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WIP Standard
2013-09-30
The purpose of this document is to establish air conditioning design guidelines that will apply to most systems rather than the specific design of any particular system. Operating conditions and characteristics of the equipment will determine the design of any successful system, and since these characteristics and conditions vary greatly from one application to another, the designer must determine the goals expected to be reached under the conditions encountered. To determine the capacity of such items as blowers, condenser fans, condenser coils, evaporator coils, filters, compressors, etc., will require the adherence to several guidelines, some of which are outlined in this document.
Technical Paper
2013-09-30
Masaaki Nishiwaki, Koji Sorimachi, Ryutaro Misumi
The vehicle requires high brake performance and mass reduction of disc brake for vehicle fuel economy. Then disc brake will be designed by downsizing of disc and high friction coefficient pad materials. It is well known that disc brake squeal is frequently caused by high friction coefficient pad materials. Disc brake squeal is caused by dynamic unstable system under disturbance of friction force variation. Today, disc brake squeal comes to be simulated by FEA, but it is very difficult to put so many dynamic unstable solutions into stable solutions. Therefore it is very important to make it clear the influence of friction force variation. This paper describes the development of experimental set up for disc brake squeal basic research. First, the equation of motion in low-frequency disc brake squeal around 2 kHz is derived. Second, the increase of kinetic energy per 1 cycle in minute vibration is derived, which represents the influence of coupled vibration between out of plane vibration and in-plane vibration in disc and pads with caliper.
Magazine
2013-09-30
When real life and FEA meet Model validation becomes the focus for building the chassis of a BAJA SAE vehicle. One student offers his advice for making smart choices while using FEA. Wait...where is Manitoba? Andrew Smith, Executive Vice Chair for the University of Manitoba's SAE International Chapter faces limited resources and the growth of what was once a small team. High hopes or just dreaming? A look at how Asia's aircraft manufacturers are trying to break into new markets to challenge the status quo. Operators see bright screens in their future HMIs borrow from tablets, phones to help operators perform a broad range of tasks.
Article
2013-09-25
Jaguar Land Rover is the key partner in a "large-scale collaborative research environment" to be created in a new public-private automotive tech center to be constructed at the University of Warwick. With the opening of the National Automotive Innovation Campus (NAIC) in 2016, Jaguar Land Rover will double the size of its advanced research team to about 500 people.
Standard
2013-09-25
This SAE Standard characterizes grapple skidders and identifies the major components and parts most commonly associated therewith. Illustrations used herein are not intended to include all existing commercial machines or to be exactly descriptive of any particular machine. They have been included to facilitate application of this document.
Article
2013-09-24
Europe is now ready for electric vehicles, believes Dr. Roland Krüger, head of Ford of Europe’s (FoE) electric powertrain development. But significant hurdles remain for EVs, plug-ins, and FCVs.
Book
2013-09-24
Following on from the various crises of 2009, 2010 and 2011, Toyota has surged back to reclaim the title of top global automotive manufacturer (by volume). There are a series of factors supporting this recovery, but in much the same way that the supplier community assisted the OEM to maintain output during those bad years, those same companies have been integral to the company’s on-going rebound. As the company increases output, this support has centered on managing to deliver a substantial increase in total part volumes, a difficult task after many tier suppliers had reduced production capacity in line with Toyota’s declining output over the preceding years. This has meant investing to ramp up in line with output, while still developing new technologies and working with the OEM to support production of next-generation models. The other side to the coin is that many of the preferred suppliers working with Toyota are also part owned by the OEM and many of those same companies rely on the OEM for most of their business, so there is a vested interest in supporting the carmaker.
Technical Paper
2013-09-24
Xinyu Ge
The growth of auto sales in emerging markets provides a good opportunity for automakers. Cost is a key factor for any automaker to win in an emerging market. This paper analyzes risks and opportunities in a low cost manufacturing environment. The Chinese auto market is used as an example and three categories of risks are analyzed. A typical risk assessment for cost reduction includes the analysis of environment risks, process risks and strategic risks associated with all phases of a product life. In an emerging market, emission regulations are a rapidly-evolving environment variable, since most countries with less regulated emission codes try to catch up with the newly- developed technologies to meet sustainable growth targets. Emission regulations have a huge impact on product design, manufacturing and maintenance in the automotive industry, and hence the related cost reduction must be thoroughly analyzed during risk assessment. Diesel engines optimized for minimum Particulate Matter (PM) engine out emission with only Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) are proposed in this paper as the most cost effective solution for Chinese on-highway and off-highway commercial automobiles, especially for heavy-duty trucks.
