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Viewing 12751 to 12780 of 12972
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200033
S V NORTON
The discussion is largely in regard to the ability of a truck to deliver merchandise economically under a given set of external conditions. The matter of truck tire equipment is reviewed in the light of recent experiences of many operators and service men. The general functions of tires, securing traction, cushioning the mechanism and the load and protecting the road, are elaborated and six primary and seven secondary reasons given for the use of pneumatic tires on trucks within the debatable field of 1½ to 3½-ton capacity. The deciding factors in tire choice, those affecting time and those affecting cost, are stated and commented upon, the discussion next being focused on how tires affect these factors. Considerations relating to both truck and tire repairs are then reviewed. Separating the field for each type of tire into three parts, the imperative, the economic and the optional, within one of which the operator can reasonably locate his requirements and decide upon his equipment, the specific considerations involved in making this decision are then enumerated.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200045
H C RICHARDSON
The development of the supercharger for aircraft engines has led to the possibility of hitherto unheard-of speed of transportation. An analysis of a definite case is presented to show the different aspects of the problem in a practical form, with a view toward determining what can reasonably be expected. An attempt is also made to arrive at a knowledge of the elements involved whose improvement will effect the greatest gain. The supercharger overcomes the deficiency of the ordinary gas engine's serious loss of power at great altitudes, due to its inability to obtain sufficient oxygen for the combustion of a normal charge of gas which, in an engine of conventional design, is essential to the development of its maximum output. The required and available horsepowers of the airplane itself are considered mathematically, airplane propellers and their characteristics are discussed, the climbing and flying speeds of an airplane having a supercharged engine are presented and the miscellaneous factors involved are enumerated.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200041
H C MCBRAIR
The first car credited by the author as being equipped with two or more direct drives is the Sizaire-Naudin, in 1905. The transmissions of this car and of one embodying similar principles of gearing, brought out in 1909, are described and illustrated by diagrams. After the Sizaire-Naudin, the next double direct-drive transmission was the Pleukharp transmission axle, made in 1906, although the real ancestor of the present double-drive rear axles is the 1906 Pilain transmission; both are described and illustrated. Other early American and foreign forms are commented upon and diagrammed, including the Austin design, believed by the author to be the first to use a two-speed axle of the simplest and lightest possible type to provide two direct drives in connection with a separate gearset to give additional forward speeds and the reverse. Modern two-speed axles are reviewed, with critical comment and diagrams, and considerable discussion of gear ratios is included. Following this the author exhibits and describes several so-called practical axles, a light two-speed axle weighing not more than the average ordinary axle in common use, a two-speed and reverse axle with splined differential housing upon which the gears slide and a three-speed forward and reverse axle, the last being shown connected to the chassis and as used in connection with an internal-gear drive for truck purposes.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200023
V E CLARK
Following the 1917 recommendation of the Bolling Airplane Mission that great energy be devoted to the development of means to maintain a high proportion of the power of airplane engines at great altitudes, some very creditable work was done. A recent flight test at 20,000-ft. altitude indicates a resultant marked increase in airplane performance. Interest in this development should be extended. The purpose of the paper is to indicate the possibilities and limitations of increasing airplane speed by introducing means to maintain high engine power at great altitudes. The DeHaviland-Four is selected as being, an airplane typical of present practice and the performances that might be obtained at different altitudes are approximately computed, with various assumed ratios of the actual engine power at the altitude to the total weight of the airplane in every case. The accompanying series of curves give the various coefficient results. The method by which the values of the coefficients were obtained is stated and is of assistance in reading and applying the charts.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200022
ARCHIBALD BLACK
A tendency exists in most shops to assume that brazed joints cannot be successfully heat-treated. As a consequence, many fittings used in aircraft work and assembled by brazing smaller parts together are finished and installed without being heat-treated after the brazing operation. This practice causes parts to be used that not only do not develop the available strength of the material, but which are in some cases, under internal stress due to the heating in the brazing operation. Recent experiments made at the Naval Aircraft Factory show that the assumption mentioned is entirely erroneous. The author considers this matter with a view to specifying the use of steels and brazing spelters which will permit the subsequent or perhaps the simultaneous heat-treatment of the parts. The spelters required, their melting and approximate softening points to avoid the destruction of the brazed joint during heat-treatment, are discussed and data concerning them and the steels likely to be required for aircraft parts are presented in accompanying charts.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200021
JOSEPH VAN BLERCK
The automobile engine, as used in passenger cars and a large percentage of trucks, is not adapted to use in motor boats. It is not built substantially enough for this, inasmuch as the power output of the motor-boat engine, except during starting or landing, is always 100 per cent. In view of this and because tractor, truck and marine engines are of the same family, it appears that if a truck or tractor engine were made with 100 per cent continuous power output capacity it would be satisfactory for marine use. The author describes and illustrates a tractor engine modified for marine use. The lubrication system of this engine is explained. The respective merits of right and left-hand engines are discussed. It is stated in a twin-screw boat that it is unnecessary to have both engines run out-board; that both can turn in the same direction without causing material difference in results. The sliding reverse gear used in connection with the marine engine described is illustrated and its merits enumerated.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200016
