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Technical Paper
2013-10-07
Renata Silveira Laczynski Goi, Alexandre Tavares Soares, Paulo Fernando Rocha, Silvio Cesar Bastos, Paulo Rolin
It is known that Managing Companies' Proprieties outside the Company facilities is a challengeable task. It is not only the fact of knowing what is involved and with whom it is, but how is its condition, integrity and if the third part is keeping the assets in good maintenance. Also loosing the tracking of the lifetime and costs involved such as depreciation and amortization may cost to the Company a huge amount of money, it can cost intellectual propriety shared, product quality and flexibility to move from one critical supplier to another. In a global market having the control of these assets can be the difference among success and failure either thinking about costs or achieving better quality results. There is also an understanding that this is a complex management and it presents a hard work to be done, considering the passives the companies' already have, the projects being developed, and what is worse not to be sure that the companies own devices, tools, machines and gages may lead in addition expenditure.
Technical Paper
2013-10-07
M. Pontoppidan, J. G. C. Baeta
The paper describes the setup of a 4-cylinder 1.4-liter prototype Spark Ignited (SI)-engine, which is highly boosted, extremely downsized and port fuel injected. During experimental data gathering with the engine it was discovered that the originally mounted fuel injectors were non-optimized an unable to produce an expected low fuel consumption performance at low speed, low load engine working conditions. To solve this problem by finding an optimized alternative solution for the mixture preparation process it was decided to use a high-performance numerical simulation tool. The paper presents the overall layout of the prototype engine as well as the structure of the 3-D dynamic optimization tool used to address the mixture preparation problem. The paper continues with a detailed description of the different steps used to reach the complete optimization of the mixture preparation system (both the fuel injectors and the intake manifold). The paper concludes by a presentation of a series of experimental verification data obtained on the prototype engine both at the engine test rig as well as preliminary data from measurements carried out with the engine mounted in a passenger car.
Technical Paper
2013-10-07
Erik Telles Pascoal, Gustavo de Souza Lima
A frequent situation in the national automobile industry is the each time bigger rapidity that just-launched models are evolved (the so called face-lifts). Within this highly dynamic context, the solutions and technical proposals developed by the local product engineering have two main guidelines. The first one is to work on product evolutions which goal is to make the vehicles far more attractive and differentiated with respect to the competition and also to the previous model. The second one is to constantly search the standardization or the modularization of parts between the different models and versions of vehicles, thus reducing the costs of investments and providing scale profits. This article aims to present, through a case study of the front seat structures, a practical and innovative example of the application of a modular solution developed by the local product engineering that allowed the conciliation of these two apparently antagonistic objectives, the one of obtaining scale economies and, at the same time, the other of preserving the style and the identity of each one of the final products.
Technical Paper
2013-10-07
André Ricardo Marchezan, Mauro Andreassa
The largest automobile companies have several corporate, regulatory and customer requirements to integrate into engineering of development [1]. These information need to be split in technical team called disciplines as electrical, chassis, powertrain, etc. The advanced engineering team is responsible to conduct this process with general purpose of facilitating the managing and tracking of creation and execution of the total vehicle/system. However, the interrelation, complexity and lack of engineer's know-how of these systems have been creating innumerous issues into development, launch, manufactory and quality. Insufficient dedicated tools, requirement definitions and poor initial programs formulation are some reasons of these issues. It means that the ability applied in advanced engineering principles and analytical techniques in an automotive engineering context have to be improved. The design axiomatic is a powerful theory applied into vehicle system and component level to understand the engineering design process, at both, the conceptual and detail levels and to reduce the gap among information systems.
Technical Paper
2013-10-07
Arturo Dávila, Javier Gutiérrez, Emilia Romero, Micha Lesemann
The ELVA project (Advance Electric Vehicle Architectures) was co-funded by the European Commission's 7th Framework Programme. The project was formed by a consortium of seven partners: Institute for Automotive Engineering (ika) of RWTH Aachen University; Applus+ IDIADA; Volkswagen; Renault; Centro Richerche Fiat (CRF); Continental and the Swedish Vehicle and Traffic Safety Centre (SAFER). The objectives of the ELVA project were to generate, investigate and analyse innovative design concepts for electric vehicles (EV). Also, to deliver new modular architectures with the same level of safety as today's best known practices, while minimizing weight, maximizing energy efficiency, optimizing ergonomics and interior space, all at affordable costs. The level of comfort and performance must also be improved. All of the development strategies were summarized in form of best practices, which have been made available for designers and engineers. The project characterized for strong interaction amongst the participants during the design loops.
