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WIP Standard
2013-10-22
This standard defines the data interfaces between a host aircraft (“platform”) and an Electro-Optic/Infrared (EO/IR) sensor. These data interfaces cover various types of data including: imagery, metadata, command, status, and responses (CSR), geospatial postion, time, test and maintenance, and hand-controller. This standard does not cover mechanical or electrical interfaces.
WIP Standard
2013-10-22
This will provide the methods for verifying that the data interfaces between an EO/IR sensor and an aircraft meet AS6135.
WIP Standard
2013-10-22
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) establishes the requirements for the use of IEEE-1394b as a data bus network in military and aerospace vehicles. It defines the concept of operations and information flow on the network. As discussed in 1.4, this specification contains extensions/restrictions to “off-the-shelf” IEEE-1394 standards, and assumes that the reader already has a working knowledge of IEEE-1394. This document is referred to as the “base” specification, containing the generic requirements that specify data bus characteristics, data formats and node operation. It is important to note that this specification is not stand-alone - several requirements provide only example implementations and delegate the actual implementation to be specified by the network architect/integrator for a particular vehicle application. This information is typically contained in a “network profile” slash sheet that is subservient to this base specification. In a similar manner, the electrical characteristics of the bus media, as well as connector information is contained in a “physical layer” slash sheet, that also may be unique to a particular vehicle application.
WIP Standard
2013-10-22
This document establishes test plans/procedures for the AS5643 Standard that by itself defines guidelines for the use of IEEE-1394b as a data bus network in military and aerospace vehicles. This test specification defines procedures and criteria for testing device compliance with the AS5643 Standard.
WIP Standard
2013-10-22
This handbook is intended to accompany or incorporate AS5643 IEEE-1394b Interface Requirements for Military and Aerospace Vehicle Applications, AS5643/1 S400 Copper Media Interface Characteristics over Extended Distances, AS5657 Test Plan/Procedure for AS5643 IEEE-1394b Interface Requirements for Military and Aerospace Vehicle Applications, AS5706 Test Plan/procedure for AS5643/1 S400 Copper Media Interface Characteristics Over Extended Distances, and ARD5708 Frequently Asked Questions about IEEE-1394b and SAE AS5643. In addition, full understanding of this handbook also requires knowledge of IEEE-1394-1995, IEEE-1394a and IEEE-1394b standards. This handbook contains detailed explanations and architecture analysis on AS5643, bus timing and scheduling considerations, system redundancy design considerations, suggestions on AS5643-based system configurations, cable selection guidance, and lessons learned on failure modes.
Standard
2013-10-21
This SAE Recommended Practice identifies major components and parts peculiar to clam bunk skidders. Illustrations used here are not intended to include all existing machines or to be exactly descriptive of any particular machine. They have been provided to illustrate the principles to be used in applying this document.
Article
2013-10-15
Quality is very much on the mind of Automobiles Peugeot Director General Maxime Picat. Fully aware that it is a much abused word in the automotive industry, he is at pains to define its application within his company: “It is not just about cars but the quality of all our products and services."
Technical Paper
2013-10-14
Christopher J. Golecki, Luke D. Shepley, Casey B. Dietrich, Samuel M. Foran, Eric M. Skibba, Anthony M. Burt, Michael Z. Frey, Alex J. Kirsch
The Pennsylvania State University Advanced Vehicle Team (PSUAVT) is one of sixteen collegiate teams across North America participating in the EcoCAR 2: “Plugging In to the Future” competition. The PSUAVT designed and implemented a series plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) for this competition. This architecture allows the vehicle to operate as a pure electric vehicle until the energy storage system (ESS) state of charge (SOC) is depleted. The auxiliary power unit (APU) then supplements the battery to extend range beyond that of a purely electric vehicle. To implement this design concept, the PSUAVT re-engineered a General Motors (GM) donated 2013 Chevrolet Malibu to house an electric traction motor, high capacity lithium-ion battery pack, and APU consisting of a low-displacement engine fueled by 85% ethanol/15% gasoline (E85) mixture and an electric generator. Along with the challenges of properly mounting and integrating powertrain components, considerable effort was required to develop a proper hybrid control algorithm that maximizes overall system efficiency, minimizes harmful emissions, provides superior performance, and safe, reliable operation.
