robots. A collaborative robot or cobot is a robot that can safely and effectively interact with human workers while performing simple industrial tasks. Engineering Technology at Wayne State University offer several robotic courses, trainings and research in the advanced robotic lab. Recently we purchased a Baxter ® collaborative robot made by Rethink RoboticsTM. This Cobot is dual arm robot manipulator with vision based control. The goal of our research is to develop Matlab based toolbox for Baxter ®, which includes several modules: Kinematic, Jacobian matrix and singularity conditions, Dynamics of links, Dynamics of actuators and model based platform for control purposes. This Cobot has two arms and the calculation should be done for both arms. Doing the calculation for both arms individually, is very long and tedious process.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0341
Jan-Friedrich Brand, Patrick Garcia, Laxman Nalage, Pradip Ithape
Among other, a company working culture is influenced by the business sector, the regional, cultural and the educational background of the people. Japanese companies have shown that a company working culture can be transferred from Japan to other countries, where only minor regional difference will remain. It becomes possible with a strong process oriented mind set and working style. This paper deals with the change of working culture within prototyping of exhaust systems in India. It required a shift from a fire fighting working style to a structured, projectable and reliable environment. Goal was to achieve increased in-time delivery, higher quality, higher flexibility, more innovation and reduced cost.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0353
Suleman Ahmad, Dimitry Sediako, Anthony Lombardi, C. (Ravi) Ravindran, Robert Mackay, Ahmed Nabawy
For many years, aluminum alloys have been replacing ferrous alloys in automotive applications to reduce the weight of vehicles. One significant area is engine blocks, which are commonly made of hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys containing additions of Cu and Mg. These engine blocks typically contain cast-iron liners to improve wear resistance, however, they introduce residual stress due to thermo-mechanical mismatch. This stress has its highest magnitude in the cylinder bridge area and may lead to cylinder distortion or cracking. Several heat treatment processes are being used in industry to mitigate residual stress. One of these, artificial aging, has been found to be effective in reducing residual stress. In this study, neutron diffraction was used to measure the residual stress profiles along the cylinder bores of 319 Al engine blocks, treated to a T5 condition (aging from as-cast condition).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0294
Silvio César Bastos
The Excellence of Quality has been approached by companies seeking competitive advantage in the global automotive sector . Product characteristics and functions should meet the expectations of customers in terms of warranty and reliability . The objective of this paper is to present a method to improve the synchronization of customers´s products requirements with their suppliers in terms of production process control and prevention of failure modes for suppliers can achieve quality performance along customer . The improvement allows Suppliers to take preventive and corrective actions by application specifications knowledge of its components in engines and vehicles . The interfaces of components consideres in Production Control Plans with methods and important characteristics for the product assembly and functional are provided on Supplier portal that allows interaction between the Supplier Quality Engineering , supply chain and Quality Assurance .
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0325
Farhan Javed, Salman Javed
Additive manufacturing has experienced rapid growth over a span of 25 years. Additive manufacturing involves development of a three dimensional(3D) object by stacking layer upon layer. Conventional machining techniques involve the removal of material. However this technique differentiates itself from other techniques by means of addition of material. The integration of CAD with additive manufacturing has offered the ability to create complex structures. Despite its clear benefits additive manufacturing suffers from high initial investment. Average cost of an entry level commercial 3D printer is 600$. A low cost 3D printer has been designed and built for experimental investigation within a budget of 300$. The paramount process of 3D printing involves a combination of interpreting data from CAD files and controlling the motors using this data. The various design considerations while developing the 3D printer have been discussed.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0290
Kyoo Sil Choi, Erin Barker, Guang Cheng, Xin Sun, Joy Forsmark, Mei Li
Mg castings have found increasing applications in lightweight vehicles because magnesium and its alloys are the lightest metallic structure materials. However, a critical technical hurdle hindering the wider applications of Mg castings in vehicle applications is its limited ductility. Various microstructural features can influence the ductility of Mg alloys. The factors limiting the ductility of Mg castings can generally be categorized into two types: intrinsic (i.e., the phase composition, grain size, morphology, volume fraction and mechanical properties of the -Mg matrix and the eutectic phase, etc.) and extrinsic (i.e., porosity, segregation, incomplete fill, hot tear, cold shut, etc.). The specific alloy design and casting process parameters determine both factors which in turn influence the ductility of the final cast.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0296
Monika Minarcin
Increasing electrification of the vehicle as well as the demands of increased connectivity presents automotive manufacturers with formidable challenges. Automakers and suppliers likely will encounter three practices that will influence how they develop and manufacture highly connected vehicles and future e-mobility platforms: 1) hierarchical production processes in fixed footprints that do not share data freely; 2) lack of real-time, in-line quality inspection and correction processes for complex miniaturized electronic components; and 3) floor to enterprise resource and execution systems that can collect, analyze and respond to rapidly changing production needs.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0338
R.J. Urbanic, Ana M. Djuric
The ‘boundary of space’ model representing all possible positions which may be occupied by a mechanism during its normal range of motion (for all positions and orientations) is called the work envelope. In the robotic domain, it is also known as the robot operating envelope or workspace. Several researchers have investigated workspace boundaries for different degrees of freedom (DOF), joint types and kinematic structures utilizing many approaches. However, this work envelope based work is limited as it does not contain relevant information regarding the relationships between the robot, or mechanisms within a system. This includes the general kinematic structures within the system, the location of the working part(s), tools, process parameters and other operation related parameters. Here an operation is defined as consisting of the travel path, manipulator/end-effector or working tool, tool and part location, and orientation, and any other related process related parameters.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 8551