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2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2535
Steven Donald Ellersick, Bill Reisenauer, Mickey Jacobson, Newel Stephens
Abstract The past twenty years have seen tremendous changes in the Avionics display and flight deck lighting due to the application of solid-state LED (light emitting diode) light sources and LCDs (liquid crystal displays). These advances significantly benefit the customer and pilot users when integrated correctly. This paper discusses recommended practices and guidance given in SAE ARP 4103 for modern Avionics flight deck lighting systems to satisfy the end user and obtain certification. SAE ARP 4103 Flight Deck Lighting for Commercial Transport Aircraft has recently been revised to keep up with the Avionics state-of-the-art and add clarification where needed. ARP 4103 contains recommended Avionics flight deck lighting design and performance criteria to ensure prompt and accurate readability and visibility, color identification and discrimination of needed information under all expected ambient lighting and electrical power conditions. For additional details, see the actual ARP 4103.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2550
Kiran Thupakula
Abstract In Aerospace Industry, the major challenge is to meet the safety and quality of subsystem / system elements to comply with the standards defined by regulatory authorities for product certification. Engineering test labs are created to provide such precision oriented test platforms ranging from component level to fully integrated test labs/test systems, standalone or distributed network. Even after massive initial capital investment and with the evolution of technologies followed by principles of practice in establishing test facilities, industry is facing open challenges in meeting the performance parameters like productivity, optimum usage, accessibility, monitoring, control and ease of maintenance to list a few. It's very important to standardize the test facilities to optimize time to market and reduce the product cost.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2567
Dushyant Kaliyari, Khadeeja Nusrath TK, Jatinder Singh
Abstract Aerodynamic database update from the flight tests using system identification techniques is a crucial tool for the development of control laws and high fidelity simulators. For the certification of aircraft under test, aero-database needs to be validated from flight tests throughout the flight envelope and also to certain levels beyond the envelope boundaries. Validation of aero-database close to envelope boundaries entails additional complexities which necessitates careful handling of flight data identification and update process. This paper discusses the approach adopted for aero-database update and flight clearance, followed by a discussion on the issues relevant in the extreme flight test regimes, such as, flow angle accuracy at higher angles-of-attack, center-of-gravity variation with fuel pitch angle for high-g maneuvering conditions and inaccuracies in Mach number at transonic speeds.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2580
David Lednicer
Abstract During the 1930s and 1940s, aircraft designers worked on developing novel design features. Some of these features worked and are commonplace today. Other features fell by the wayside and have been forgotten. These novel design features include laminar flow wings, low-drag cooling systems, buried propulsion systems, canard configurations, jet engines, break-away wing tips, pressure cabins and swept wings. The development and applications of these features will be examined. Specific technical details of these applications will be included in this examination. For the design features that fell by the wayside, the reasons for this outcome will be discussed
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2626
Charla Wise
Abstract The nature of aerospace innovation has changed dramatically in the past few decades, including some subtle changes that might go unnoticed to a casual observer outside our industry. The achievements of the 1950s through the 1990s were often epitomized by events that made headlines throughout the world - for example, breaking the sound barrier, walking on the Moon, receiving the first images from a roving vehicle on Mars, or launching the first airliner designed solely using computers. Aerospace engineers today are creating feats that are no less innovative or impressive but that often lack the universal sensational appeal of those past “miracles.” Now the accomplishments are likely to be concerned with using data more effectively to reduce risk and enhance the safety and affordability of products and services rather than flying faster, higher or more stealthily.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2443
Nivedita Chanda
Abstract Aircrafts use Transponder for transmitting data to Air Traffic Control ground stations. Transponders automatically transmit a unique four-digit code when they receive a radio signal sent by radar. But when Transponder is shut down, and the redundant transponder fails to operate, there is no system within the aircraft which can continue transmitting altitude and important data to ATC ground stations. This has necessitated active research work to fundamentally design better and effective communication systems. At present, there is no evident redundant system to transponder unlike in case of Power-Plants, three-fold reliable, safety cum redundant power supply system are present. The present work introduces a novel design ‘RTSA’ which can be effective in catering safe transmission of emergency signal.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2439
Martin Hunter
Abstract It is generally accepted that the development of hardware and software for safety critical systems follow their own lifecycles as defined by standards such as RTCA DO254 and RTCA DO178C. What is less clear is what should be done to ensure the system safety objectives are met when the software is installed in the electronic hardware. This paper seeks to discuss the activities that may be undertaken do demonstrate not only that the integration of the software and hardware “work” together, but they do so in a manner that meets the safety objectives in line with the guidelines described in SAE ARP4754A. According to ARP4754A, hardware and software are different “items” developed according to their own requirements and standards, when two or more items are brought together, they are a system, which may be part of a larger system.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2529
Mahendra Muli, Vivek Moudgal, Jace Allen
