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WIP Standard
2014-04-24
This standard defines the objectives of, and requirements for, documenting processes that assure customers and regulatory agencies that ADHP electronic systems containing Pb-free solder, piece parts, and PBs will satisfy the applicable requirements for performance, reliability, airworthiness, safety, and certifiability throughout the specified life of performance. It is intended to communicate requirements for a Pb-free Control Plan (LFCP), hereinafter referred to as the Plan, and to assist the Plan Owners in the development of their own Plans. The Plan documents the Plan Owner’s processes that assure their customers, and all other stakeholders that the Plan Owner's products will continue to meet their requirements, given the risks stated in the Introduction. This standard does not contain detailed descriptions of the processes to be documented but lists high-level requirements for such processes, and areas of concern to the ADHP industries that must be addressed by the processes. Pb-free risk management should be accomplished through specific requirements added to the Plan Owner's existing infrastructure of product management and control.
WIP Standard
2014-04-23
Generate an accompanying document to AS-6129 to define the verification method and criteria for all the requirements contained in AS-6129.
WIP Standard
2014-04-22
This standard defines a generic set of electrical interfaces between a host aircraft (“platform”) and an electro-optic/infrared (EO/IR) sensor. This includes connectors, cabling, fiber optics, signals, and power.
WIP Standard
2014-04-22
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines the editorial format and policies necessary for the publication of platform/subsystem Interface Control documents. The Common Interface Control Document Format Standard defines a common format for platform to subsystem interface documents to facilitate subsystem integration. This aerospace standard specifies the common technical data sections for the Common Interface Control Document Format down to the third header level for the majority of sub-sections. The Common Interface Control Document Format Aerospace Standard provides a structured document format in appendixes supported by example paragraphs, drawings, etc.
Article
2014-04-16
In the wake of its ignition switch recall, General Motors CEO Mary Barra has announced creation of a Global Product Integrity organization. Housed within the Global Production Development group, it will "build on the formula and specific actions we have taken in recent years to lead the industry in vehicle dynamics," Barra said at the 2014 New York International Auto Show.
Standard
2014-04-16
This SAE Information provides information applicable to production Original Equipment Manufacturer antilock braking systems found on some past and current passenger cars and light trucks. It is intended for readers with a technical background. It does not include information about aftermarket devices or future antilock brake systems. Information in this document reflects that which was available to the committee at the time of publication.
Book
2014-04-11
Today’s designers seek to integrate sensor technology, electronic and mechatronic systems in progressively introducing Electric Power Steering (EPS) systems. However, from a customer perspective on the one hand steering is one of the most visible or tangible aspects of vehicle quality in driving when quality is compromised (through NVH issues), while on the other hand, when executed well, a steering system is all but transparent to the driver. To a number of commentators and OEMs ‘steering feel’ has become termed as contributing to the essential ‘DNA” of the vehicle, and it is therefore an essential aspect of competitive advantage or position. This report examines steering feel and the increasing effect of vehicle electrification, and looks at steering and chassis performance. It also considers the key drivers including fuel efficiency and CO2 emissions, steering design, materials considerations and the packaging dilemma. Furthermore the report looks at the latest steering system trends, in particular electrically power assisted steering (EPAS), electro-hydraulic power steering (EHPS), electric power steering (EPS), active front steering (AFS), four-wheel steering, steer-by-wire, automated parking and NVH reduction.
Book
2014-04-08
This report examines the macroeconomic situation in the Mercosur region, including planned investment in infrastructure development projects, national automotive policy and plans. It provides an overview of automotive industry and supply chain, and the vehicle component industry as a whole. It lists investments made by vehicle component suppliers, and relevant joint-ventures and mergers and acquisitions. The report takes a look at the involvement of automakers in supplier development, localization trends and the development automotive clusters. It covers at existing R&D capabilities in the Mercosur region, as well as new investments taking place there, together with its opportunities and challenges. The report includes a series of 119 supplier profiles from suppliers either based in Mercosur countries, or the localized operations of global tier-1 and tier-2 suppliers. These profiles provide relevant data on corporate strategy, investments, product offerings and contact information built from SupplierBusiness research.
