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Viewing 1 to 30 of 3991
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0087
Michele Pirola dos Santos, Kauê Cruz Silva, Diego Bellano Paulo, Carlos Alberto Barth Freitas Filho
Abstract The loss of preload in bolted joints is the main cause of quality problems, reworks or even joint failures during work. Several measurement methods are presented in the literature, but the difference of precision between each one or even the right criteria to select the most appropriate method for each project is not clearly defined. This study evaluated the differences between two of the main losses of preload measurements methods currently used in the market: clamp load through elongation measurement by ultrasonic method and checking torque method. For this, a load cell was used to measure the clamp load after the tightening torque and joint relaxation. Since the checking torque method is one of the most frequently used method of the torque auditing, it is also presented a torque x angle curve analysis for different torque points that are normally displayed by the measuring equipment.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0082
R.B. Obara, L.C. Guedes
Abstract Internet has transformed all industries and the automotive sector is on its list. It is true that manufacturing has experienced great advances in recent years, but the massive use of internet in industry is about to revolutionize it once again. The Internet of Things (IoT), the Big Data Analytics and the use of RFID technology will revolutionize manufacturing, giving to the so called “smart factories” the ability for self-diagnosis, self-configuration and self-optimization. That is what we call Industry 4.0, or the fourth industrial revolution. However, how will Industry 4.0 affect automakers and end users of vehicles? What are the challenges to bring Industry 4.0 innovations to the manufacturing industry? The present work discusses future trends in engine manufacturing, focusing on the quality control of its main components. Also, a fully automated inspection technique for quality control of cylinder bores from internal combustion engines is presented.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0132
Vitor Gutierrez, Winston Attrot
Abstract Commercial vehicles are being developed for long decades in Brazil creating a deep background on manufacturing process. With the current scenario a variety of different vehicles specifications (weight capacity, load distribution, torque, size, etc.) are being required by the market. Joints with bolts and nuts are the engineering solution for the most of the problems found in automotive engineering regarding commercial vehicles. Screw processes were made during the last 150 years. Nowadays current frame modifications on aftermarket are made with arc weld process that affects directly the material properties and the process needs to be performed by critical personal with training and capacity. In addition cost and timing does not fit for the best equation on how to proceed with the modifications. The solution proposed brings more flexibility on frame assemblies that can be extended to other products.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0242
Alexandre Saldanha do Nascimento, Carlos Alberto Mendes da Mota, Carlos Vinicius de Paes Santos, Daniel Rodrigues Oliveira, Everaldo Afonso Fernandes, Fabrício Paiva da Silva, Humberto Aguirre Muños
Abstract The maintenance and manufacture of Chassis have been used of more noble materials in the welding applied to the most critical points. In this sense, this study presents the results of some researches developed with ASTM A182 F22 structural steel (a low alloyed steel) by the AWS ER 80S-G Wire. For the buttery, the double layer technique was used with "Higuchi" and "modified Higuchi " tests and the application of "decision diagrams" to refine the parameters to be used. In order to verify the efficiency of the mentioned techniques of fabrication, microhardness tests were carried out, the presence of carbides formed at the interface between the filling and buttery was observed, these responsible for microhardness alterations were also observed the presence of undesired structures such as Martensite in the analyzed ZACs. The welding process used was the GMAW with gas Ar2% O2.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0225
J.A.C. Lara, C.P. Couto, M.A. Colosio, J.L. Rossi, L.M. Abbade
Abstract The application of press hardening steels (PHS) Al-Si coating has been increasing in body in white vehicles as an approach to meet the demands of safety and CO2 reduction regulations. The vehicle structures with PHS largely depend on the integrity and the mechanical performance of the spots weld. During the spot welding process, intermetallic phase may appear in function of the chemical composition of the steel and coating. One of these intermetallics is the Fe-Al phase which brittleness decreases the strength of the weld joint. In this study, resistance spot welding (RSW) experiments were performed in order to evaluate the influence of the welding parameters of single-lap joints PHS - 22MnB5 steel grade.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0181
