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Technical Paper
2013-10-07
Alisson Sarmento, André Luiz J. Pereira, Carlos A. Barbieri, Carlos Sakuramoto
The new Brazilian automotive regulation, INOVAR, states aggressive energy efficiency targets until 2016 to vehicles sold in Brazil. Many engineering solutions shall be done and implemented by Automakers to adequate current and new vehicles to INOVAR requirements. The Body Structure represents about 40% of vehicle mass and it is fundamental portion of energy efficiency study. The biggest body structure engineers challenge is provide mass reduction changes without jeopardize legal requirements and structural vehicle performance such as: Safety, Reparability, Torsional and Bending Stiffness, Durability, etc. Either Automakers or Suppliers manufacturing have an important task supporting Product Engineers on new parts development with different materials, shapes and joining. The contribution of Body Structure mass reduction for Internal Combustion Engines vehicles is not enough to achieve targets because new Program establishes smaller Energy Consumption for lighter vehicles. However, Body Structure mass reduction is necessary to allow Secondary vehicle changes like: Rolling resistance, Friction Reduction and Engine technologies such as: Multiple valves, Variable valve actuation, Engine downsizing, Start Stop Systems.
Technical Paper
2013-10-07
Renata Silveira Laczynski Goi, Alexandre Tavares Soares, Paulo Fernando Rocha, Silvio Cesar Bastos, Paulo Rolin
It is known that Managing Companies' Proprieties outside the Company facilities is a challengeable task. It is not only the fact of knowing what is involved and with whom it is, but how is its condition, integrity and if the third part is keeping the assets in good maintenance. Also loosing the tracking of the lifetime and costs involved such as depreciation and amortization may cost to the Company a huge amount of money, it can cost intellectual propriety shared, product quality and flexibility to move from one critical supplier to another. In a global market having the control of these assets can be the difference among success and failure either thinking about costs or achieving better quality results. There is also an understanding that this is a complex management and it presents a hard work to be done, considering the passives the companies' already have, the projects being developed, and what is worse not to be sure that the companies own devices, tools, machines and gages may lead in addition expenditure.
Technical Paper
2013-10-07
Hubert Friedl, Marko Certic, Alois Fuerhapter, Paul Kapus, Karl Koeck, Matthias Neubauer
For achieving the forthcoming CO2 emission targets of 95g/km by 2020 and for the years beyond, comprehensive activities for powertrain technology as well as development methodology has to be utilized. It will by far not be enough to add a few single technology features to achieve the desired result. More and more the success will result from comprehensive combining of synergetic utilization of complementary effects. This will be the powertrain perfectly matched to the vehicle, including the energy source, and all together integrated by means of advanced development tools and methodology. The content of this paper will address the following topics: Global and regional trends and market penetration of propulsion technologies Combustion system: Outline of highly efficient SI engines, featuring advanced charging systems, utilization of Miller cycle and high rates of cooled EGR Tools and methodology for highly efficient development processes (highly accurate fuel consumption measurement, particulate number, optical instrumentation, transparent engine, calibration tools)
Technical Paper
2013-10-07
Clodoaldo Borges Chagas, Thiago Caetano Freitas, Murilo Fregonesi Falleiros, André Fernandes Silva, Gustavo José Corrêa Gonçalves
A proper way to innovate consists in identify some kind of customer dissatisfaction and within this observation the companies ought to develop products which will be acceptable by the market. Only in this way, companies will be able to stand out in front of their competitors and the innovative companies can create new needs and valuable knowledge. More and more, the automotive vehicle consumers tend to opt internal combustion engines which use chain drive in their timing system, since the chain drive system presents high durability, avoiding the usual maintenance common to the belt timing system. The necessity of developing parts which increase the efficiency and minimize the fuel consumption, noise and vibration in the timing chain drive system lead the study and comprehension of some physical phenomena. It is inherent to the chain drive system the fluctuation of the angular velocity between shafts, this feature is known as “polygonal action”. In the present work the fluctuation of the angular rotations between camshafts and crankshafts are treated by the geometry of the transmission.