Article
2014-04-07
The 2014 Lexus CT 200h that recently hit dealers was engineered under the direction of the brand’s first female engineer. Chika Kako assumed CE duties on the compact hybrid in June 2013, guiding 94 distinct changes to the model—“which for a mid-life program represents a huge effort,” she said.
Article
2014-04-04
Shanghai is the location of Eaton's latest technical center in China. The new $3.3 million Vehicle Group Asia Pacific Technical Center will develop vehicle powertrain solutions for the Chinese and regional markets, according to the company.
Book
2014-04-03
This new report looks the marketplace for global medium and heavy commercial vehicle OEMs, their globalization process and the impact of new technologies on production. The report also includes an appendix of 21 major truck supplier profiles. These profiles provide relevant data on corporate strategy, investments, product offerings and contact information. Commercial-vehicle manufacturers around the world face a complex set of challenges that together add up to mounting pressure on their profit margins. Companies are grappling with the impact of the double-dip recession in Europe, with intensifying competition from emerging-market players, with the increased commoditization of their product, and with ever-tightening environmental regulations. In volume terms, capacity management remains the single most challenging issue for many OEMs. Having reached record levels in 2011, global demand for regional and heavy commercial trucks softened in 2012 before experiencing a small rebound in 2013.
WIP Standard
2014-04-02
This SAE Recommended Practice presents the general uses, limitations on use, and appearance of the safety alert symbol.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Parul Goyal, Feng Liang, Olof Oberg
Abstract The aim of the paper is to describe how Volvo Construction Equipment uses a virtual product development process to analyze potential risks, find root causes and optimize future product development. A model based method is used to analyze a potential risk in the design of Wheel Loader transmissions. The risk was recognized from failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), and a simulation model using AMESim modeling tool was developed to analyze the behavior of the new design. Together with test rig result, it is proved that the model based method gives a considerably accurate prediction of the system behavior. By using the model based approach, lead time for development process is reduced and important feedbacks from simulation model are obtained on early stage of the development. This paper further presents the use of the simulation model as a tool to predict the potential risks in the extreme operating conditions, which are difficult to test on the vehicle test bench.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Bert Bras, Andrew Carlile, Thomas Niemann, Sherry Mueller, Hyung Chul Kim, Timothy Wallington, Heidi McKenzie, Susan Rokosz
Abstract Tools are now publicly available that can potentially help a company assess the impact of its water use and risks in relation to their global operations and supply chains. In this paper we describe a comparative analysis of two publicly available tools, specifically the WWF/DEG Water Risk Filter and the WBCSD Global Water Tool that are used to measure the water impact and risk indicators for industrial facilities. By analyzing the risk assessments calculated by these tools for different scenarios that include varying facilities from different industries, one can better gauge the similarities and differences between these water strategy tools. Several scenarios were evaluated using the water tools, and the results are compared and contrasted. As will be shown, the results can vary significantly.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Vukica Jovanovic, Mileta Tomovic, Lisa Ncube, Ana Djuric, Petros Katsioloudis, Filip Cuckov
Abstract Many vehicle subsystems were in essence mechatronic (electro-mechanical) designs. Modern vehicles have various subsystems which provide mechanical movements which were controlled by electronic and electrical systems. At the same time, they collect and track data about system performance and environmental conditions for on board diagnostics. Advances in mechanical, electrical, and embedded systems were making vehicles more intelligent. However, these mechatronics systems face new challenges including design for compliance and ensuring that all product specifications are transferred into the company's product data management system. This is especially important for electrical and electronic subsystems since they have to comply with ongoing changes related to the management of hazardous substances. Since modern vehicles were being manufactured in a global environment through outsourcing of many different components, this poses challenges with material tracking. Environmental regulations were not only different from country to country but were also constantly changing making it essential that systems are flexible and customizable.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Robert Jesse Alley, Patrick Walsh, Nicole Lambiase, Brian Benoy, Kristen De La Rosa, Douglas Nelson, Shawn Midlam-Mohler, Jerry Ku, Brian Fabien
