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Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Klaus Fritz, Nikolaus Kurz, Eric Peterson, Rolf Buese
Avionics equipment, especially for safety-critical systems, is developed by means of a series of design steps, propagating and refining requirements through a number of hierarchical levels, from the aircraft level, through system and sub-system levels, down to equipment, subassemblies and individual components (see SAE ARP4754A [11]). At each development level, accompanying safety assessments (e.g. per SAE ARP4761 [12]) are performed to derive safety requirements which ensure compliance to the overall safety requirements determined by the aircraft and systems functional hazard assessments (FHAs). The safety related requirements of all development levels flow through the process down into the individual equipment specifications and are ultimately implemented in the equipment design where the design data is approved for the certificated aircraft (or engine) type. The equipment production process builds the equipment according to this approved design data. Safety assessment methodologies assume that each produced aircraft is equivalent to the type design.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
David K. Winstanley
Honeywell has developed a unique turbofan engine for application to the super mid-size business aviation market, the HTF7000. This paper will describe the design of this engine including aeromechanical design of its components. The unique design features of this engine will be described along with the technology growth path to keep the engine current. This paper will also describe several features which have been developed for this engine in response to new regulatory requirements. Some aspects of the engine to aircraft integration will also be described.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
John C. Dalton, Roger Nicholson
We live in an era of increasing twin-engine commercial airplane operations, with large and very quiet high bypass ratio engines. At the same time, due to several decades of increased attention to the environment, we have large and increasing hazardous species bird populations. These trends, when combined, are not a prescription for continued assurance of a remarkable and enviable safety record for commercial aviation. Therefore, greater diligence must be placed on the evaluation of the current and future aviation wildlife hazard. We have some new weapons in this fight for greater capability to live with this situation. The basic problem is that different databases are populated independently from one another and often contain conflicting, contradictory, and erroneous data. Databases that were used individually, but not necessarily combined, are being utilized in a conjoined methodology to give us a better picture of the actual risk involved. And new analytical techniques are being applied that will enable us to better visualize and evaluate the nature of the wildlife threat.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Chien-Chang Lee, Jon Friedman
For many mission critical systems, demonstrating that all requirements have been met via a set of requirements-based tests is often mandated by internal processes or external standards. Traditional coverage approaches, however, do not address this mandate because they measure only the coverage of the design by determining which paths in the design have been executed. Determining whether a given set of test vectors covers the design requirements (as opposed to merely covering the design) is a challenge. Creating a set of test vectors to cover the requirements can be difficult and time consuming. Using techniques first identified in the 1970s and modern Model-Based Design tools, we present a novel approach, based on work presented in [2], to automatically generate a set of requirements-based test vectors. In this paper, we discuss how requirements captured in a natural language can be modeled using Cause-Effect graphs, introduced in [1]. We then translate the Cause-Effect graph into Simulink® and Stateflow® to identify conflicting requirements and automatically generate a set of test vectors that can be assessed for completeness using coverage objectives such as Modified Condition/Decision Coverage (MCDC).
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Doug Howarth
This paper shows how the quantity demanded, viewed as an independent variable, interacts with customer values, producer costs and constraints. Failure to analyze Demand as Independent Variable (pronounced “Dave”) increases the chances that new programs will not launch, or once started, will fail. All producers in all markets face demand curves that describe their customers' reaction to price changes. Aggregate market demand curves show how buyers react to price changes within broad product sets, while product demand curves show buyer responses to a specific item. Demand curves relate quantities sold relative to their prices. In several military, transit and fleet cases, minimum quantity requirements form upper price boundaries along demand curves. Allowing prices to go so high that buying authorities cannot acquire the required numbers of units likely means that there may not be sufficient resources to form systems that can accomplish the buyers' goals. Simultaneously, pressure on producers to reduce costs and prices without relaxing requirements may force them into historically unattainable cost estimates.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Verena Cavalheiro, Svetan Ratchev, Mark Summers
This paper details the development of a user-friendly computerised tool created to evaluate the Manufacturing Readiness Levels (MRL) of an emerging technology. The main benefits achieved are to manage technology development planning and tracking, make visually clear and standardised analysis, and improve team communication. The new approach is applied to the Technology Readiness Levels (TRL), currently used by Airbus Research & Technology (R&T) UK. The main focus is on the improvement of the analysis criteria. The first phase of the study was to interpret the manufacturing criteria used by Airbus at TRL 4, including a brief benchmarking review of similar practices in industry and other Airbus' project management tools. All information gathered contributed to the creation of a complete set of criteria. In the second phase, a questionnaire format, using the new set of criteria, was used through a user-friendly computer tool, which was programmed to quantify and plot the maturity of a technology into tracking graphs.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Olivier Pahud, Didier Hoste
The composites development team at Bombardier Aerospace has pushed the Integrated Product Development Team to a new level. The team has been created outside the business priorities and was partially funded by a provincial government initiative to create a greener aircraft. A dedicated R&D team can reduce the gap between the different disciplines by encouraging them to work as one entity and rapidly develop high Technology Readiness Level (TRL) and high Manufacturing Readiness Level (MRL) solutions. Additionally, the interactions between the groups create a harmonization of the development philosophy and a sharing of the building block approach. This leads to a significant cost and lead time reduction in the coupon, element and detail testing. The constitution of the team also has a great impact on the level of expertise and the flexibility to adjust to new demands. The team has built through the years an entire and complete external partner network that helps the team in specific subject matters.
