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Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Ingo Stuermer, Ulrich Eisemann, Elke Salecker
Abstract Embedded software in the car is becoming increasingly complex due to the growing number of software-based controller functions and the increasing complexity of the software itself. Model-based development with Simulink combined with TargetLink for automatic code generation helps significantly to improve the quality of the embedded software. The development of large-scale Simulink models in distributed teams is a challenging task, especially when developing safety-critical software that must fulfill requirements stated in the ISO 26262 [1] safety standard. In practice, many questions on how to avoid the pitfalls of distributed model-based development remain open, such as how to define an appropriate model architecture, handle model complexity, and achieve compliance with ISO 26262. The intent of this paper is threefold. Firstly, we summarize those requirements of ISO 26262 that are relevant for developing complex software in a distributed environment. Secondly, we provide best practices for distributed development of large-scale controllers with MATLAB, Simulink, and TargetLink in compliance with ISO 26262.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Alexandros Mouzakitis, Paul Jennings, Gunwant Dhadyalla, Gerard Lancaster
Abstract Complexity of electronics and embedded software systems in automobiles has been increasing over the years. This necessitates the need for an effective and exhaustive development and validation process in order to deliver fault free vehicles at reduced time to market. Model-based Product Engineering (MBPE) is a new process for development and validation of embedded control software. The process is generic and defines the engineering activities to plan and assess the progress and quality of the software developed for automotive applications. The MBPE process is comprised of six levels (one design level and five verification and validation levels) ranging from the vehicle requirements phase to the start of production. The process describes the work products to be delivered during the course of product development and also aligns the delivery plan to overall vehicle development milestones. MBPE enables early confirmation of fitness of the embedded system and the detection of software errors during product development, by bringing a more robust and efficient development, verification and validation process across all stakeholder departments within the organisation and supplier base.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Rajasekhar MV, J. Perumal, Samir Rawte
Abstract The need for automotive OEMs to manage product complexities and tough time to market in a competitive global industry mandates systems-driven product development process, which combines systems engineering methodology across all development domains with an integrated definition of the product. Businesses unable to adapt quickly lose mind share as well as market share. It is critical to the success of an automotive OEM to apply a consistent process framework based on systems engineering to capture, manage and organize information and knowledge, beginning with the voice of the customer, and continuing through product development, service, support and end-of-life. Systems engineering is important because it effectively nourishes an initial idea into a full system description, with all necessary elements integrated to form a complete product. This approach is best when companies deal in a multi-disciplinary environment (electrical, mechanical, & software systems) where ever-increasing complexities weigh heavy on effective product development with manufactures to face ever changing market conditions, competitions, customer requirements, time to market and market demands of low cost.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Yaamini Devi Loganathan, Jayakrishnan M
Abstract The automobile industry in India has long been recognized as a core manufacturing sector with the potential to drive national economic growth. India's attraction as a destination for automobile manufacturers has been underscored by the number of new manufacturers entering the country over the last two decades, through FDI. The number of manufacturers has continued to grow in India over the years across vehicle segments. Multinational and Transnational firms may enter a market by different modes of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), either by Greenfield, Mergers & Acquisitions, Joint Ventures or Contract manufacturing. Indian automobile industry currently has a wide mix of home grown automobile companies and foreign invested companies. In this FDI development and the inclusion of more automobile manufacturers, the product development process of companies also has gone through a change. The cross pollination of product development process has happened between the automobile manufacturing firms.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Gopal Athani, Prasad Yerraguntla, Anand Gajaraj, Kapil Dongare
Abstract Micro Hybrid Systems are a premier approach for improving fuel efficiency and reducing emissions, by improving the efficiency of electrical energy generation, storage, distribution and consumption, yet with lower costs associated with development and implementation. However, significant efforts are required while implementing micro hybrid systems, arising out of components like Intelligent Battery Sensor (IBS). IBS provides battery measurements and battery status, and in addition mission critical diagnostic data on a communication line to micro hybrid controller. However, this set of data from IBS is not available instantly after its initialization, as it enters into a lengthy learning phase, where it learns the battery parameters, before it gives the required data on the communication line. This learning period spans from 3 to 8 hours, until the IBS is fully functional and is capable of supporting the system functionalities. This scenario poses a great challenge to conduct the system performance checks at End of Line testing stations in assembly lines, and also in after sales service stations, as the battery data is not available, without which the micro hybrid systems cannot perform their full set of functions.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Seyed M. Mirmiran, Vern Scott, Bill Swenson, Stephen Funtig