Technical Paper
2013-10-07
Antonio Carlos Scardini Villela, Sergio William Botero, Guilherme Bastos Machado, Julio César Egúsquiza, Leonardo C. Braga, Sergio L. Braga, Calos Valois M. Braga
Regarding fuels research and development, some preliminary studies - low cost and short time - can be conducted before the traditional engine tests - more expensive and time consuming. Therefore, experimental apparatus, such as a rapid compression machine (RCM) and specific methodologies, such as imaging techniques, are very useful in order to simulate engine combustion with simplicity, agility and flexibility, reducing development time and costs. Imaging techniques allow flame front propagation and ignition delay analysis, which are important parameters to understand fuel performance in engines and also to improve fuel modeling in engine simulation softwares. A RCM was adapted to operate in a spark ignition engine mode. It was used to obtain high-speed photos of flame propagation and ignition delay. Contour plots of the flame front profiles were obtained in successive frames to analyze the flame development with gasoline-ethanol blends. Based on a software code, it was determined the flame size in each frame.
Technical Paper
2013-10-07
Luis A. Campedelli, Ivo B. Zalszupin, Roberta F. Abolafio, Helena M. Combis
This new process aims to map 100% of the Environmental Risks for Volkswagen do Brasil Ltda. - VWB onward - through controlling the source of these potential environmental risks, lowering the risk of damages to the VW image. The activity of Environmental Qualification of Suppliers was developed to minimize potential environmental risks to VWB through standardization of information, giving support the top management process of decision. With the optimization of the environmental audit process in suppliers, reports start to add more value for both sides (suppliers and VWB), resulting in a Management Report aligned to methodology predicted by Standard VDA 6.3 - Process Audit [1], which is already widely used in the VW group worlwide.
Technical Paper
2013-10-07
Roberto F. Britto, Eugênio P.D. Coelho, Sammi Frederico, Marcelo Machado, Daniel Martinek, Celso Rabello, Thaisa Tomita
Brazil has been a leader for the past 30 years in the development and commercialization of vehicles powered by ethanol, which contributes significantly to maintain the basic Brazilian energy less dependent on fossil fuels, but its usage was restricted to small vehicles with focus on gasoline replacement. Whereas the use of diesel fuel has significant impact on emission of greenhouse gases when it is compared to the whole production cycle of the alternative fuels (“well to wheel” analysis), these fuels have been the focus of studies, applications, federal government programs, and also the private sector, such as bio-diesel, sugar cane diesel, ethanol with additive for diesel cycle and diesel-gas Dual-Fuel. This paper will detail the development a high efficient engine fueled with 100% hydrated ethanol capable to achieve up to 42% of break efficiency, similar to a diesel efficiency running on Otto cycle. The engine was developed based on 12 liters of displacement diesel longblock and achieved peak power of 350 kW @ 1800 rpm.
Technical Paper
2013-10-07
Rodrigo Eduardo Leite, Rafael Gomes de Souza Villela
The aim of this paper is to define a project prioritization method in automotive company by using the AHP methodology (Analytic Hierarchy Process) aligned to the organizational strategic objectives. Nowadays there is no method of prioritizing engineering projects in the organization object of this study, indicating that they are prioritized over individual interests or analyzes of individual criteria. There is no interdependency among assessed criteria and neither if those criteria are directly aligned with business goals. An alternative to solve this typical problem is the application of a mathematical model for project prioritization, such as AHP. AHP methodology is an excellent tool for decision makers support, since it creates an hierarchy for all criteria and gives weight for each one, unstructured or subjective some times, changing from intangible perceptions to measurable values by pair comparison. Those pair comparison are done until upper level of hierarchy tree, where can be found the main business goal.