Abstract The Aerospace and Defense industry is currently challenged in multiple ways - cost cutting and sequestration on the defense side, and spurt of growth on the commercial aviation side of business. While these are opposing trends, both will impose severe challenges to the management of product development process for both the Air framers and the suppliers. The challenge becomes severe as the innovation expectations become rapid with increases in embedded software content in avionics and the advent of a new category of autonomous ground, marine, and air systems. Clearly, the industry need is to have a product development process that allows for reducing costs, while increasing embedded software quality and thereby product quality even in an iterative development process.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2434
Tian Lirong, Mu Ming
Abstract In recent year, with the booming of Chinese economy and domestic civil air transportation market, China's aircraft manufacturers have been trying to develop their own commercial aircraft and changing from the subcontracting-manufacturer to aircraft developer, which turned to be a very hard task. One of the main challenges in front of China's aircraft manufacturers and airborne equipment suppliers is how to apply the airworthiness standards, such as ARP4754A, ARP4761, DO-178B(C) and DO-254, etc, into their engineering practice. Chinese companies are struggling in improving their capabilities to satisfy certification requirements and are making some remarkable progress these years. The paper first introduces the current status of Chinese aviation industry, and then the challenges to China's airborne equipment suppliers are analyzed. Based on these, the customization considerations of airworthiness standards and ARP4754 Practice in Chinese context are discussed.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2445
Hartmut Hintze, Ralf God
Abstract The increasing functionality associated with the rising complexity of aircraft cabin systems which are used by cabin crew, passengers, maintenance staff and other stakeholders, requires a reconsideration of the methods for the development of aircraft cabin systems. This paper deals with a model-based security engineering approach based on the so called Three-V-Model as an appropriate process model, which represents the governing system engineering process (SEP) associated with the safety engineering process (SafEP) and the security engineering process (SecEP). All three processes are pursued concurrently and are interacting reciprocally by working within the same system model on each development level. We describe in detail the involved model-based security engineering activities of the SecEP and the integration of the CORAS risk analysis method in a consistent System Modeling Language (SysML) approach.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2581
Scott Eberhardt
Abstract World War 1 began with the airplane as a frail, unarmed means of observing enemy troop movements and ended with the airplane as a powerful, much more evolved weapon of war. There were specialized roles for fighter, bomber and ground attack aircraft as well as newly developed aerial strategies and tactics for operational effectiveness. Many aircraft design technologies greatly matured during the war. Four will be the subject of this paper: Drag reduction, aircraft handling qualities, stability and control, airfoil design technology, and structures design technology. Propulsion and armament also matured greatly but are not discussed in the paper. The discussion of drag reduction will illustrate the innovations of the British on external wire bracing drag, the French on cowl design and the Germans on cantilevered wings and induced drag.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2581.01
Paul Dees, Scott Eberhardt
The original paper published mistakenly did not include Paul Dees, Boeing in the author listing.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2428
Richard Ambroise, Gabriel Godfrey
The smartphone in your pocket, the tablet you use to browse the web, the safety systems in your automobile: they all benefit from fast-evolving computer and electronic component technology. These components are lighter, hold more data, and can perform increasingly complex tasks. This electronic evolution has had an impact in the aviation industry as well. The electronic components used in today's engines can do more than ever before, but the need to replace older components has introduced some added complexity. Until now. The problem is obsolescence. Driven by an ever-demanding consumer market, electrical components - including those used for aircraft engines - are evolving faster than ever. Engine components installed just a few years ago are no longer being made. This means engine manufacturers need to install new models when replacing these older models or when building new engines.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2452
Vicki S. Johnson
Abstract The Systems Engineering (SE) “Vee” is generally recognized as one of the primary identifying features of Systems Engineering processes. While there are many specifications which include SE in their titles and show a version of the “Vee” in their process descriptions, there are other specifications which make no claim to be an SE standard but show a “Vee” describing the processes in the specification. There are also specifications which appear to be completely unrelated to SE but describe processes which are very much SE. This wide variety of documents points to the possibility of identifying the common core which composes SE (the soul of Systems Engineering). To search for the soul of SE, the words in two recognized SE standards along with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) SE standard and multiple Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) standards have been analyzed for alignment of and differences between the models.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2431
Robert E. Voros
Abstract Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) 4754 Revision A (ARP4754A), “Guidelines for Development of Civil Aircraft and Systems,” [1] is recognized through Advisory Circular (AC) 20-174 (AC 20-174) [2] as a way (but not the only way) to provide development assurance for aircraft and systems to minimize the possibility of development errors. ARP4754A and its companion, Aerospace Information Report (AIR) 6110, “Contiguous Aircraft/System Development Process Example,” [3] primarily describe development processes for an all new, complex and highly integrated aircraft without strong consideration for reused systems or simple systems. While ARP4754A section 5 mentions reuse, similarity, and complexity, and section 6 is intended to cover modification programs, the descriptions in these sections can be unclear and inconsistent. The majority of aircraft projects are not completely new Products nor are they entirely comprised of complex and highly integrated systems.
