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Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Robert Jesse Alley, Patrick Walsh, Nicole Lambiase, Brian Benoy, Kristen De La Rosa, Douglas Nelson, Shawn Midlam-Mohler, Jerry Ku, Brian Fabien
Abstract EcoCAR 2: Plugging in to the Future (EcoCAR) is North America's premier collegiate automotive engineering competition, challenging students with systems-level advanced powertrain design and integration. The three-year Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition (AVTC) series is organized by Argonne National Laboratory, headline sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and General Motors (GM), and sponsored by more than 30 industry and government leaders. Fifteen university teams from across North America are challenged to reduce the environmental impact of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu by redesigning the vehicle powertrain without compromising performance, safety, or consumer acceptability. During the three-year program, EcoCAR teams follow a real-world Vehicle Development Process (VDP) modeled after GM's own VDP. The EcoCAR 2 VDP serves as a roadmap for the engineering process of designing, building and refining advanced technology vehicles. During the first and second years of EcoCAR 2, teams executed an Energy Storage System (ESS) design, integration and commissioning process.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Idan Kovent, Jerry Ku
Abstract The Wayne State University EcoCAR2 team provided its members with Modeling and Simulation training course for the second summer of the competition. EcoCAR2 is a three-year Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition (AVTC) sponsored by General Motors and the Department of Energy. The course lasted three months and included 45 hours of formal lectures and class hands-on work and an estimated one hundred and fifty hours in home assignments that directly contributed to the team's deliverables. The course described here is unique. The design and class examples were extracted from an in-house complete vehicle simulation and control code to ensure hands-on, interactive training based on real-world problems. The course investigated the physics behind every major powertrain component of a hybrid electric vehicle and the different ways to model the components into a full vehicle simulation. Different engineering approaches were discussed to improve performance and fuel consumption while addressing the different tradeoffs.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Lev Klyatis
Abstract This paper will discuss how accurate simulation of the real world conditions and ART/ADT (accelerated reliability/durability testing) technology is influencing accurate efficiency predicting as a final goal of product/process design, manufacturing, and development. The paper begins with the overview of current approaches of predicting the efficiency for a complete product and its components with an examples of life cycle costs (LCC), empirical reliability, physics-based reliability, their benefits and risks. It includes also the history of reliability prediction. As a result of the overview, it will be conclude that one cannot ensure that predicting results will not be misinterpreted or misapplied, even though all assumptions and rationale have been meticulously documented and clearly stated. The paper will demonstrate the proposed principles of solution for accurate efficiency predicting through obtaining accurate initial information for this predicting and improving engineering culture.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Seyed M. Mirmiran, Vern Scott, Bill Swenson, Stephen Funtig
Abstract The Sarbanes-Oxley Act created new standards for corporate accountability pertaining to all publicly-owned and traded firms. It holds top executives accountable for the accuracy of all financial data and statements, including reported tangible assets. It requires existence of auditable internal accounting control measures and specifies adherence to new internal controls and procedures designed to ensure the validity of their financial records and physical assets. The Act presents a challenge to every manufacturing firm to have a low-cost system implemented that can produce an exact physical-asset location, existence, verification and accounting on demand. Clearly, such low-cost solutions for enterprise-wide compliance would also provide verifiable and reliable data for corporate property tax, loan collateral, and audit requirements. In 2011, Chrysler LLC conducted a study for an improved and efficient process to locate, verify and track OEM-owned tooling assets at supplier sites, located across the globe.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Miwoo Han, Yongpyo Lim, Seong-ho An
Abstract Many high risks of failure in developing and applying new technologies exist in the recent automotive industry because of big volume of selling cars in a global market. Several recalls cost companies more than $ 100 million per problem. New technologies always have uncertainty in performing intended functions at various given conditions despite the fact that engineers do their best to develop technologies to meet all the requirements. Uncertainty of new technologies put companies into danger of failing in their business. Therefore, many companies tend to take interest in reducing risks from the uncertainty in technologies, but the increasing complexity of modern automotive technologies make it difficult to develop complete technologies. A new engineering methodology called SPEED Engineering was introduced to reduce the risks of new technology applications and to facilitate engineers to conceive innovative ideas dominating the market in the future. Also it is used to help engineers solve engineering problems caused by system conflicts or complex factors.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Richard Young
