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Technical Paper
1919-01-01
B B BACHMAN
THIS paper records the results obtained from operating medium-weight trucks on pneumatic tires, and points out the advantages and disadvantages experienced. An analysis is made of the claims advanced in support of the use of pneumatic tires. Certain items are specified which in the author's opinion require further development before a satisfactory solution can be reached.
Technical Paper
1919-01-01
J G Vincent
Technical Paper
1919-01-01
GROVER C LOENING
Technical Paper
1919-01-01
DAVID BEECROFT
THE author's observations cover the period immediately following the war when, as a member of a party of representative guests of the British and French governments, he toured England, meeting Government officials and talking on industrial matters; visited Scotland's shipbuilding and coal areas; viewed the battle area, aircraft, automobile and tractor factories in France; and traveled in Italy, later returning to England to inspect factories, conduct investigations and review Government activities. The enormous expansion of the automotive industry factories of the Allied nations is emphasized and their organization and methods briefly described, with running comment on comparative practice in the United States. Factory production methods in England are mentioned, as well as working conditions and welfare work there. Considerable information relating to post-war automobile designs and to motor-truck and tractor practice is given. A belief that there should be much international standardization is expressed.
Technical Paper
1919-01-01
A F MILBRATH
THE design of a modification of the Class B Government standardized truck engine is presented, the principal object being a saving in weight without sacrificing either durability or safety factors. The crankcase design is rigid, but the metal is distributed so that the weight will be a minimum. The crankshafts are made of chrome-nickel steel of an elastic limit of 120,000 lb. per sq. in., which further carries out the idea of durability with low weight. The connecting-rod length is slightly more than twice that of the stroke, and this, with light-weight pistons, obviates vibration, without adding weight to the engine on account of increased cylinder height. The flywheel and bell-housing diameters were selected with a view to securing enough flywheel weight for smooth running without increasing the engine weight materially. All-steel supports reduce breakage of arms to a minimum. The manifolds are carefully designed to give economical performance, even with low-grade fuels. A full-force-feed oiling system is employed.
Technical Paper
1919-01-01
ARCHIBALD BLACK
THIS paper describes the various types of radiator installations in use. Tabulated data on several makes of radiation and on successful airplane radiator installations are given. A brief review of laboratory tests is made and the features to be considered in design and manufacture are discussed. The author concludes by cautioning engineers against attempting to base new designs entirely upon experimental data, without comparing the tentative design with existing successful installations.
Technical Paper
1919-01-01
WILLIAM G WALL
THE author presents a brief description of the design of some of the principal vehicles used in motorizing the artillery, as developed by the Ordnance Department. A few of the vehicles are described, including gun mounts that were being developed at the time of the signing of the armistice. The relative merits of the different types of equipment are discussed.
Technical Paper
1919-01-01
HERBERT W ALDEN
THE track-laying type of vehicle is, of course, old. The emergency which brought the modern “tank” into existence was the menace of the machine-gun. The tank is simply a device that can approach closely and destroy the gun or its crew. It is fundamentally a man killer, and its strongest points are speed and mobility. It is now an indispensable arm of the military service. The writer gives a rapid résumé of the fantastic period in design, the early work done on heavy armored cars and the reasons for concentrating on the track-laying type of vehicle. The American type of track was adopted as a foundation and from this and around it France, England and the United States have developed the tanks known through successful use in the war. The British are to be credited with producing the first practical fighting machine of this type. France has two types of machine, one mechanically driven and the other with electric drive, both small. The American Army used both the large and the small machines; the French Renault, selected for light, speedy work, and a modified design of the huge British tank, produced by British and American ordnance engineers working jointly in London during the winter of 1917-1918.
Technical Paper
1919-01-01
H C DICKINSON
Abstract THE approaching exhaustion of the petroleum supply, from which nearly all of the available internal-combustion engine fuel is produced, raises two vital questions, upon the answers to which will depend the future of the automotive industry. These are (a) what fuels are to be available, from the point of view of the engine designer and (b) how much transportation can be secured from the fuel used. It is not certain that satisfactory engines can be developed to handle a wider range of fuels than those used at present. It is therefore not clear whether the trend of development will be toward two or more different grades of fuel, or toward a single mixed fuel to be used in all engines ultimately designed to burn it. The development of different grades of fuel may result in a light fuel, such as gasoline, and a heavier-fuel, such as kerosene, or an even heavier product, each to be used in engines of different designs, the heavier-fuel engine being used for tractor and possibly truck service.