Technical Paper
2013-10-07
Hubert Friedl, Marko Certic, Alois Fuerhapter, Paul Kapus, Karl Koeck, Matthias Neubauer
For achieving the forthcoming CO2 emission targets of 95g/km by 2020 and for the years beyond, comprehensive activities for powertrain technology as well as development methodology has to be utilized. It will by far not be enough to add a few single technology features to achieve the desired result. More and more the success will result from comprehensive combining of synergetic utilization of complementary effects. This will be the powertrain perfectly matched to the vehicle, including the energy source, and all together integrated by means of advanced development tools and methodology. The content of this paper will address the following topics: Global and regional trends and market penetration of propulsion technologies Combustion system: Outline of highly efficient SI engines, featuring advanced charging systems, utilization of Miller cycle and high rates of cooled EGR Tools and methodology for highly efficient development processes (highly accurate fuel consumption measurement, particulate number, optical instrumentation, transparent engine, calibration tools)
Technical Paper
2013-10-07
Rogério Ribeiro, Fernando M. Sauer, Domingos da Silva, Luís Carlos C. Costa
New demands for the European Market claimed a new medium duty truck. Aim was not only to comply with new legislations, but also achieve better driving comfort and dynamic characteristics. The development of a new cab suspension was the answer given by means of an international project executed by the Technology Development Center of Mercedes-Benz do Brasil (CDT) with support of other technical divisions of our Development Center in Germany. High-level Teamwork Brazil/Germany at all levels from project coordination down to the plant assembly line was the key to reach an outstanding result with an extra achievement of weight reduction. Complete integration of all involved collaborators in Brazil and in Germany proved to be the main reason to get at the high efficiency shown during the development tasks. This article presents a brief overview of the undertaken development steps together with the challenges and the solutions given to assure the success of the international teamwork.
Book
2013-10-07
Each year car manufacturers release new production models that are unique and innovative. The production model is the result of a lengthy process of testing aerodynamics, safety, engine components, and vehicle styling. The new technologies introduced in these vehicles reflect changing standards as well as trends of the market. From Acura to Volvo, this book provides a snapshot of the key engineering concepts and trends of the passenger vehicle industry over the course of a year. For each of the 43 new production models, articles from Automotive Engineering International (AEI) magazine detail technology developments as well as a comprehensive look at the 2013 passenger car models. This book provides those with an interest in new vehicles with all the information on the key automotive engineering and technology advancements of the year. AEI’s association with SAE International guarantees that these articles come from a trusted and reliable source with a reputation 100-plus years in the making.
Magazine
2013-10-04
Exhausting Possibilities A novel herringbone design of exhaust catalyst could be the 'Eureka' moment for emissions reductions, says ACAT Global's CEO Joseph W Moch. Ian Adcock tries to unravel the story behind it A right royal performance An interior influenced by the Jubilee celebrations? James Brewer finds out more Virtually, the real deal OEMs want faster time to market, reduced development costs and ever more sophisticated testing. Ian Adcock reports
Book
2013-10-03
Polymer Matrix and Structural Sandwich Composites 4-Volume Set: • Volume 1: Guidelines for Characterization of Structural Materials • Volume 2: Materials Properties • Volume 3: Materials Usage, Design, and Analysis • Volume 6: Structural Sandwich Composites This 4-volume set includes critical properties of composite materials that meet specific data requirements, as well as guidelines for design, analysis, material selection, manufacturing, quality control, and repair. This newly-updated engineering reference tool, part of the Composite Materials Handbook (CMH-17), also contains the latest test data for polymer matrix composites as well as essential material relating to sandwich composites used in military and commercial vehicles. Volume 1 contains guidelines for determining the properties of polymer matrix composite material systems and their constituents, as well as the properties of generic structural elements, including test planning, test matrices, sampling, conditioning, test procedure selection, data reporting, data reduction, statistical analysis, and other related topics.
WIP Standard
2013-10-02
The purpose of the recommended practice is to define a list of operator precautions that should be stressed in operator training and in the preparation of operator manuals. These general operator precautions apply to off-road work machines as defined in SAE J1116 JUN85, Categories one, two, four and five and agricultural tractors in Category three. These should not be considered as all inclusive for all specific uses and unique features of each particular machine. Other more specific operator precautions not mentioned herein should be covered by users of this recommended practice for each particular machine application.
WIP Standard
2013-10-02
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines the editorial format and policies necessary for the publication of Interface Control documents. The Common Interface Control Document Format Standard defines a common format for aircraft/store interface documents to foster increased interoperability. It is designed with the versatility to serve differing "ICD " philosophies and organizations. This aerospace standard defines the common technical data sections for the Common Interface Control Document Format down to the third header level for the majority of sub-sections. The Common Interface Control Document Format Aerospace Standard provides a structured document format in appendixes supported by example paragraphs, drawings, etc.
