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2017-10-31
White Paper
WP-0003
Actuators are the key to sophisticated machines that can perform complex tasks previously done by humans.
2017-09-29
Technical Paper
2017-01-5011
Raviprakash Shankaranarayana
Abstract Process Parameters play a vital role in product quality of Injection Molded components. Variation in process parameters will lead to Injection Molded manufacturing defects like Sink Mark, Flow Mark, Silver Streak, Flash, Warping, Weld lines, Jetting, voids, Short Shot & Bubbles. This manuscript is innovative because suppliers (Tier 1 and Tier 2) do not use DoE for standardization of their process parameters in Injection Molding and High Pressure Die Casting. They do trial and error method to arrive at the process parameters which is error prone and time consuming. The variation of process parameters can be optimized using Six Sigma approach, a structured methodology which is Process focused & data driven approach.
2017-09-22
Technical Paper
2017-01-5010
H.J. Liu, X.D. Zhang
Abstract In order to research the effect of process parameters (laser power, welding speed, wire-feed speed, spot diameter) on mechanical properties of Zn-coated Steel Laser Brazing Lap Joint for vehicle, the influence of welding parameters on energy input of brazing seam cross section was theoretically analyzed, and then a great number of laser brazing experiments of 0.7mm galvanized steel was carried out. After that, the tensile strength and micro-hardness tests were also done for well-formed joints of galvanized steel formed in the laser brazing. The results show that joints with good mechanical properties and surface morphology can be formed when laser power is in the range of 2500-3200W and the other parameters keep in a specified range. Joint performance significantly reduces when the value of wire-feed speed exceeds 3.0m/min for that a wider brazing seam cross section can’t be formed.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2148
Ho-Sung Lee
In this paper, manufacturing of launcher structural components with superplastic forming (SPF) and solid state welding technologies is presented with several examples. Some of high strength aerospace alloys, like aluminum, titanium and superalloys, are known to have superplasticity so that complex shapes of aerospace components can be produced with this technology. A combination of superplastic forming and solid state welding processes produces lighter and stiffer components than one manufactured with conventional machining and welding. Solid state welding is an attractive method to weld materials without melting where mechanical properties are important since the welding interface is homogeneous without liquid phases.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2093
Thorsten Dillhoefer
Ever increasing process applications inspire us, as suppliers of aircraft, structural-assembly, and equipment to design innovative and modular, manufacturing cells in compliance with modern specification. The result is the new highly flexible Aerospace application specific robot identified as “POWER RACe”. This paper describes how benchmarks for flexible automated drilling and fastening are being achieved with the Power RACe technology platform.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2080
James Merluzzi, Isaac Bahr
Abstract Manually changing stringer-side tooling on an automatic fastening machine is time consuming and can be susceptible to human error. Stringer-side tools can also be physically difficult to manage because of their weight, negatively impacting the experience and safety of the machine operator. A solution to these problems has recently been developed by Electroimpact for use with its new Fuselage Skin Splice Fastening Machine. The Automatic Tool Changer makes use of a mechanically passive gripper system capable of securely holding and maneuvering twelve tools weighing 40 pounds each inside of a space-saving enclosure. The Automatic Tool Changer is mounted directly to the stringer side fastening head, meaning the machine is capable of changing tools relatively quickly while maintaining its position on the aircraft panel with no machine operator involvement.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2077
John McClelland, Michael Morgan, Caroline McClory, Colm Higgins, Rory Collins, Adrian Murphy, Yan Jin
The need to drill several million holes per aircraft through composite and hybrid material stacks is a large challenge for the aerospace assembly process. The ability to produce high quality holes for the lowest tooling costs is at the forefront of requirements for aircraft assembly factories worldwide. Consequently, much research has been conducted into tool design and development, however, the effect of drilling platform characteristics has not been well covered in literature. Respectively, this research has compared the drilling abilities of a 5-axis precision CNC platform, a hybrid parallel kinematic machine and an articulated robotic arm fitted with a drilling module. In-process force measurement and post process hole and tool analysis methods were used to better understand the effect of static and dynamic platform characteristics on the achievable hole quality, cycle time and tool wear when drilling aerospace metal alloy stacks.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2076