Juliano Vaz, Allan R. Machado, Rodrigo K. Martinuzzi, Mario E. S. Martins
Abstract Intake tuning and ram effect are widely known methods to increase engine performance. This paper details the design, manufacturing and results of an intake system with active duct length variation for a CBR600RR 2008 engine, equipped with a restrictor downstream of throttle body, in accordance due to Formula SAE competition rules. The engine was discretized in Gamma Technologies' GT-Power software bundle, and with the aid of the computational tool Design of Experiments (DoE), the lengths and diameters of the inlet ducts and beyond the plenum volume were determined in order to increase the engine torque in the range of 6000 to 12000 RPM. After the dimensioning process, the assembly was modeled in CAD, analyzing the packaging requirements determined by the regulation and a better adaptation of the system to the prototype, and then fabricated, including the plenum, restrictor and intake manifold.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0294
Henrique Zambon, Marcos Torres, Odair Berti
Abstract In order to optimize the development of bolted joints used to components attachments in the Sidemember of commercial vehicles, the joints development has become relevant to better definition of the fasteners size, eliminating overweight and avoiding under or super-sized. This paper presents a development sequential approach of bolted joints applied on commercial vehicles ensuring the correct specifications usage of the fasteners and the joint to keep their clamp force. The evaluations were conducted based on theoretical and practical aspects applied on products and in the definition of all elements contained in a joint. The calculation methodology was developed based on standardized bolts and forces generated through the reactions of the components required for each vehicle family.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0110
Daisuke Kagawa, Tomoaki Kodama, Yasuhiro Honda
The main purpose of Student Formula Japan competition (hereafter called “SFJ”) is to let students learn the basic ability necessary for engineers through design, fabrication and test projects. In this study the authors decided to adopt Honda BC-PC37E which was an engine for motor cycles. Then the engine have strength enough for the light weight, downsizing design. As the course of the competition consists of short straights and many corners for running within equal to or less than middle speed range, the engine must have excellent acceleration performance to reduce the lap times in the corners. The effective engine performance is necessary for the flat torque in all of engine speed range, especially in low engine speed range. As the regulation allows that a turbocharger is fitted to an engine, its introduction is effective for getting high torque in the low engine speed range.
2017-10-31
White Paper
WP-0003
Actuators are the key to sophisticated machines that can perform complex tasks previously done by humans.
2017-09-29
Technical Paper
2017-01-5011
Raviprakash Shankaranarayana
Abstract Process Parameters play a vital role in product quality of Injection Molded components. Variation in process parameters will lead to Injection Molded manufacturing defects like Sink Mark, Flow Mark, Silver Streak, Flash, Warping, Weld lines, Jetting, voids, Short Shot & Bubbles. This manuscript is innovative because suppliers (Tier 1 and Tier 2) do not use DoE for standardization of their process parameters in Injection Molding and High Pressure Die Casting. They do trial and error method to arrive at the process parameters which is error prone and time consuming. The variation of process parameters can be optimized using Six Sigma approach, a structured methodology which is Process focused & data driven approach.
2017-09-22
Technical Paper
2017-01-5010
H.J. Liu, X.D. Zhang
Abstract In order to research the effect of process parameters (laser power, welding speed, wire-feed speed, spot diameter) on mechanical properties of Zn-coated Steel Laser Brazing Lap Joint for vehicle, the influence of welding parameters on energy input of brazing seam cross section was theoretically analyzed, and then a great number of laser brazing experiments of 0.7mm galvanized steel was carried out. After that, the tensile strength and micro-hardness tests were also done for well-formed joints of galvanized steel formed in the laser brazing. The results show that joints with good mechanical properties and surface morphology can be formed when laser power is in the range of 2500-3200W and the other parameters keep in a specified range. Joint performance significantly reduces when the value of wire-feed speed exceeds 3.0m/min for that a wider brazing seam cross section can’t be formed.