Abstract The Sarbanes-Oxley Act created new standards for corporate accountability pertaining to all publicly-owned and traded firms. It holds top executives accountable for the accuracy of all financial data and statements, including reported tangible assets. It requires existence of auditable internal accounting control measures and specifies adherence to new internal controls and procedures designed to ensure the validity of their financial records and physical assets. The Act presents a challenge to every manufacturing firm to have a low-cost system implemented that can produce an exact physical-asset location, existence, verification and accounting on demand. Clearly, such low-cost solutions for enterprise-wide compliance would also provide verifiable and reliable data for corporate property tax, loan collateral, and audit requirements. In 2011, Chrysler LLC conducted a study for an improved and efficient process to locate, verify and track OEM-owned tooling assets at supplier sites, located across the globe.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Miwoo Han, Yongpyo Lim, Seong-ho An
Abstract Many high risks of failure in developing and applying new technologies exist in the recent automotive industry because of big volume of selling cars in a global market. Several recalls cost companies more than $ 100 million per problem. New technologies always have uncertainty in performing intended functions at various given conditions despite the fact that engineers do their best to develop technologies to meet all the requirements. Uncertainty of new technologies put companies into danger of failing in their business. Therefore, many companies tend to take interest in reducing risks from the uncertainty in technologies, but the increasing complexity of modern automotive technologies make it difficult to develop complete technologies. A new engineering methodology called SPEED Engineering was introduced to reduce the risks of new technology applications and to facilitate engineers to conceive innovative ideas dominating the market in the future. Also it is used to help engineers solve engineering problems caused by system conflicts or complex factors.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Aaron Hula, Jeffrey Alson, Amy Bunker, Kevin Bolon
Abstract This paper examines the pace at which manufacturers have added certain powertrain technology into new vehicles from model year 1975 to the present. Based on data from the EPA's Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends database [1], the analysis will focus on several key technologies that have either reached a high level of penetration in light duty vehicles, or whose use in the new vehicle fleet has been growing in recent years. The findings indicate that individual manufacturers have, at times, implemented new technology across major portions of their new vehicle offerings in only a few model years. This is an important clarification to prior EPA analysis that indicated much longer adoption times for the industry as a whole. This new analysis suggests a technology penetration paradigm where individual manufacturers have a much shorter technology penetration cycle than the overall industry, due to “sequencing” by individual manufacturers.
Collection
2014-04-01
This technical paper collection will cover various aspects of system durability and system integration pertaining to Diesel Exhaust Emissions Control. It includes publications contributing to the understanding of durability of exhaust catalysts and particulate filters, mechanisms of their performance degradation and possible mitigation strategies, data from the field tests, analysis of the aged catalysts, laboratory and accelerated on-engine aging studies, along with relevant experimental tools and methodology.
Collection
2014-04-01
This technical paper collection addresses automotive requirements, high level system design, cost analysis, simulation, modeling, testing, and validation. System includes components, sub assemblies, computer based controllers, hardware and software. The session focuses on intelligent and efficient approaches to analysis, design (not detailed design), modeling, measurement, document management and optimizing performance. Topics on effect of cost, and human machine interface are covered.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Lev Klyatis
Abstract This paper will discuss how accurate simulation of the real world conditions and ART/ADT (accelerated reliability/durability testing) technology is influencing accurate efficiency predicting as a final goal of product/process design, manufacturing, and development. The paper begins with the overview of current approaches of predicting the efficiency for a complete product and its components with an examples of life cycle costs (LCC), empirical reliability, physics-based reliability, their benefits and risks. It includes also the history of reliability prediction. As a result of the overview, it will be conclude that one cannot ensure that predicting results will not be misinterpreted or misapplied, even though all assumptions and rationale have been meticulously documented and clearly stated. The paper will demonstrate the proposed principles of solution for accurate efficiency predicting through obtaining accurate initial information for this predicting and improving engineering culture.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Kyoung-Pyo Ha