Book
2013-10-07
Each year car manufacturers release new production models that are unique and innovative. The production model is the result of a lengthy process of testing aerodynamics, safety, engine components, and vehicle styling. The new technologies introduced in these vehicles reflect changing standards as well as trends of the market. From Acura to Volvo, this book provides a snapshot of the key engineering concepts and trends of the passenger vehicle industry over the course of a year. For each of the 43 new production models, articles from Automotive Engineering International (AEI) magazine detail technology developments as well as a comprehensive look at the 2013 passenger car models. This book provides those with an interest in new vehicles with all the information on the key automotive engineering and technology advancements of the year. AEI’s association with SAE International guarantees that these articles come from a trusted and reliable source with a reputation 100-plus years in the making.
Technical Paper
2013-10-07
Erik Telles Pascoal, Gustavo de Souza Lima
A frequent situation in the national automobile industry is the each time bigger rapidity that just-launched models are evolved (the so called face-lifts). Within this highly dynamic context, the solutions and technical proposals developed by the local product engineering have two main guidelines. The first one is to work on product evolutions which goal is to make the vehicles far more attractive and differentiated with respect to the competition and also to the previous model. The second one is to constantly search the standardization or the modularization of parts between the different models and versions of vehicles, thus reducing the costs of investments and providing scale profits. This article aims to present, through a case study of the front seat structures, a practical and innovative example of the application of a modular solution developed by the local product engineering that allowed the conciliation of these two apparently antagonistic objectives, the one of obtaining scale economies and, at the same time, the other of preserving the style and the identity of each one of the final products.
Magazine
2013-10-04
Exhausting Possibilities A novel herringbone design of exhaust catalyst could be the 'Eureka' moment for emissions reductions, says ACAT Global's CEO Joseph W Moch. Ian Adcock tries to unravel the story behind it A right royal performance An interior influenced by the Jubilee celebrations? James Brewer finds out more Virtually, the real deal OEMs want faster time to market, reduced development costs and ever more sophisticated testing. Ian Adcock reports
Book
2013-10-03
Polymer Matrix and Structural Sandwich Composites 4-Volume Set: • Volume 1: Guidelines for Characterization of Structural Materials • Volume 2: Materials Properties • Volume 3: Materials Usage, Design, and Analysis • Volume 6: Structural Sandwich Composites This 4-volume set includes critical properties of composite materials that meet specific data requirements, as well as guidelines for design, analysis, material selection, manufacturing, quality control, and repair. This newly-updated engineering reference tool, part of the Composite Materials Handbook (CMH-17), also contains the latest test data for polymer matrix composites as well as essential material relating to sandwich composites used in military and commercial vehicles. Volume 1 contains guidelines for determining the properties of polymer matrix composite material systems and their constituents, as well as the properties of generic structural elements, including test planning, test matrices, sampling, conditioning, test procedure selection, data reporting, data reduction, statistical analysis, and other related topics.
WIP Standard
2013-10-02
This Common Interface Control Plan (CICP) establishes the methodology for developing, controlling and managing the technical interfaces between and within systems. The document is not intended to directly control any other aspects of program management, such as matters of contractual, financial or those of an intellectual property rights nature. Members in the interface control process include: procurement authorities, design authorities and other related agencies as defined in the specific System Interface Control Plan (SICP). For the purposes of this plan only the terms Procuring Organization and Producing Organization will be used. This plan is predicated upon formal agreements between participating organizations that provide: a. Authority to participate in Interface Control Working Group (ICWG) and decision making processes. b. Primary integration control, interface problem resolution, and interface impact assessments through the ICWG. c. Higher level interface management under the purview of the appellate process as defined by this document and in the SICP.
WIP Standard
2013-10-02
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines the editorial format and policies necessary for the publication of Interface Control documents. The Common Interface Control Document Format Standard defines a common format for aircraft/store interface documents to foster increased interoperability. It is designed with the versatility to serve differing "ICD " philosophies and organizations. This aerospace standard defines the common technical data sections for the Common Interface Control Document Format down to the third header level for the majority of sub-sections. The Common Interface Control Document Format Aerospace Standard provides a structured document format in appendixes supported by example paragraphs, drawings, etc.