Technical Paper
1919-01-01
H C RICHARDSON
Technical Paper
1919-01-01
J H TOWERS
Abstract THIS article, written shortly after the signing of the armistice, deals with the Naval aviation situation at the outbreak of war and its development during the war, ending with a brief discussion of the probable future lines of development. Figures are given showing the expansion occurring during the nineteen months of warfare, and the different ways in which the various types of aircraft were used. Future development is treated briefly, but that logical assumptions were made is indicated by the fact that the year which has elapsed since the article was written has shown a very decided trend along the lines indicated.
Technical Paper
1919-01-01
F. G. COBURN
THE Navy Department established the Naval Aircraft Factory (a) to assure a part, at least, of its aircraft supply; (b) to obtain cost data for the Department's guidance in dealing with private manufacturers, and (c) to have under its own control a factory capable of producing experimental work. The history of this development is given in some detail, including statistics of size, valuations and output. The problems discussed include (a) layout and expansion, describing the original plant and how idle plants in the industrial world were utilized for the production of parts that were afterward assembled at the factory; (b) outside production, outlining the placing with plants of contracts for flying-boat hulls, wings, metal parts, tanks, engine foundations, tail surfaces, etc.; (c) personnel, telling how both men and women were trained in a special school; (d) engineering, covering built-up wooden parts, research in defects of wood, securing of proper material, organization of inspection, traveling representative, traffic and follow-up forces, etc., to expedite production; and (e) production methods, showing that by careful scheduling and subsequent working to schedule time-reduction was secured.
Technical Paper
1919-01-01
HOWARD C MARMON
ANY aggregation of parts assembled to obtain a mechanical result is a series of compromises. The relative importance of the objectives governs the nature of the compromise. The major objectives to be considered in the design of airplane engines are (1) Reliability (2) Small weight per horsepower (3) Economy of fuel and oil consumption (4) Carburetion that permits of easy starting; maximum power through a range of 30 per cent of the speed range; and idling at one-quarter maximum speed without danger of stalling (5) Ability to deliver full power through a small speed range without excessive vibration (6) Complete local cylinder-cooling under conditions of high mean effective pressure (7) Compactness The automobile engine must have (1) Reliability (2) Silence (3) Carburetion that accomplishes proper and even firing in all cylinders under varying throttle conditions, through speeds covering more than 90 per cent of the speed range of the engine. Great flexibility, with economy secondary (4) Ability to deliver partial or full torque through its entire range of speed without vibration (5) Compactness (6) Small weight per horsepower Starting from these basic qualities, the author makes a close comparison of construction, methods of use, adaptations and elimination of parts, weights and fuels.
Technical Paper
1919-01-01
GEORGE F. CROUCH
THE application of the marine internal-combustion engine to the British ML class of 80-footers and to the American 110-ft. class of submarine chasers, undoubtedly constituted the most important development along this line of automotive work. With a hull form similar to that of an enlarged runabout, driven by a pair of six-cylinder Standard marine engines rated at 220 b.-hp. at 460 r.p.m., the boats of the ML class averaged about 20 knots. A total of 720 boats of this type were built and the class as a whole proved very satisfactory. In the development of the 110-ft. SC class, the requirement of seaworthiness was made of greater importance than speed. Each boat carried three six-cylinder Standard engines identical with those used in the British boats, driving them at about 17 knots. Although rather uncomfortable, as in the case of any small vessel, the 110-ft. boats proved wonderfully successful in heavy weather; about 450 of this class were built. The 220-b.-hp. engines have six cylinders of 10-in. bore and 11-in. stroke.
Technical Paper
1919-01-01
O E HUNT
THE impression that recent aircraft experience should have taught engineers how to revolutionize automobile construction and performance, is not warranted by the facts involved. Aircraft and automobiles both embody powerplants, transmission mechanisms, running gear, bodies and controls, but their functions are entirely different. The controls of an airplane, except in work on the ground, act upon a gas, whereas with an automobile the resistant medium is a relatively solid surface. Similarly, the prime function of the fuselage is strength, weight considerations resulting in paying scant attention to comfort and convenience, which are the first requirements of an automobile body. Aircraft running-gear is designed for landing on special fields, and is not in use the major portion of the time. The running-gear is the backbone of an automobile, in use continuously for support, propulsion and steering; hence its utterly different design. In an airplane the transmission system does not require variable ratios, is rigidly aligned and covers only short distances, so that the automobile can borrow little from it.