Technical Paper
2013-10-14
Peter C. Manning, Eli White, Kyle Caroncino, Taylor Ashworth, Brian Kelly, Lucas Shoults, Douglas Nelson
The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team (HEVT) of Virginia Tech has achieved the Year 2 goal of producing a 65% functional mule vehicle suitable for testing and refinement, while maintaining the series-parallel plug-in hybrid architecture developed during Year 1. Even so, further design and expert consultations necessitated an extensive redesign of the rear powertrain and front auxiliary systems packaging. The revised rear powertrain consists of the planned Rear Traction Motor (RTM), coupled to a single-speed transmission. New information, such as the dimensions of the high voltage (HV) air conditioning compressor and the P2 motor inverter, required the repackaging of the hybrid components in the engine bay. The P2 motor/generator was incorporated into the vehicle after spreading the engine and transmission to allow for the required space. This spreading of the components meant a redesign of the front powertrain mounts and integration of a torque damper as an interface with the combustion engine and P2 motor.
Technical Paper
2013-10-14
Daniel Prescott, David Killy, Kevin Andersen, Stefan Kaban, Zuomin Dong, Curran Crawford
The focus of this paper is the process of implementation and integration of a series-parallel multiple-regime plugin hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) using a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu as a platform. The University of Victoria EcoCAR team used a 3-year vehicle development process (VDP) modeled after those used by major automotive manufacturers, and maintained by the rules of EcoCAR 2: Plugging into the Future. Intensive research and simulation resulted in selection of UVic's series-parallel multiple regime vehicle architecture during year 1 of the EcoCAR2 competition. Detailed mechanical design refinement has been conducted to allow final fabrication and integration of components. This has included detailed structural analysis and comparison with the stock vehicle, dynamic analysis of vehicle suspension changes, and manufacturability and serviceability improvements to the year 1 vehicle design. Simulation and modeling work to improve the realism of the vehicle simulation for the purposes of control system development was also conducted.
Technical Paper
2013-10-14
Matthew Doude, Joshua C. Hoop, Jonathan D. Moore, George Marshall Molen, Vina Nguyen, Lee Sargent
EcoCAR 2: Plugging Into the Future is a three-year collegiate design competition challenging student teams to redesign a stock 2013 Chevrolet Malibu as a hybrid to improve its fuel economy and emissions. Mississippi State University, an eight-year veteran of AVTC competitions, has chosen to design a series-parallel plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. During the Year Two phase of the competition, the team has been implementing their design from Year One into the stock vehicle.
Technical Paper
2013-10-14
John P. Utley, Jacob B. Wilson, Michael D. Potts, Matt G. Bush, David K. Irick, David E. Smith
The University of Tennessee, Knoxville's (UTK) EcoCAR 2 team developed a Series-Parallel Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) that utilizes E85 fuel. The vehicle was developed and modeled in Year One of the EcoCAR 2 competition. The team has spent Year Two refining the theoretical design from Year One and implementing the design into a working mule vehicle. The developed architecture has been integrated into a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu, which was donated by General Motors. The team focused on strengthening the replacement and modified components, integrating the new vehicle components, bench testing the vehicle controller and implementing the entire design into a working vehicle.
Technical Paper
2013-10-07
Daniel Marobin
The automotive market is going through a major investment cycle due to increased credit, reducing the price of vehicles and opening new markets. Project management methodologies have been used by automakers as a tool to achieve strategic objectives. In all these methodologies, monitoring and control of project work is one of the most important processes to achieve effective and efficient projects, ensuring financial and market growth of the automaker. This paper was carried out on a national automaker in which the dashboard developed is a tool for monitoring and controlling time, scope, cost, risk and quality of the project, assisting project managers in making decisions.
Technical Paper
2013-10-07
Paulo Bosquiero Zanetti
Data analysis is an important way to validate and optimize engineering's designs. With the development of wireless transmission systems, race cars use telemetry as a solution to measure the car's behavior by the analysis of acquired data. Wireless communication systems provide the possibility to analyze data in real-time situations, allowing tactical decision making based on the vehicle's embedded signals interpretation. This paper intends to describe the design process of a wireless data transmission system applied to a Formula SAE vehicle. Based on the prototyping microcontroller Arduino™ and the radio-transmission module Xbee®, the wireless transmission system here described is capable of transmitting 16 analog and 54 digital embedded signals and can be easily adapted for the user's requirements, through the system's open-source characteristics.
Technical Paper
2013-10-07
Clodoaldo Borges Chagas, Thiago Caetano Freitas, Murilo Fregonesi Falleiros, André Fernandes Silva, Gustavo José Corrêa Gonçalves
A proper way to innovate consists in identify some kind of customer dissatisfaction and within this observation the companies ought to develop products which will be acceptable by the market. Only in this way, companies will be able to stand out in front of their competitors and the innovative companies can create new needs and valuable knowledge. More and more, the automotive vehicle consumers tend to opt internal combustion engines which use chain drive in their timing system, since the chain drive system presents high durability, avoiding the usual maintenance common to the belt timing system. The necessity of developing parts which increase the efficiency and minimize the fuel consumption, noise and vibration in the timing chain drive system lead the study and comprehension of some physical phenomena. It is inherent to the chain drive system the fluctuation of the angular velocity between shafts, this feature is known as “polygonal action”. In the present work the fluctuation of the angular rotations between camshafts and crankshafts are treated by the geometry of the transmission.
