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Viewing 151 to 180 of 13374
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0194
Srikanta Nahak, Sagar Bhojne
Abstract Earth moving machines are steered using various steering methodology. Articulated steering mechanism is the most popular type of steering methods. It is actuated by hydraulic cylinders connected to the steering linkages. While the machine is deployed with articulated type steering, vehicle stability is proportionate to the steering velocity. Articulated steering provides two important features, shorter turning radius, allows front and back axle to be solid. Directional stability refers to a vehicle’s ability to stabilize its direction of motion against disturbances. Majority of earth moving equipment operates on basic cycle of Load-Haul-Dump. During each cycle, vehicle needs to be steered at least once. To optimize the machine performance for improved productivity it is essential to study the correlation between articulation speed and operational weight of the vehicle.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0185
Narayan Venkitachalam, David Neihguk, Gurdeep Singh Pahwa, Parth Lunia, Abhinav Prasad, J Perumal
Abstract The excitation to a vehicle is from two sources, road excitation and powertrain excitation. Vehicle Suspension is designed to isolate the road excitation coming to passenger cabin. Powertrain mounts play a vital role in isolating the engine excitation. The current study focuses on developing an analytical approach using Low-Fidelity computer programs to design the Powertrain Mount layout and stiffness during the initial stage of product development. Three programs have been developed as a part of this study that satisfy the packaging needs, NVH requirements and static load bearing requirements. The applications are capable of providing the Kinetic Energy Distribution and Static Analysis (Powertrain Enveloping and Mount Durability) for 3-point and 4-point mounting systems and the ideal mount positions and stiffness for 3-point mounting systems.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0198
Joydeep Chatterjee, Harveen Talwar, Srishti Garg
Abstract In a typical passenger vehicle, there can be different types of noises generated which are broadly categorized as Interior Noise and Exterior Noise. The interior noise sources can be further classified into noises which can be Structure Borne or Air Borne. One of the major sources of both structure borne and airborne noise generation is the powertrain of the vehicle. The structure-borne noise and vibrations generated from the powertrain is usually transferred to the vehicle body through its attachment points to the body and the powertrain driveline. These induced body vibrations can sometimes cause the acoustic cavity of the passenger cabin to go into resonance which results in an annoying and disturbing noise for the passengers, called Booming Noise. Very often, one or more than one vehicle body panels show a dominant contribution in inducing this acoustic cavity resonance.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0177
Sreedeep Thiyya Kkandiyil, Monish M. H. Gowda, Hima Kiran Venna
Abstract Vehicle dynamics is one of the important domains in the automotive field. It is the study of performance, ride and handling of the vehicle. The design of steering system, suspension system and front axle plays an important role in achieving good ride and handling characteristics of the vehicle. The wheel geometry is one of the suspension parameter that affects handling characteristics of the vehicle. Hence proper selection of wheel geometry angles such as caster, camber, toe, steering angle inclination and scrub radius plays an important role in suspension design. In this thesis work study has been conducted to analyze the influence of steering axis inclination and scrub radius on steering effort of passenger car. This study helps in selecting proper steering axis inclination and scrub radius with a goal of achieving lesser steering effort. Multi body dynamic model of selected passenger car has been built using ADAMS Car.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0178
Santosh Shankara Murthy, Monish M. H. Gowda, Hima Kiran Venna
Abstract Vehicle dynamics is the study of response of the vehicle to driver’s input. Various parameters like location of center of gravity (CG), suspension spring stiffness, wheel alignment parameters, etc. determine the handling behavior of the vehicle. This is a study to investigate the effects of aforesaid parameters on handling characteristics of an intercity bus using MSC ADAMS software tool. Handling performance is determined by evaluating various parameters such as understeer gradient, roll gradient, etc. Understeer gradient is influenced by various parameters like location of CG, tire cornering stiffness, etc. Roll gradient of a vehicle depend on various parameters like vertical stiffness of tires, anti-roll bars (ARB) diameter, location of CG, etc. As a part of this study, four different configurations of MBD models were built to investigate the effect of location of ARB on handling behavior of bus.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0079
Paramjeet Panwar
Abstract The paper discusses a low fidelity mathematical simulation model using a backward facing modelling approach to vehicle simulation for calculation of energy requirements and flow through a simplified Series-HEV. Mathematical modelling techniques for HEV’s are well established method for purposes such as vehicle system simulations, developing control strategies, energy usage and range estimation with high detail and high degree of accuracy, and have been discussed extensively in literature. The paper discusses a low fidelity mathematical model of a Series-HEV which can be used to introduce undergraduate engineering students to concepts of HEVs. The model will be used as a case study to introduce and inspire students into using mathematical modelling of systems for their engineering coursework.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0058
Ninad Pimpalkhare, Gaurav Kumar, Yuva Kishore Vaddi, Chetan Prakash Jain
Abstract Inside cabin of a passenger car, low frequency booming noise still presents a major hurdle for NVH engineers to fine tune a vehicle. Low frequency booming noise is presently taken care with addition of mass damper and large reinforcements. These conventional countermeasures add weight to the vehicle as well as increase the overall production cost. The study presented in this paper proposes a countermeasure model that not only reduces the booming noise but also avoids any weight and cost addition. It has been focused for low frequency booming noise around 30 ∼ 40 Hz. Within the range mentioned, one of the major reasons for booming noise in hatchback models is the bending resonance of backdoor. By modifying the mode of the backdoor in such a manner that it cancels the effect of bending on the vehicle acoustic cavity, improvement can be achieved in terms of sound pressure level at the driver’s right ear location (DREL).
