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Technical Paper
1920-01-01
CHARLES F KETTERING
The author views in perspective some facts from a purely scientific standpoint, and then shows their application to problems of the automotive industry. After reviewing the present facilities for measurement and the ability to make measurements of distances both infinitely small and large, as an aid toward a proper conception of the ultimate structure of matter, he applies this scientific knowledge in the direction of a solution of the fuel problem, which is a fundamental one because it involves the limitation of a natural resource. From 1918 and 1919 statistics, the amount of gasoline produced was something like 20 to 25 per cent of the crude oil pumped; 8 to 10 per cent is kerosene and 50 per cent is gas and fuel oil and a residue carrying lubricating oil, paraffin and carbon. Kerosene demand and production are practically fixed quantities; gasoline demands are increasing. So, after utilizing 25 per cent for gasoline, the 8 to 10 per cent representing kerosene must be avoided and entry to the 50 per cent represented by the gas and fuel oil section must be made to get material with which to increase the amount of engine fuel.
Technical Paper
1920-01-01
GEORGE J MERCER
The author presents the practical side of the body designer's work and refers to him as being between the office and the shop, the one who stands in the way of the impatient man that wants action without preparation. The development of the body designer and body designing is reviewed and the position and duties of the designer are stated at some length. The design factors are considered in detail and the making and utilization of wax models are described, followed by a lengthy consideration of curved-surface bodies, wood body frames, style and body types. The fittings and minor design details are discussed and future designs predicted from present indications. The author explains the body designing business in detail to refute the suspicion that the working methods of body designers are different from those employed by the other members of an engineering force because body designing is different and distinct from the other branches of motor-car engineering work.
Technical Paper
1920-01-01
CHARLES M MANLY
Technical Paper
1920-01-01
WILLIAM BREWSTER
The author first considers the style and arrangement of the seats, the position of the rear axle as affecting the rear kick-up in the chassis frame, and the position of the rear wheels as determining the distance from the back of the front seat to a point where the curve of the rear fender cuts across the top edge of the chassis frame. The location of the driver's seat and of the steering-wheel are next considered, the discussion then passing to the requirements that affect the height of the body, the width of the rear seat, and the general shape. The evolution of the windshield is reviewed and present practice stated. Structural changes are then considered in relation to the artistic requirements, as regards the various effects obtained by varying the size or location of such details as windows, doors, moldings, panels, pillars, belt lines, etc., and the general lines necessary to produce an effect in keeping with the character of the car. The design of the wings or fenders, the weight, producing effects of light construction, and the use of aluminum are also considered, the conclusion reached being that the design of the highest type of automobile body should always be based primarily upon a high degree of practicability.
Technical Paper
1920-01-01
O C BERRY
The paper is based upon the results of tests made by the Purdue Engineering Experiment Station to study the effect upon engine performance of varying the proportions of fuel to air in the mixture, and its object is to determine the variation in the mixture requirements of an engine at different rates of flow of air through the carbureter. The method of conducting the tests is described. The results are plotted in the charts shown and are discussed in some detail, special discussion regarding the effect of speed and load being presented, and the facts brought out by the tests are summarized. In the general discussion that follows, four definite conclusions regarding the richness of the fuel mixture in its relation to the maximum power are stated, and a like number of definite conclusions concerning the richness of the mixture in relation to maximum efficiency are also given. The further conclusions are that it is impossible for a carbureter to supply an engine with the mixture required for the highest efficiency at all speeds and loads, and that the Purdue tests show that the maximum power is obtained when using a wet mixture, the coldest that can be carbureted satisfactorily.
Technical Paper
1920-01-01
THOMAS MIDGLEY
The indicator was an important factor in the early development of the internal-combustion engine when engine speeds were low, but on high-speed engines such indicators were unable to reliably reproduce records because of the inertia effects of the moving part of the pressure element. The first need is for a purely qualitative indicator of the so-called optical type, to secure a complete and instantaneous mental picture of the pressure events of the cycle; the second need is for a purely quantitative instrument for obtaining an exact record of pressures. The common requirements for both are that the indicator timing shall correctly follow the positions of the crank and that the pressure recorded shall agree with the pressures developed within the combustion space. Following a discussion of these requirements, the author then describes the demonstration made of two high-speed indicators, inclusive of various illustrations that show the apparatus, and comments upon its performance. In conclusion, a description is given of a high-speed diaphragm indicator of the balanced-pressure type, developed at the Bureau of Standards.
Technical Paper
1920-01-01
LEWIS L SCOTT
It is stated that the general performance of the steam-propelled automobile has never been equalled by that of the most highly-developed multiple-cylinder gasoline cars and that it is significant that no innovation in the gasoline car has yet been able to give steam-car performance. This led to an effort to remove the troublesome features of the steam car, rather than to complicate the gasoline car further by attempting to make it duplicate steam-car performance. The paper describes in detail the steam automotive system developed by the author and E. C. Newcomb, including the boiler, the combustion system and its control, the engine and the condensing system.