2017-09-19
Journal Article
2017-01-2154
Alan Hiken
Abstract A review of critical technologies and manufacturing advances that have enabled the evolution of the composite fuselage is described. The author’s perspective on several development, military, and production programs that have influenced and affected the current state of commercial fuselage production is presented. The enabling technologies and current approaches being used for wide body aircraft fuselage fabrication and the potential reasons why are addressed. Some questions about the future of composite fuselage are posed based on the lessons learned from today and yesterday.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2148
Ho-Sung Lee
In this paper, manufacturing of launcher structural components with superplastic forming (SPF) and solid state welding technologies is presented with several examples. Some of high strength aerospace alloys, like aluminum, titanium and superalloys, are known to have superplasticity so that complex shapes of aerospace components can be produced with this technology. A combination of superplastic forming and solid state welding processes produces lighter and stiffer components than one manufactured with conventional machining and welding. Solid state welding is an attractive method to weld materials without melting where mechanical properties are important since the welding interface is homogeneous without liquid phases.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2150
Joshua Cemenska, Todd Rudberg, Michael Henscheid, Andrew Lauletta, Bradley Davis
Abstract In AFP manufacturing systems, manually inspection of parts consumes a large portion of total production time and is susceptible to missing defects. The aerospace industry is responding to this inefficiency by focusing on the development of automated inspection systems. The first generation of automated inspection systems is now entering production. This paper reviews the performance of the first generation system and discusses reasonable expectations. Estimates of automated inspection time will be made, and it will be shown that the automated solution enables a detailed statistical analysis of manufactured part quality and provides the data necessary for statistical process control. Data collection allows for a reduction in rework because not all errors need to be corrected. Expectations will be set for the accuracy for both ply boundary and overlap/gap measurements. The time and resource cost of development and integration will also be discussed.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2100
Carter L. Boad
A fully automated off-line cartridge filling station has been commissioned to support the new Boeing SAL production cell. The filing station uses automated fastener feed technology that is typically found on the machines themselves. Incorporating this technology off-line in place of the traditional manual handling processes extends the benefits of automation beyond the main manufacturing cell. A single operator is able to keep up with the demand of eight production fastening machines while maintaining the highest levels of accuracy and quality. Additional benefits to this application of automation include reduction of the operators exposure to risks associated with manual handling and repetitive tasks.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2082
Nirosh Jayaweera, Asitha Kulasekera, Posindu Maduranga, Thilina Kasun, Prabodh Seekkuarachchi, Janaka Sampath
Abstract Many components used in the aerospace industry are complex-shaped, without symmetric axes and parallel surfaces. Fabricating and repairing these components often require fixturing system to support manufacturing processes such as drilling, surface finishing, inspections and assembly. Currently available fixturing systems can be divided into dedicated and flexible fixtures. Among these, the flexible fixtures are suitable for rapidly changing fabricating processes and handling several complex-shaped components using same fixturing system. Background research suggested that the pin type fixturing system is the predominant design used in such applications to fix complex-shaped components. In pin type fixturing systems, force is applied to a single point of contact. This increases the pressure applied to the work piece and possibility of damaging these components. Further, conventional pins use rigid designs, which cannot adapt to the shape of the work piece.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2085
Sergey Lupuleac, Nadezhda Zaitseva, Margarita Petukhova, Julia Shinder, Sergey Berezin, Valeriia Khashba, Elodie Bonhomme
Abstract The paper is devoted to the simulation of A320 wing assembly on the base of numerical experiments carried out with the help of ASRP software. The main goal is to find fasteners’ configuration with minimal number of fastening elements that provides closing of admissible initial gaps. However, for considered junction type initial gap field is not known a priori though it should be provided as input data for computations. In order to resolve this problem the methodology of random initial gap generation based on available results of gap measurements is developed along with algorithms for optimization of fasteners' configuration on generated initial gaps. Presented paper illustrates how this methodology allows optimizing assembly process for A320 wing.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2080
James Merluzzi, Isaac Bahr