WIP Standard
2013-10-02
The purpose of the recommended practice is to define a list of operator precautions that should be stressed in operator training and in the preparation of operator manuals. These general operator precautions apply to off-road work machines as defined in SAE J1116 JUN85, Categories one, two, four and five and agricultural tractors in Category three. These should not be considered as all inclusive for all specific uses and unique features of each particular machine. Other more specific operator precautions not mentioned herein should be covered by users of this recommended practice for each particular machine application.
WIP Standard
2013-10-01
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes a uniform test procedure for determining performance levels of operator enclosure panel type air filters on off-road, self-propelled work machines used in construction, general-purpose industrial, agriculture, and forestry as defined in SAE J1116 and equipped with an operator enclosure with a powered fresh air system.
Magazine
2013-10-01
High hopes or just dreaming? A look at how Asia's aircraft manufacturers are trying to break into new markets to challenge the status quo. Camelina-based biofuel shows advantages in turboprop Researchers within the government of Canada see the need to improve the emissions performance of the Rolls-Royce T56 engine, which despite its age remains a workhorse for its military aircraft fleet.
Book
2013-10-01
Honda's October 2013 R&D Technical Review features cutting-edge developments from Honda's worldwide R&D teams. This edition brings 23 original papers on the introduction of new technologies, spanning automobile, motorcycle, power products, and aircraft engines, to mention the most meaningful. This title covers the main following topics: • Development of Sport Hybrid i-MMMD control system for the 2014 Accord • Development of robotic lawnmower Miimo • Research on combustion improvement techniques by intake valve offset and squish effect • Identification of mechanism of transmission of flow-induced noise through glass for vehicle interior noise reduction • Design appearance evaluation tool for non-prototype development • Flat belt test system for suspension and tire measurement
Standard
2013-10-01
This SAE Standard covers the measurement of voltage transient immunity and within the applicable frequency ranges, audio (AF) and radio frequency (RF) immunity, and conducted and radiated emissions. By reference, ISO 11452-3, ISO 11452-7, ISO 11452-8, ISO 11452-10, ISO 11452-11, ISO 11452-2 and the emissions portion of ISO 7637-2 are adopted in place of SAE J1113-24, SAE J1113-3 , SAE J1113-22, SAE J1113-2, SAE J1113-28, SAE J1113-21 and SAE J1113-42, respectively. In the event that an amendment is made or a new edition is published, the new ISO document shall become part of this standard six months after the publication of the ISO document. SAE reserves the right to identify exceptions to the published ISO document with the exceptions to be documented in SAE J1113-24, SAE J1113-3, SAE J1113-22, SAE J1113-2, SAE J1113-28, SAE J1113-21 and SAE J1113-42 respectively. By reference, IEC CISPR 25 is adopted as the standard for the measurement of component emissions. In the event that an amendment is made or a new edition is published, the new IEC document shall become part of this standard six months after the publication of the IEC document.
WIP Standard
2013-09-30
The purpose of this document is to establish air conditioning design guidelines that will apply to most systems rather than the specific design of any particular system. Operating conditions and characteristics of the equipment will determine the design of any successful system, and since these characteristics and conditions vary greatly from one application to another, the designer must determine the goals expected to be reached under the conditions encountered. To determine the capacity of such items as blowers, condenser fans, condenser coils, evaporator coils, filters, compressors, etc., will require the adherence to several guidelines, some of which are outlined in this document.
Technical Paper
2013-09-30
Masaaki Nishiwaki, Koji Sorimachi, Ryutaro Misumi
The vehicle requires high brake performance and mass reduction of disc brake for vehicle fuel economy. Then disc brake will be designed by downsizing of disc and high friction coefficient pad materials. It is well known that disc brake squeal is frequently caused by high friction coefficient pad materials. Disc brake squeal is caused by dynamic unstable system under disturbance of friction force variation. Today, disc brake squeal comes to be simulated by FEA, but it is very difficult to put so many dynamic unstable solutions into stable solutions. Therefore it is very important to make it clear the influence of friction force variation. This paper describes the development of experimental set up for disc brake squeal basic research. First, the equation of motion in low-frequency disc brake squeal around 2 kHz is derived. Second, the increase of kinetic energy per 1 cycle in minute vibration is derived, which represents the influence of coupled vibration between out of plane vibration and in-plane vibration in disc and pads with caliper.
