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Viewing 91 to 120 of 13441
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1682
Pratap Dinkar Thorat, Shailesh Newase, Keyur Gupte, Pushkaraj Kaulgud
Abstract Electrical Power and Signal Distributions System in a vehicle is the most important among the Automotive Electrical and Electronic systems. In fact any electrical or electronic systems are realized and are physically formed by the Electrical Wiring Harness. This is a system in itself with the set of wires and connectors connecting various devices to feed the power and act as physical channels for signal transmission and serial data communication. Thus, the Electrical Wiring Harness becomes huge complicated systems in a vehicle. Because of the number of wires, cables and the specific connectivity requirement the design and development will become very difficult. Further, the complexity is manifold due to number of harnesses in a vehicle and different operating conditions in different zones of the vehicle. The design and development of an Electrical Wiring Harness involves primarily the design of the electrical circuit. This is based on the vehicle architecture.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1685
Sayaka Tamura, Tsutomu Yoshinari
Abstract A three-motor hybrid system suitable for a super sports car was developed. This system features high power, light weight and high response, and has high cooling performance for high-load operation such as circuit driving. The power plant drives the rear wheels using the combination of a midship-mounted V6 twin-turbo engine, the direct drive motor of a hybrid system mounted directly on the engine, and a 9-speed dual-clutch transmission (DCT). The front wheels are driven by a twin-motor unit (TMU), and the size and weight of the Intelligent Power Unit (IPU) that supplies electric power to the TMU has been reduced to enable mounting behind the seats inside the cabin. In addition, the IPU uses air-conditioner cooperative cooling to enhance the cooling performance. As a result, assist is performed even during high-load operation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1535
Linli Tian, Yunkai Gao
Abstract Based on equivalent static loads method (ESL), a nonlinear dynamic topology optimization is carried out to optimize an automotive body in white (BIW) subjected to representative legislative crash loads, including frontal impact, side barrier impact, roof crush and rear impact. To meet the crashworthiness performances, two evaluation indexes are defined to convert the practical engineering problems into mathematic optimization problems. The strain energy is treated as the stiffness evaluation index of the BIW and the relative displacement is employed as the compliance index of the components and parts.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1537
Anindya Deb, Gunti R. Srinivas, Clifford C. Chou
Abstract The present work is concerned with the objective of developing a process for practical multi-disciplinary design optimization (MDO). The main goal adopted here is to minimize the weight of a vehicle body structure meeting NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness), durability, and crash safety targets. Initially, for simplicity a square tube is taken for the study. The design variables considered in the study are width, thickness and yield strength of the tube. Using the Response Surface Method (RSM) and the Design Of Experiments (DOE) technique, second order polynomial response surfaces are generated for prediction of the structural performance parameters such as lowest modal frequency, fatigue life, and peak deceleration value. The optimum solution is then obtained by using traditional gradient-based search algorithm functionality “fmincon” in commercial Matlab package.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1573
Ken Archibald, Kyle Archibald, Donald Neubauer
Abstract This paper will document a rationale for wheel straightening based on the rise of declining roads, increased consumer preference for lower profile tires, unintended consequences of wheel customization and the reduction in energy consumption. A recommended patented procedure detailing how A356-T6 wheels can be straightened will be presented. To validate the recommended procedure a sample of wheels was uniformly deformed and straightened and subsequently tested per SAE J328 and SAE J175. Test results are provided that indicate straightened wheels should be fully serviceable in their intended service. A laboratory protocol to replicate the wheel flange cracks is described. The protocol is used to demonstrate that wheels without deformations do not result in flange cracks. Conversely wheels with deformations in excess of 1.5mm do result in cracks at less than 750,000 cycles.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1584
Kenichi Ando, Naoshi Kuratani, Hideo Fukuda
Abstract An aerodynamic styling evaluation system employed at an early automotive development stage was constructed. The system based on CFD consists of exterior model morphing, computational mesh generation, flow calculation and result analysis, and the process is automatically and successively executed by process automation software. Response surfaces and a parallel coordinates chart output by the system allow users to find a well-balanced exterior form, in terms of aerodynamics and exterior styling, in a wide design space which are often arduous to be obtained by a conventional CAE manner and scale model wind tunnel testing. The system was designed so that 5-parameter study is completed within approximately two days, and consequently, has been widely applied to actual exterior styling development. An application for a hatchback vehicle is also introduced as an actual example.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0005