Technical Paper
1920-01-01
L H POMEROY
War service demanded that gasoline engines be absolutely reliable in minor as well as major details of construction; lightness of construction was second in importance. The war scope of the gasoline engine was so wide that engineers were forced toward the solution of unexpected and unrealized problems and a vast amount of valuable data resulted. This information includes recent determination of the quantitative nature of the factors governing thermodynamic performance in respect to mean effective pressure, compression ratio and the effect of volumetric efficiency; mechanical performance in regard to mechanical efficiency and internal friction; and engine balancing. The problems of the past five years of intensive gasoline-engine experience, thus brought under critical survey for the first time, are discussed in the light of recent developments and a reexamination made of designers' existing practice to determine the trend of design regarding the obtaining of absolute mechanical efficiency; the application of modern views of gasoline engine thermodynamics; improvements in mechanical efficiency, engine balancing, carburetion and capacity to utilize low-grade fuels; the principles of light-engine design; and clean-cut design in general.
Technical Paper
1920-01-01
F H Trego
The author advocates the use of the fragile aluminum crankcase as a spacer, running crankshaft bearing bolts clear through the crankcase and the cylinder base, so tieing the bearings firmly to the castiron cylinder-block and using the through-bolts also as holding-down studs for the cylinders. The results of experiments on six-cylinder engines with reference to the satisfactory utilization of engine fuel now on the market are then presented. The problem is how to carry the fuel mixture in a proper gaseous state from the carbureter into the cylinder without having the fuel deposited out meanwhile. The power developed at engine speeds of 400 to 2800 r.p.m., with and without hot air applied to the carbureter, is tabulated, the proper location of the intake manifold is discussed, and the necessary features of a satisfactory engine to utilize present-day fuel are summarized.
Technical Paper
1920-01-01
JOSEPH VAN BLERCK
The automobile engine, as used in passenger cars and a large percentage of trucks, is not adapted to use in motor boats. It is not built substantially enough for this, inasmuch as the power output of the motor-boat engine, except during starting or landing, is always 100 per cent. In view of this and because tractor, truck and marine engines are of the same family, it appears that if a truck or tractor engine were made with 100 per cent continuous power output capacity it would be satisfactory for marine use. The author describes and illustrates a tractor engine modified for marine use. The lubrication system of this engine is explained. The respective merits of right and left-hand engines are discussed. It is stated in a twin-screw boat that it is unnecessary to have both engines run out-board; that both can turn in the same direction without causing material difference in results. The sliding reverse gear used in connection with the marine engine described is illustrated and its merits enumerated.
Technical Paper
1919-01-01
HERBERT C SNOW
The limit of acceleration has been reached. What may well be considered a maximum for practical service has been secured. The present seven-passenger body is as roomy as could be desired. There should be no need for further increase in size. The author believes the total weight of this large car will be reduced to between 3500 to 4000 lb. To make this reduction without sacrifice of durability greater use must be made of alloy steels and aluminum alloys. The tendency in body design and style is toward smoother lines, fewer breaks and a more graceful contour. The number of closed cars is increasing. There will be a general simplification of detail throughout, better wiring, better lubrication, an increased use of oilless bushings and fewer grease-cups. Brakes and wearing parts will be made more accessible and easier of adjustment. The take-up points for the various adjustments will be placed so that they can be reached with ease. In the design of the engine the greatest improvement is to be looked for in the cylinders, valve ports, valve mechanisms, manifolds and carbureters.
Technical Paper
1919-01-01
P W KLINGER
In the past the majority of trucks have been equipped with wood wheels. These gave good service, but the results demanded under strenuous modern conditions seem, the author states, to make the substitution of steel wheels on medium and heavy-duty trucks imperative. Truck engineers and builders seem to recognize the fact, but to hesitate to make the change, chiefly because a metal wheel is somewhat higher in first cost and because some designs have not as yet rendered the service expected of them. The service return of metal wheels is given from the records and reports of the London General Omnibus Co. and the Fifth Avenue Coach Co., both of which use steel wheels exclusively. The added mileage is in excess of wood-wheel service and exceptional tire mileage is shown. The author states briefly the arguments for the hollow-spoke, hollow-rim, the hollow full-flaring spoke and the integral-hub metal wheels. Semi-flaring or broad sweeping curve attachment of the spoke to the rim is advocated.
Technical Paper
1919-01-01
LEWIS P KALB
The paper treats the subject of ability from the point of view of its relation to the present trend in motor-truck design, setting forth some of the fundamental considerations involved. An ability formula when applied to automotive vehicles is to determine a “factor of experience” from which engine sizes and gear ratios can be calculated. While passenger-car performance is measured in terms of speed and acceleration, the latter are not the most important considerations in motor trucks, the speed of which is limited by the use of a governor. Wind resistance also is negligible at truck speeds. Practically the only resistances to be overcome by a motor truck are road friction and the force of gravity. Both road and grade resistance are in direct proportion to weight carried and are usually expressed in terms of pounds per pound. If the tractive force of the driving-wheels be expressed in the same terms, it becomes a simple matter to compare the resistance to be overcome with the force available for doing it.
