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Viewing 151 to 180 of 13333
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2886
Kebing Tang, Li He, Yao Zhao, Heinz Friz, Bo Li
Abstract The development of a new Dongfeng Heavy truck had very strict targets for fuel consumption. As the aerodynamic drag plays a crucial role for the fuel consumption, a low drag value had to be achieved. It was therefore essential to include evaluation and optimization of the aerodynamics in the development process. Because wind tunnel facilities were not available, the complete aerodynamics development was based on digital simulation. The major portion of the aerodynamic optimization was carried out during the styling phase where mirrors, sun visor, front bumper and aero devices were optimized for drag reduction. For optimizing corner vanes and mud guards, self-soiling from the wheel spray was included in the analysis. The aero results did also show that cooling air flow rates are sufficiently high to ensure proper cooling. During the detailed engineering phase an increase of the drag above the target required further optimization work to finally reach the target.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2878
Peter Subke, Michael Eberl
Abstract SAE J1939 is the synonym for a CAN-based in-vehicle network for heavy-duty road-vehicles (trucks and buses) and non-road mobile machinery (NRMM). The SAE J1939 standards collection consists of 18 parts and 2 digital annexes. SAE J1939-21 (Data Link Layer) describes the data link layer using the CAN protocol with 29-bit identifiers, SAE J1939-73 (Application Layer – Diagnostics) includes the specification of diagnostic messages (DMs). The software components of external test equipment can be described by software interfaces (APIs). ISO 22900 (Modular Vehicle Communication Interface) contains the description of the D-Server that comes with the D-Server API for the diagnostic application and the D-PDU API for the connection to the in-vehicle network (e.g. CAN). ISO 22901-2 (D-PDU API) references SAE J1939-73 and SAE J1939-21 as “Truck and Bus CAN”. D-Server based external test equipment is powered by data which is described in ODX.
2015-09-29
WIP Standard
J386
This standard provides performance and test requirements for operator restraint systems provided for off-road self-propelled work machines. This document applies to pelvic restraint systems (Type 1) for off-road, self-propelled work machines fitted with ROPS and commonly used in construction, earthmoving, forestry, and mining as referred to in SAE J1040 and industrial machines fitted with ROPS as referred to in SAE J1042.
2015-09-28
WIP Standard
TB0003A
This Technical Bulletin covers the following areas of concern. Prevention: Actions recommended for procuring parts and materials with a full warranty; Actions recommended for minimizing risks and protecting your Program from counterfeiting; Actions recommended when buying from a non-authorized supplier. Detection: Actions recommended when procuring parts from an unauthorized supplier or otherwise suspect that a part or material at risk of being counterfeit has been procured. Risk Mitigation: Actions recommended when no reasonable alternatives exist (e.g., a redesign is required, an unacceptable schedule delay will result, the program or customer cannot bear the additional cost) and the decision has been made to procure from a non-authorized supplier.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-01-2680
Kazuhiko Tani, Hironori Nakamura
Abstract Combined Brake System for small motorcycles has been developed. In small motorcycles, some models have a hydraulic disc brake both in the front and rear wheels but many of them have a hydraulic disc front brake and a mechanical drum rear brake. Accordingly, it was necessary to develop a new system to link the hydraulic system with the mechanical system to allow an application of Combined Brake System to these models. In this paper, a CBS having a new configuration is described where a disc brake and a drum brake are linked in a simple lever structure of an input force distributor, and an inhibitor spring at the foot pedal. With this mechanism equipped, the distribution of brake forces is controlled. When a large input force is applied, a large proportion of brake force is applied to the front brake to obtain adequate deceleration. When a mild input force is applied, which is frequently operated, the brake force proportion is large in the rear compared to the front.
2015-09-23
Article
Infor Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) Accelerate, powered by Aras, is a new PLM solution designed for automotive, industrial manufacturing, high-tech, and aerospace and defense customers.
2015-09-22
WIP Standard
EIA632A
This Standard is intended to enable an enterprise to strengthen its competitiveness in global markets by engineering and producing quality systems, and by delivering its products on time at an affordable price or cost. The focus, therefore, is on conceptualizing, creating and realizing a system and the products that make up a system. This Standards was developed as a joint project of the Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA) and the International Counci on Systems Engineering (INCOSE). This effort was chartered by the G-47 Systems Engineering Committee of EIA and has been designed as Project PN-3537. this Standard has been approved by the EIA Engineering Department Executive Committee.
2015-09-21
Article
Aras Flow features a new Windows 8 mobile tablet app that helps companies accelerate product realization with visual collaboration.