2015-09-10
Book
Tim King
A keen focus on operations, cost management, leadership, and customer service is presented in this book for fleets to thrive in today’s competitive business environment. Basic concepts and customer service fundamentals, along with integrated best practices, and business tools are fully described. This model can be applied by service groups of any size to achieve quality performance benefits for both the customer and the fleet-provider. Fleet Services: Redefining Success presents: • A back-to-basics approach that begins by redefining a fleet's customers to fully identify and provide customer-driven services. • A hierarchy for success that includes development of management goals and strategies to exceed customer expectations. • Best practices and associated business tool requirements that assure exceptional service and win-win results. • An innovative business model that maximizes opportunities and positive outcomes for fleet service providers.
2015-09-03
Article
Dr. Phil Stephenson, General Manager of PACCAR Technical Center, and co-chairman for the SAE 2015 Commercial Vehicle Engineering Congress (ComVEC), discusses several major topics affecting on- and off-highway commercial vehicles, including emissions regulations, embedded software, 24-V electrification, operator assistance technologies, and cybersecurity.
2015-09-01
Magazine
UMich-Ann Arbor team takes home Baja season's Iron Team Award Cornell University also had a strong 2014 season, but not strong enough to fend off Michigan Baja Racing. Georgia Tech and Warsaw University were double-winners at SAE Aero Design competitions University of Akron and University of Cincinnati were the other winners at the twin 3-class competitions, the former setting a record in the process. West Coast teams win 2 of 3 Formula SAE events Oregon State captures its fifth crown while Jose State enjoys its first overall victory and UPenn tops the electric field. Taking action early to conquer the STEM crisis Interest in STEM subjects falls precipitously as students progress through elementary and middle school.
2015-09-01
Article
FCA powertrain engineers have shaved weight and increased the efficiency and power of their do-it-all V6, while preparing it for possible DI turbocharged duty in the not-so-distant future.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-2020
Takashi Okada, Satoshi Teramoto, Nobuo Furuta
In 1991, linear O2 sensors for lean-burn control were introduced in production vehicles for the first time in the world. Since then, the linear O2 sensors have been used mainly for the precise λ control. Recently requirements for Oxygen sensors have become increasingly stringent in the trends of tighter vehicle EM control requirements and lower fuel consumption. In response to these trends, NGK SPARK PLUG CO., LTD. has developed a new generation linear O2 sensor, which has a high water toughness and requires less power consumption.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-2018
Yuki Jin, Narimasa Shinoda, Yosuke Uesaka, Tatsuyuki Kuki, Masataka Yamashita, Hirofumi Sakamoto, Tasuku Matsumoto, Philipp Kattouah, Claus Dieter Vogt
Diesel engines are widely used to reduce CO2 emission due to its higher thermal efficiency over gasoline engines. Considering long term CO2 targets, as well as tighter gas emission, especially NOx, diesel engines must become cleaner and more efficient. However, there is a tradeoff between CO2 and NOx and, naturally, engine developers choose lower CO2 because NOx can be reduced by a catalytic converter, such as a SCR catalyst. Lower CO2 engine calibration, unfortunately, leads to lower exhaust gas temperatures, which delays the activation of the catalytic converter. In order to overcome both problems, higher engine out NOx emission and lower exhaust gas temperatures, close-coupled a diesel particulate filter (DPF) system with integration of SCR catalyst technology is preferred. For SCR catalyst activity, it is known that the catalyst loading amount has an influence on NOx performance, so a high SCR catalyst loading will be required.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-1972
Jun Matsui, Hiroyasu Koyama, Yuichi Goto, Hidetoshi Kawai
The new 2GR-FKS / FXS engines were developed to achieve stringent fuel economy and emission targets and respond to recent innovations in the field. The major parts of the 2GR-FKS/FXS engines were re-designed based on the well-received dynamic performance and fuel economy aspects of the 2GR-FE engine. The aims of this development were as follows. 1 Best-in-class power performance2 Environmental performance that maximizes thermal efficiency and complies with fuel economy and emission regulations in each country by a wide margin3 Engine response typical of V6 engines through drastic weight reduction of moving parts To achieve these conflicting aims, the developed engines use a modified version of the D-4S fuel injection system, which enables selective use of direct and port injection, in addition to advanced technologies such as variable valve technology (VVT) with a mid-position lock system and an exhaust port cooling system.