Technical Paper
2013-10-07
Alisson Sarmento, André Luiz J. Pereira, Carlos A. Barbieri, Carlos Sakuramoto
The new Brazilian automotive regulation, INOVAR, states aggressive energy efficiency targets until 2016 to vehicles sold in Brazil. Many engineering solutions shall be done and implemented by Automakers to adequate current and new vehicles to INOVAR requirements. The Body Structure represents about 40% of vehicle mass and it is fundamental portion of energy efficiency study. The biggest body structure engineers challenge is provide mass reduction changes without jeopardize legal requirements and structural vehicle performance such as: Safety, Reparability, Torsional and Bending Stiffness, Durability, etc. Either Automakers or Suppliers manufacturing have an important task supporting Product Engineers on new parts development with different materials, shapes and joining. The contribution of Body Structure mass reduction for Internal Combustion Engines vehicles is not enough to achieve targets because new Program establishes smaller Energy Consumption for lighter vehicles. However, Body Structure mass reduction is necessary to allow Secondary vehicle changes like: Rolling resistance, Friction Reduction and Engine technologies such as: Multiple valves, Variable valve actuation, Engine downsizing, Start Stop Systems.
Technical Paper
2013-10-07
Renata Silveira Laczynski Goi, Alexandre Tavares Soares, Paulo Fernando Rocha, Silvio Cesar Bastos, Paulo Rolin
It is known that Managing Companies' Proprieties outside the Company facilities is a challengeable task. It is not only the fact of knowing what is involved and with whom it is, but how is its condition, integrity and if the third part is keeping the assets in good maintenance. Also loosing the tracking of the lifetime and costs involved such as depreciation and amortization may cost to the Company a huge amount of money, it can cost intellectual propriety shared, product quality and flexibility to move from one critical supplier to another. In a global market having the control of these assets can be the difference among success and failure either thinking about costs or achieving better quality results. There is also an understanding that this is a complex management and it presents a hard work to be done, considering the passives the companies' already have, the projects being developed, and what is worse not to be sure that the companies own devices, tools, machines and gages may lead in addition expenditure.
Technical Paper
2013-10-07
M. Pontoppidan, J. G. C. Baeta
The paper describes the setup of a 4-cylinder 1.4-liter prototype Spark Ignited (SI)-engine, which is highly boosted, extremely downsized and port fuel injected. During experimental data gathering with the engine it was discovered that the originally mounted fuel injectors were non-optimized an unable to produce an expected low fuel consumption performance at low speed, low load engine working conditions. To solve this problem by finding an optimized alternative solution for the mixture preparation process it was decided to use a high-performance numerical simulation tool. The paper presents the overall layout of the prototype engine as well as the structure of the 3-D dynamic optimization tool used to address the mixture preparation problem. The paper continues with a detailed description of the different steps used to reach the complete optimization of the mixture preparation system (both the fuel injectors and the intake manifold). The paper concludes by a presentation of a series of experimental verification data obtained on the prototype engine both at the engine test rig as well as preliminary data from measurements carried out with the engine mounted in a passenger car.
Technical Paper
2013-10-07
Erik Telles Pascoal, Gustavo de Souza Lima
A frequent situation in the national automobile industry is the each time bigger rapidity that just-launched models are evolved (the so called face-lifts). Within this highly dynamic context, the solutions and technical proposals developed by the local product engineering have two main guidelines. The first one is to work on product evolutions which goal is to make the vehicles far more attractive and differentiated with respect to the competition and also to the previous model. The second one is to constantly search the standardization or the modularization of parts between the different models and versions of vehicles, thus reducing the costs of investments and providing scale profits. This article aims to present, through a case study of the front seat structures, a practical and innovative example of the application of a modular solution developed by the local product engineering that allowed the conciliation of these two apparently antagonistic objectives, the one of obtaining scale economies and, at the same time, the other of preserving the style and the identity of each one of the final products.
