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1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210054
MAURICE OLLEY
The paper surveys the differences between American and European conditions in the automotive industry and then considers briefly the reasons for them. The governing conditions are stated and their effects are traced. The subjects discussed include motorcycles and small cars, road conditions, car idiosyncracies, selling conditions in Europe, and a comparison of design in general. The differences of practice are stated and commented upon. Six specific points are emphasized in the summary. The author states that the outlook for American cars the world over is seemingly good. In recent American designs, equal compression - volumes are often assured by machining the heads; six-cylinder crankshafts have seven bearings and are finished all over in the circular grinding machine; pressure lubrication is used for all moving parts of the engine; and in all ways the highest practice is aimed at. America is trying to improve the quality without increasing the cost.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210057
A T GOLDBECK
The aim of this paper is to stimulate thought on how to accomplish the greatest possible economy in transportation over highways. The fundamental thought is that the expense of highway transportation involves a large number of items that can be grouped into those directly concerned with motor-truck operation and those involving the highway, and that highways and motor vehicles should be adapted mutually so that the greatest economy of transportation will result. Urging that the automotive and the road engineer cooperate in gathering information that will give them a more definite basis upon which to design the truck and the road, the present rapid destruction of roads is discussed and remedial measures suggested. The designing of motor trucks to conserve the roads is treated at some length and a plea for cooperation between the Society and the highway officials is made.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210030
N J SMITH
The object of this paper is to point out some of the difficulties of motor-truck maintenance and to suggest lines of improvement. The buyer and user of a motor truck sometimes experiences disappointments due to the lack of coordination between the engineering and sales departments of a truck company. The term “service” is often misunderstood by the purchaser and misrepresented by the salesman, which results in dissatisfied customers. Salesmen should have accurate information on the service policy of their company and on all guarantees which they are authorized to make. After rehearsing many of the difficulties encountered in truck maintenance, the author discusses in some detail the needed improvements in truck design, passing then to details of maintenance practice and methods of handling repairs.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210032
A W SCARRAT
The author describes the development of an alcohol-burning tractor engine, after having stated a few of the fundamental requirements for burning alcohol economically and the results that can be attained by following them. The first trials were with 127-lb. gage compression at a normal operating speed. The problems attacked were those of what amount of heat applied to the mixture is desirable and its general effect on economy, output and operation; power output; general operation of the engine; and fuel consumption. The experimental work was done on a 4¼ x 6-in. four-cylinder 16-valve engine; this is described in detail and the results are presented in chart form. The conditions necessary for the proper use of alcohol as a fuel are discussed.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210001
H W Alden
The author brings to attention very emphatically the responsibility of the automotive industry for some things besides the actual building and selling of motor cars. The progress of civilization can be measured very largely by advances in means of communication. The transfer of messages by wire and wireless has made wonderful advances of a fundamental nature in recent years, but the transportation of commodities from place to place has not made such strides. The automotive industry has been concerned mostly with the actual development and production of the motor car and, as an industry, has stopped there without developing those allied activities which are vital to the long-time success of the business. The railroads afford a good example to follow in principle.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210007
KINGSTON FORBES
The field of body engineering is broader than it is ordinarily considered to be; the author's intention is to bring to the attention of the automotive industry the breadth and scope of body engineering and outline the way this side of the industry can be considered and developed. After describing the body engineer's position, the author then discusses at some length the conflict between art and economy in this connection. He classifies a body-engineering department under the six main divisions of body construction, open and closed; sheet metal, body metal, fenders, hood, radiators and the like; trimming; top building; general hardware; painting and enameling, and comments upon each. Following this he elaborates the reasons for need of attention to details in body designing and mentions the opportunity there is at present for bringing the materials used in body construction to definite standards.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210006
A C FIELDNER, A. A STRAUB, G W JONES
The data given in this paper were obtained from an investigation by the Bureau of Mines in cooperation with the New York and New Jersey State Bridge and Tunnel Commissioners to determine the average amount and composition of the exhaust gases from motor vehicles under operating conditions similar to those that will prevail in the Hudson River Vehicular Tunnel. A comprehensive set of road tests upon 101 motor vehicles including representative types of passenger cars and trucks was conducted, covering both winter and summer operating conditions. The cars tested were taken at random from those offered by private individuals, corporations and automobile dealers, and the tests were made without any change in carbureter or other adjustments. The results can therefore be taken as representative of motor vehicles as they are actually being operated on the streets at the various speeds and on grades that will prevail in the tunnel.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210009
C D HANSCOM
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210010
CHARLES A. HEERGEIST
Automobile body building derives its origin from carriage body building, which was highly developed before automobiles were thought of. The introduction of automobile bodies fitted to a metal frame changed body builders' rules and calculations. The influence of the metal frame is discussed briefly and the limiting sizes of body members are considered also. According to the ideas expressed, the weight of bodies can be reduced if the metal frame is designed so as to support the weight of the passengers and the body. The dead-weight also can be reduced if the frame is built in proportion to the amount of weight carried, the number of passengers and the style of bodies being considered. But in the construction of enclosed bodies, as in sedans, coaches and broughams, very little weight can be saved if stability, durability and lasting quality are to be retained.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210013