Abstract EcoCAR 2: Plugging in to the Future (EcoCAR) is North America's premier collegiate automotive engineering competition, challenging students with systems-level advanced powertrain design and integration. The three-year Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition (AVTC) series is organized by Argonne National Laboratory, headline sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and General Motors (GM), and sponsored by more than 30 industry and government leaders. Fifteen university teams from across North America are challenged to reduce the environmental impact of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu by redesigning the vehicle powertrain without compromising performance, safety, or consumer acceptability. During the three-year program, EcoCAR teams follow a real-world Vehicle Development Process (VDP) modeled after GM's own VDP. The EcoCAR 2 VDP serves as a roadmap for the engineering process of designing, building and refining advanced technology vehicles. During the first and second years of EcoCAR 2, teams executed an Energy Storage System (ESS) design, integration and commissioning process.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Trevor Crain, Trevor Fayer, Brian Fabien, Per Reinhall
Abstract This paper details the development process and model architecture used in the University of Washington's EcoCAR 2 hybrid supervisory controller. The EcoCAR 2 project challenges 15 universities across North America to create a hybrid vehicle that most effectively minimizes emissions and fuel consumption while still maintaining consumer acceptability. The supervisory controller for the University of Washington was designed to distribute torque to the various electric and combustion drive systems on a parallel though the road plug-in hybrid electric vehicle using Simulink and Stateflow. The graphical interface of Simulink offers some distinct advantages over text-based programming languages. However, there are also significant challenges posed by the software, particularly when several controls engineers are working in parallel on a large model with some type of version control. In order to address some of these challenges, it is necessary to structure the model so that different areas of the program are properly partitioned to avoid instances of conflicting changes from different developers.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Brian Harries, Townsend Hyatt, Kenneth Leslie, Brandon Smith, Marc Compere
Abstract This paper describes the interdisciplinary architecture selection study conducted by Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (ERAU) to determine the Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) architecture for its entry into EcoCAR2: Plugging In To The Future. This study includes a fuel, component, and architecture comparison to determine the most viable strategy to convert the competition vehicle, a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu, into a strong PHEV. Performance, energy, emissions, and consumer acceptability goals were established and summarized in the Vehicle Technical Specifications (VTS). Drive cycle simulations were used to create vehicle and component requirements for achieving the VTS targets. Three candidate architectures were then evaluated and compared for energy consumption, well to wheel (WTW) emissions, WTW petroleum energy usage, performance, packaging, and consumer acceptability. The architectures compared were a front wheel drive Series PHEV, a series-parallel through the road PHEV, and pre-transmission PHEV.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Idan Kovent, Jerry Ku
Abstract The Wayne State University EcoCAR2 team provided its members with Modeling and Simulation training course for the second summer of the competition. EcoCAR2 is a three-year Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition (AVTC) sponsored by General Motors and the Department of Energy. The course lasted three months and included 45 hours of formal lectures and class hands-on work and an estimated one hundred and fifty hours in home assignments that directly contributed to the team's deliverables. The course described here is unique. The design and class examples were extracted from an in-house complete vehicle simulation and control code to ensure hands-on, interactive training based on real-world problems. The course investigated the physics behind every major powertrain component of a hybrid electric vehicle and the different ways to model the components into a full vehicle simulation. Different engineering approaches were discussed to improve performance and fuel consumption while addressing the different tradeoffs.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Richard A. Scholer, Hank McGlynn
Abstract This paper is the fifth in the series of documents designed to identify the progress on the SAE Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) communication task force that follows 2010-01-0837, 2011-01-0866, 2012-01-1036 and 2013-01-1475. The primary focus of this paper is to discuss the most recent revision of J2847/1 [1], which deals with Smart Charging applications, plus the initial release of J2847/3 [2], which can be thought of as dealing with “Smart Discharging” applications. Both documents are based on the use of the Smart Energy Profile 2.0 (SEP2) Application Protocol Standard (V1.0) which was completed by the ZigBee Alliance in April 2013. The standard was then accepted by the IEEE and subsequently released as IEEE 2030.5 [3]. SEP2 started with a Marketing Requirements Document (MRD) that J2836/1™ [4]expanded for the automotive Use Cases for Smart Charging, The MRD was then used to generate the SEP2 Technical Requirements Document (TRD) that set the automotive requirements in J2931/1 [5].