Dave Cobcroft
Paper Title: IPAC 180 Author: Thorsten Dillhoefer, Broetje-Automation GmbH Mailing Address: Broetje-Automation GmbH Am Autobahnkreuz 14 26180 Rastede Germany Phone: +49 (0) 4402 966-300 Fax: +49 (0) 4402 966-289 E-Mail: Thorsten.dillhoefer@broetje-automation.de Paper Content: To increase the accessibility and maintainability of our well known IPAC automation concept, we have designed a new version of this time proven system for 180 degree super panel assemblies. This new design includes also an innovative “T” lower ram configuration, high speed positioning, innovative operator interfaces, as well as an optimized platform concept to reduce the maintenance and set up of the machine thereby increasing overall throughput.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2082
Nirosh Jayaweera, Asitha Kulasekera, Posindu Maduranga, Thilina Kasun, Prabodh Seekkuarachchi, Janaka Sampath
Abstract Many components used in the aerospace industry are complex-shaped, without symmetric axes and parallel surfaces. Fabricating and repairing these components often require fixturing system to support manufacturing processes such as drilling, surface finishing, inspections and assembly. Currently available fixturing systems can be divided into dedicated and flexible fixtures. Among these, the flexible fixtures are suitable for rapidly changing fabricating processes and handling several complex-shaped components using same fixturing system. Background research suggested that the pin type fixturing system is the predominant design used in such applications to fix complex-shaped components. In pin type fixturing systems, force is applied to a single point of contact. This increases the pressure applied to the work piece and possibility of damaging these components. Further, conventional pins use rigid designs, which cannot adapt to the shape of the work piece.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2099
Peter B. Zieve, Troy Gray, Christopher Wright
Electroimpact has retrofitted two E4100 riveting gantry machines and two more are in process. These machines use the EMR (Electromagnetic Riveter) riveting process for the installation of slug rivets. We have improved the skin side EMR to provide fast and reliable results: reliability improved by eliminating a weekly shutdown of the machine. In paper 2015-01-2515 we showed the slug rivet injector using a Synchronized Parallel Gripper that provides good results over multiple rivet diameters. This injector is mounted to the skin side EMR so that the rivet injection can be done at any position of the shuttle table. The EMR is a challenging application for the fingers due to shock and vibration. In previous designs, fingers would occasionally be thrown out of the slots. To provide reliable results we redesigned the fingers retainer to capture the finger in a slotted plastic block which slides along the outside diameter of the driver bearing.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2100
Carter L. Boad
A fully automated off-line cartridge filling station has been commissioned to support the new Boeing SAL production cell. The filing station uses automated fastener feed technology that is typically found on the machines themselves. Incorporating this technology off-line in place of the traditional manual handling processes extends the benefits of automation beyond the main manufacturing cell. A single operator is able to keep up with the demand of eight production fastening machines while maintaining the highest levels of accuracy and quality. Additional benefits to this application of automation include reduction of the operators exposure to risks associated with manual handling and repetitive tasks.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2075
Burton Bigoney, Nicholas Huddleston
Abstract Electroimpact and Lockheed Martin have developed an automated drilling and fastening system for C-130J aft fuselage panels. Numerous design and manufacturing challenges were addressed to incorporate the system into Lockheed Martin’s existing manufacturing paradigm and to adapt Electroimpact’s existing line of riveting machines for manufacture of these legacy aircraft parts. Challenges to automation included design of a very long yet sufficiently rigid and lightweight offset riveting anvil for fastening around deep circumferential frames, automated feeding of very short, “square” rivets in which the length is similar to the head diameter, creation of part programs and simulation models for legacy parts with no existing 3d manufacturing data, and crash protection for the aircraft part from machine collisions, given the uncertainties inherent in the model and the unique geometry of the aircraft parts.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2072
Yilian Zhang, Qingzhen Bi, Nuodi Huang, Long Yu, Yuhan Wang