Technical Paper
2013-10-07
André Ricardo Marchezan, Mauro Andreassa
The largest automobile companies have several corporate, regulatory and customer requirements to integrate into engineering of development [1]. These information need to be split in technical team called disciplines as electrical, chassis, powertrain, etc. The advanced engineering team is responsible to conduct this process with general purpose of facilitating the managing and tracking of creation and execution of the total vehicle/system. However, the interrelation, complexity and lack of engineer's know-how of these systems have been creating innumerous issues into development, launch, manufactory and quality. Insufficient dedicated tools, requirement definitions and poor initial programs formulation are some reasons of these issues. It means that the ability applied in advanced engineering principles and analytical techniques in an automotive engineering context have to be improved. The design axiomatic is a powerful theory applied into vehicle system and component level to understand the engineering design process, at both, the conceptual and detail levels and to reduce the gap among information systems.
Technical Paper
2013-10-07
Arturo Dávila, Javier Gutiérrez, Emilia Romero, Micha Lesemann
The ELVA project (Advance Electric Vehicle Architectures) was co-funded by the European Commission's 7th Framework Programme. The project was formed by a consortium of seven partners: Institute for Automotive Engineering (ika) of RWTH Aachen University; Applus+ IDIADA; Volkswagen; Renault; Centro Richerche Fiat (CRF); Continental and the Swedish Vehicle and Traffic Safety Centre (SAFER). The objectives of the ELVA project were to generate, investigate and analyse innovative design concepts for electric vehicles (EV). Also, to deliver new modular architectures with the same level of safety as today's best known practices, while minimizing weight, maximizing energy efficiency, optimizing ergonomics and interior space, all at affordable costs. The level of comfort and performance must also be improved. All of the development strategies were summarized in form of best practices, which have been made available for designers and engineers. The project characterized for strong interaction amongst the participants during the design loops.
Technical Paper
2013-10-07
Antonio Carlos Scardini Villela, Sergio William Botero, Guilherme Bastos Machado, Julio César Egúsquiza, Leonardo C. Braga, Sergio L. Braga, Calos Valois M. Braga
Regarding fuels research and development, some preliminary studies - low cost and short time - can be conducted before the traditional engine tests - more expensive and time consuming. Therefore, experimental apparatus, such as a rapid compression machine (RCM) and specific methodologies, such as imaging techniques, are very useful in order to simulate engine combustion with simplicity, agility and flexibility, reducing development time and costs. Imaging techniques allow flame front propagation and ignition delay analysis, which are important parameters to understand fuel performance in engines and also to improve fuel modeling in engine simulation softwares. A RCM was adapted to operate in a spark ignition engine mode. It was used to obtain high-speed photos of flame propagation and ignition delay. Contour plots of the flame front profiles were obtained in successive frames to analyze the flame development with gasoline-ethanol blends. Based on a software code, it was determined the flame size in each frame.
Technical Paper
2013-10-07
Luis A. Campedelli, Ivo B. Zalszupin, Roberta F. Abolafio, Helena M. Combis
This new process aims to map 100% of the Environmental Risks for Volkswagen do Brasil Ltda. - VWB onward - through controlling the source of these potential environmental risks, lowering the risk of damages to the VW image. The activity of Environmental Qualification of Suppliers was developed to minimize potential environmental risks to VWB through standardization of information, giving support the top management process of decision. With the optimization of the environmental audit process in suppliers, reports start to add more value for both sides (suppliers and VWB), resulting in a Management Report aligned to methodology predicted by Standard VDA 6.3 - Process Audit [1], which is already widely used in the VW group worlwide.
Technical Paper
2013-10-07
Roberto F. Britto, Eugênio P.D. Coelho, Sammi Frederico, Marcelo Machado, Daniel Martinek, Celso Rabello, Thaisa Tomita
Brazil has been a leader for the past 30 years in the development and commercialization of vehicles powered by ethanol, which contributes significantly to maintain the basic Brazilian energy less dependent on fossil fuels, but its usage was restricted to small vehicles with focus on gasoline replacement. Whereas the use of diesel fuel has significant impact on emission of greenhouse gases when it is compared to the whole production cycle of the alternative fuels (“well to wheel” analysis), these fuels have been the focus of studies, applications, federal government programs, and also the private sector, such as bio-diesel, sugar cane diesel, ethanol with additive for diesel cycle and diesel-gas Dual-Fuel. This paper will detail the development a high efficient engine fueled with 100% hydrated ethanol capable to achieve up to 42% of break efficiency, similar to a diesel efficiency running on Otto cycle. The engine was developed based on 12 liters of displacement diesel longblock and achieved peak power of 350 kW @ 1800 rpm.