Abstract Hyundai Motor Group launched a Continuously Variable Valve Lift (CVVL) engine in 2012. The engine is equipped with HMG's unique CVVL mechanism and is characterized by low fuel consumption, high performance and its responsiveness. The CVVL mechanism is based on a six-linkage mechanism and has advantages of compactness and durability. The engine is a 4 cylinder In-Line, 2.0L gasoline engine and is designed for a mid-sized passenger car. The engine increases fuel efficiency by 7.7% and the peak engine power by 4.2%. One of the most challenging issues in producing a CVVL engine is the valve lift deviations throughout the engine cylinders. The valve cap shim and set screw were designed to adjust the valve lift deviations. Cap shim thickness is chosen by measuring the valve top height, and shoe lift of the cam carrier assembly. The set screw is an auxiliary device to adjust the valve lift deviation. Present study developed a diagnostic system for the valve lift deviations that is applicable to the assembly line of the CVVL engine plant.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Daniel S. Dobrzynski, Jason D. Harper
The purpose of this paper is to outline the development and implementation of SAE J2953. SAE J2953 contains the requirements and procedures of interoperability testing. Within SAE J2953 interoperability test articles are defined as an Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) paired with a Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV). SAE J2953 requires the development and application of test fixtures with the ability to monitor mechanical forces and electrical signals of a charge system without modification or disassembly of the EVSE and PEV under test. Electrical signal monitoring includes pilot, proximity, and line conductors of the SAE J1772 TM AC coupler. This paper will outline the requirements of the fixtures as well as a specific build. Data will be presented showing full implementation of the SAE J2953 procedures including root-cause analysis and standards gap discovery.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Nico Adler, Stefan Otten, Melanie Schwär, Klaus D. Müller-Glaser
The international standard ISO 26262 for functional safety of road vehicles claims processes and requirements for the entire product lifecycle of automotive electric and electronic systems. The demanded activities and work products within the standard are highly interconnected. Additionally, references to exemplarily external quality management standards or commonly recognized industry sources are given. Therefore, the application of functional safety processes in distributed development is challenging regarding description, understanding, analysis and planning of processes. To overcome these inconveniences, we provide a meta model extension for model-based architecture description languages regarding process description, organizational structures and resource assignment. This is related to the established “Business Process Model and Notation” (BPMN) according to ISO/IEC 19510:2013. Our integration in a domain specific environment for large-scaled electric and electronic (E/E) architectures provides graphical modeling of processes.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Michael LaLande
Systems engineering is not a new discipline for todays automotive OEMs and suppliers. So, why is it that many feel the discipline is under-utilized or not utilized at all in main-stream product development? For those that do believe systems engineering is a key activity in the development cycle, why is it common to disagree on a definition of what it is or how it manifests itself in the development cycle? If we examine the development activity of leading OEM's and suppliers in any industry, there can be no doubt that product development is a complex and intensive activity. Many disciplines are utilized with many specialized skills deployed throughout the lifecycle of the typical product, and even more so in the automotive industry. One can point to several processes that seem to indicate the presence of systems engineering, yet the ability to clearly define whether or not - and to what degree - we leverage systems engineering is still difficult. This paper will explore the benefits of looking at systems engineering as a core process from which the automotive community develops products and technology.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Soovadeep Bakshi, Parveen Dhillon, Teja Maruvada
This paper presents the method of designing an optimized light weight, cost effective planetary gearbox for a Formula Student vehicle. The gearbox has a high speed functioning capability, in addition to the compact size and light weight. The iterative optimization procedure used provides a technique for selecting the best possible configuration of the gearbox. Conventional gearboxes used for this purpose are generally two step reduction gearboxes, which are bulkier in terms of weight and volume. Also, a review of the existing market reveals that the planetary gearboxes manufactured in India are not capable of handling high speeds, thus rendering them futile for racing applications. The target reduction ratio for the gearbox is a fixed parameter. The method involves design and optimization of the gear-train with the calculated ratio. A detailed algorithm has been used, which involves developing a mathematically modelled code for deciding gear characteristics, physical modelling using CAD, and structural testing of the same through simulation, with repeated iterations with a target to reduce both weight and volume.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Fengzhu LI, Shunan Bao, Sijun LI