Abstract Interference-fit riveting is a critical fastening technique in the field of aerospace assembly. The fatigue and sealing performance of the rivet joint are determined by the interference-fit level of the rivet joint. As a result, it is of great importance to measure the interference-fit level accurately and effectively. Conventional interference-fit level measurement methods can be divided into direct measurement (destructive test on test-piece) and indirect measurement (off-line dimensional measurement of upset rivet head). Both methods cannot be utilized in automatic riveting. In this paper, an on-line non-destructive measurement method is developed to measure the interference-fit level. By taking full advantage of servo-driving riveting integrated with force measurement, the force-deformation data of the deformed rivet can be obtained in real time. The recognized feature points from the force-deformation data can reflect the height of the upset rivet head.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2073
Rick Calawa, Gavin Smith
Abstract The decision to replace a successful automated production system at the heart of a high volume aircraft factory does not come easily. A point is reached when upgrades and retrofits are insufficient to meet increasing capacity demands and additional floor space is simply unavailable. The goals of this project were to increase production volume, reduce floor space usage, improve the build process, and smooth factory flow without disrupting today’s manufacturing. Two decades of lessons learned were leveraged along with advancements in the aircraft assembly industry, modern machine control technologies, and maturing safety standards to justify the risk and expense of a ground-up redesign. This paper will describe how an automated wing spar fastening system that has performed well for 20 years is analyzed and ultimately replaced without disturbing the high manufacturing rate of a single aisle commercial aircraft program.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2085
Sergey Lupuleac, Nadezhda Zaitseva, Margarita Petukhova, Julia Shinder, Sergey Berezin, Valeriia Khashba, Elodie Bonhomme
Abstract The paper is devoted to the simulation of A320 wing assembly on the base of numerical experiments carried out with the help of ASRP software. The main goal is to find fasteners’ configuration with minimal number of fastening elements that provides closing of admissible initial gaps. However, for considered junction type initial gap field is not known a priori though it should be provided as input data for computations. In order to resolve this problem the methodology of random initial gap generation based on available results of gap measurements is developed along with algorithms for optimization of fasteners' configuration on generated initial gaps. Presented paper illustrates how this methodology allows optimizing assembly process for A320 wing.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2078
Eric Barton, Rick Wolf
Abstract The focus of this technical paper is a unique automatic fastening system configuration for loading, positioning & unloading pre-tacked door assemblies within a static C-Frame Drivmatic® fastening machine using an off-the-shelf, high accuracy Fanuc robot. In 2011, PMC was awarded a significant contract for supplying commercial OEM aircraft doors and recognized automation was the most feasible approach for fastening each door assembly. At the time of contract award, PMC was an established aero structure supplier with significant automation capability for machining high tolerance parts & assemblies and manual fastening resources to support many different OEM programs however PMC did not have automatic fastening experience or capability. In support of this new Tier-2 contract, PMC reached out to Gemcor to propose a collaborative robot solution for automatically fastening 5 different door assemblies that were historically fastened using a semi-automatic configuration.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2092
Ryan Mir, Russell DeVlieg
Abstract Fabrication and assembly of the majority of control surfaces for Boeing’s 777X airplane is completed at the Boeing Defense, Space and Security (BDS) site in St. Louis, Missouri. The former 777 airplane has been revamped to compete with affordability goals and contentious markets requiring cost-effective production technologies with high maturity and reliability. With tens of thousands of fasteners per shipset, the tasks of drilling, countersinking, hole inspection, and temporary fastener installation are automated. Additionally and wherever possible, blueprint fasteners are automatically installed. Initial production is supported by four (4) Electroimpact robotic systems embedded into a pulse-line production system requiring strategic processing and safeguarding solutions to manage several key layout, build and product flow constraints.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2094
Tyler Everhart
Abstract Electroimpact, in collaboration with Boeing, has developed an advanced robotic assembly cell, dubbed “The Quadbots.” Using Electroimpact’s patented Accurate Robot technology and multi-function end effector (MFEE), each robot can drill, countersink, inspect hole quality, apply sealant, and insert fasteners into the part. The cell consists of 4 identical machines simultaneously working on a single section of the Boeing 787 fuselage, two on the left, and two on the right. These machines employ “collision avoidance” a new feature in their software to help them work more synchronously. The collision avoidance software uses positional feedback from external safety rated encoders mounted to the motors on the robot. From this feedback, safe spaces, in the form of virtual boundaries can be created. Such that a robot will stop and wait if the adjacent robot is in, or going to move into its programmed work envelope.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2098