Magazine
2013-09-30
When real life and FEA meet Model validation becomes the focus for building the chassis of a BAJA SAE vehicle. One student offers his advice for making smart choices while using FEA. Wait...where is Manitoba? Andrew Smith, Executive Vice Chair for the University of Manitoba's SAE International Chapter faces limited resources and the growth of what was once a small team. High hopes or just dreaming? A look at how Asia's aircraft manufacturers are trying to break into new markets to challenge the status quo. Operators see bright screens in their future HMIs borrow from tablets, phones to help operators perform a broad range of tasks.
Article
2013-09-25
Jaguar Land Rover is the key partner in a "large-scale collaborative research environment" to be created in a new public-private automotive tech center to be constructed at the University of Warwick. With the opening of the National Automotive Innovation Campus (NAIC) in 2016, Jaguar Land Rover will double the size of its advanced research team to about 500 people.
Standard
2013-09-25
This SAE Standard characterizes grapple skidders and identifies the major components and parts most commonly associated therewith. Illustrations used herein are not intended to include all existing commercial machines or to be exactly descriptive of any particular machine. They have been included to facilitate application of this document.
Article
2013-09-24
Europe is now ready for electric vehicles, believes Dr. Roland Krüger, head of Ford of Europe’s (FoE) electric powertrain development. But significant hurdles remain for EVs, plug-ins, and FCVs.
Book
2013-09-24
Following on from the various crises of 2009, 2010 and 2011, Toyota has surged back to reclaim the title of top global automotive manufacturer (by volume). There are a series of factors supporting this recovery, but in much the same way that the supplier community assisted the OEM to maintain output during those bad years, those same companies have been integral to the company’s on-going rebound. As the company increases output, this support has centered on managing to deliver a substantial increase in total part volumes, a difficult task after many tier suppliers had reduced production capacity in line with Toyota’s declining output over the preceding years. This has meant investing to ramp up in line with output, while still developing new technologies and working with the OEM to support production of next-generation models. The other side to the coin is that many of the preferred suppliers working with Toyota are also part owned by the OEM and many of those same companies rely on the OEM for most of their business, so there is a vested interest in supporting the carmaker.
Technical Paper
2013-09-24
Xinyu Ge
The growth of auto sales in emerging markets provides a good opportunity for automakers. Cost is a key factor for any automaker to win in an emerging market. This paper analyzes risks and opportunities in a low cost manufacturing environment. The Chinese auto market is used as an example and three categories of risks are analyzed. A typical risk assessment for cost reduction includes the analysis of environment risks, process risks and strategic risks associated with all phases of a product life. In an emerging market, emission regulations are a rapidly-evolving environment variable, since most countries with less regulated emission codes try to catch up with the newly- developed technologies to meet sustainable growth targets. Emission regulations have a huge impact on product design, manufacturing and maintenance in the automotive industry, and hence the related cost reduction must be thoroughly analyzed during risk assessment. Diesel engines optimized for minimum Particulate Matter (PM) engine out emission with only Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) are proposed in this paper as the most cost effective solution for Chinese on-highway and off-highway commercial automobiles, especially for heavy-duty trucks.
Technical Paper
2013-09-24
Yaamini Devi Loganathan, Maksood Shaikh, Praveen Sharma
Foreign investments help in productive capacity building for both the parent organization in the home country, and in the host country. Preferably, investment promotion is encouraged as it creates biggest impact on creating backward and forward linkages besides generating direct and indirect employment. Commercial vehicle is one such industry. In this knowledge world, organizations can excel or sustain their excellence, only if there is a continuous learning at all levels. To a great extent, competitive advantage of a transnational organization lies in its ability to identify and transfer best practices, core competencies. Knowledge sharing happens in a natural way between its geographically dispersed and diverse units. Technology paves way in creating and leveraging knowledge at an exponential rate, besides reducing time, effort and cost while achieving business goals. Adoption of technology becomes highly pertinent if the parent company has strategies to enter into different markets.