2015-09-21
Article
SsangYong is set on making meaningful inroads into the challenging European market, where aesthetics and engineering need to cohere convincingly to achieve real success. UK CEO Paul Williams describes it as a "challenger brand."
2015-09-18
WIP Standard
AS6171/13
To define capabilities and limitations of SIMS as it pertains to counterfeit detection of EEE parts and suggest possible applications to these ends. Additionally, this document outlines requirements associated with the application of SIMS including: Operator training; Sample preparation; Data interpretation; Equipment maintenance; and Reporting of data.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2401
Michael Schmidt, Philipp Nguyen, Mirko Hornung
Abstract The projected uptick in world passenger traffic challenges the involved stakeholders to optimise the current aviation system and to find new solutions being able to cope with this trend. Since especially large hub airports are congested, operate at their capacity limit and further extensions are difficult to realise. Delays due to late arrival of aircraft or less predictable ground operation processes disrupt the airport operations in a serious way. Various concepts improving the current turnaround processes have been presented thus far, whereby radical aircraft design changes have little chances for realisation in the short term. By maintaining the established overall aircraft configuration, the concepts promote higher probability to become commercially available for aircraft manufactures and operators.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2422
Michele Trancossi, Antonio Dumas, Mauro Madonia, Maharshi Subhash, Jose Pascoa, Shyam Das, Francesco Grimaccia, Chris Bingham, Tim Smith, Dean Vucinic, Anna Sunol
Abstract One of the best airplanes ever realized by the European Aircraft industry was the Dornier Do 28D Skyservant, an extraordinary STOL light utility aircraft with the capability to carry up to 13 passengers. It has been a simple and rugged aircraft capable also of operating under arduous conditions and very easy and simple maintenance. The architecture of this airplane, which has operated actively for more than 20 years, is very interesting analyzing the implementation of a new propulsion system because of the unusual incorporation of two engines, as well as the two main landing gear shock struts of the faired main landing gear attached to short pylons on either side of the forward fuselage. This unconventional design allows an easy implementation of different propulsion units, such as the history of different experimental versions allowed.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2438
Robert E. Voros
Abstract Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) 4754 Revision A (ARP4754A), Guidelines for Development of Civil Aircraft and Systems [1], and ARP4761, Guidelines and Methods for Conducting the Safety Assessment Process on Civil Airborne Systems and Equipment [2], together describe a complex set of intertwining processes which comprehensively prioritize development activities for a product's systems based on their safety criticality. These processes work at specific levels of detail (aircraft and system) and interact with a set of processes at lower levels of detail (item) defined by Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA) standards. The aircraft and system development process (ARP4754A) supplies functions, requirements, and architectural definitions to the System Safety process (ARP4761), which in turn supplies Development Assurance Levels back to the development process and on to the RTCA processes.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2452
Vicki S. Johnson
Abstract The Systems Engineering (SE) “Vee” is generally recognized as one of the primary identifying features of Systems Engineering processes. While there are many specifications which include SE in their titles and show a version of the “Vee” in their process descriptions, there are other specifications which make no claim to be an SE standard but show a “Vee” describing the processes in the specification. There are also specifications which appear to be completely unrelated to SE but describe processes which are very much SE. This wide variety of documents points to the possibility of identifying the common core which composes SE (the soul of Systems Engineering). To search for the soul of SE, the words in two recognized SE standards along with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) SE standard and multiple Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) standards have been analyzed for alignment of and differences between the models.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2447
John Low
Abstract The development of the Electrical Wire Interconnection System, or EWIS, for today's advanced aircraft is one of the most complicated engineering activities around. In addition to having to respond to very high rates of change during development, the aircraft are continually evolving in electronic and electrical content through their entire lifecycle. Relatively new mandates, such as the CFR Part 25 Subpart H EWIS, have put additional demands on aircraft OEMs and their key suppliers, forcing companies to reassess their design practices and methodologies. This paper investigates how a systems engineering approach to the development of the electrical wiring systems can enable and facilitate a more efficient EWIS development and maintenance methodology.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2469
Reece Clothier, Brendan Williams, Achim Washington
Abstract One of the primary hazards associated with the operation of Unmanned Aircraft (UA) is the controlled or uncontrolled impact of the UA with terrain or objects on the terrain (e.g., people or structures). National Aviation Authorities (NAAs) have the responsibility of ensuring that the risks associated with this hazard are managed to an acceptable level. The NAA can mandate a range of technical (e.g., design standards) and operational (e.g., restrictions on flight) regulatory requirements. However, work to develop these regulations for UA is ongoing. Underpinning this rule-making process is a safety case showing how the regulatory requirements put in place ensure that the UA operation is acceptably safe for the given application and environment.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2464