Standard
2013-09-13
This specification covers the general requirements for the installation and test of electronic equipment in piloted aircraft.
Technical Paper
2013-09-08
Ruud Eichhorn, T.H.W. willekens, Michael Boot, David Smeulders
To increase the efficiency of a Variable Geometry Turbine at low massflow rates the vaneless space of the vanes is reduced. It is researched if this modification can reduce turbo lag. A turbine with modified vane ring is installed in the exhaust of a naturally aspirated engine and wide open throttle accelerations are performed to test the turbine performance. The new (reduced vaneless space) vane configuration induced a lower exhaust backpressure which allowed the engine to accelerate faster. The acceleration from 1500 to 3000 RPM was an average of 8 % faster for the new vane configuration. This in turn increased the massflow rate through the turbine which caused the power available to the turbine to be similar in compared vane rings. The initial turbine speeds was lower for the new vane configuration but it quickly caught up with the conventional configuration because the turbine acceleration was higher. The turbine efficiency was higher for the new vane configuration in most cases. The mean increase in turbine efficiency during the initial acceleration was 4 %.
Technical Paper
2013-09-08
Luigi Arnone, Stefano Manelli, Massimiliano Bonanni, Chris Such, Simon Fagg, Paolo Gatti
This paper describes the design and performance development of the new Kohler / Lombardini KDI engine range which is a family of 3 and 4 cylinder, in line, water cooled engines covering the power range 37 - 56 kW. The paper covers the following aspects: Performance and economy Exhaust emissions over legislative cycles Deterioration factor test results Effect of fuel quality on emissions
Technical Paper
2013-09-08
Gianfranco Rizzo, Cecilia Pisanti, Mario D'Agostino, Massimo Naddeo
In last decade, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) have emerged as real alternatives to engine-driven vehicles, in order to reduce fuel consumption and emissions. But their market share is still limited, as their impact on global fossil fuel demand and CO2 production. In parallel, the possibility of upgrading conventional vehicles to HEV is gaining interest. A research work on the development of a kit for converting a conventional vehicle into a Through-The-Road (TTR) Hybrid Solar Vehicle (HSV) has been recently performed at the University of Salerno, where flexible solar cells, an additional Lithium-Ion battery and two electrically driven wheel-motors have been mounted on a FIAT Punto. Preliminary studies performed by simulation have shown the technical and economic feasibility of this solution. In the proposed vehicle, the control of wheel motors is performed via a Vehicle Management Unit (VMU), which in turn reads data from the OBD port. In order to develop an effective and safe control strategy for wheel-motors, a precise real-time knowledge of the Driver Intention is required.
Technical Paper
2013-09-08
Eric C. Leonhardt, Edoh Amiran
Faculty and undergraduate students at the Vehicle Research Institute developed the parallel electric hybrid Viking 45 to compete in the Progressive Automotive X Prize. The contest challenged auto manufacturers to build vehicles that could achieve a gasoline equivalent fuel efficiency of 2.35 liter per 100 km while meeting a subset of U.S. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emission standards. The contest offered a $10 million purse to encourage participation. Viking 45 features a 50 kW, three cylinder gasoline engine coupled with a 23 kW electric motor. A 9.6 kWh lithium polymer battery pack allows the vehicle to travel more than 100 km at 100 km/hr. Carbon fiber composite vacuum assisted resin transfer techniques were developed to demonstrate the potential for low volume (10,000 units/year) production. The monocoque chassis demonstrated carbon fiber honeycomb for impact attenuation structures to manage front and side impacts.