This study reanalyzes the data from a recent experimental report from the University of Utah investigating the effect on driving performance of auditory-vocal secondary tasks (such as cell phone and passenger conversations, speech-to-text, and a complex artificial cognitive task). The current objective is to estimate the relative risk of crashes associated with such auditory-vocal tasks. Contrary to the Utah study's assumption of an increase in crash risk from the attentional effects of cognitive load, a deeper analysis of the Utah data shows that driver self-regulation provides an effective countermeasure that offsets possible increases in crash risk. For example, drivers self-regulated their following distances to compensate for the slight increases in brake response time while performing auditory-vocal tasks. This new finding is supported by naturalistic driving data showing that cell phone conversation does not increase crash risk above that of normal baseline driving. The Utah data are next compared to those from a larger study that included visual-manual as well as auditory-vocal tasks.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Andreas Kremheller
Abstract This paper aims to provide a brief description on the aerodynamics development process of the new Nissan Qashqai using full-scale wind tunnel testing and Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations (CFD). Aerodynamic drag reduction ideas were developed by means of numerical simulations with confirmation of the aerodynamics properties full-scale clay models were tested in the wind tunnel. Key aerodynamic features were developed including the optimization of hood and windscreen angle, roof camber, plan view corner radius, rear combination lamp with boundary layer trip edge and a large rear spoiler with incorporated winglet. The drag contribution of the under body was reduced by optimizing deflectors and panels. The A-pillar and door mirrors were designed to reduce drag and wind noise. Furthermore, the bumper opening area was optimized to balance the airflow for engine cooling and a low cooling drag contribution. In addition, an active grille shutter was developed to limit the amount of cooling airflow into the lower bumper opening to a minimum.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Richard K. Stobart, Xunzhe Zhang
Abstract There has probably never been such a demand for professionally qualified engineers, and yet both the number and diversity of people entering the profession continue to decline. Worldwide, there are very many initiatives - some generally encouraging interest in the profession, and others targeting specific audiences. The reports speak of local success, but the overall picture remains discouraging. In this paper we focus on the “pipeline” from primary education through to the transition from graduate engineer into an experienced member of engineering staff. We have based the discussion on both the presentations and comments made during a panel discussion held at the 2013 SAE International Congress. The paper is intended as a summary of the points raised during that discussion and, we hope proves to be starting point for further investigation and analysis. Of particular note is the sheer diversity of initiatives, and the pressing need for role models and mentoring. The experience of engineers during the early part of their career continues to be highly variable and even at this late stage there is a talent drain from the profession and diminishing diversity.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Mariaeugenia Salas Acosta, Krishan Bhatia, Eric Constans, Jennifer Kadlowec, Thomas Merrill, Hong Zhang
Abstract The Rowan University Mechanical Engineering program is studying the use of a long-term (five semester) design project on student learning and concept retention. The project, a bench-scale hybrid electric powertrain system, is designed, analyzed and fabricated by students in five modules, starting in their sophomore year and culminating in their final semester as seniors (see prior ASEE publication [1]). This complex project has been selected in order to integrate the core mechanical engineering courses: Mechanical Design, Thermodynamics, System Dynamics and Control, and Fluid Mechanics. A bench-scale hybrid-electric vehicle powertrain has sufficient complexity to involve all Mechanical Engineering disciplines and the simplicity to be built by students over the course of five semesters. In addition, hybrid-electric technology is at the cutting-edge of automotive technology, and has been found to hold a special fascination for most mechanical engineering students. A “faculty prototype” has been built and tested, both as a demonstration and for educational purposes.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Ingo Stuermer, Ulrich Eisemann, Elke Salecker
Abstract Embedded software in the car is becoming increasingly complex due to the growing number of software-based controller functions and the increasing complexity of the software itself. Model-based development with Simulink combined with TargetLink for automatic code generation helps significantly to improve the quality of the embedded software. The development of large-scale Simulink models in distributed teams is a challenging task, especially when developing safety-critical software that must fulfill requirements stated in the ISO 26262 [1] safety standard. In practice, many questions on how to avoid the pitfalls of distributed model-based development remain open, such as how to define an appropriate model architecture, handle model complexity, and achieve compliance with ISO 26262. The intent of this paper is threefold. Firstly, we summarize those requirements of ISO 26262 that are relevant for developing complex software in a distributed environment. Secondly, we provide best practices for distributed development of large-scale controllers with MATLAB, Simulink, and TargetLink in compliance with ISO 26262.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Alexandros Mouzakitis, Paul Jennings, Gunwant Dhadyalla, Gerard Lancaster