Didier Friot, Loic Meiffre, Christophe Vandaele
Abstract With air traffic demand constantly increasing and several years of aircraft production in their backlog, major aircraft manufacturers are now shifting their focus toward improving assembly process efficiency. One of the most promising solutions, known as “One Side Assembly”, aims to perform the whole assembly sequence from one side of the structure (drilling, temporary fastener installation and removal, blind fastener installation, assembly control) and with a high level of integrated automation. A one-sided, or blind fastener that is capable of matching the performance of current two-sided structural fasteners while meeting volume and cost objectives can be a major driver for assembly process efficiency improvements. To achieve a blind fastener assembly capable of both fully automated and manual installations while providing robust cycle times and assembly cost reductions is full of challenges.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2150
Joshua Cemenska, Todd Rudberg, Michael Henscheid, Andrew Lauletta, Bradley Davis
Abstract In AFP manufacturing systems, manually inspection of parts consumes a large portion of total production time and is susceptible to missing defects. The aerospace industry is responding to this inefficiency by focusing on the development of automated inspection systems. The first generation of automated inspection systems is now entering production. This paper reviews the performance of the first generation system and discusses reasonable expectations. Estimates of automated inspection time will be made, and it will be shown that the automated solution enables a detailed statistical analysis of manufactured part quality and provides the data necessary for statistical process control. Data collection allows for a reduction in rework because not all errors need to be corrected. Expectations will be set for the accuracy for both ply boundary and overlap/gap measurements. The time and resource cost of development and integration will also be discussed.
2017-09-19
Journal Article
2017-01-2154
Alan Hiken
Abstract A review of critical technologies and manufacturing advances that have enabled the evolution of the composite fuselage is described. The author’s perspective on several development, military, and production programs that have influenced and affected the current state of commercial fuselage production is presented. The enabling technologies and current approaches being used for wide body aircraft fuselage fabrication and the potential reasons why are addressed. Some questions about the future of composite fuselage are posed based on the lessons learned from today and yesterday.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2074
Thorsten Dillhoefer, Fatih Erdinc
Ever increasing process applications inspire us, as suppliers of aircraft, structural-assembly, and equipment to design innovative and modular, manufacturing cells in compliance with modern specifications. The result is the new flexible C-Frame Panel Assembly Cell (CPAC) Bulkhead riveting System. This paper describes how benchmarks for flexible automated drilling and fastening are being achieved with the CPAC.
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2504
Scott Lambert
Abstract As the brake industry moves completely into globalization, a standardized method to define and validate the dimensions of backing plates, in a way that is both clear and feasible, is of critical importance for manufacturers at all tiers. The plate drawing not only defines the component as it fits into a brake assembly; it is also what the plate supplier relies on to define the plate for manufacture. If a drawing does not define every dimensional aspect of the product with perfect clarity, in ways that are easily measured, loss of time and resources will result from questions and/or mistakes. This paper proposes an SAE standard for defining the dimensional requirements of backing plates on the drawings themselves, and defining the measuring procedures used to validate those dimensions.
2017-08-25
Technical Paper
2017-01-5007
Jinlun Wang, Zhengwei Ma
Abstract Flanging U-shaped piece is the typical auto-body part, such as tailor-welded front rail inner panel, whereas, large springback amount is a critical challenge in sheet metal forming process, which size and shape accuracy affect the quality of the following assembly process. Firstly, a new form of variable blank holder force (BHF) was proposed in this paper, the springback problem was analyzed by numerical method based on the constant BHF of 90 t, and the contours of Von-Mises stress and springback amount were calculated by the dieless method. Secondly, variable BHF with changes in position and punch stroke was designed and used to control springback. Finally, orthogonal experimental and range analysis method were used to optimize the variable BHF parameters. In addition, the springback angles of sidewall and flange under 16 different combinations were calculated.