Technical Paper
2013-09-24
G. Balaji, Ashwini Agarwal, Mahesh Mungi, Ranjit Babar, Vidyadhar Katkar PE
In automotive design and development, there are different stages for product design. In this fast changing scenario product design, digital verification of design (CAE), physical validation of the product and launching of the same in short time is important in product development life cycle of any new generation vehicle. This paper proposes a new approach towards development of a green-field platform for commercial vehicles by improving reliability of CAE and thereby reducing the need for prototype testing and hence shortening development cycle and costs - we call it “Hybrid Mule”. This Hybrid Mule has complete design intent under-body and engine-house while upper-body is made of simple representative tubular space frame. FRP skin panels are attached to this space frame to create a safe environment for test-driver. FRP skin also provides early feel of styling in running condition and evaluates basic ergonomics and visibility. Hybrid Mule is developed taking into consideration all detail CAE analyses - durability, crash, NVH, attachment point stiffness, ride & handling, etc., to establish early co-relation between digital and physical worlds.
Technical Paper
2013-09-24
Vijay Janardan Warade, Gopal Krishna Dalvi, Rakesh Rameshchandra Sharma
In the pursuit of Manufacturing Excellence, DivgiWarner follows Quality System Basics which includes operator training as one of the key elements. Any manufacturing process consists of 5M's. Out of these 5M's, Machine, Material, Method, Measurement can be engineered to get the desired output. Required control is possible with the fifth ‘M’ i.e. Man by providing Standardized Training, resulting in Repeatability & Reproducibility from each process. DivgiWarner has designed, developed and been practicing the unique process of Operator Training and Licensing. This paper describes the Operator Licensing process. The process is divided into seven subsections inclusive of: 1 Induction Training2 Classroom Training3 On-Job Training4 Written Test and Evaluation5 Issue Operator License i.e. Certification6 Monitoring operator through Layered Process Audits (Effectiveness of Training Process)7 Renewal of license As an operator goes through this process, his/her skill level and competency increases with continuous practice.
Technical Paper
2013-09-24
Mahendra Muli, Jace Allen
The Model-Based Development (MBD) process has been the key enabler of technical advancement. MBD helps manage complexity, while making product development faster by bringing clarity and transparency to the entire product development process, specifically software components. Developing software using MBD has required extensive, sophisticated toolchains, like the ones provided by dSPACE, that allow for efficient rapid controls prototyping, automatic code generation, and advanced validation and verification techniques with hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test systems. MBD is an efficient iterative process that allows engineers to improve quality and deliver on demanding needs of product variants in the current competitive environment. However, the MBD process described commonly using the ‘V-Cycle’ diagram leads to the generation of large volumes of data artifacts and work products. The iterative process, variants and versions of these artifacts lead to even larger amounts of data. To maintain efficiency while continuously improving the quality of products in the MBD paradigm, it is necessary to be able to manage this data in an efficient manner that is supportive of the development process.
Technical Paper
2013-09-24
Eldon Brasche
Since 1992, Caterpillar has invested millions of dollars to purchase CAD software, and spends nearly $2M per year keeping its engineers up-to-date, via instructor lead training (ILT), as new enhancements are introduced. Periodic upgrades to the software also require huge resource (people, costs) commitments for the planning and execution of the training requirements required for a large global workforce. This paper will examine gaps uncovered in the efficiency and effectiveness of the current training process, and the cultural change required as a result of switching from an instructor led environment to a completely web-based solution, which, once deployed, had promised to change the way Caterpillar approached training for the future. The proposed change promised to improve human resource capability by utilizing new technological capabilities, and resulted in improvements in organizational capabilities as well. Topics reviewed include: Reasons for initiating the change, including perceptions of the as-is process (voice of the customer), and pros/cons of the current state.
Article
2013-09-17
No other sports car can match the C7's combination of performance, value, and overall efficiency. Chief Engineer Tadge Juechter provides insight on executing a masterpiece.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Susan Liscouet-Hanke, Kenny Huynh
This paper presents a methodology for conceptual aircraft design to evaluate the space available for systems (top-down approach) and to estimate the space required for critical components impacting the aircraft configuration (bottom-up approach). The presented top-down approach introduces the concept of “equivalent design volume”, including the space required for systems and the associated empty space to access, maintain and ventilate them. This approach enables an early feasibility check for aircraft configuration exploration regarding the integration and installation of systems, without having to detail the system architecture. In complement, the bottom-up approach introduces the estimation of the required dimensions for critical components. Here, the example of the flight control actuators integration in the wing tip is presented.
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