Anna Suñol Jiménez, Tao Yang, Dean Vucinic
Abstract Thrust vectoring is an interesting propulsion solution in aeronautic applications due to its fast response, improving aircraft's performance for take-off, landing and flight, and enabling Short/Vertical Take-Off and Landing (S/VTOL). In this context, an attempt to design a radically new concept of thrust vectoring nozzle is in current development. This novel nozzle, called ACHEON, bases the jet deviation control on the interaction of two primary jets of different velocities, where the one with higher velocity entrains the one with lower velocity. Two cylindrical walls are positioned after the two air jets mixing. If the inlet conditions are not symmetric, the Coanda effect on the walls forces the resulting air jet to divert from the symmetry axis. This paper shows the experimental pressure distribution along the Coanda wall for different inlet.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2472
Tom Owen
Abstract SUAV is a 4 year investigation with the aim of designing, manufacturing and integrating a 3kg Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) into an existing 11kg fixed wing UAV which is already in commercial service. The project comprises of a collaboration of ten partners, each having a commercial or scientific interest in the design. Individual partners provide specific specialist knowledge at system component level. This paper will present an overview of the problem space and show the methods used to generate the system level requirements. A top level overview of the resultant system design is also given.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2487
Dara Childs
Abstract Rotordynamics developed from the beginning of the 20th century to deal with problems associated with steam turbines. This paper deals with intense developments starting around 1975 through 2000 in rotordynamics to deal with new, larger machines running at higher speeds and higher power levels. Most of the new problems of interest dealt with subsynchronous instabilities. Issues associated with “synchromnously unstable” motion due to the Morton Effect is also reviewed.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2535
Steven Donald Ellersick, Bill Reisenauer, Mickey Jacobson, Newel Stephens
Abstract The past twenty years have seen tremendous changes in the Avionics display and flight deck lighting due to the application of solid-state LED (light emitting diode) light sources and LCDs (liquid crystal displays). These advances significantly benefit the customer and pilot users when integrated correctly. This paper discusses recommended practices and guidance given in SAE ARP 4103 for modern Avionics flight deck lighting systems to satisfy the end user and obtain certification. SAE ARP 4103 Flight Deck Lighting for Commercial Transport Aircraft has recently been revised to keep up with the Avionics state-of-the-art and add clarification where needed. ARP 4103 contains recommended Avionics flight deck lighting design and performance criteria to ensure prompt and accurate readability and visibility, color identification and discrimination of needed information under all expected ambient lighting and electrical power conditions. For additional details, see the actual ARP 4103.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2550
Kiran Thupakula
Abstract In Aerospace Industry, the major challenge is to meet the safety and quality of subsystem / system elements to comply with the standards defined by regulatory authorities for product certification. Engineering test labs are created to provide such precision oriented test platforms ranging from component level to fully integrated test labs/test systems, standalone or distributed network. Even after massive initial capital investment and with the evolution of technologies followed by principles of practice in establishing test facilities, industry is facing open challenges in meeting the performance parameters like productivity, optimum usage, accessibility, monitoring, control and ease of maintenance to list a few. It's very important to standardize the test facilities to optimize time to market and reduce the product cost.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2567
Dushyant Kaliyari, Khadeeja Nusrath TK, Jatinder Singh
Abstract Aerodynamic database update from the flight tests using system identification techniques is a crucial tool for the development of control laws and high fidelity simulators. For the certification of aircraft under test, aero-database needs to be validated from flight tests throughout the flight envelope and also to certain levels beyond the envelope boundaries. Validation of aero-database close to envelope boundaries entails additional complexities which necessitates careful handling of flight data identification and update process. This paper discusses the approach adopted for aero-database update and flight clearance, followed by a discussion on the issues relevant in the extreme flight test regimes, such as, flow angle accuracy at higher angles-of-attack, center-of-gravity variation with fuel pitch angle for high-g maneuvering conditions and inaccuracies in Mach number at transonic speeds.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2580
David Lednicer
Abstract During the 1930s and 1940s, aircraft designers worked on developing novel design features. Some of these features worked and are commonplace today. Other features fell by the wayside and have been forgotten. These novel design features include laminar flow wings, low-drag cooling systems, buried propulsion systems, canard configurations, jet engines, break-away wing tips, pressure cabins and swept wings. The development and applications of these features will be examined. Specific technical details of these applications will be included in this examination. For the design features that fell by the wayside, the reasons for this outcome will be discussed
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2626
Charla Wise