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0051
Sandip Sahoo, Abhinav Kuchhal, Sekharan Vineeth, Vikram Chauhan
Abstract Shielding vehicle underbody or engine room components from exhaust heat is becoming a difficult task with increasing packaging constraints, which lead to the proximity of components with high temperatures of the exhaust systems. Heat insulators are provided to protect various components from exhaust system parts. Generally the requirement of heat insulators are fixed on the basis of benchmarked temperatures measured on vehicles with similar layout, during the initial phase of vehicle design. Also various CFD techniques are available to predict the surface temperatures on components in order to determine the necessity of a heat insulator. The aforementioned techniques use radiation and convection heat transfer effects on a complete vehicle model and the overall process generally takes considerable time to provide the results. This paper deals with a theoretical approach to predict the temperatures on nearby components due to exhaust system heat.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0044
Ashish Rawat, Ashwinder Singh, Hardeep Singh, Deepak Sharma
Abstract India is a country of diversity. From North to South, east to west, one can find altogether different culture, religions, spoken languages, foods, weather conditions, people lifestyles, dressing styles etc. This vast diversity of India poses a great challenge in front of Indian Automobile Manufacturers, so as to assimilate all the requirements (of this big nation) in one single car (design). For example, many people in India wear turban (out of their religious beliefs or cultural heritage). So, is it required to keep enough consideration for Turban wearing population in vehicle design? Turban, unlike caps or hats, is something which is tied on the head (not just only kept). It is something which cannot be removed whenever required. So, it can somehow be considered as an integral part of body (as an added head dimension). So, it becomes all the more important to thoroughly understand this aspect & keep a consideration for the same in vehicle design.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0041
Ramsai Ramachandran, Ayan Bhattacharyya, Sukhchain Singh
Abstract Automobile components are usually subjected to complex varying loads. Thus, fatigue failure is a common mode of failure in automobile components. Accurately predicting the fatigue life is the key point for light weight and also reliability design of automobile components. Various life prediction theories are being used in the automotive industry for damage analysis using material S-N curves. However, due to variability in manufacturing, material spec etc. it is difficult to predict the experimental lives using conventional theories. Probability based statistical modeling is prevalent in the industry for life prediction. Probabilistic plots of cycles to failure to constant amplitude loads are plotted and used for prediction purpose. As the component is subjected to varying loads in real world, defining a single parameter i.e. damage would be more relevant compared to loads.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0024
Aditya Rai, Sanchit Vijh, P Baskara Sethupathi
Abstract To increase the range of a Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV), a lot of ideas have been proposed. A prominent one among them is the Battery swapping methodology or Rapid Battery Interchange (RBI), where standardized batteries can easily be removed from the BEV and replaced with recharged batteries quickly. The feasibility of this methodology has been highly debated and contested. This paper studies the feasibility of a very popular distribution and maintenance network currently used for LPG distribution in India, to be applied to battery distribution used across different makes and models of BEVs. In India, 33.6 million households subscribe to LPG Cylinders for domestic cooking usage. These standard sized (14.2Kg) cylinders are refilled and redistributed via multiple public sector and private companies.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0210
Abhishek Sinha, Kamlesh Yadav, Rajdeep Singh Khurana
Abstract The biggest challenge in vehicle BIW design today is to make a light, cost effective and energy absorbing structure. With the increasing competition as well as increasing customer awareness, today’s vehicle has to satisfy several aesthetic and functional requirements besides the mandatory regulatory requirements. While working on global platform, it is challenging to comply with both pedestrian protection and low speed bumper impact (ECE-R42) and at the same time meeting the styling intent of reducing the front overhang. Pedestrian lower leg compliance demands space between bumper member and bumper, a condition that reduces the space available for energy absorption during low speed impact (ECE-R42). Therefore, reduction in front overhang poses a problem in meeting both the requirements with limited space.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0203
Krishnakanth Pandurangan, Hima Kiran Vithal Venna, Vinod Banthia