Abstract Manually changing stringer-side tooling on an automatic fastening machine is time consuming and can be susceptible to human error. Stringer-side tools can also be physically difficult to manage because of their weight, negatively impacting the experience and safety of the machine operator. A solution to these problems has recently been developed by Electroimpact for use with its new Fuselage Skin Splice Fastening Machine. The Automatic Tool Changer makes use of a mechanically passive gripper system capable of securely holding and maneuvering twelve tools weighing 40 pounds each inside of a space-saving enclosure. The Automatic Tool Changer is mounted directly to the stringer side fastening head, meaning the machine is capable of changing tools relatively quickly while maintaining its position on the aircraft panel with no machine operator involvement.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2093
Thorsten Dillhoefer
Ever increasing process applications inspire us, as suppliers of aircraft, structural-assembly, and equipment to design innovative and modular, manufacturing cells in compliance with modern specification. The result is the new highly flexible Aerospace application specific robot identified as “POWER RACe”. This paper describes how benchmarks for flexible automated drilling and fastening are being achieved with the Power RACe technology platform.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2092
Ryan Mir, Russell DeVlieg
Abstract Fabrication and assembly of the majority of control surfaces for Boeing’s 777X airplane is completed at the Boeing Defense, Space and Security (BDS) site in St. Louis, Missouri. The former 777 airplane has been revamped to compete with affordability goals and contentious markets requiring cost-effective production technologies with high maturity and reliability. With tens of thousands of fasteners per shipset, the tasks of drilling, countersinking, hole inspection, and temporary fastener installation are automated. Additionally and wherever possible, blueprint fasteners are automatically installed. Initial production is supported by four (4) Electroimpact robotic systems embedded into a pulse-line production system requiring strategic processing and safeguarding solutions to manage several key layout, build and product flow constraints.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2094
Tyler Everhart
Abstract Electroimpact, in collaboration with Boeing, has developed an advanced robotic assembly cell, dubbed “The Quadbots.” Using Electroimpact’s patented Accurate Robot technology and multi-function end effector (MFEE), each robot can drill, countersink, inspect hole quality, apply sealant, and insert fasteners into the part. The cell consists of 4 identical machines simultaneously working on a single section of the Boeing 787 fuselage, two on the left, and two on the right. These machines employ “collision avoidance” a new feature in their software to help them work more synchronously. The collision avoidance software uses positional feedback from external safety rated encoders mounted to the motors on the robot. From this feedback, safe spaces, in the form of virtual boundaries can be created. Such that a robot will stop and wait if the adjacent robot is in, or going to move into its programmed work envelope.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2099
Peter B. Zieve, Troy Gray, Christopher Wright
Electroimpact has retrofitted two E4100 riveting gantry machines and two more are in process. These machines use the EMR (Electromagnetic Riveter) riveting process for the installation of slug rivets. We have improved the skin side EMR to provide fast and reliable results: reliability improved by eliminating a weekly shutdown of the machine. In paper 2015-01-2515 we showed the slug rivet injector using a Synchronized Parallel Gripper that provides good results over multiple rivet diameters. This injector is mounted to the skin side EMR so that the rivet injection can be done at any position of the shuttle table. The EMR is a challenging application for the fingers due to shock and vibration. In previous designs, fingers would occasionally be thrown out of the slots. To provide reliable results we redesigned the fingers retainer to capture the finger in a slotted plastic block which slides along the outside diameter of the driver bearing.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2098
Didier Friot, Loic Meiffre, Christophe Vandaele
Abstract With air traffic demand constantly increasing and several years of aircraft production in their backlog, major aircraft manufacturers are now shifting their focus toward improving assembly process efficiency. One of the most promising solutions, known as “One Side Assembly”, aims to perform the whole assembly sequence from one side of the structure (drilling, temporary fastener installation and removal, blind fastener installation, assembly control) and with a high level of integrated automation. A one-sided, or blind fastener that is capable of matching the performance of current two-sided structural fasteners while meeting volume and cost objectives can be a major driver for assembly process efficiency improvements. To achieve a blind fastener assembly capable of both fully automated and manual installations while providing robust cycle times and assembly cost reductions is full of challenges.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2072
Yilian Zhang, Qingzhen Bi, Nuodi Huang, Long Yu, Yuhan Wang
Abstract Interference-fit riveting is a critical fastening technique in the field of aerospace assembly. The fatigue and sealing performance of the rivet joint are determined by the interference-fit level of the rivet joint. As a result, it is of great importance to measure the interference-fit level accurately and effectively. Conventional interference-fit level measurement methods can be divided into direct measurement (destructive test on test-piece) and indirect measurement (off-line dimensional measurement of upset rivet head). Both methods cannot be utilized in automatic riveting. In this paper, an on-line non-destructive measurement method is developed to measure the interference-fit level. By taking full advantage of servo-driving riveting integrated with force measurement, the force-deformation data of the deformed rivet can be obtained in real time. The recognized feature points from the force-deformation data can reflect the height of the upset rivet head.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2075