Abstract The nature of aerospace innovation has changed dramatically in the past few decades, including some subtle changes that might go unnoticed to a casual observer outside our industry. The achievements of the 1950s through the 1990s were often epitomized by events that made headlines throughout the world - for example, breaking the sound barrier, walking on the Moon, receiving the first images from a roving vehicle on Mars, or launching the first airliner designed solely using computers. Aerospace engineers today are creating feats that are no less innovative or impressive but that often lack the universal sensational appeal of those past “miracles.” Now the accomplishments are likely to be concerned with using data more effectively to reduce risk and enhance the safety and affordability of products and services rather than flying faster, higher or more stealthily.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2443
Nivedita Chanda
Abstract Aircrafts use Transponder for transmitting data to Air Traffic Control ground stations. Transponders automatically transmit a unique four-digit code when they receive a radio signal sent by radar. But when Transponder is shut down, and the redundant transponder fails to operate, there is no system within the aircraft which can continue transmitting altitude and important data to ATC ground stations. This has necessitated active research work to fundamentally design better and effective communication systems. At present, there is no evident redundant system to transponder unlike in case of Power-Plants, three-fold reliable, safety cum redundant power supply system are present. The present work introduces a novel design ‘RTSA’ which can be effective in catering safe transmission of emergency signal.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2439
Martin Hunter
Abstract It is generally accepted that the development of hardware and software for safety critical systems follow their own lifecycles as defined by standards such as RTCA DO254 and RTCA DO178C. What is less clear is what should be done to ensure the system safety objectives are met when the software is installed in the electronic hardware. This paper seeks to discuss the activities that may be undertaken do demonstrate not only that the integration of the software and hardware “work” together, but they do so in a manner that meets the safety objectives in line with the guidelines described in SAE ARP4754A. According to ARP4754A, hardware and software are different “items” developed according to their own requirements and standards, when two or more items are brought together, they are a system, which may be part of a larger system.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2529
Mahendra Muli, Vivek Moudgal, Jace Allen
Abstract The Aerospace and Defense industry is currently challenged in multiple ways - cost cutting and sequestration on the defense side, and spurt of growth on the commercial aviation side of business. While these are opposing trends, both will impose severe challenges to the management of product development process for both the Air framers and the suppliers. The challenge becomes severe as the innovation expectations become rapid with increases in embedded software content in avionics and the advent of a new category of autonomous ground, marine, and air systems. Clearly, the industry need is to have a product development process that allows for reducing costs, while increasing embedded software quality and thereby product quality even in an iterative development process.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2434
Tian Lirong, Mu Ming
Abstract In recent year, with the booming of Chinese economy and domestic civil air transportation market, China's aircraft manufacturers have been trying to develop their own commercial aircraft and changing from the subcontracting-manufacturer to aircraft developer, which turned to be a very hard task. One of the main challenges in front of China's aircraft manufacturers and airborne equipment suppliers is how to apply the airworthiness standards, such as ARP4754A, ARP4761, DO-178B(C) and DO-254, etc, into their engineering practice. Chinese companies are struggling in improving their capabilities to satisfy certification requirements and are making some remarkable progress these years. The paper first introduces the current status of Chinese aviation industry, and then the challenges to China's airborne equipment suppliers are analyzed. Based on these, the customization considerations of airworthiness standards and ARP4754 Practice in Chinese context are discussed.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2428
Richard Ambroise, Gabriel Godfrey
The smartphone in your pocket, the tablet you use to browse the web, the safety systems in your automobile: they all benefit from fast-evolving computer and electronic component technology. These components are lighter, hold more data, and can perform increasingly complex tasks. This electronic evolution has had an impact in the aviation industry as well. The electronic components used in today's engines can do more than ever before, but the need to replace older components has introduced some added complexity. Until now. The problem is obsolescence. Driven by an ever-demanding consumer market, electrical components - including those used for aircraft engines - are evolving faster than ever. Engine components installed just a few years ago are no longer being made. This means engine manufacturers need to install new models when replacing these older models or when building new engines.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2431
Robert E. Voros
Abstract Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) 4754 Revision A (ARP4754A), “Guidelines for Development of Civil Aircraft and Systems,” [1] is recognized through Advisory Circular (AC) 20-174 (AC 20-174) [2] as a way (but not the only way) to provide development assurance for aircraft and systems to minimize the possibility of development errors. ARP4754A and its companion, Aerospace Information Report (AIR) 6110, “Contiguous Aircraft/System Development Process Example,” [3] primarily describe development processes for an all new, complex and highly integrated aircraft without strong consideration for reused systems or simple systems. While ARP4754A section 5 mentions reuse, similarity, and complexity, and section 6 is intended to cover modification programs, the descriptions in these sections can be unclear and inconsistent. The majority of aircraft projects are not completely new Products nor are they entirely comprised of complex and highly integrated systems.
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