Nick Smith
Abstract Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) [1, 2] has emerged as a solution to the extreme design challenges caused by automotive Electrical/Electronic (EE) complexity [3]. This paper explores how coherency in early design can be applied across the entire EE design cycle. Starting from a functional abstraction, we introduce a new lightweight solution to evaluate and guide optimized implementations integrating software, networks, devices, and connectivity. The pattern used for this and the data created can be directly driven into downstream, domain-specific design flows delivering vehicle lower costs, better design quality, and faster innovation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0003
Alberto Taraborrelli, Francesco Braghin
Abstract This paper reports the studies, design and developments of an electronic electro-actuated gearshifter installed on the DP7, which is Politecnico di Milano car that took part at Formula SAE 2015 competitions in Hockenheim and Varano dè Melegari. The original idea was born to replace the hydraulic gearshift system used until 2011 because of its high weight and cost. After many evaluations about the kind of technology to use, made by previous team members in the electronic department, the final project was a fully electric shifter. This system has proven its qualities among which are lightness and low cost.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0007
Gopal Athani, Kapil Dongare, Rajesh Balusu, Subhabrata Gupta, Srinivasa Raju Gavarraju
Abstract Micro Hybrid Systems are essentially first step towards the electrification of the powertrains. They are aimed at improving the fuel efficiency of the conventional gasoline and diesel power trains with conventional 12 V electrical system, and thus reduce the CO2 emissions as well. Various technologies like Engine Stop-Start, Intelligent Alternator Control, and Electrical Energy Management Systems are included in the bracket of micro hybrid systems. These system functions demand a totally different approach for managing the SLI battery, which is a total departure from the conventional approach. Particularly, the Alternator Shutdown function of Intelligent Alternator Control maintains a calibrated average level of State of Charge, which is typically around 80%, to ensure that the battery can accept more current, during the energy recuperation, which indirectly improves fuel economy.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0016
Jörg Schäuffele
Abstract The functions provided by the E/E system of modern vehicles can be assigned to the classical domains of powertrain, chassis, body and multimedia. Upcoming functions are forming new domains for advanced driver assistance and cloud integration. Therefore networking of functions is not limited to the vehicle but includes also the cloud. These trends imply major changes like the introduction of Ethernet as onboard networking technology or increasing safety and security needs. To design the best E/E architecture three groups of optimization targets are most relevant: Global vehicle targets, E/E targets derived from the implemented vehicle functions and product line targets for an E/E architecture. The PREEvision approach for E/E architecture design and optimization is a model based approach - inspired by the relevant and widely accepted automotive standards. Import and export filters allow the easy integration with PREEvision and complementation of existing tool chains.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0028
Ali Shahrokni, Peter Gergely, Jan Söderberg, Patrizio Pelliccione
Abstract In areas such as Active Safety, new technologies, designs (e.g. AUTOSAR) and methods are introduced at a rapid pace. To address the new demands, and also requirements on Functional Safety imposed by ISO 26262, the support for engineering methods, including tools and data management, needs to evolve as well. Generic and file-based data management tools, like spreadsheet tools, are popular in the industry due to their flexibility and legacy in the industry but provide poor control and traceability, while rigid and special-purpose tools provide structure and control of data but with limited evolvability. As organizations become agile, the need for flexible data management increases. Since products become more complex and developed in larger and distributed teams, the need for more unified, controlled, and consistent data increases.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0046
Markus Ernst, Mario Hirz, Jurgen Fabian
Abstract A steady increasing share and complexity of automotive software is a huge challenge for quality management during software development and in-use phases. In cases of faults occurring in customer’s use, warranty leads to product recalls which are typically associated with high costs. To avoid software faults efficiently, quality management and enhanced development processes have to be realized by the introduction of specific analysis methods and Key Process/Performance Indicators (KPIs) to enable objective quality evaluations as soon as possible during product development process. The paper introduces an application of specific analysis methods by using KPIs and discusses their potential for automotive software quality improvement. Target is to support quality evaluation and risk-analysis for the release process of automotive software.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0040
Ming Meng, Wilson Khoo