Technical Paper
2013-09-08
Clément Ailloud, Bernard Delaporte, Gerhard Schmitz, Alan Keromnes, Luis Le Moyne
Internal combustion engine development is mainly driven by new emission regulations and fuel cost. The introduction of hybrid power trains allows the development of highly efficient non-traditional internal combustion engines. One way of increasing thermal efficiency while avoiding issues like high mechanical stress or knock, is to realize different expansion and compression strokes. Different solutions exist such as the Miller/Atkinson cycle or the five stroke engine. A 5-stroke turbo-charged port-injection spark-ignition engine has been developed in the present study for use as a range extender or series-hybrid main power source. Its development and design are based on 0D/1D model and experimental results have been compared with the engine model. The 5-stroke engine is a three-cylinder in which two cylinders, called high pressure (HP) cylinders, perform a four-stroke cycle with a volumetric compression ratio of 8:1 and alternatively a second expansion of the burnt gases is performed in the third cylinder, called low pressure (LP) cylinder with a volumetric compression ratio of 30:1, the overall expansion ratio being 12.7:1.
Article
2013-09-06
Toyota has announced it will invest more than $28 million to expand powertrain operations at its technical center in Ann Arbor, MI. The expansion will support design, evaluation, and calibration on new engine and transmission projects.
Magazine
2013-09-04
Low risk, high gain stakes in aerospace design With the aerospace world pulling back from groundbreaking, high-risk aircraft designs, how are PLM and CAE suppliers adapting in providing solutions?
Magazine
2013-09-03
Honda flexes new powertrain muscle Honda R&D's top engineer outlines his company's Earth Dreams powertrain assault that includes more efficient, robust, and refined ICEs; new hybrid drive systems; and further developments in FCEVs, HCCI, plasma ignitions, and Rankine-cycle engine types. Setting Hyundai's fuel cell strategy Hyundai is one of two major OEMs that are still going it alone in developing FCEV technology, rather than collaborating with competitors. The company's head of fuel cell R&D explains the path toward 2015 series production. Volvo Trucks makes a case for DME The truck maker is working with Oberon Fuels and others to bring dimethyl ether-what company execs say is one of the most promising sustainable alternative fuels-to North America in 2015. Sensing a need for creature comforts Automakers and suppliers are turning to new sensors to help make cabins more comfortable and safer while automating some tasks.
Book
2013-09-01
David Saddington
Brand new research on the automotive HVAC sector This report highlights the findings of research conducted throughout 2013 by ABOUT Automotive in the automotive air conditioning market. Now in its 5th edition, it presents updates and extends the previous sector analysis, providing valuable insights in a number of areas, including: • The market for automotive climate control, determining the trends and topical issues; • The main manufacturers serving this sector, identifying how the market is divided in terms of market share and market value on a regional basis; • Trends in key product and process technologies, both current and future; and • OEM trends and rationale in adopting different types of climate control. The report provides answers to such vital questions as: • What are the market shares of the leading companies, and what will the automotive HVAC market be worth by 2020? • Despite the maturity of the markets throughout the developed world, why will the technical boundaries of air conditioning systems continue to be pushed back?
Article
2013-08-30
The updated 3.0 version of the Bosch Rexroth GoTo Products app is now available from iTunes and offers delivery times for the company’s most requested drive, control, and motion products.
Magazine
2013-08-30
Originality revs up Formula SAE Michigan teams More than 100 Formula SAE teams vied for top honors at the annual Michigan competition that spotlights one-of-a-kind open-wheel racecars designed and built by student engineers. American manufacturing in the hands of UNF students University of North Florida students design and build Formula vehicles for nationwide competition focused on challenging the minds of future engineers. Solar EV thunder down under Michigan is aiming for its first victory in next month's 2013 World Solar Challenge with a new asymmetrical racecar that is ready for 1860 mi (2990 km) in the Australian sun. Solar Impulse Team's next challenge: to circle the globe The next world-girdling version of the fuel-less flier will rely on featherweight polymers and composites.
Book
2013-08-29
This report takes a look at Jaguar Land Rover's recent model performance and its plans for global expansion, including an in-depth interview with David Allen, Purchasing Director for Jaguar Land Rover. The report also looks at the current manufacturing sites based in the United Kingdom, examining the purchasing function, access to finance in the UK, and near-term production forecasts for the group. In addition, there is analysis of the company's relationship with its suppliers, its forward model program, and details of parts supplied by over 130 suppliers to Jaguar Land Rover models. Jaguar Land Rover is one of the great success stories of the UK automotive industry in recent times. Moreover, it has begun the process of transforming itself from a relatively small, niche, UK-based supplier into potentially a major player in the premium automotive market. The last few years have seen a continuous rise in UK production – with some suggestions that at its two main sites, Solihull and Halewood, it could soon face capacity constraints.
Magazine
2013-08-21
Lithium-ion refinement Even as high-profile fires create concern, battery and car makers accelerate their move toward lithium-ion technology with advances in cost, performance, and safety. NASA's quest for maximum efficiency As part of its hybrid body wing aircraft with turboelectric distributed propulsion system, NASA has proposed to use a superconducting and cryogenic electrical system to connect the electrical output of the generators to the motors.
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