WIP Standard
2013-10-02
This Common Interface Control Plan (CICP) establishes the methodology for developing, controlling and managing the technical interfaces between and within systems. The document is not intended to directly control any other aspects of program management, such as matters of contractual, financial or those of an intellectual property rights nature. Members in the interface control process include: procurement authorities, design authorities and other related agencies as defined in the specific System Interface Control Plan (SICP). For the purposes of this plan only the terms Procuring Organization and Producing Organization will be used. This plan is predicated upon formal agreements between participating organizations that provide: a. Authority to participate in Interface Control Working Group (ICWG) and decision making processes. b. Primary integration control, interface problem resolution, and interface impact assessments through the ICWG. c. Higher level interface management under the purview of the appellate process as defined by this document and in the SICP.
WIP Standard
2013-10-01
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes a uniform test procedure for determining performance levels of operator enclosure panel type air filters on off-road, self-propelled work machines used in construction, general-purpose industrial, agriculture, and forestry as defined in SAE J1116 and equipped with an operator enclosure with a powered fresh air system.
Book
2013-10-01
Honda's October 2013 R&D Technical Review features cutting-edge developments from Honda's worldwide R&D teams. This edition brings 23 original papers on the introduction of new technologies, spanning automobile, motorcycle, power products, and aircraft engines, to mention the most meaningful. This title covers the main following topics: • Development of Sport Hybrid i-MMMD control system for the 2014 Accord • Development of robotic lawnmower Miimo • Research on combustion improvement techniques by intake valve offset and squish effect • Identification of mechanism of transmission of flow-induced noise through glass for vehicle interior noise reduction • Design appearance evaluation tool for non-prototype development • Flat belt test system for suspension and tire measurement
Magazine
2013-10-01
High hopes or just dreaming? A look at how Asia's aircraft manufacturers are trying to break into new markets to challenge the status quo. Camelina-based biofuel shows advantages in turboprop Researchers within the government of Canada see the need to improve the emissions performance of the Rolls-Royce T56 engine, which despite its age remains a workhorse for its military aircraft fleet.
Standard
2013-10-01
This SAE Standard covers the measurement of voltage transient immunity and within the applicable frequency ranges, audio (AF) and radio frequency (RF) immunity, and conducted and radiated emissions. By reference, ISO 11452-3, ISO 11452-7, ISO 11452-8, ISO 11452-10, ISO 11452-11, ISO 11452-2 and the emissions portion of ISO 7637-2 are adopted in place of SAE J1113-24, SAE J1113-3 , SAE J1113-22, SAE J1113-2, SAE J1113-28, SAE J1113-21 and SAE J1113-42, respectively. In the event that an amendment is made or a new edition is published, the new ISO document shall become part of this standard six months after the publication of the ISO document. SAE reserves the right to identify exceptions to the published ISO document with the exceptions to be documented in SAE J1113-24, SAE J1113-3, SAE J1113-22, SAE J1113-2, SAE J1113-28, SAE J1113-21 and SAE J1113-42 respectively. By reference, IEC CISPR 25 is adopted as the standard for the measurement of component emissions. In the event that an amendment is made or a new edition is published, the new IEC document shall become part of this standard six months after the publication of the IEC document.
Technical Paper
2013-09-30
Masaaki Nishiwaki, Koji Sorimachi, Ryutaro Misumi
The vehicle requires high brake performance and mass reduction of disc brake for vehicle fuel economy. Then disc brake will be designed by downsizing of disc and high friction coefficient pad materials. It is well known that disc brake squeal is frequently caused by high friction coefficient pad materials. Disc brake squeal is caused by dynamic unstable system under disturbance of friction force variation. Today, disc brake squeal comes to be simulated by FEA, but it is very difficult to put so many dynamic unstable solutions into stable solutions. Therefore it is very important to make it clear the influence of friction force variation. This paper describes the development of experimental set up for disc brake squeal basic research. First, the equation of motion in low-frequency disc brake squeal around 2 kHz is derived. Second, the increase of kinetic energy per 1 cycle in minute vibration is derived, which represents the influence of coupled vibration between out of plane vibration and in-plane vibration in disc and pads with caliper.
WIP Standard
2013-09-30
The purpose of this document is to establish air conditioning design guidelines that will apply to most systems rather than the specific design of any particular system. Operating conditions and characteristics of the equipment will determine the design of any successful system, and since these characteristics and conditions vary greatly from one application to another, the designer must determine the goals expected to be reached under the conditions encountered. To determine the capacity of such items as blowers, condenser fans, condenser coils, evaporator coils, filters, compressors, etc., will require the adherence to several guidelines, some of which are outlined in this document.