Lean logistics is an application of lean manufacturing principles. The core of lean logistics is to eliminate all non-value-added activities (waste) within productions, movements and storages. It reduces lead time, cuts cost, and improves quality. In order to be competitive, enterprises in western countries widely use lean manufacturing and logistics principles in automotive industries, especially for engine manufacturing system due to its high contents of assembly work. However, in China, lean logistics and its applications are fairly new to many companies. This article analyzes the current status of lean logistics in engine manufacturing in China, summarizes lean logistics principles, put forwards application of lean logistics principles based on a real case study of a new manufacturing system planning. In details, origins of the lean logistics are introduced, characteristics of engine manufacturing logistics are outlined, requirements of the lean logistics system are proposed, PFEP (Plan for Every Part) methodology is used, and packaging specifications are analyzed.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Yohsuke Tamura, Masayuki Takeuchi, Kiyotaka Maeda, Noriaki Ohtsuka, Kenji Sato
The localized fire test provided in the Global Technical Regulation for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles gives two separate test methods: the ‘generic installation test - Method 1′ and the ‘specific vehicle installation test - Method 2′. Vehicle manufacturers are required to apply either of the two methods. Focused on Method 2, the present study was conducted to determine the characteristics and validity of Method 2. Test results under identical burner flame temperature conditions and the effects of cylinder protection covers made of different materials were compared between Method 1 and Method 2. The following results were obtained: (1) Methods 1 and 2 produced nearly identical results when the minimum temperature profile in the GTR test procedure was followed in both cases. (2) A steel protection cover on the cylinder significantly lowered cylinder surface temperatures during the fire test until activation of the thermal pressure relief device (TPRD). (3) A thermoplastic cover on the cylinder melted during the fire test and produced an engulfing pool fire during the localized fire portion of the test that accelerated activation of the TPRD.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Mallikarjuna Bennur, Jianmin Guan, Dilip Mandal
This paper presents the most recent advancement in the vehicle development process using the one-step or auto Transfer Path Analysis (TPA) in conjunction with the superelement, component mode synthesis, and automated multi-level substructuring techniques. The goal is to identify the possible ways of energy transfer from the various sources of excitation through numerous interfaces to given target locations. The full vehicle model, consists of superelements, has been validated with the detailed system model for all loadcases. The forces/loads can be from rotating components, powertrain, transfer case, chain drives, pumps, prop-shaft, differential, tire-wheel unbalance, road input, etc., and the receiver can be at driver/passenger ears, steering column/wheel, seats, etc. The traditional TPA involves two solver runs, and can be fairly complex to setup in order to ensure that the results from the two runs are consistent with subcases properly labeled as input to the TPA utility. However, auto TPA allows necessary data needed for the TPA analysis to be requested in a single frequency response analysis run.
Magazine
2014-04-01
No hands, lots of brains A hefty amount of computing power built with new hardware and software architectures will be needed when vehicles begin taking over more of the driving tasks. Aerodynamics and flow simulations come of age With the advent of faster computers, engineers are using CFD software as a practical tool, shaping designs early in the product development cycle. The challenges today are in how best to use it and by whom. New rules shuffle the F1 deck New turbocharged hybrid-electric power units and revised aerodynamics may scramble the familiar order in Formula One for 2014. Stars of the show floor The editors of Automotive Engineering annually select from among SAE World Congress exhibitors the technologies that meet their criteria for a coveted Tech Award. Judging is based on level of design and engineering innovation, uniqueness, potential for 'real world' production application, and potential benefit for industry customers and end users. Read on for articles on the five SAE 2014 Tech Award winners, followed by briefs on additional show-floor highlights that we call 'What's New.'
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Lifeng Wang, Takeshi Kadono, Satoshi Sumiya
Low cost and S(sulphur)-tolerant DOCs (Diesel Oxidation Catalysts) are being demanded in emerging countries such as China and India, where Euro 4 and 5 type emission standards are going to be implemented or are being implemented. However, fuel S content is different in the metros vis-à-vis non metros in many emerging countries. In such a scenario, DOCs need to maintain catalytic performance with high S fuel as well as standard low S fuel. This paper describes the development results of S tolerant Pt-Pd based DOCs. A new washcoat technology (WT D) has been developed for EU 4 passive Pt-Pd DOC applications, in which PGM cost was thrifted by replacing part of Pt by Pd. Vehicle test results after thermal ageing and S poisoning demonstrated that the Pt-Pd DOC (Pt:Pd=4:1) prepared with WT D gave similar tailpipe CO (Carbon monoxide) and HC (Hydrocarbon) emission conversions as a commercially available EU 4 passive Pt-only DOC when 50ppm S diesel fuel was used. When 350ppm S fuel was used, the Pt-Pd DOC exhibits higher CO and THC emission conversions than the Pt DOC.
Standard
2014-03-31
This document provides design guidelines, test procedure references, and performance requirements for directional, single color, flashing optical warning devices used on authorized emergency, maintenance and service vehicles. It is intended to apply to, but not limited to, surface land vehicles.