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Ken Archibald, William Schnaidt, Rick Wallace, Kyle Archibald
Abstract SAE J2562 defines the background, apparatus and the directions for modifying the Scaled Base Load Sequence for a given a wheel rated load for a wheel design. This practice has been conducted on multiple wheel designs and over one hundred wheel specimens. All of the wheels were tested to fracture. Concurrently, some of the wheel designs were found to be unserviceable in prior or subsequent proving grounds on-vehicle testing. The remainder of the wheel designs have sufficient fatigue strength to sustain the intended service for the life of the vehicle. This is termed serviceable. Using the empirical data with industry accepted statistics a minimum requirement can be projected, below which a wheel design will likely have samples unserviceable in its intended service. The projections of serviceability result in a recommendation of a minimum cycle requirement for SAE J2562 Ballasted Passenger Vehicle Load Sequence.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Ben Wen, Gregory Rogerson, Alan Hartke
Abstract Tire rolling resistance is one of tire performance indicator that represents a force needed to maintain the constant rolling of a tire. There are quite few methods and standards to measure tire rolling resistance, such as ISO-28585, ISO-18164, SAE-J1269, SAE-J2452, …. These tests have been used by tire companies, vehicle manufactures, and government agencies to evaluate tire rolling resistance performance. SAE-J1269 and SAE-J2452 are two popularly used multi-condition rolling resistance tests for passenger and light truck tires. Examining the test conditions and procedures of these two test standards showed that some key procedures and conditions from both standards are similar although there are many difference as well. The study presented here is to analyze test results from both tests and their correlation under certain conditions. If the correlation exists, one test may provide test results for both test conditions, therefore, test efficiency can be improved.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Helmut Martin, Stephan Baumgart, Andrea Leitner, Daniel Watzenig
Abstract The need for cost efficient development and shorter time to market requires reuse of safety-critical embedded systems. One main challenge for reuse approaches in a safety-critical context is to provide evidence that assumptions of the safety artifacts for the reused component are still valid in the new system definition. This paper summarizes the major findings from an explorative study conducted in order to identify the state of practice of reuse in the context of different functional safety standards. The explorative study consists of a set of questions, which have been discussed with interviewees from companies of various domains. The companies act in safety-critical domains with diverse product portfolios. We covered several points of view by interviewing persons with different background. The results of the study reveal industrial challenges, which built the input for the derivation of possible future work based on the identified practical needs. Our main findings show the current predominance of ad-hoc reuse techniques and the need for more systematic approaches for reuse.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Tomislav Lovric, Manuel Schneider-Scheyer, Samir Sarkic
Abstract Today's Automotive ECU development is a global engineering exercise. It requires efficient planning, design and implementation. Time to market, innovative customer functions and cost effective design are key to success. Not only the technical realization with compressed time schedules and frequent change requests, but also the documentation, and the proof of compliance to ISO-26262 requires efficient solutions to be applied. Key to successful ECU development of complex safety critical systems inside a global team is a systematic approach to identify the ideal realization out of multiple design alternatives. This is why TRW Electronics Engineering for its Braking ECU products decided to design the new product generation with the help of Model Based System Engineering methods (MBSE). With these methods the team is realizing the opportunities provided by top-down driven development considering Requirements Engineering, Semi-formal Architecture Description, and early support to create evidence to conform to ASIL D in accordance to ISO 26262.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Andreas Kremheller
Abstract This paper aims to provide a brief description on the aerodynamics development process of the new Nissan Qashqai using full-scale wind tunnel testing and Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations (CFD). Aerodynamic drag reduction ideas were developed by means of numerical simulations with confirmation of the aerodynamics properties full-scale clay models were tested in the wind tunnel. Key aerodynamic features were developed including the optimization of hood and windscreen angle, roof camber, plan view corner radius, rear combination lamp with boundary layer trip edge and a large rear spoiler with incorporated winglet. The drag contribution of the under body was reduced by optimizing deflectors and panels. The A-pillar and door mirrors were designed to reduce drag and wind noise. Furthermore, the bumper opening area was optimized to balance the airflow for engine cooling and a low cooling drag contribution. In addition, an active grille shutter was developed to limit the amount of cooling airflow into the lower bumper opening to a minimum.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Richard K. Stobart, Xunzhe Zhang