2015-08-21
WIP Standard
AS6171/12
Acoustic Microscopy Test Methods for Counterfeit Capacitors
2015-08-21
Standard
AS5684B
The SAE Aerospace Information Report AIR5315 – Generic Open Architecture (GOA) defines “a framework to identify interface classes for applying open systems to the design of a specific hardware/software system.” [sae] JAUS Service (Interface) Definition Language defines an XML schema for the interface definition of services at the Class 4L, or Application Layer, and Class 3L, or System Services Layer, of the Generic Open Architecture stack (see Figure 1). The specification of JAUS services shall be defined according to the JAUS Service (Interface) Definition Language document.
2015-08-19
Article
The 2017 GT development program has begun testing in southeastern Michigan, with the exotic American supercars running “naked” as they rack up miles amid daily commuter traffic. Automotive Engineering encountered and photographed one of the off-tool prototypes recently.
2015-08-18
WIP Standard
EIA836C
The primary focus of this standard is information of interest to Configuration Management (CM) practitioners related to the performance of CM functions as products are conceived, proposed, defined, developed, produced, operated, maintained, modified, and disposed. This information is stored when generated and, from time to time, must be moved or shared with others. This standard, through the use of the Data Dictionary, defines real world things of interest to the CM practitioner, which are the foundation of the following CM functional areas, and are needed for effective data exchange and interoperability: Configuration Management Planning and Management; Configuration Identification; Configuration Change Management; Configuration Audit; Configuration Verification; Configuration Status Accounting.
2015-08-15
Standard
CPGM1_16LCVIMPA
This product includes information on the manufacturer, engine, application, testing location, certified maximum horsepower, certified maximum torque along with the certified curves of horsepower and torque over a wide range of engine RPM speeds.
2015-08-11
Article
Ian Callum joined Jaguar in 1999, where he and his team created, among others, the R-Coupe, RD-6, C-X75, and C-X17 concepts. His Jaguar production model list spans, chronologically, the last generation XK (2006), followed by the XF, XJ, and the F-Type, in coupe and convertible forms. Now, Callum has led his team to create the new XF and future Jaguars.
2015-08-11
Standard
J2629_201508
SAE developed this document and associated spreadsheets at the request of automobile manufacturers to help compare products from multiple suppliers using standard data presentation formats. This document includes several preferred formats for presenting acoustical data on materials, components, systems, or vehicles. These formats cover the range of acoustical tests commonly conducted in the automotive industry. These tests follow SAE and ASTM test practices as well as vehicle specific test methods. For each test, the details of samples and test conditions can be entered into an applicable electronic spreadsheet together with the acoustical results data. These data are then linked to standard graphical display(s) for each test. All manufacturers and suppliers in this industry are encouraged to present data and results in these formats.
2015-07-30
Standard
J1938_201507
Since it is impossible to be all inclusive and cover every aspect of the design/validation process, this document can be used as a basis for preparation of a more comprehensive and detailed plan that reflects the accumulated "lessons learned" at a particular company. The following areas are addressed in this document: 1. Contemporary perspective including common validation issues and flaws. 2. A Robustness Validation (RV) process based on SAE J1211 handbook and SAE J2628. 3. Design checklists to aid in such a RV process.
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