Magazine
2013-09-30
When real life and FEA meet Model validation becomes the focus for building the chassis of a BAJA SAE vehicle. One student offers his advice for making smart choices while using FEA. Wait...where is Manitoba? Andrew Smith, Executive Vice Chair for the University of Manitoba's SAE International Chapter faces limited resources and the growth of what was once a small team. High hopes or just dreaming? A look at how Asia's aircraft manufacturers are trying to break into new markets to challenge the status quo. Operators see bright screens in their future HMIs borrow from tablets, phones to help operators perform a broad range of tasks.
Article
2013-09-25
Jaguar Land Rover is the key partner in a "large-scale collaborative research environment" to be created in a new public-private automotive tech center to be constructed at the University of Warwick. With the opening of the National Automotive Innovation Campus (NAIC) in 2016, Jaguar Land Rover will double the size of its advanced research team to about 500 people.
Standard
2013-09-25
This SAE Standard characterizes grapple skidders and identifies the major components and parts most commonly associated therewith. Illustrations used herein are not intended to include all existing commercial machines or to be exactly descriptive of any particular machine. They have been included to facilitate application of this document.
Article
2013-09-24
Europe is now ready for electric vehicles, believes Dr. Roland Krüger, head of Ford of Europe’s (FoE) electric powertrain development. But significant hurdles remain for EVs, plug-ins, and FCVs.
Technical Paper
2013-09-24
Mahendra Muli, Jace Allen
The Model-Based Development (MBD) process has been the key enabler of technical advancement. MBD helps manage complexity, while making product development faster by bringing clarity and transparency to the entire product development process, specifically software components. Developing software using MBD has required extensive, sophisticated toolchains, like the ones provided by dSPACE, that allow for efficient rapid controls prototyping, automatic code generation, and advanced validation and verification techniques with hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test systems. MBD is an efficient iterative process that allows engineers to improve quality and deliver on demanding needs of product variants in the current competitive environment. However, the MBD process described commonly using the ‘V-Cycle’ diagram leads to the generation of large volumes of data artifacts and work products. The iterative process, variants and versions of these artifacts lead to even larger amounts of data. To maintain efficiency while continuously improving the quality of products in the MBD paradigm, it is necessary to be able to manage this data in an efficient manner that is supportive of the development process.
Technical Paper
2013-09-24
Vijay Janardan Warade, Gopal Krishna Dalvi, Rakesh Rameshchandra Sharma
In the pursuit of Manufacturing Excellence, DivgiWarner follows Quality System Basics which includes operator training as one of the key elements. Any manufacturing process consists of 5M's. Out of these 5M's, Machine, Material, Method, Measurement can be engineered to get the desired output. Required control is possible with the fifth ‘M’ i.e. Man by providing Standardized Training, resulting in Repeatability & Reproducibility from each process. DivgiWarner has designed, developed and been practicing the unique process of Operator Training and Licensing. This paper describes the Operator Licensing process. The process is divided into seven subsections inclusive of: 1 Induction Training2 Classroom Training3 On-Job Training4 Written Test and Evaluation5 Issue Operator License i.e. Certification6 Monitoring operator through Layered Process Audits (Effectiveness of Training Process)7 Renewal of license As an operator goes through this process, his/her skill level and competency increases with continuous practice.
Technical Paper
2013-09-24
G. Balaji, Ashwini Agarwal, Mahesh Mungi, Ranjit Babar, Vidyadhar Katkar PE
In automotive design and development, there are different stages for product design. In this fast changing scenario product design, digital verification of design (CAE), physical validation of the product and launching of the same in short time is important in product development life cycle of any new generation vehicle. This paper proposes a new approach towards development of a green-field platform for commercial vehicles by improving reliability of CAE and thereby reducing the need for prototype testing and hence shortening development cycle and costs - we call it “Hybrid Mule”. This Hybrid Mule has complete design intent under-body and engine-house while upper-body is made of simple representative tubular space frame. FRP skin panels are attached to this space frame to create a safe environment for test-driver. FRP skin also provides early feel of styling in running condition and evaluates basic ergonomics and visibility. Hybrid Mule is developed taking into consideration all detail CAE analyses - durability, crash, NVH, attachment point stiffness, ride & handling, etc., to establish early co-relation between digital and physical worlds.
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