Technical Paper
2013-09-24
Yaamini Devi Loganathan, Maksood Shaikh, Praveen Sharma
Foreign investments help in productive capacity building for both the parent organization in the home country, and in the host country. Preferably, investment promotion is encouraged as it creates biggest impact on creating backward and forward linkages besides generating direct and indirect employment. Commercial vehicle is one such industry. In this knowledge world, organizations can excel or sustain their excellence, only if there is a continuous learning at all levels. To a great extent, competitive advantage of a transnational organization lies in its ability to identify and transfer best practices, core competencies. Knowledge sharing happens in a natural way between its geographically dispersed and diverse units. Technology paves way in creating and leveraging knowledge at an exponential rate, besides reducing time, effort and cost while achieving business goals. Adoption of technology becomes highly pertinent if the parent company has strategies to enter into different markets.
Technical Paper
2013-09-24
G. Balaji, Ashwini Agarwal, Mahesh Mungi, Ranjit Babar, Vidyadhar Katkar PE
In automotive design and development, there are different stages for product design. In this fast changing scenario product design, digital verification of design (CAE), physical validation of the product and launching of the same in short time is important in product development life cycle of any new generation vehicle. This paper proposes a new approach towards development of a green-field platform for commercial vehicles by improving reliability of CAE and thereby reducing the need for prototype testing and hence shortening development cycle and costs - we call it “Hybrid Mule”. This Hybrid Mule has complete design intent under-body and engine-house while upper-body is made of simple representative tubular space frame. FRP skin panels are attached to this space frame to create a safe environment for test-driver. FRP skin also provides early feel of styling in running condition and evaluates basic ergonomics and visibility. Hybrid Mule is developed taking into consideration all detail CAE analyses - durability, crash, NVH, attachment point stiffness, ride & handling, etc., to establish early co-relation between digital and physical worlds.
Technical Paper
2013-09-24
Vijay Janardan Warade, Gopal Krishna Dalvi, Rakesh Rameshchandra Sharma
In the pursuit of Manufacturing Excellence, DivgiWarner follows Quality System Basics which includes operator training as one of the key elements. Any manufacturing process consists of 5M's. Out of these 5M's, Machine, Material, Method, Measurement can be engineered to get the desired output. Required control is possible with the fifth ‘M’ i.e. Man by providing Standardized Training, resulting in Repeatability & Reproducibility from each process. DivgiWarner has designed, developed and been practicing the unique process of Operator Training and Licensing. This paper describes the Operator Licensing process. The process is divided into seven subsections inclusive of: 1 Induction Training2 Classroom Training3 On-Job Training4 Written Test and Evaluation5 Issue Operator License i.e. Certification6 Monitoring operator through Layered Process Audits (Effectiveness of Training Process)7 Renewal of license As an operator goes through this process, his/her skill level and competency increases with continuous practice.
Technical Paper
2013-09-24
Mahendra Muli, Jace Allen
The Model-Based Development (MBD) process has been the key enabler of technical advancement. MBD helps manage complexity, while making product development faster by bringing clarity and transparency to the entire product development process, specifically software components. Developing software using MBD has required extensive, sophisticated toolchains, like the ones provided by dSPACE, that allow for efficient rapid controls prototyping, automatic code generation, and advanced validation and verification techniques with hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test systems. MBD is an efficient iterative process that allows engineers to improve quality and deliver on demanding needs of product variants in the current competitive environment. However, the MBD process described commonly using the ‘V-Cycle’ diagram leads to the generation of large volumes of data artifacts and work products. The iterative process, variants and versions of these artifacts lead to even larger amounts of data. To maintain efficiency while continuously improving the quality of products in the MBD paradigm, it is necessary to be able to manage this data in an efficient manner that is supportive of the development process.