The modern vehicle development is highly dependent on software. The software development plays an extremely important role in vehicle safety and security. In order to ensure software high quality and safety standards, we have investigated the secure software development process and analyzed the works in this area. Based on our analysis, we have identified the similarities and differences between the secure software development process and the existing vehicle development process. We then made suggestions on how to adopt the secure software development process in the overall vehicle development process.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0051
Hongyu Zheng, Mingxin Zhao
Abstract Electric power steering (EPS), active front wheel steering (AFS) and steer by wire systems (SBW) can enhance the handling stability and safety of the vehicle, even in dangerous working conditions. Now, the development of the electric control steering system (ECS) is mainly based on the way that combines the test of the electric steering hardware-in-loop (HIL) test bench with real vehicle tests. However, the real vehicle tests with higher cost, long cycle and vulnerable to space weather have the potential safety problems at early development. On contrast, electronic control steering HIL test bench can replace real vehicle tests under various working conditions and make previous preparations for real vehicle road tests, so as to reduce the number of real vehicle test, shorten the development cycle, lower development costs, which has gradually become the important link of research and development of electronic steering system.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0053
Abhishek Sharma
Abstract Today open source software is widely used in different domains like Desktop systems, Consumer electronics (smart phones, TV, washing machines, camera, printers, smart watches), Automotive, Automation etc. With the increased involvement of the open source software in the different domains including the safety critical ones, there has been a requirement of the well-defined test strategy to test and verify such systems. Currently there are multiple open source tools and frameworks to choose from. The paper describes the various open source test strategies and tools available to qualify such systems, their features, maintenance, community support, advantages and disadvantages. Target audience would be the software engineers, program managers, using an open source stack for the product development.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0090
Patrick Barasa, Ye Tian, Stefan Hardes, Shahaboddin Owlia, Purvi Limaye, Derek Bailey, Tarun Sehgal
Abstract Increasingly advanced engines are having high degrees of flux in design, hardware, and requirement changes throughout the development process from initial design intent to production, all occurring at various points in the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC). Boosting, downsizing, various exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) schemes, variable valve timing/lift (VVT/VVL), and direct injection are part of new engine designs. These are being coupled with 6-10 speed transmission or electric motors for increasing overall efficiency while maintaining performance. Development and calibration of the control systems required to extract the best possible performance of these applied technologies is becoming a complex and resource consuming task when time, budget, and test beds become limited. Therefore, an equally rapid means to thoroughly test new engine designs, new algorithms and optimize calibrations is required.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0133
Masahiro Matsubara, Fumio Narisawa, Atsuhiro Ohno, Toshiaki Aoki, Yuki Chiba
Abstract Safety concepts are essential to conform to functional safety standard ISO 26262 for automotive products. Safety requirements, which are a part of safety concepts, shall be satisfied by products to avoid hazards by vehicles to maintain their safety. Incompleteness of safety requirements must be avoided in deriving parent requirements to its children. However, measure for checking is only reviewing when the safety requirements are described in a natural language. This measure for checking is not objective or stringent. We developed a specification technique written in formal notation that addresses some of the shortcomings of capturing safety requirements for verification purposes. Safety requirements in this notation are expressed in goal tree models, which originate from goal-oriented requirement engineering Knowledge Acquisition in autOmated Specification (KAOS). Each requirement is written with propositional logic as the node of a tree.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0138
Bernard Dion
Abstract Automotive manufacturers and their suppliers increasingly need to follow the objectives of ISO 26262 as it is now state-of-the art and as it is the case that an ever increasing number of active and passive safety systems are developed within cars. This has increased the need to define a safe system development process. This paper proposes a model-based approach including automatic and certified code generation to efficiently implement the embedded software that controls these systems while meeting the needed safety requirements and obeying the rules of ISO 26262.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0137
Heiko Doerr, Ingo Stuermer
Abstract A key component of developing a safety-critical automotive system in compliance with ISO 26262 is developing what is known as the safety case. This delivery justifies that the system is free from unreasonable risk and that the safety requirements are complete and satisfied according to evidence from ISO 26262 work products. However, the standard provides neither practical guidance on how the safety case should be developed, nor how the safety argument should be evaluated in the functional safety assessment process. This paper discusses quality and product readiness of the system under development in the context of safety case generation. We will focus on the software level and ISO 26262-6 requirements that relate to this. We will look at the software lifecycle of the system and how to measure and deliver key data throughout this lifecycle.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0164