Book
2014-03-26
IHS SupplierBusiness' new Supplying the Renault-Nissan Alliance report provides a unique insight into the environment in which the OEMs make their critical sourcing decisions, analyzing how Renault-Nissan is moving forward in terms of models and technology. The report also looks at what issues are affecting the OEMs' supply and manufacturing base. The report is based on interviews with key purchasing executives, featuring IHS Automotive's industry standard forecasting and analysis on the following topics, among others: • Product and Platform Strategy • Production Strategy • Purchasing Strategy • Supplier Selection • Global Sourcing • Pricing Policy • Quality Management • Technology Development • OEM-Supplier Relations Survey Results While the primary product of the Renault-Nissan Alliance is new vehicle production, the primary purpose of the Alliance is to achieve cost savings across those business divisions integral to delivering new vehicles. This search and implementation of cross-OEM synergies has been gathering pace since the Alliance was formed in 1999, via such methods as vehicle platform sharing and whole vehicle sharing, which takes the form of cross-brand rebadging.
Article
2014-03-25
Many people are skeptical of electrified vehicles (EVs)—and specifically the battery pack, because it is the most expensive part of the auto. By building an explanation that is more accessible to society, the industry (and the world!) will benefit.
Technical Paper
2014-03-24
Bo-Chiuan Chen, Chang-Wei Shih, Yuming Lin
Abstract Time-to-collision (TTC) can be used to design the forward collision warning system (FCWS). Conventional TTC is defined as the relative distance divided by the relative velocity. It might result in estimation errors for maneuvers with non-zero relative accelerations. In order to improve the accuracy of TTC estimation, we consider the relative acceleration and extend the region of interest for FCWS from the main lane to adjacent lanes. If we assume constant relative acceleration within the sample time, the relative distance can be approximated using a second order polynomial. Recursive least square technique is employed to estimate associated coefficients. Variable forgetting factor adjusted using relative acceleration is proposed to enhance the approximation accuracies. Similar process is applied to estimate the coefficients of a second order polynomial for the relative polar angle. The estimated coefficients of the second order polynomial of the relative distance can be transformed into the relative distance, relative velocity, and relative acceleration for calculating TTC.
Technical Paper
2014-03-24
Adria Ferrer, Carlos Garcia Gutierrez
Abstract South East Asia is one of the regions with highest traffic-related fatality rates worldwide −18.5 fatalities per 100.000 inhabitants-. In response to that, governments of ASEAN countries are currently introducing new regulations, which will help to improve the road safety standards in the region. This paper reviews new safety regulations in force of following ASEAN countries: Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam and the Philippines. General safety trends promote the approach to international standards as well as the adoption of UNECE regulations. In fact, the 1958 agreement was signed by Thailand and Malaysia in 2006. Besides, Malaysia has gradually adopted fifty-three UNECE regulations so far and is currently considering the inclusion of twenty-four more. After the success of other NCAP organizations, the ASEAN NCAP assessment program was established in 2011. This program is powered by the Malaysian Institute of Road Safety Research (MIROS) and the Global New Car Assessment Program (GNCAP).
Article
2014-03-19
Ford is using a highly engineered lens with 16 precision optical surfaces and 80 facets in the upcoming 2015 F-150's headlamp to re-create as much as possible a daytime quality of light after the sun goes down. The automaker says no other light-duty pickup truck on the road today uses LED headlamps.
Magazine
2014-03-18
Alternative fuels face challenges With gasoline prices seeming to stabilize and fuel economy measures taking hold is there a compelling need for alternative fuels? Automotive engineers offer some surprising reasons why there is.
Book
2014-03-11
Timothy George Thoppil
Unwinding Electric Motors: Strategic Perspectives and Insights for Automotive Powertrain Applications provides an in-depth assessment of the most important technology, manufacturing, and supply chain aspects of the fast-paced world of electric motors. A joint effort that brings together the technology and product strategy experience of the P3 Group and the focused reach of SAE International, Unwinding Electric Motors: Strategic Perspectives and Insights for Automotive Powertrain Applications lends clarity combined with solid data to those interested in understanding the fundamental factors shaping this industry in the next five years. Authored by Timothy G. Thoppil, from the P3 Group, this market study draws on extensive industry experience and is supported by surveys and interviews with industry professionals from OEMs, Tier 1 suppliers, research institutions, and universities. Unwinding Electric Motors: Strategic Perspectives and Insights for Automotive Powertrain Applications offers reliable market intelligence and discernment to the technical and business professionals in search of valuable input to support good decision making.
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