Technical Paper
1919-01-01
CORNELIUS T MYERS
Technical Paper
1919-01-01
ALEXANDER KLEMIN
Technical Paper
1919-01-01
B B BACHMAN
THIS paper records the results obtained from operating medium-weight trucks on pneumatic tires, and points out the advantages and disadvantages experienced. An analysis is made of the claims advanced in support of the use of pneumatic tires. Certain items are specified which in the author's opinion require further development before a satisfactory solution can be reached.
Technical Paper
1919-01-01
J G Vincent
Technical Paper
1919-01-01
GROVER C LOENING
Technical Paper
1919-01-01
DAVID BEECROFT
THE author's observations cover the period immediately following the war when, as a member of a party of representative guests of the British and French governments, he toured England, meeting Government officials and talking on industrial matters; visited Scotland's shipbuilding and coal areas; viewed the battle area, aircraft, automobile and tractor factories in France; and traveled in Italy, later returning to England to inspect factories, conduct investigations and review Government activities. The enormous expansion of the automotive industry factories of the Allied nations is emphasized and their organization and methods briefly described, with running comment on comparative practice in the United States. Factory production methods in England are mentioned, as well as working conditions and welfare work there. Considerable information relating to post-war automobile designs and to motor-truck and tractor practice is given. A belief that there should be much international standardization is expressed.
Technical Paper
1919-01-01
A F MILBRATH
THE design of a modification of the Class B Government standardized truck engine is presented, the principal object being a saving in weight without sacrificing either durability or safety factors. The crankcase design is rigid, but the metal is distributed so that the weight will be a minimum. The crankshafts are made of chrome-nickel steel of an elastic limit of 120,000 lb. per sq. in., which further carries out the idea of durability with low weight. The connecting-rod length is slightly more than twice that of the stroke, and this, with light-weight pistons, obviates vibration, without adding weight to the engine on account of increased cylinder height. The flywheel and bell-housing diameters were selected with a view to securing enough flywheel weight for smooth running without increasing the engine weight materially. All-steel supports reduce breakage of arms to a minimum. The manifolds are carefully designed to give economical performance, even with low-grade fuels. A full-force-feed oiling system is employed.
Technical Paper
1919-01-01
ARCHIBALD BLACK
THIS paper describes the various types of radiator installations in use. Tabulated data on several makes of radiation and on successful airplane radiator installations are given. A brief review of laboratory tests is made and the features to be considered in design and manufacture are discussed. The author concludes by cautioning engineers against attempting to base new designs entirely upon experimental data, without comparing the tentative design with existing successful installations.
Technical Paper
1919-01-01
WILLIAM G WALL
THE author presents a brief description of the design of some of the principal vehicles used in motorizing the artillery, as developed by the Ordnance Department. A few of the vehicles are described, including gun mounts that were being developed at the time of the signing of the armistice. The relative merits of the different types of equipment are discussed.
Technical Paper
1919-01-01
HERBERT W ALDEN
THE track-laying type of vehicle is, of course, old. The emergency which brought the modern “tank” into existence was the menace of the machine-gun. The tank is simply a device that can approach closely and destroy the gun or its crew. It is fundamentally a man killer, and its strongest points are speed and mobility. It is now an indispensable arm of the military service. The writer gives a rapid résumé of the fantastic period in design, the early work done on heavy armored cars and the reasons for concentrating on the track-laying type of vehicle. The American type of track was adopted as a foundation and from this and around it France, England and the United States have developed the tanks known through successful use in the war. The British are to be credited with producing the first practical fighting machine of this type. France has two types of machine, one mechanically driven and the other with electric drive, both small. The American Army used both the large and the small machines; the French Renault, selected for light, speedy work, and a modified design of the huge British tank, produced by British and American ordnance engineers working jointly in London during the winter of 1917-1918.
Technical Paper
1919-01-01
H C DICKINSON
Abstract THE approaching exhaustion of the petroleum supply, from which nearly all of the available internal-combustion engine fuel is produced, raises two vital questions, upon the answers to which will depend the future of the automotive industry. These are (a) what fuels are to be available, from the point of view of the engine designer and (b) how much transportation can be secured from the fuel used. It is not certain that satisfactory engines can be developed to handle a wider range of fuels than those used at present. It is therefore not clear whether the trend of development will be toward two or more different grades of fuel, or toward a single mixed fuel to be used in all engines ultimately designed to burn it. The development of different grades of fuel may result in a light fuel, such as gasoline, and a heavier-fuel, such as kerosene, or an even heavier product, each to be used in engines of different designs, the heavier-fuel engine being used for tractor and possibly truck service.
Technical Paper
1919-01-01
H C RICHARDSON
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