F H Trego
The author advocates the use of the fragile aluminum crankcase as a spacer, running crankshaft bearing bolts clear through the crankcase and the cylinder base, so tieing the bearings firmly to the castiron cylinder-block and using the through-bolts also as holding-down studs for the cylinders. The results of experiments on six-cylinder engines with reference to the satisfactory utilization of engine fuel now on the market are then presented. The problem is how to carry the fuel mixture in a proper gaseous state from the carbureter into the cylinder without having the fuel deposited out meanwhile. The power developed at engine speeds of 400 to 2800 r.p.m., with and without hot air applied to the carbureter, is tabulated, the proper location of the intake manifold is discussed, and the necessary features of a satisfactory engine to utilize present-day fuel are summarized.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200031
C M McCreery
After stressing the importance of transportation, the possible uses of the motor truck are considered. The increased cushioning and traction obtained from pneumatic truck tires accomplish faster transportation, economy of operation, less depreciation of fragile load, easier riding, less depreciation of roads and lighter-weight trucks. These six advantages are then discussed separately and various data to substantiate the claims made are presented. Following detailed consideration of transportation and operation economies, and depreciation of loads and roads, the practicability of pneumatic tires is elaborated, and wheels, rims and tire-accessory questions are studied. The four main factors bearing upon truck design for pneumatic tires are stated and discussed; emergency equipment for tire repair is outlined and a new six-wheel pneumatic-tired truck is described. Five primary changes from present solid-tire design are necessary in the design of the ultimate truck to use pneumatic tires; these are stated in the summary.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200026
SAMUEL R PARSONS
The paper defines properties that describe the performance of a radiator; states the effects on these properties of external conditions such as flying speed, atmospheric conditions and position of the radiator on the airplane; enumerates the effects of various features of design of the radiator core; and compares methods that have been proposed for controlling the cooling capacity at altitudes. Empirical equations and constants are given, wherever warranted by the information available.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200027
S W SPARROW
The very complete laboratory tests of airplane engines at ground level were of little aid in predicting performance with the reduced air pressures and temperatures met in flight. On the other hand, it was well-nigh impossible in a flight test to carry sufficient apparatus to measure the engine performance with anything like the desired completeness. The need clearly was to bring altitude conditions to the laboratory where adequate experimental apparatus was available and, to make this possible, the altitude chamber of the dynamometer laboratory at the Bureau of Standards was constructed. The two general classes of engine testing are to determine how good an engine is and how it can be improved, the latter including research and development work. Recent standard comparative tests between an Hispano-Suiza and a Liberty engine were made to provide a reasonably satisfactory basis for predicting an engine's value for a given service and such runs were selected as seemed most properly to belong to a program of this kind.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200024
ALEXANDER KLEMIN
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200025
GROVER C LOENING
The annual report covering transportation by the largest British air-transport company laid particular emphasis upon the greater value of the faster machines in its service. Granted that efficient loads can be carried, the expense, trouble and danger of the airplane are justified only when a load is carried at far greater speed than by any other means. A reasonable conclusion seems to be that we can judge the progress made in aviation largely by the increased speed attainable. It is interesting and possibly very valuable therefore to inquire into the relations of power and resistance as applied to small racing machines with aircraft engines that are available. The engine builder is only too likely to think that he has reached the goal required by the aircraft builder if he can make the light-weight figure of the engine “dry,” in pounds per horsepower, low enough, but this attitude is not only erroneous but actually tends to the development for aircraft of engines that are very undesirable.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200064
S VANCE LOVENSTEIN
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200066
M D SCOTT
These experiences relate to the Akron-Boston motor-truck express, established in April, 1917, the Wingfoot Highway Express between Akron and Cleveland which began active operations in January, 1919, and the Goodyear Heights motor omnibuses for passenger service in Akron inaugurated in December, 1917. The preliminary difficulties are reviewed and a mass of specific data regarding construction, operation, maintenance and costs is presented in textual and tabular form, the latter including a summary of pneumatic-tire accomplishment, comparative truck efficiency, an operating summary for six months, the operating cost and efficiency of two 3½-ton twin trucks running on pneumatic and on solid tires respectively, and an operative summary of the Goodyear Heights buses.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200074
GEORGE J MERCER
The author presents the practical side of the body designer's work and refers to him as being between the office and the shop, the one who stands in the way of the impatient man that wants action without preparation. The development of the body designer and body designing is reviewed and the position and duties of the designer are stated at some length. The design factors are considered in detail and the making and utilization of wax models are described, followed by a lengthy consideration of curved-surface bodies, wood body frames, style and body types. The fittings and minor design details are discussed and future designs predicted from present indications. The author explains the body designing business in detail to refute the suspicion that the working methods of body designers are different from those employed by the other members of an engineering force because body designing is different and distinct from the other branches of motor-car engineering work.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200053