Technical Paper
1919-01-01
DAVID WHITE
PRODUCTION records show that the United States oil fields have produced approximately 4,600,000,000 bbl. since 1858, the present rate of annual production being approximately 350,000,000 bbl. On the other hand, the oil remaining available in the ground is estimated by the oil geologists of the U. S. Geological Survey at 6,740,000,000 bbl., about half of which belongs to the heavier grades. This estimate is distinctly conservative, but the amount eventually recovered should not very greatly exceed it. With an annual consumption now reaching 400,000,000 bbl., the remaining oil would not last many years if it could be discovered and mined as fast as required. However, this cannot be done; many pools will not be located within twenty years, and the curve of waning oil production will probably continue for as long as seventy-five years. The danger to the country's welfare and prosperity lies in the rapidly increasing consumption without restriction of use, promising to exceed one-half billion barrels yearly within a few years, and in the fact that, with most vigorous efforts, we are able only slightly to increase production, which almost certainly will pass its peak and enter the period of decline at an early date, probably within five and possibly within two years.
Technical Paper
1919-01-01
J G UTZ
THE United States was practically unprepared in the field of military motor-transport at the beginning of the war. Due largely to the cooperation of the Society of Automotive Engineers and its members individually, this handicap was overcome and a position stronger in this respect than that of any of the other belligerents was attained. The early efforts and the cooperation between the Society and the various Government departments are described, especially with reference to the Quartermaster Corps which at that time had charge of all motor transportation. Regarding the Class B truck, it is shown that the Society acted as a point of contact between the various members of the industry and the War Department and, although not fostering any program or plan of its own, it was largely responsible for the success of the standardization program conceived and carried out by the Army. This standardization program has been amply justified by the history of the production of this truck, as well as by the record it made in this country and overseas.
Technical Paper
1919-01-01
L C FREEMAN
The necessity for a powerful heavy-duty truck with power transmitted through all four wheels was apparent shortly after the United States became involved in the war. An intensive study of the four-wheel-drive situation finally resulted in the design of the Ordnance four-wheel-drive truck and the modified form known as the artillery wheeled tractor. Seven factors influencing the preparation of the specifications are stated and discussed. The determination of proper gear ratios is analyzed. The considerations leading to the adoption of the universal-joint type of driving-shaft are mentioned and its application commented upon. Ten specific points of internal interchangeability of the mechanism are enumerated. In connection with the opinion that the province of the four-wheel-drive truck begins where two-wheel drive leaves off and ends where the track-layer begins, it is stated that four-wheel drive can and will compete successfully in certain applications not only with the track-layer but with the heavier sizes, at least, of rear-drive trucks.
Technical Paper
1919-01-01
J C HUNSAKER
Naval aircraft are distinctively American types. Only one foreign seaplane was copied by the United States during the war, and when finally put into production it resembled the British prototype in externals only. While the Navy does a large part of its own designing and building through a corps of naval constructors, its theory of manufacture is to assemble parts procured from separate makers, and private design and construction are encouraged by contracting with builders. Available talent both in and out of the service and the facilities of parts makers, the new materials developed during the war and organized engineering which drove the entire process toward speedy results were appropriated by the Navy. The NC flying boat is typical of U. S. Navy practice. In the same way the dirigible C-5 is a purely American type. The development of really large flying craft before 1917 was held back because no suitable engine had been designed. When the 350-hp. Rolls-Royce became available the four-engine Handley-Page plane was brought out in England, but no American engine was in sight until about August 1917, when preliminary work on the Liberty began to look promising.
Technical Paper
1919-01-01
B F MILLER
The development of the Motor Transport Corps is outlined; the number of motor vehicles for one army at war strength and the number for the proposed peace-strength army with increased motorization are specified and the disposal of surplus motor vehicles is discussed. The problem of keeping uptodate the motor vehicles in service is stated and the cooperation of automotive engineers is requested. The vexatious unsolved problem of spare parts is stressed and solutions are suggested. The question of peace-time training and matters relating to the motor transport reserve are considered in some detail. The motor transport personnel required on a war basis and for a proposed peace army of 509,000 men is enumerated, as well as that of the motor transport reserve corps and the national guard required to bring the proposed peace-time army to war strength.