2017-08-01
Journal Article
2017-01-9682
Mohsen Rahmani, Kamran Behdinan
Abstract Widely used in automotive industry, lightweight metallic structures are a key contributor to fuel efficiency and reduced emissions of vehicles. Lightweight structures are traditionally designed through employing the material distribution techniques sequentially. This approach often leads to non-optimal designs due to constricting the design space in each step of the design procedure. The current study presents a novel Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) framework developed to address this issue. Topology, topography, and gauge optimization techniques are employed in the development of design modules and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is linked to the MDO framework to ensure efficient searching in large design spaces often encountered in automotive applications. The developed framework is then further tailored to the design of an automotive Cross-Car Beam (CCB) assembly.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1931
Shaul Hameed Syed, K Rameshkumar
Abstract In this work an attempt is made to design and fabricate a low cost dynamometer for measuring cutting forces in three directions in a CNC vertical milling machine. The dynamometer is designed and fabricated to withstand load up to 5000 N along ‘X’, ‘Y’ and ‘Z’ axis. Milling dynamometer developed in this work, consists of four octagonal rings as an elastic member on which strain gauges are mounted for measuring the cutting forces. Suitable materials for the fixture and for the octagonal rings are chosen for constructing the dynamometer. Structural analysis has been carried out to check the safe design of the dynamometer assembly consisting of fixture and the octagonal rings for the maximum loading conditions. Static calibration of the dynamometer is carried out using slotted weight method by simulating the actual conditions. Calibration chart was prepared for three directions by relating load and corresponding strain.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1965
Ganesan Selvam, Surya Prakash Vaidhyanathan, Prince Arockia Doss Sebastian, Mohamed Zaheer Abdulla, Vedantham Baskaran
Abstract Lean approaches are being implemented in various manufacturing facilities across the globe. The application of lean approaches are extended to Body proto build shop to maximize the efficiency of the shop with lesser floor space and optimized equipment. Weld fixture, Weld equipment and assembly tools are the major tools required essentially for proto BIW assembly. This paper explains how the Weld equipment planning was carried out with lean approaches and implemented effectively in proto body assembly shop. The implemented lean concepts are compared with Italy and Japanese proto body build makers to validate the frugal planning of the facility for the said intent. The implemented facility is capable of producing more than a model at a time. Weld parameter selection for weld gun, gun movement to the fixture with minimized change over time and movable weld gun gantry are the lean approaches implemented.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1985
Hemasunder Banka, Radhika Muluka, Vikram Reddy
Abstract Conventional materials like steel, brass, aluminum etc will fail without any indication, cracks initiation, propagation, will takes place with a short span. Now-a-days to overcome these problem, conventional materials are replaced by hybrid composite material. Not only have this conventional material failed to meet the requirement of high technology applications, like space applications and marine applications and structural applications in order to meet the above requirements new materials are being searched. Hybrid composites materials found to the best alternative with its unique capacity of designing the materials to give required properties and light weight. This paper aims to preparing hybrid composite using artificial fibers. Epoxy as resin and glass fiber as fiber for artificial hybrid composite to make a laminate for preparing leaf spring.
2017-06-28
Journal Article
2017-01-9180
Johannes Wurm, Eetu Hurtig, Esa Väisänen, Joonas Mähönen, Christoph Hochenauer
Abstract The presented paper focuses on the computation of heat transfer related to continuously variable transmissions (CVTs). High temperatures are critical for the highly loaded rubber belts and reduce their lifetime significantly. Hence, a sufficient cooling system is inevitable. A numerical tool which is capable of predicting surface heat transfer and maximum temperatures is of high importance for concept design studies. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a suitable method to carry out this task. In this work, a time efficient and accurate simulation strategy is developed to model the complexity of a CVT. The validity of the technique used is underlined by field measurements. Tests have been carried out on a snowmobile CVT, where component temperatures, air temperatures in the CVT vicinity and engine data have been monitored. A corresponding CAD model has been created and the boundary conditions were set according to the testing conditions.
2017-06-26
Solution Notes
SN-0001
Automating a manufacturing process often comes with substantial investment or sustained operational costs of complex subsystems. But, by reducing complexity and using technologically mature components, it is possible to develop viable scaled and robust automated solutions. For the past several years, aerospace manufacturers have endeavored to automate manufacturing processes as much as possible for both production efficiencies and competitive advantage. Automating processes like drilling, fastening, sealing, painting, and composite material production have reaped a wide range of benefits; from improving quality and productivity to lowering worker ergonomic risks. The results have improved supply chains from small component manufacturers all the way up to airframe assemblers. That said, automation can be very expensive, and difficult to introduce when a product is anywhere beyond the beginning of its life cycle.
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