Since the Fifth Avenue Coach Co. of New York is the largest successful company operating motor-buses in this country, the author gives a rather comprehensive description of this company's systems and methods, stating the three main divisions as being the engineering, mechanical and transportation departments, and presenting an organization chart. Departments concerned with finance, auditing, purchasing, publicity, claims and the like, which follow conventional lines, are not considered. The engineering, research, mechanical, repair and operating departments are then described in considerable detail. Six specific duties and responsibilities of the research department are stated and six divisions of the general procedure in carrying out overhauls for the operating department are enumerated. Regarding fuel economy, high gasoline averages from the company's standpoint mean economy, well-designed and maintained equipment, and skilled and contented operatives. After elaborating this subject, six definite ways and means that were adopted to secure and maintain high gasoline averages are stated.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200049
H M CRANE
Emphasizing the necessity of persuading fuel manufacturers to improve the suitability of internal-combustion engine fuel by the mixture of other materials with petroleum distillates, and realizing that efficiency is also dependent upon improved engine design, the author then states that results easily obtainable in the simplest forms of automotive engine when using fuel volatile at fairly low temperatures, must be considered in working out a future automotive fuel policy. The alternatives to this as they appear in the light of present knowledge are then stated, including design considerations. The principles that should be followed to obtain as good results as possible with heavy fuel in the conventional type of engine are then described. These include considerations of valve-timing and fuel distribution. Valve-timing should assist correct distribution, especially at the lower engine speeds. Manifold design should include a steady up-grade from the carbureter to the inlet valves and the manifold should be compact on multi-cylinder engines; the best manifold shape must be worked out for each particular engine.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200048
THURMAN H BANE
The author describes the Air-Service work at McCook Field, presenting and describing numerous types of airplane, airplane engine and auxiliary aviation apparatus. After reviewing the development and present status of the Air Service, he describes the airplanes developed during the war and comments briefly upon their chief characteristics, referring to the illustrations; airplane engines are treated in a similar manner. Among auxiliaries, mention is made of airplane armament, synchronizing outfits, parachutes and packs, machine-guns, bombs, cameras and photographic equipment, with comment upon their usage and characteristic features. Armored airplanes are considered specifically and the use of variable-pitch propellers exemplified. The relations of military and commercial aviation are stated and the possibilities of airplane transport and airplane hospital ambulance service are mentioned.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200051
A G. DREFS
In the automotive industries there are four major divisions of activity, manufacturing, financing, engineering and sales. The first three and especially the first two are today real problems. There have been no real sales obstacles. The paper discusses production-control, especially the routing of materials, and systems of accounting pertaining to shop production. They cannot be separated without destroying the effectiveness and efficiency of one or both. The divisions of the production department, the planning department, scheduling an order for production and preparing cost data are then considered at length. The distributing of overhead expense and the securing of complete factory costs are then fully discussed and illustrated by diagrams.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200059
E B SMITH
In investigating the forces that tend to break up and destroy roads, the most destructive of these being that of impact, the United States Bureau of Public Roads devised a method of receiving the impact of a truck on a small copper cylinder and determining its amount by measuring the deformation of the cylinder. The impact values are largely dependent upon the type and construction of the truck. Unsprung weights have a great influence upon the impact value of the blow on the road surface and a reverse influence upon the body of the truck; these effects are in two different directions. The present aim of the Bureau is to investigate this impact and the effect of the unsprung weight on the road. Most of the tests have been made on solid tires, a few have been made on worn solid tires and some on pneumatic tires. The Bureau intends to elaborate all of these tests, including different types of pneumatic tire, different unsprung weights and special wheels, such as cushion or spring wheels.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200082
CHARLES F KETTERING
The author views in perspective some facts from a purely scientific standpoint, and then shows their application to problems of the automotive industry. After reviewing the present facilities for measurement and the ability to make measurements of distances both infinitely small and large, as an aid toward a proper conception of the ultimate structure of matter, he applies this scientific knowledge in the direction of a solution of the fuel problem, which is a fundamental one because it involves the limitation of a natural resource. From 1918 and 1919 statistics, the amount of gasoline produced was something like 20 to 25 per cent of the crude oil pumped; 8 to 10 per cent is kerosene and 50 per cent is gas and fuel oil and a residue carrying lubricating oil, paraffin and carbon. Kerosene demand and production are practically fixed quantities; gasoline demands are increasing. So, after utilizing 25 per cent for gasoline, the 8 to 10 per cent representing kerosene must be avoided and entry to the 50 per cent represented by the gas and fuel oil section must be made to get material with which to increase the amount of engine fuel.
1919-01-01
Technical Paper
190018
H C RICHARDSON
1919-01-01
Technical Paper
190019
J H TOWERS
Abstract THIS article, written shortly after the signing of the armistice, deals with the Naval aviation situation at the outbreak of war and its development during the war, ending with a brief discussion of the probable future lines of development. Figures are given showing the expansion occurring during the nineteen months of warfare, and the different ways in which the various types of aircraft were used. Future development is treated briefly, but that logical assumptions were made is indicated by the fact that the year which has elapsed since the article was written has shown a very decided trend along the lines indicated.
1919-01-01
Technical Paper
190021
GROVER C LOENING
1919-01-01
Technical Paper
190020
J G Vincent
1919-01-01
Technical Paper
190022
ALEXANDER KLEMIN
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