Technical Paper
1919-01-01
L H POMEROY
Few points have aroused such discussion among users and engineers as that of the desirable number of cylinders in an engine. A large part of the work of the author has been in the direction of attaining the same ends as those achieved by the multi-cylinder engine but by different means. He discusses the relations between torque at clutch and number of cylinders and multicylinder engines and uniform torque, the factors governing torque recoil, torque recoil as a function of car weight and engine balance. His conclusion is that the multi-cylinder engine now so widely used exceeds the real requirements and obtains its smoothness of operation at the expense of more desirable qualities. A reduction in car weight would in his opinion enable existing standards of performance to be maintained and even improved by the use of four cylinders for the heavier type, with all that this means in tremendous advantages to the automotive industry and to the user. In the near future the chassis will probably be designed to conform to the body work of the car, and there will be two types of chassis, one suitable for heavy closed and open bodies, and the other for bodies of the roadster type.
Technical Paper
1919-01-01
HAROLD F WOOD
The author discusses the different types of material used in the production of the Liberty engine, the physical properties of the finished parts and the heat-treatments used in making them, applying the information as set forth to the automobile, truck and tractor industries. Under their several heads the different engine pans are discussed with close attention to details. Chemical analyses are given for each part and approved heat-treating temperatures are indicated. Quenching, direct and indirect, water and oil cooling, hard spots, warpage, scaling and hair-line seams are treated. The advantages and disadvantages of the Izod impact test are stated briefly. After discussing the various engine parts, the author makes definite recommendations for the use in detail of the materials discussed, with many hints, warnings, suggestions and comments along lines of practice and closes the paper with a statement that if the proper authority be given to the metallurgical engineer as to the handling of the steel from the time it is purchased until it is assembled into finished products, mild-analysis steels can be used and quality guaranteed.
Technical Paper
1919-01-01
D W DOUGLAS
The factors included in the commercial airplane problem are the practical use that can be made of airplanes, the volume of business that can be expected, the necessary changes from present military types to make an efficient commercial airplane and what the future holds for this new means of transportation. The requirements for passenger transportation, airmail and general express service, are first discussed in detail, consideration then being given to other possibilities such as aerial photography and map-making, the aerial transportation of mineral ores, sport and miscellaneous usage. Changes in the present equipment of engines and airplanes to make them suitable for commercial use are outlined, and special features of aerial navigation, landing fields and legal questions are mentioned. Assuming that the uses of aircraft will expand rather than contract, future development of airplanes is then considered in detail, including service cost data, conditions of flight, service, time schedules, capital invested and expenses.
Technical Paper
1919-01-01
WALTER T FISHLEIGH
The nineteen months preceding Nov. 11, 1918, constituted the most far-reaching educational period in the history of the United States. The war being over, both opportunity and danger are ahead. Automotive manufacturers, engineers and educators have large responsibilities in post-war industrial rehabilitation. A frank discussion of several prime demands is presented. After outlining the achievements of the war period, the lessons thereof are enumerated, special emphasis being placed upon cooperation and teamwork, and the automotive manufacturers urged to give consideration to the permanent and stable establishment of their business and product. Attention is called to the part universities can and should take in practical service, in conducting automotive engineering courses, giving public instruction and furthering good roads development and highways transport.
Technical Paper
1919-01-01
F W DAVIS
The cost of motor-truck operation is divided into fixed charges and operating expenses per mile. Assuming that a carefully trained driver has been obtained, the problem becomes one of securing better results. As a means toward accomplishing this, bonus systems are discussed and the development of a bonus system is analyzed mathematically and illustrated by charts. A typical application of the bonus scale is then made in detail, followed by full consideration of charge rates and combined time and mileage charges. The features involved are illustrated in the charts presented, an exposition of these being given in the text.
Technical Paper
1919-01-01
N L LIEBERMAN
Technical Paper
1919-01-01
R W CUNNINGHAM
A short account of the discovery and early development of the oils in the Appalachian Field is followed by a description of several oil-testing instruments and of modern refinery practice with diagrams and drawings. The utilization of oil-shale rock and its probable value in supplementing the diminishing supply of crude petroleum are commented on. The conservation of all petroleum products is urged.
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