WILLIAM T MAGRUDER
The time has come when greater attention must be given to the smaller parts and the various appliances found on automotive machinery. Previously, investigations have been made by the research laboratories of a few companies manufacturing engines, carbureters and some other parts, but chiefly engines; by the laboratories of research corporations, including the Bureau of Standards and the Bureau of Mines; and by the engineering laboratories of colleges and technical schools. The number and value of the researches that can be conducted and reported on from time to time by these agencies depend entirely upon the appropriations that they can obtain by act of legislation and upon the personnel of the staff that can be attracted by the opportunity to do this class of work.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210015
H S MARTIN
The author outlines recent progress by the Engineering Division in the diversified problem of the development of all heavier-than-air equipment, including the 15 types of airplane at present believed necessary to fill Army-Air-Service requirements. The subject is discussed under the headings of the airplane proper, the powerplant, the armament and the equipment, inclusive of illustrations. The development of existing engines, especially the Liberty 12-cylinder type and the Wright 180 and 300-hp. units, is outlined and engine tests conducted with a view to improving engine performance are commented upon. The problems of armament development are stated and the work of equipment development is reported as having been confined largely to crash and leakproof tanks, parachutes, hangars, take-off mats and cameras. Work has been done also on navigation instruments and the use of radio fox navigation.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210019
S W SPARROW
Appreciating the fundamental relation of the compression-ratio to the thermal efficiency, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics sponsored a comprehensive investigation of this subject at the Bureau of Standards. Every effort was made to measure the engine performance so completely as to make possible an analysis that would not only explain the results of this particular series of tests but form a sound basis for predicting the effect of changes in the compression-ratio on the thermal efficiency of any engine. The experimental work is as yet incomplete and only some of the more salient results are presented in this paper. An eight-cylinder airplane engine was used, having pistons allowing compression-ratios of 5.3, 6.3, 7.3 and 8.3. The differences in compression-ratio were effected by crowning the piston-heads by different amounts.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210020
C W SPICER
The results of some tests recently completed are presented. No attempt is made to develop the theory involved. It is intended to describe only the actual tests, the conditions under which they were carried out and the results obtained. Superficially, it would seem obvious that the torsional strength of a multiple-splined shaft is greater than that of a full round shaft having a diameter equal to the small diameter of the splined shaft. Data on this and related questions were sought experimentally. A series of tests was run on 15 carefully machined shafts. The dimensions shown are the actual ones of the test-pieces, there not being more than 0.0005-in. variation in any shaft from the diameters shown. Heat-treating was very carefully carried out, and each specimen carefully checked by Brinell instrument on the ends and by scleroscope throughout the length. The Brinell numbers were all between 220 and 235, and the extremes of scleroscope hardness were 38 and 43.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210024
EDWARD P WARNER
This paper is illuminative and affords an opportunity for better comprehension of the remarkable progress and accomplishment made in Europe along the lines of commercial aviation. Reviewing the present European routes now in regular or partial operation, the author stresses the essentialness of the attitude of the press in general being favorable if commercial aviation is to become wholly successful. The airship appears most practical for long-distance service, to the author, and he mentions the possibility of towns and cities growing up around “air ports.” The cost of airship travel is specified, although it is difficult to figure costs and necessary charges because so few data on the depreciation of equipment are available. Regarding successful operation, much depends upon the efficiency of the ground personnel and organization.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210028
N J OCKSREIDER
In this day of transportation engineering, the requirements of each customer must be diagnosed accurately and the economic waste due to wrong selling eliminated. Stating that 32 classes of trades, divided into 350 sub-classes, use motor trucks, the author expresses the view that, in applying the science of selling by analysis, it is necessary to know the cost of shipping every pound of goods, deducing in turn the correct size of truck for a given kind of work. Referring to the fact that a truck cannot be designed to stand up under all conditions and that selling a truck which is unsuitable for a particular task means a dissatisfied customer, the author gives the opinion that a truck of mediocre merit will in many cases perform more satisfactorily than the best truck built operating under improper conditions.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210027
J B HANEY
The author describes the progress of the work of artillery motorization in the year 1920, beginning this with a statement of the recommendations made by the Westervelt Board, appointed by the War Department to make a study of the subject, for the development of track-laying equipment, the use of wheeled trailers on which the track laying materiel could be loaded and towed over good roads by trucks, and in regard to the possibility of incorporating trailer wheels in the track-laying vehicles themselves. The various types of materiel constructed during 1920 are illustrated, described and commented upon, inclusive of heavy tractors, supply and maintenance equipment, gun-mounts and tanks. It is stated that the recommendations of the Westervelt Board will be the basis of armament development for some time to come.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210029
L L SCOTT