Abstract Complexity of electronics and embedded software systems in automobiles has been increasing over the years. This necessitates the need for an effective and exhaustive development and validation process in order to deliver fault free vehicles at reduced time to market. Model-based Product Engineering (MBPE) is a new process for development and validation of embedded control software. The process is generic and defines the engineering activities to plan and assess the progress and quality of the software developed for automotive applications. The MBPE process is comprised of six levels (one design level and five verification and validation levels) ranging from the vehicle requirements phase to the start of production. The process describes the work products to be delivered during the course of product development and also aligns the delivery plan to overall vehicle development milestones. MBPE enables early confirmation of fitness of the embedded system and the detection of software errors during product development, by bringing a more robust and efficient development, verification and validation process across all stakeholder departments within the organisation and supplier base.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Ken Archibald, William Schnaidt, Rick Wallace, Kyle Archibald
Abstract SAE J2562 defines the background, apparatus and the directions for modifying the Scaled Base Load Sequence for a given a wheel rated load for a wheel design. This practice has been conducted on multiple wheel designs and over one hundred wheel specimens. All of the wheels were tested to fracture. Concurrently, some of the wheel designs were found to be unserviceable in prior or subsequent proving grounds on-vehicle testing. The remainder of the wheel designs have sufficient fatigue strength to sustain the intended service for the life of the vehicle. This is termed serviceable. Using the empirical data with industry accepted statistics a minimum requirement can be projected, below which a wheel design will likely have samples unserviceable in its intended service. The projections of serviceability result in a recommendation of a minimum cycle requirement for SAE J2562 Ballasted Passenger Vehicle Load Sequence.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Ben Wen, Gregory Rogerson, Alan Hartke
Abstract Tire rolling resistance is one of tire performance indicator that represents a force needed to maintain the constant rolling of a tire. There are quite few methods and standards to measure tire rolling resistance, such as ISO-28585, ISO-18164, SAE-J1269, SAE-J2452, …. These tests have been used by tire companies, vehicle manufactures, and government agencies to evaluate tire rolling resistance performance. SAE-J1269 and SAE-J2452 are two popularly used multi-condition rolling resistance tests for passenger and light truck tires. Examining the test conditions and procedures of these two test standards showed that some key procedures and conditions from both standards are similar although there are many difference as well. The study presented here is to analyze test results from both tests and their correlation under certain conditions. If the correlation exists, one test may provide test results for both test conditions, therefore, test efficiency can be improved.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Helmut Martin, Stephan Baumgart, Andrea Leitner, Daniel Watzenig
Abstract The need for cost efficient development and shorter time to market requires reuse of safety-critical embedded systems. One main challenge for reuse approaches in a safety-critical context is to provide evidence that assumptions of the safety artifacts for the reused component are still valid in the new system definition. This paper summarizes the major findings from an explorative study conducted in order to identify the state of practice of reuse in the context of different functional safety standards. The explorative study consists of a set of questions, which have been discussed with interviewees from companies of various domains. The companies act in safety-critical domains with diverse product portfolios. We covered several points of view by interviewing persons with different background. The results of the study reveal industrial challenges, which built the input for the derivation of possible future work based on the identified practical needs. Our main findings show the current predominance of ad-hoc reuse techniques and the need for more systematic approaches for reuse.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Gopal Athani, Prasad Yerraguntla, Anand Gajaraj, Kapil Dongare
Abstract Micro Hybrid Systems are a premier approach for improving fuel efficiency and reducing emissions, by improving the efficiency of electrical energy generation, storage, distribution and consumption, yet with lower costs associated with development and implementation. However, significant efforts are required while implementing micro hybrid systems, arising out of components like Intelligent Battery Sensor (IBS). IBS provides battery measurements and battery status, and in addition mission critical diagnostic data on a communication line to micro hybrid controller. However, this set of data from IBS is not available instantly after its initialization, as it enters into a lengthy learning phase, where it learns the battery parameters, before it gives the required data on the communication line. This learning period spans from 3 to 8 hours, until the IBS is fully functional and is capable of supporting the system functionalities. This scenario poses a great challenge to conduct the system performance checks at End of Line testing stations in assembly lines, and also in after sales service stations, as the battery data is not available, without which the micro hybrid systems cannot perform their full set of functions.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Yaamini Devi Loganathan, Jayakrishnan M
Abstract The automobile industry in India has long been recognized as a core manufacturing sector with the potential to drive national economic growth. India's attraction as a destination for automobile manufacturers has been underscored by the number of new manufacturers entering the country over the last two decades, through FDI. The number of manufacturers has continued to grow in India over the years across vehicle segments. Multinational and Transnational firms may enter a market by different modes of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), either by Greenfield, Mergers & Acquisitions, Joint Ventures or Contract manufacturing. Indian automobile industry currently has a wide mix of home grown automobile companies and foreign invested companies. In this FDI development and the inclusion of more automobile manufacturers, the product development process of companies also has gone through a change. The cross pollination of product development process has happened between the automobile manufacturing firms.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Trevor Crain, Trevor Fayer, Brian Fabien, Per Reinhall