Technical Paper
2013-09-24
Eldon Brasche
Since 1992, Caterpillar has invested millions of dollars to purchase CAD software, and spends nearly $2M per year keeping its engineers up-to-date, via instructor lead training (ILT), as new enhancements are introduced. Periodic upgrades to the software also require huge resource (people, costs) commitments for the planning and execution of the training requirements required for a large global workforce. This paper will examine gaps uncovered in the efficiency and effectiveness of the current training process, and the cultural change required as a result of switching from an instructor led environment to a completely web-based solution, which, once deployed, had promised to change the way Caterpillar approached training for the future. The proposed change promised to improve human resource capability by utilizing new technological capabilities, and resulted in improvements in organizational capabilities as well. Topics reviewed include: Reasons for initiating the change, including perceptions of the as-is process (voice of the customer), and pros/cons of the current state.
Article
2013-09-17
No other sports car can match the C7's combination of performance, value, and overall efficiency. Chief Engineer Tadge Juechter provides insight on executing a masterpiece.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Susan Liscouet-Hanke, Kenny Huynh
This paper presents a methodology for conceptual aircraft design to evaluate the space available for systems (top-down approach) and to estimate the space required for critical components impacting the aircraft configuration (bottom-up approach). The presented top-down approach introduces the concept of “equivalent design volume”, including the space required for systems and the associated empty space to access, maintain and ventilate them. This approach enables an early feasibility check for aircraft configuration exploration regarding the integration and installation of systems, without having to detail the system architecture. In complement, the bottom-up approach introduces the estimation of the required dimensions for critical components. Here, the example of the flight control actuators integration in the wing tip is presented.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
José Rui Marcelino, André castro
Design Studios can work in collaboration with multidisciplinary partners throughout the whole product development process offering a unique approach for creating new products through visual integration and “cross pollination” processes. The process ranges from identifying and structuring requirements to conceptualizing and developing solutions for production. In the past three years a Lisbon based design studio has been involved in three R&D projects named “the trilogy of innovation”. The goal of the projects was to bridge competencies, experiences and synergies from companies in different transport sectors - automotive, railway and aeronautic - to develop lightweight, integrated and eco-efficient solutions focusing on the passenger experience. To tackle these challenges Project IBUS, Project ISEAT and Project LIFE required design to drive innovation through “cross-pollination” processes.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Jan Verbeek
An aerospace production system is one of the world's most complicated systems. It consists of highly specialized manufacturing and assembly processes coupled in complex global supply chains. The production system has to comply with rigorous certification and other regulatory requirements and is subjected to increasing commercial pressure. Commercial Air Transport may have become a commodity but commercial aircraft production systems are certainly not in that position yet due to the continuous increasing operational demands. A substantial amount of work is still required to continually improve the performance of aircraft and spacecraft, but also of the aerospace production system used to produce them, now and in the future. A comprehensive Systems Engineering approach towards the development and optimization of aerospace production systems is therefore essential. A key goal is to integrate the complete set of requirements from all the stakeholders into the development of the production system timely, in order to create an optimized but flexible and adaptable set of processes and production means.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Francesco Grimaccia
In this paper the regulatory and standardization aspects regarding the light UAV segment are described reporting main steps and activities carried out during the FP7 European SkyMedia funded project. With respect to the Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle regulation achievements, a detailed process conducted beside the Italian Flight Regulation Authority (ENAC) is reported emphasizing the key points that led to receive multiple Permit to Fly for Nimbus novel hybrid UAV platform, the first case in Italy in the category of “light UAV”. With specific reference to the UAV segment, after showing the complex procedure defined with such Authority to receive authorization to fly for project final demo, some light on the future perspectives for light UAV regulation will be provided underlining efforts and contributions to define a clear track on the UAV development in civil applications. In this context, further experimental procedures can be implemented in the next future to extend such procedures to other motivated cases likes, for example, national security or similar civil protection operations.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Valérie Berger
Airbus business and Extended Enterprise require more and more involvement of design and built suppliers, tier 1 but also across the complete supply chain i.e. tier 2-n. These suppliers are not working only for Aerospace industry and may have different cultures. The pressure on cost and overall efficiency is high and everybody has to cope with obsolescence and new regulation (e.g. REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals)). So it became very important for Airbus to clarify the criteria under which a change can be done without Airbus review, and criteria under which a change can be done without Airworthiness authority review. This document details the Airbus recommendations and requirements to ensure full compliance with Part 21 to Airbus (and suppliers) with regards to: Change to Aircraft Type Design Change to Aircraft Type Design identification Change to Aircraft Type Design identification assessment This covers the complete scope of the detail design of the Aircraft.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Moises Martinez-Ablanedo