The paper describes the steam-operated 2-ton truck developed by E. C. Newcomb and the author. It has a direct drive-shaft from the engine to a rear-axle worm, with a 5 to 1 gear-reduction at the axle, and is operated without any transmission or clutch. The engine has been simplified since the author's first report on it in 1919, the changes relating to valve-gear, crankshaft and cam design. After presenting illustrations and describing them, the author gives nine specific advantageous features in this steam powerplant and comments upon them, submitting charts of torque curves which are analyzed. The engine control, fuel, oil and water consumption are next described and discussed and the results of acceleration tests are then shown in tabular form, with comments thereon.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200059
E B SMITH
In investigating the forces that tend to break up and destroy roads, the most destructive of these being that of impact, the United States Bureau of Public Roads devised a method of receiving the impact of a truck on a small copper cylinder and determining its amount by measuring the deformation of the cylinder. The impact values are largely dependent upon the type and construction of the truck. Unsprung weights have a great influence upon the impact value of the blow on the road surface and a reverse influence upon the body of the truck; these effects are in two different directions. The present aim of the Bureau is to investigate this impact and the effect of the unsprung weight on the road. Most of the tests have been made on solid tires, a few have been made on worn solid tires and some on pneumatic tires. The Bureau intends to elaborate all of these tests, including different types of pneumatic tire, different unsprung weights and special wheels, such as cushion or spring wheels.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200066
M D SCOTT
These experiences relate to the Akron-Boston motor-truck express, established in April, 1917, the Wingfoot Highway Express between Akron and Cleveland which began active operations in January, 1919, and the Goodyear Heights motor omnibuses for passenger service in Akron inaugurated in December, 1917. The preliminary difficulties are reviewed and a mass of specific data regarding construction, operation, maintenance and costs is presented in textual and tabular form, the latter including a summary of pneumatic-tire accomplishment, comparative truck efficiency, an operating summary for six months, the operating cost and efficiency of two 3½-ton twin trucks running on pneumatic and on solid tires respectively, and an operative summary of the Goodyear Heights buses.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200064
S VANCE LOVENSTEIN
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200074
GEORGE J MERCER
The author presents the practical side of the body designer's work and refers to him as being between the office and the shop, the one who stands in the way of the impatient man that wants action without preparation. The development of the body designer and body designing is reviewed and the position and duties of the designer are stated at some length. The design factors are considered in detail and the making and utilization of wax models are described, followed by a lengthy consideration of curved-surface bodies, wood body frames, style and body types. The fittings and minor design details are discussed and future designs predicted from present indications. The author explains the body designing business in detail to refute the suspicion that the working methods of body designers are different from those employed by the other members of an engineering force because body designing is different and distinct from the other branches of motor-car engineering work.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200082
CHARLES F KETTERING
The author views in perspective some facts from a purely scientific standpoint, and then shows their application to problems of the automotive industry. After reviewing the present facilities for measurement and the ability to make measurements of distances both infinitely small and large, as an aid toward a proper conception of the ultimate structure of matter, he applies this scientific knowledge in the direction of a solution of the fuel problem, which is a fundamental one because it involves the limitation of a natural resource. From 1918 and 1919 statistics, the amount of gasoline produced was something like 20 to 25 per cent of the crude oil pumped; 8 to 10 per cent is kerosene and 50 per cent is gas and fuel oil and a residue carrying lubricating oil, paraffin and carbon. Kerosene demand and production are practically fixed quantities; gasoline demands are increasing.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200027
S W SPARROW
The very complete laboratory tests of airplane engines at ground level were of little aid in predicting performance with the reduced air pressures and temperatures met in flight. On the other hand, it was well-nigh impossible in a flight test to carry sufficient apparatus to measure the engine performance with anything like the desired completeness. The need clearly was to bring altitude conditions to the laboratory where adequate experimental apparatus was available and, to make this possible, the altitude chamber of the dynamometer laboratory at the Bureau of Standards was constructed. The two general classes of engine testing are to determine how good an engine is and how it can be improved, the latter including research and development work.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200023
V E CLARK
Following the 1917 recommendation of the Bolling Airplane Mission that great energy be devoted to the development of means to maintain a high proportion of the power of airplane engines at great altitudes, some very creditable work was done. A recent flight test at 20,000-ft. altitude indicates a resultant marked increase in airplane performance. Interest in this development should be extended. The purpose of the paper is to indicate the possibilities and limitations of increasing airplane speed by introducing means to maintain high engine power at great altitudes. The DeHaviland-Four is selected as being, an airplane typical of present practice and the performances that might be obtained at different altitudes are approximately computed, with various assumed ratios of the actual engine power at the altitude to the total weight of the airplane in every case. The accompanying series of curves give the various coefficient results.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200024
ALEXANDER KLEMIN
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200025
GROVER C LOENING
The annual report covering transportation by the largest British air-transport company laid particular emphasis upon the greater value of the faster machines in its service. Granted that efficient loads can be carried, the expense, trouble and danger of the airplane are justified only when a load is carried at far greater speed than by any other means. A reasonable conclusion seems to be that we can judge the progress made in aviation largely by the increased speed attainable. It is interesting and possibly very valuable therefore to inquire into the relations of power and resistance as applied to small racing machines with aircraft engines that are available.
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