Abstract Exposure to high level of vibrations encountered in driver’s cabin of heavy duty truck over extended time causes driver fatigue and leads to serious health disorders. In most of the current heavy duty trucks in India, absence of proper vibration isolation system for driver’s seat results in transmission of high levels of vibration to the driver. A proper seat isolation system, combined with proper cushioning of seat can considerably reduce vibration transmissibility to the driver. The work presented here addresses the problem of vibration levels in a heavy duty truck and proposes solution for reducing vibration transmissibility to driver seat by using isolation and cushioning system. Vibration levels on floor, driver’s seat and seat back of an existing truck were measured using tri-axial accelerometer and 9 channel spectrum analyzer. Measured vibration levels in the vertical direction were found to be exceeding comfortable level.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0235
Manish Dixit, V Sundaram, S. Sathish Kumar
Abstract The performance of any automotive engine depends not only upon its core engine parts but also on the effectiveness of the sub-systems attached to the engine, like the intake, fuel, engine cooling and exhaust systems. The exhaust system being a critical system of any automotive vehicle plays a responsible role of improving the ride quality of the vehicle and fuel economy. The effective design of exhaust system is critical in order to ensure the required exhaust gas is exited from the engine and at the same time the noise is attenuated. In this paper a novel approach is developed in order to characterize the flow through the cold end exhaust system and reduce the pressure drop to achieve desired performance. The exhaust system attenuates the noise from the engine without deteriorating the engine performance by ensuring an optimum value of exhaust back pressure.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0240
Naveen Sukumar, Sayak Mukherjee, Praneeth Kurisetty, Umashanker Gupta
Abstract The cabin or cab is an enclosed space where the driver and co-driver are seated. Structural parameters such as modal and stiffness characteristics are of key importance for its durability study and driver’s comfort. The desired strength and stiffness value of the cabin have to be met at the development phase itself. In developing new cabin models numerical simulations are used for estimating vehicle performance to reduce the development cycle. But, the conventional method of modeling the cabin using 2-d elements and performing subsequent iteration steps to arrive at the desired stiffness and strength value will be cumbersome and time consuming. Thus, a methodology of FE modeling of the truck cabin using 1-D elements has been proposed in this paper which will reduce the analysis time of successive iterations. For this purpose an existing proven driver’s cabin is modeled using 1-D elements.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0258
Eeshan Bashir, Sanjay A Patil
Abstract In the field of automotive if a vehicle is designed for a particular per person riding capacity considering the aspects of safety, design and power exceeding those limits puts the driver and pillion riders at considerable risk. With a step ahead in this paper we are trying to detect and limit the number of persons sitting on two wheeler. As per the traffic rules in India the maximum number of persons cannot exceed two, apart from the driver only one pillion rider can be carried in behind while driving. Despite of the ban, driver carries more than a single person. Two Pillion riding is also a root of a lot of accidents happening in two wheelers. To make the detection process effective, robust and cost effective a new sensor design was to be put forward. There is no sensor available that could detect the differential load over the larger area at effective cost. To cater to this problem Bubble based tactile based sensors were developed and checked for this application.
2016-01-22
WIP Standard
J3016
This Recommended Practice provides a taxonomy for motor vehicle driving automation systems that perform part or all of the dynamic driving task (DDT) on a sustained basis and that range in level from no automation (level 0) to full automation (level 5). It provides detailed definitions for these six levels of driving automation in the context of motor vehicles (hereafter also referred to as “vehicle” or “vehicles”) and their operation on roadways. These level definitions, along with additional supporting definitions provided herein, can be used to describe the range of driving automation systems equipped on motor vehicles in a functionally consistent and coherent manner. “On-road” refers to publicly accessible roadways (including parking areas and private campuses that permit public access) that collectively serve users of vehicles of all classes and automation levels (including no automation), as well as motorcyclists, pedal cyclists, and pedestrians.
2016-01-20
WIP Standard
J33
This SAE Recommended Practice sets forth accepted definitions and terminology of major components and parts peculiar to snowmobiles. Illustrations have been selected to identify functional characteristics and to identify common mechanisms. They are not intended to show all existing commercial machines or to be exactly descriptive of any particular machine. These criteria were prepared to facilitate clear understanding and promote uniformity in snowmobile nomenclature.