From a past perspective, System Engineering was able to control the product data accuracy with respect to its requirements and towards product certification and delivery avoiding operational disruptions in the development lifecycle. But we usually do it by increasing the complexity of the product data management and administration what makes heavier the product integration. The trends indicate that the product complexity is intensifying and that the increasing load rate of changes will create serious efficiency disruptions if we persevere with today System Engineering approaches. New System Engineering paradigm is then proposed. It conducts to an innovative management of product identification and business integration. It is supported 4 key pillars: The Semantic Product Identification The Business Driven Intelligence The Product Life-Cycle Social Management The Data Management of Things It is highlighted the wide range of possibilities that could offer new product data aggregation laws based on correlating semantic context information.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Yves Guiochon, Christophe Secheret
The aerospace assembly process has always been famous to be very demanding in specialized and unique prototyped tooling. But in the recent years, the demand for standardization has grown while the aerospace drilling and assembly environment have remained as diverse as before. However some solutions exist to match those opposite requirements. It is possible to keep most flexibility required by the aerospace assembly floor and at the same time to standardize and reduce customer total cost of acquisition: this is what has been implemented through a wide product range successfully. We will illustrate through this paper how modern modular tooling design (covering namely Drills, ADU, squeezers and Battery Nutrunner) will not only strengthen aerospace assembly process but reduce total cost at the same time.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Ravi Rajamani, Abhinav Saxena, Frank Kramer, Michael Augustin, J.B. Schroeder, Kai Goebel, Ginger Shao, Indranil Roychoudhury, Wei Lin
The term Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) describes a set of capabilities that enable sustainable and safe operation of components and subsystems within aerospace platforms. However, very little guidance exists for the systems engineering aspects of design with IVHM in mind. It is probably because of this that designers have to use knowledge picked up exclusively by experience rather than by established process. This motivated a group of leading IVHM practitioners within the aerospace industry under the aegis of SAE's HM-1 technical committee to author a document that hopes to give working engineers and program managers clear guidance on all the elements of IVHM that they need to consider before designing a system. This proposed recommended practice (ARP6883 [1]) will describe all the steps of requirements generation and management as it applies to IVHM systems, and demonstrate these with a “real-world” example related to designing a landing gear system. The team hopes that this paper and presentation will help start a dialog with the larger aerospace community and that the feedback can be used to improve the ARP and subsequently the practice of IVHM from a systems engineering point-of-view.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Shu Lin, Torsten Liesk, Sean Lahey
This paper presents a generic Redundancy Management (RM) requirements definition process that is applicable to a complex system RM requirements development. In the aerospace industry, the ‘Aerospace Recommended Practices’ (ARP) 4754 and 4761 are typically used processes to ensure given safety and availability goals for complex systems. The process proposed in this paper is based on these standard guidelines and enhances them to provide a standardized process for the development of RM requirements with interactions between the system requirements development and the preliminary system safety assessment processes. The output of this process will help to achieve the following objectives: The system RM/failure monitoring requirements are defined commensurate with the system safety and availability requirements; the system is fault-tolerant to the degree necessary to meet the system safety and availability requirements; the system is robust and the system architecture is optimized.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Zdzislaw H. Klim, Adam Skorek
The safe operation of technical systems is a mandatory basic requirement for the entire industry. However, there are specific industries where the safety of operation is critical and is considered as a required characteristic. These types of industries include the aerospace, military, civil aviation, nuclear power, as well as chemical and automotive industries. Safety is everyone's responsibility but engineering plays the most important role in the course of achieving a safe product operation. There are two specific phases of the product life cycle where the safety characteristics should be addressed by engineering activities: the design and development and operation phases. Modern engineering education is oriented to provide future engineers with a sufficient background to be able to Conceive-Design-Implement-Operate. The emphasis of this approach is on the achievement of dual objectives; first to teach the students a large spectrum of technologies and second to develop their personal and interpersonal capabilities in order for them to be able to build complex engineering systems.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Onur Hisarciklilar, Omer Khalid Babar Sheikh, Harshad Ajit Yadav, Vincent Thomson