Abstract There has probably never been such a demand for professionally qualified engineers, and yet both the number and diversity of people entering the profession continue to decline. Worldwide, there are very many initiatives - some generally encouraging interest in the profession, and others targeting specific audiences. The reports speak of local success, but the overall picture remains discouraging. In this paper we focus on the “pipeline” from primary education through to the transition from graduate engineer into an experienced member of engineering staff. We have based the discussion on both the presentations and comments made during a panel discussion held at the 2013 SAE International Congress. The paper is intended as a summary of the points raised during that discussion and, we hope proves to be starting point for further investigation and analysis. Of particular note is the sheer diversity of initiatives, and the pressing need for role models and mentoring. The experience of engineers during the early part of their career continues to be highly variable and even at this late stage there is a talent drain from the profession and diminishing diversity.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Mariaeugenia Salas Acosta, Krishan Bhatia, Eric Constans, Jennifer Kadlowec, Thomas Merrill, Hong Zhang
Abstract The Rowan University Mechanical Engineering program is studying the use of a long-term (five semester) design project on student learning and concept retention. The project, a bench-scale hybrid electric powertrain system, is designed, analyzed and fabricated by students in five modules, starting in their sophomore year and culminating in their final semester as seniors (see prior ASEE publication [1]). This complex project has been selected in order to integrate the core mechanical engineering courses: Mechanical Design, Thermodynamics, System Dynamics and Control, and Fluid Mechanics. A bench-scale hybrid-electric vehicle powertrain has sufficient complexity to involve all Mechanical Engineering disciplines and the simplicity to be built by students over the course of five semesters. In addition, hybrid-electric technology is at the cutting-edge of automotive technology, and has been found to hold a special fascination for most mechanical engineering students. A “faculty prototype” has been built and tested, both as a demonstration and for educational purposes.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Basant Sharma
Abstract Fast to market trends among automotive OEM's in introducing new vehicles has resulted in compressed product development time. Now it is fairly common to see CAE driven processes playing upfront role in the concept and advance stage of vehicle development thus adding pace to the Virtual Vehicle Development (VVD). In the recent decade we have also noticed acceptance of optimization driven by CAE models upfront in the virtual vehicle development process. Now a days it is not uncommon to use CAE models for optimization upfront at the advanced vehicle development stage with CRASH and NVH performance objectives. Yet another noticeable transformation happening in accelerating VVD is ability to use morphing techniques on CAE models to bring about design changes or enablers independent of CAD. Ability of morphing tools to make design changes in CAE model parametric adds significant value to the optimization process. Parametric CAE models tied to DoE or direct optimization based techniques help identify the optimal point for interdisciplinary objectives way ahead in the VVD.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Sunil KV, Sunil Sheepri, Kiran Kandula, Amit Kumar
Abstract The durability evaluation of overhanging components of a vehicle (Ex: horn, radiator) is a challenge to durability engineers as resonance plays an important role in determining their fatigue life. As resonance cannot be avoided always, it is desirable to develop methods to evaluate life of the component in the presence of resonance. Though the existing vibration test standards suggest test profiles to evaluate resonance failures, there are cases in which, these methods do not yield the proving ground results. This may lead to unnecessary overdesign or unrealistic failures. In such cases it is suggested to generate a sweep endurance test procedure customized to the proving ground or actual roads. This paper studies a methodology for generating a sweep endurance test procedure for evaluation of resonating components. Responses like stress and accelerations were measured in test components in proving ground. Contribution of each frequency band towards overall damage is determined.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Richard Young
This study reanalyzes the data from a recent experimental report from the University of Utah investigating the effect on driving performance of auditory-vocal secondary tasks (such as cell phone and passenger conversations, speech-to-text, and a complex artificial cognitive task). The current objective is to estimate the relative risk of crashes associated with such auditory-vocal tasks. Contrary to the Utah study's assumption of an increase in crash risk from the attentional effects of cognitive load, a deeper analysis of the Utah data shows that driver self-regulation provides an effective countermeasure that offsets possible increases in crash risk. For example, drivers self-regulated their following distances to compensate for the slight increases in brake response time while performing auditory-vocal tasks. This new finding is supported by naturalistic driving data showing that cell phone conversation does not increase crash risk above that of normal baseline driving. The Utah data are next compared to those from a larger study that included visual-manual as well as auditory-vocal tasks.
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