2016-01-15
WIP Standard
J1121
This recommended practice has been developed to assist engineers and designers in the preparation of specifications for the major types of helical compression and extension springs. It is restricted to a concise presentation of items which will promote an adequate understanding between spring manufacturer and spring user of the major practical requirements in the finished spring. Closer tolerances are obtainable where greater accuracy is required and the increased cost is justified. For the basic concepts underlying the spring design and for many of the details see the SAE Information Report MANUAL ON DESIGN AND APPLICATION OF HELICAL AND SPIRAL SPRINGS, SAE HS 795, which is available from SAE Headquarters in Warrendale, PA 15096. A uniform method for specifying design information is shown in the TYPICAL DESIGN CHECK LISTS FOR HELICAL SPRINGS, SAE J1122.
2016-01-14
Standard
J3061_201601
This recommended practice provides guidance on vehicle Cybersecurity and was created based off of, and expanded on from, existing practices which are being implemented or reported in industry, government and conference papers. The best practices are intended to be flexible, pragmatic, and adaptable in their further application to the vehicle industry as well as to other cyber-physical vehicle systems (e.g., commercial and military vehicles, trucks, busses). Other proprietary Cybersecurity development processes and standards may have been established to support a specific manufacturer’s development processes, and may not be comprehensively represented in this document, however, information contained in this document may help refine existing in-house processes, methods, etc. This recommended practice establishes a set of high-level guiding principles for Cybersecurity as it relates to cyber-physical vehicle systems.
2016-01-06
Article
The $1 billion venture, funded for five years, will focus on autonomous vehicle technologies, artificial intelligence, materials science, robotics, and more.
2016-01-06
Magazine
Time to get personal Industry engineers are combining apps, voice, the cloud, and other technologies such as artificial intelligence to enable drivers to customize their vehicles and anticipate their needs. Technology report GM and TARDEC co-developing fuel cell powered Chevrolet Colorado for military evaluation vehicles and anticipate their needs. Global vehicles Sports cars take center stage in Tokyo
2016-01-02
Standard
AS1990D
The purpose of this SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) is to provide a description of the temper nomenclature system for aluminum alloys used in the aerospace industry by combining information from different sources for the benefit of the user.
2015-12-31
WIP Standard
J670
The vehicle dynamics terminology presented herein pertains to passenger cars and light trucks with two axles and to those vehicles pulling single-axle trailers. The terminology presents symbols and definitions covering the following subjects: axis systems, vehicle bodies, suspension and steering systems, brakes, tires and wheels, operating states and modes, control and disturbance inputs, vehicle responses, and vehicle characterizing descriptors. The scope does not include terms relating to the human perception of vehicle response.
2015-12-31
Book
Alex Krulikowski
The ISO GPS Ultimate Pocket Guide explains the most common rules, symbols, and concepts in the ISO Geometrical Product Specifications System. Written by standards expert Alex Krulikowski, this valuable on-the-job reference clarifies how to interpret standard-compliant technical drawings that use ISO 1101:2012 and its companion published standards. More than 15 standards were directly reviewed and more than 30 standards indirectly used in creating the book. One entire section is devoted to a quick comparison of ASME and ISO standards. Author's comments throughout the text provide insights about concepts and how to apply or interpret tolerancing in a cost-effective manner. Drawing interpretation is simplified because the tolerancing information is in one place, logically arranged, with illustrations of each concept.
2015-12-22
Article
Nominations for the fourth annual Altair Enlighten Award are now being accepted, with the 2016 award program including two distinct categories recognizing vehicle lightweighting: full vehicles and modules.
2015-12-19
Standard
AS6163
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines the minimum performance standard to demonstrate compliance with the regulatory design, test and operational requirements for a Temperature Controlled Container (TCC).
2015-12-17
WIP Standard
AS6171/17
This document defines capabilities and limitations of LSM and CLSM as they pertain to counterfeit electronic component detection and suggests possible applications to these ends. Additionally, this document outlines requirements associated with the application of LSM and CLSM including: operator training, sample preparation, various sampling techniques, data interpretation, equipment maintenance, and reporting of data. This test method is primarily directed to analyses performed in the visible to near infrared (400nm to 1100nm approximately). If SAE AS6171/17 is invoked in the contract, the base document, AS6171 General Requirements shall also apply.
2015-12-17
Standard
J1698/3_201512
This SAE Recommended Practice defines procedures intended to be used to validate that relevant EDR output records conform within specified limits to measured sensor input to the device.
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