Aircraft development projects at Bombardier Aerospace involve a large number of tasks executed by a network of professionals from various disciplines. As the complexity of products and the development process increases, it becomes more difficult to manage the interactions among tasks and people. In fact, it may be impossible to even predict the impact of a single design decision across the development process. At Bombardier, investigation has shown that there was a lack of communication between design processes when dealing with aeroelasticity information. This resulted in duplicated design effort, reduced quality, and increased time to complete tasks when small design changes from one task induced delays in other tasks. Processes that deal with aeroelasticity work integrate system inertial, aerodynamics and structural information to make aircraft models and perform analyses. These processes have been creating similar models to perform aeroelasticity analyses. A study was started to determine the effect of using a single aeroelastic model to reduce overall design effort.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Klaus Fritz, Nikolaus Kurz, Eric Peterson, Rolf Buese
Avionics equipment, especially for safety-critical systems, is developed by means of a series of design steps, propagating and refining requirements through a number of hierarchical levels, from the aircraft level, through system and sub-system levels, down to equipment, subassemblies and individual components (see SAE ARP4754A [11]). At each development level, accompanying safety assessments (e.g. per SAE ARP4761 [12]) are performed to derive safety requirements which ensure compliance to the overall safety requirements determined by the aircraft and systems functional hazard assessments (FHAs). The safety related requirements of all development levels flow through the process down into the individual equipment specifications and are ultimately implemented in the equipment design where the design data is approved for the certificated aircraft (or engine) type. The equipment production process builds the equipment according to this approved design data. Safety assessment methodologies assume that each produced aircraft is equivalent to the type design.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
David K. Winstanley
Honeywell has developed a unique turbofan engine for application to the super mid-size business aviation market, the HTF7000. This paper will describe the design of this engine including aeromechanical design of its components. The unique design features of this engine will be described along with the technology growth path to keep the engine current. This paper will also describe several features which have been developed for this engine in response to new regulatory requirements. Some aspects of the engine to aircraft integration will also be described.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
John C. Dalton, Roger Nicholson
We live in an era of increasing twin-engine commercial airplane operations, with large and very quiet high bypass ratio engines. At the same time, due to several decades of increased attention to the environment, we have large and increasing hazardous species bird populations. These trends, when combined, are not a prescription for continued assurance of a remarkable and enviable safety record for commercial aviation. Therefore, greater diligence must be placed on the evaluation of the current and future aviation wildlife hazard. We have some new weapons in this fight for greater capability to live with this situation. The basic problem is that different databases are populated independently from one another and often contain conflicting, contradictory, and erroneous data. Databases that were used individually, but not necessarily combined, are being utilized in a conjoined methodology to give us a better picture of the actual risk involved. And new analytical techniques are being applied that will enable us to better visualize and evaluate the nature of the wildlife threat.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Chien-Chang Lee, Jon Friedman
For many mission critical systems, demonstrating that all requirements have been met via a set of requirements-based tests is often mandated by internal processes or external standards. Traditional coverage approaches, however, do not address this mandate because they measure only the coverage of the design by determining which paths in the design have been executed. Determining whether a given set of test vectors covers the design requirements (as opposed to merely covering the design) is a challenge. Creating a set of test vectors to cover the requirements can be difficult and time consuming. Using techniques first identified in the 1970s and modern Model-Based Design tools, we present a novel approach, based on work presented in [2], to automatically generate a set of requirements-based test vectors. In this paper, we discuss how requirements captured in a natural language can be modeled using Cause-Effect graphs, introduced in [1]. We then translate the Cause-Effect graph into Simulink® and Stateflow® to identify conflicting requirements and automatically generate a set of test vectors that can be assessed for completeness using coverage objectives such as Modified Condition/Decision Coverage (MCDC).
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Doug Howarth
This paper shows how the quantity demanded, viewed as an independent variable, interacts with customer values, producer costs and constraints. Failure to analyze Demand as Independent Variable (pronounced “Dave”) increases the chances that new programs will not launch, or once started, will fail. All producers in all markets face demand curves that describe their customers' reaction to price changes. Aggregate market demand curves show how buyers react to price changes within broad product sets, while product demand curves show buyer responses to a specific item. Demand curves relate quantities sold relative to their prices. In several military, transit and fleet cases, minimum quantity requirements form upper price boundaries along demand curves. Allowing prices to go so high that buying authorities cannot acquire the required numbers of units likely means that there may not be sufficient resources to form systems that can accomplish the buyers' goals. Simultaneously, pressure on producers to reduce costs and prices without relaxing requirements may force them into historically unattainable cost estimates.
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