Jamy Li, Xuan Zhao, Mu-Jung Cho, Wendy Ju, Bertram F. Malle
Abstract Autonomous vehicles represent a new class of transportation that may be qualitatively different from existing cars. Two online experiments assessed lay perceptions of moral norms and responsibility for traffic accidents involving autonomous vehicles. In Experiment 1, 120 US adults read a narrative describing a traffic incident between a pedestrian and a motorist. In different experimental conditions, the pedestrian, the motorist, or both parties were at fault. Participants assigned less responsibility to a self-driving car that was at fault than to a human driver who was at fault. Participants confronted with a self-driving car at fault allocated greater responsibility to the manufacturer and the government than participants who were confronted with a human driver at fault did.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0173
Jeremy Cuddihy, Steven W. Beyerlein, Theron White, Dan Cordon
Abstract There is insufficient time within a single technical elective to learn principles of internal combustion engine operation as well as specialized simulation tools such as GT Suite or Kiva. A number of authors have recognized this constraint, and they have structured their internal combustion engine text around use of programming languages such as FORTRAN, C++, and MATLAB®. This paper reports on how the capabilities of MATLAB® have been synergized with learning activities and homework assignments to set the stage for a successful final engine simulation project. The MATLAB® code involved in this effort can accept basic input parameters such as bore, stroke, compression ratio, spark advance, throttle position, RPM, air/fuel equivalence ratio, and volumetric efficiency. The code returns output power and torque using the Wiebe function and bulk temperature.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0176
Joseph M. Colucci
Abstract This paper summarizes the history and most significant accomplishments of the GMR-GMR&D Fuels and Lubricants Department from its predecessor organization starting about 100 years ago to its demise during a reorganization in the late 1990s. It covers: Combustion research to improve engine efficiency and reduce emissions, Development of chemical, bench, engine, and vehicle tests to improve fuel and lubricant quality, Development of technology to reduce vehicle emissions, Research to understand and reduce air pollution, and Evaluation of alternative fuels and lubricants. In total, the above activities helped not only GM and the worldwide auto industry, but also society. They improved the operation of vehicles and the quality of the air in the United States and around the globe, favorably affecting the lives of hundreds of millions of people. They also created the recognition of and the reputation of the Fuels and Lubricants Department as the best of its kind in the world.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0174
Jun Ni, Jibin Hu, Xueyuan Li, Bin Xu, Junjie Zhou
Abstract In order to discuss the limit handling performance of a FSAE race car, a method to generate the G-G diagram was proposed based on phase plane concept. The simulated G-G diagram was validated by experiments with an electric FSAE race car. In section 1, a nonlinear 7 DOFs dynamic model of a certain electric FSAE race car was built. The tire mechanical properties were described by Magic Formula, and the tire test data was provided by FSAE TTC. In section 2, firstly the steady-state yaw rate response was discussed in different vehicle speed and lateral acceleration based on the simulations. Then the method to generate the G-G diagram based on phase plane concept was proposed, and the simulated G-G diagram of a certain FSAE race car was obtained. In section 3, the testbed FSAE race car was described, including the important apparatuses used in the experiments. Based on the race track experiment, the G-G diagram of the race car was obtained.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0171
Xunzhe Zhang, Richard Stobart, Ran Bao
Abstract China is the world’s largest automotive producer and has the world’s biggest automobile market. However, in the past decades, the development of China’s automotive industry has depended primarily on the foreign direct investment; domestic automakers have struggled in the lower ranks of car producers. In recent years, China’s automotive industry, supported by government policies, has been improving their Research and Development (R&D) capacity, to compete with their international peers. Against this background, China’s automotive industry requires a large number of R&D professionals who have not only a higher degree but also the applied and practical knowledge and skills of research. For the purpose of meeting the industry’s needs, a new Professional Automotive Engineering Masters Programme was launched in 2009, which aims to deliver the Masters to be the R&D professionals in the future.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0293
Jaspreet Singh, Vishnu Agrawal