Burton Bigoney, Nicholas Huddleston
Abstract Electroimpact and Lockheed Martin have developed an automated drilling and fastening system for C-130J aft fuselage panels. Numerous design and manufacturing challenges were addressed to incorporate the system into Lockheed Martin’s existing manufacturing paradigm and to adapt Electroimpact’s existing line of riveting machines for manufacture of these legacy aircraft parts. Challenges to automation included design of a very long yet sufficiently rigid and lightweight offset riveting anvil for fastening around deep circumferential frames, automated feeding of very short, “square” rivets in which the length is similar to the head diameter, creation of part programs and simulation models for legacy parts with no existing 3d manufacturing data, and crash protection for the aircraft part from machine collisions, given the uncertainties inherent in the model and the unique geometry of the aircraft parts.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2078
Eric Barton, Rick Wolf
Abstract The focus of this technical paper is a unique automatic fastening system configuration for loading, positioning & unloading pre-tacked door assemblies within a static C-Frame Drivmatic® fastening machine using an off-the-shelf, high accuracy Fanuc robot. In 2011, PMC was awarded a significant contract for supplying commercial OEM aircraft doors and recognized automation was the most feasible approach for fastening each door assembly. At the time of contract award, PMC was an established aero structure supplier with significant automation capability for machining high tolerance parts & assemblies and manual fastening resources to support many different OEM programs however PMC did not have automatic fastening experience or capability. In support of this new Tier-2 contract, PMC reached out to Gemcor to propose a collaborative robot solution for automatically fastening 5 different door assemblies that were historically fastened using a semi-automatic configuration.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2073
Rick Calawa, Gavin Smith
Abstract The decision to replace a successful automated production system at the heart of a high volume aircraft factory does not come easily. A point is reached when upgrades and retrofits are insufficient to meet increasing capacity demands and additional floor space is simply unavailable. The goals of this project were to increase production volume, reduce floor space usage, improve the build process, and smooth factory flow without disrupting today’s manufacturing. Two decades of lessons learned were leveraged along with advancements in the aircraft assembly industry, modern machine control technologies, and maturing safety standards to justify the risk and expense of a ground-up redesign. This paper will describe how an automated wing spar fastening system that has performed well for 20 years is analyzed and ultimately replaced without disturbing the high manufacturing rate of a single aisle commercial aircraft program.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2074
Thorsten Dillhoefer, Fatih Erdinc
Ever increasing process applications inspire us, as suppliers of aircraft, structural-assembly, and equipment to design innovative and modular, manufacturing cells in compliance with modern specifications. The result is the new flexible C-Frame Panel Assembly Cell (CPAC) Bulkhead riveting System. This paper describes how benchmarks for flexible automated drilling and fastening are being achieved with the CPAC.
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2504
Scott Lambert
Abstract As the brake industry moves completely into globalization, a standardized method to define and validate the dimensions of backing plates, in a way that is both clear and feasible, is of critical importance for manufacturers at all tiers. The plate drawing not only defines the component as it fits into a brake assembly; it is also what the plate supplier relies on to define the plate for manufacture. If a drawing does not define every dimensional aspect of the product with perfect clarity, in ways that are easily measured, loss of time and resources will result from questions and/or mistakes. This paper proposes an SAE standard for defining the dimensional requirements of backing plates on the drawings themselves, and defining the measuring procedures used to validate those dimensions.
2017-08-25
Technical Paper
2017-01-5007
Jinlun Wang, Zhengwei Ma
Abstract Flanging U-shaped piece is the typical auto-body part, such as tailor-welded front rail inner panel, whereas, large springback amount is a critical challenge in sheet metal forming process, which size and shape accuracy affect the quality of the following assembly process. Firstly, a new form of variable blank holder force (BHF) was proposed in this paper, the springback problem was analyzed by numerical method based on the constant BHF of 90 t, and the contours of Von-Mises stress and springback amount were calculated by the dieless method. Secondly, variable BHF with changes in position and punch stroke was designed and used to control springback. Finally, orthogonal experimental and range analysis method were used to optimize the variable BHF parameters. In addition, the springback angles of sidewall and flange under 16 different combinations were calculated.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 3991