Technical Paper
2013-10-07
Rodrigo Eduardo Leite, Rafael Gomes de Souza Villela
The aim of this paper is to define a project prioritization method in automotive company by using the AHP methodology (Analytic Hierarchy Process) aligned to the organizational strategic objectives. Nowadays there is no method of prioritizing engineering projects in the organization object of this study, indicating that they are prioritized over individual interests or analyzes of individual criteria. There is no interdependency among assessed criteria and neither if those criteria are directly aligned with business goals. An alternative to solve this typical problem is the application of a mathematical model for project prioritization, such as AHP. AHP methodology is an excellent tool for decision makers support, since it creates an hierarchy for all criteria and gives weight for each one, unstructured or subjective some times, changing from intangible perceptions to measurable values by pair comparison. Those pair comparison are done until upper level of hierarchy tree, where can be found the main business goal.
Technical Paper
2013-10-07
Hubert Friedl, Marko Certic, Alois Fuerhapter, Paul Kapus, Karl Koeck, Matthias Neubauer
For achieving the forthcoming CO2 emission targets of 95g/km by 2020 and for the years beyond, comprehensive activities for powertrain technology as well as development methodology has to be utilized. It will by far not be enough to add a few single technology features to achieve the desired result. More and more the success will result from comprehensive combining of synergetic utilization of complementary effects. This will be the powertrain perfectly matched to the vehicle, including the energy source, and all together integrated by means of advanced development tools and methodology. The content of this paper will address the following topics: Global and regional trends and market penetration of propulsion technologies Combustion system: Outline of highly efficient SI engines, featuring advanced charging systems, utilization of Miller cycle and high rates of cooled EGR Tools and methodology for highly efficient development processes (highly accurate fuel consumption measurement, particulate number, optical instrumentation, transparent engine, calibration tools)
Technical Paper
2013-10-07
Rogério Ribeiro, Fernando M. Sauer, Domingos da Silva, Luís Carlos C. Costa
New demands for the European Market claimed a new medium duty truck. Aim was not only to comply with new legislations, but also achieve better driving comfort and dynamic characteristics. The development of a new cab suspension was the answer given by means of an international project executed by the Technology Development Center of Mercedes-Benz do Brasil (CDT) with support of other technical divisions of our Development Center in Germany. High-level Teamwork Brazil/Germany at all levels from project coordination down to the plant assembly line was the key to reach an outstanding result with an extra achievement of weight reduction. Complete integration of all involved collaborators in Brazil and in Germany proved to be the main reason to get at the high efficiency shown during the development tasks. This article presents a brief overview of the undertaken development steps together with the challenges and the solutions given to assure the success of the international teamwork.
Book
2013-10-07
Each year car manufacturers release new production models that are unique and innovative. The production model is the result of a lengthy process of testing aerodynamics, safety, engine components, and vehicle styling. The new technologies introduced in these vehicles reflect changing standards as well as trends of the market. From Acura to Volvo, this book provides a snapshot of the key engineering concepts and trends of the passenger vehicle industry over the course of a year. For each of the 43 new production models, articles from Automotive Engineering International (AEI) magazine detail technology developments as well as a comprehensive look at the 2013 passenger car models. This book provides those with an interest in new vehicles with all the information on the key automotive engineering and technology advancements of the year. AEI’s association with SAE International guarantees that these articles come from a trusted and reliable source with a reputation 100-plus years in the making.
Magazine
2013-10-04
Exhausting Possibilities A novel herringbone design of exhaust catalyst could be the 'Eureka' moment for emissions reductions, says ACAT Global's CEO Joseph W Moch. Ian Adcock tries to unravel the story behind it A right royal performance An interior influenced by the Jubilee celebrations? James Brewer finds out more Virtually, the real deal OEMs want faster time to market, reduced development costs and ever more sophisticated testing. Ian Adcock reports
Book
2013-10-03
Polymer Matrix and Structural Sandwich Composites 4-Volume Set: • Volume 1: Guidelines for Characterization of Structural Materials • Volume 2: Materials Properties • Volume 3: Materials Usage, Design, and Analysis • Volume 6: Structural Sandwich Composites This 4-volume set includes critical properties of composite materials that meet specific data requirements, as well as guidelines for design, analysis, material selection, manufacturing, quality control, and repair. This newly-updated engineering reference tool, part of the Composite Materials Handbook (CMH-17), also contains the latest test data for polymer matrix composites as well as essential material relating to sandwich composites used in military and commercial vehicles. Volume 1 contains guidelines for determining the properties of polymer matrix composite material systems and their constituents, as well as the properties of generic structural elements, including test planning, test matrices, sampling, conditioning, test procedure selection, data reporting, data reduction, statistical analysis, and other related topics.
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