Abstract The paper expresses an important issue of optimum selection of a supercharger for a given application from the global market in the presence of a variety of superchargers available commercially off the shelf (COTS). Coding scheme suggested is based on developing an attribute based scheme for all superchargers available off the shelf. N-digit coding scheme provides in-depth understanding of all the attributes to be considered by the customers, designers, engineers and engineers of the industry for further improvement. We also aim to create exhaustive database of superchargers along with their attributes. The paper adopts a MADM-TOPSIS (Multiple Attribute Decision Making -Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) technique and graphical methods that are being used widely in different disciplines and are published. The method ensures that the optimum supercharger is closest to the hypothetically best solution and farthest from the worst solution.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0284
Junqi Yang, Zhenfei Zhan, Kai Zheng, Jie Hu
Abstract Simulation models based design has become the common practice in automotive product development. Before applying these models in practice, model validation needs to be conducted to assess the validity of the models by comparing model predictions with experimental observations. In the validation process, it is vital to develop appropriate validation metrics for intended applications. When dealing with multivariate systems, comparisons between model predictions and test data with multiple responses would lead to conflicting decisions. To address this issue, this paper proposed a Bayesian classifier based validation method. With the consideration of both error rate and confidence in hypothesis testing, Bayesian classifier is developed for decision making. The process of validation is implemented on a real-world vehicle design case. The results show the proposed method’s potential in practical application.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0346
Patrick Garcia, Jiri Radous, Artur Krol, Jacek Bosek, Caroline Baeten
During the 4 last years, Lean has been successfully implemented in one of the Tenneco’s Business Units: Ride Performance. This paper reflects on the results and more specifically on the third principle of Lean [1] “How to make flow” and on the fifth principle “To strive for perfection” obtained in the fields of “Product Development” related to Processes, Tools and People. Processes and Hard Tools. How to improve the flow in the engineering processes? It will be shown that In general standardized processes supported by some integrated tools and, more specifically Some workload leveling in testing, CAD Departments, Standardization in design processes, testing procedures and prototypes development processes and Standardization and availability of components and parts for prototype building are key enablers to enhance flow in the Product Development.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0321
Manjil Kale, Rajat Diwan, Fnu Renganathan Dinesh, Mark Benton, Prasanth Muralidharan, Paul Venhovens, Johnell Brooks, ChunKai Liu, Julie Jacobs, Craig Payne
Abstract The Deep Orange framework is an integral part of the graduate automotive engineering education at Clemson University International Center for Automotive Research (CU-ICAR). The initiative was developed to immerse students into the world of an OEM. For the 6th generation of Deep Orange, the goal was to develop an urban utility/activity vehicle for the year 2020. The objective of this paper is to explain the interior concept that offers a flexible interior utility/activity space for Generation Z (Gen Z) users. AutoPacific data were first examined to define personas on the basis of their demographics and psychographics. The resulting market research, benchmarking, and brand essence studies were then converted to consumer needs and wants, to establish technical specifications, which formed the foundation of the Unique Selling Points (USPs) of the concept.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0320
Tejas Janardan Sarang, Mandar Tendolkar, Sivakumar Balakrishnan, Gurudatta Purandare
Abstract In the automotive industry, multiple prototypes are used for vehicle development purposes. These prototypes are typically put through rigorous testing, both under accelerated and real world conditions, to ensure that all the problems related to design, manufacturing, process etc. are identified and solved before it reaches the hands of the customer. One of the challenges faced in testing, is the low repeatability of the real world tests. This may be predominantly due to changes in the test conditions over a period of time like road, traffic, climate etc. Estimating the repeatability of a real world test has been difficult due to the complex and multiple parameters that are usually involved in a vehicle level test and the time correlation between different runs of a real world test does not exist. In such a scenario, the popular and the well-known univariate correlation methods do not yield the best results.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0318
Lev Klyatis
Abstract This paper will discuss the problem of improving engineering culture for development reliability, quality, and testing of the automotive industry product. The basic approach relates to other industries too. The paper will consider why it is so important for engineers and managers, and how it relates to Systems Engineering, which simply stated is , a system which is an integrated composite of people, products, and processes that provides a capability to satisfy a stated need or objective. One of the basic problems of management is strategic thinking. Predicting is inaccurate when it is based on information obtained from using traditional approaches of accelerated life testing (ALT) data where the degradation (failure) processes differ substantially from the product’s degradation processes during service life under real world conditions.
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