Abstract This paper details the development process and model architecture used in the University of Washington's EcoCAR 2 hybrid supervisory controller. The EcoCAR 2 project challenges 15 universities across North America to create a hybrid vehicle that most effectively minimizes emissions and fuel consumption while still maintaining consumer acceptability. The supervisory controller for the University of Washington was designed to distribute torque to the various electric and combustion drive systems on a parallel though the road plug-in hybrid electric vehicle using Simulink and Stateflow. The graphical interface of Simulink offers some distinct advantages over text-based programming languages. However, there are also significant challenges posed by the software, particularly when several controls engineers are working in parallel on a large model with some type of version control. In order to address some of these challenges, it is necessary to structure the model so that different areas of the program are properly partitioned to avoid instances of conflicting changes from different developers.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Brian Harries, Townsend Hyatt, Kenneth Leslie, Brandon Smith, Marc Compere
Abstract This paper describes the interdisciplinary architecture selection study conducted by Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (ERAU) to determine the Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) architecture for its entry into EcoCAR2: Plugging In To The Future. This study includes a fuel, component, and architecture comparison to determine the most viable strategy to convert the competition vehicle, a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu, into a strong PHEV. Performance, energy, emissions, and consumer acceptability goals were established and summarized in the Vehicle Technical Specifications (VTS). Drive cycle simulations were used to create vehicle and component requirements for achieving the VTS targets. Three candidate architectures were then evaluated and compared for energy consumption, well to wheel (WTW) emissions, WTW petroleum energy usage, performance, packaging, and consumer acceptability. The architectures compared were a front wheel drive Series PHEV, a series-parallel through the road PHEV, and pre-transmission PHEV.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Bert Bras, Andrew Carlile, Thomas Niemann, Sherry Mueller, Hyung Chul Kim, Timothy Wallington, Heidi McKenzie, Susan Rokosz
Abstract Tools are now publicly available that can potentially help a company assess the impact of its water use and risks in relation to their global operations and supply chains. In this paper we describe a comparative analysis of two publicly available tools, specifically the WWF/DEG Water Risk Filter and the WBCSD Global Water Tool that are used to measure the water impact and risk indicators for industrial facilities. By analyzing the risk assessments calculated by these tools for different scenarios that include varying facilities from different industries, one can better gauge the similarities and differences between these water strategy tools. Several scenarios were evaluated using the water tools, and the results are compared and contrasted. As will be shown, the results can vary significantly.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Vukica Jovanovic, Mileta Tomovic, Lisa Ncube, Ana Djuric, Petros Katsioloudis, Filip Cuckov
Abstract Many vehicle subsystems were in essence mechatronic (electro-mechanical) designs. Modern vehicles have various subsystems which provide mechanical movements which were controlled by electronic and electrical systems. At the same time, they collect and track data about system performance and environmental conditions for on board diagnostics. Advances in mechanical, electrical, and embedded systems were making vehicles more intelligent. However, these mechatronics systems face new challenges including design for compliance and ensuring that all product specifications are transferred into the company's product data management system. This is especially important for electrical and electronic subsystems since they have to comply with ongoing changes related to the management of hazardous substances. Since modern vehicles were being manufactured in a global environment through outsourcing of many different components, this poses challenges with material tracking. Environmental regulations were not only different from country to country but were also constantly changing making it essential that systems are flexible and customizable.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Basant Sharma
Abstract Fast to market trends among automotive OEM's in introducing new vehicles has resulted in compressed product development time. Now it is fairly common to see CAE driven processes playing upfront role in the concept and advance stage of vehicle development thus adding pace to the Virtual Vehicle Development (VVD). In the recent decade we have also noticed acceptance of optimization driven by CAE models upfront in the virtual vehicle development process. Now a days it is not uncommon to use CAE models for optimization upfront at the advanced vehicle development stage with CRASH and NVH performance objectives. Yet another noticeable transformation happening in accelerating VVD is ability to use morphing techniques on CAE models to bring about design changes or enablers independent of CAD. Ability of morphing tools to make design changes in CAE model parametric adds significant value to the optimization process. Parametric CAE models tied to DoE or direct optimization based techniques help identify the optimal point for interdisciplinary objectives way ahead in the VVD.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Yohsuke Tamura, Masayuki Takeuchi, Kiyotaka Maeda, Noriaki Ohtsuka, Kenji Sato
The localized fire test provided in the Global Technical Regulation for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles gives two separate test methods: the ‘generic installation test - Method 1′ and the ‘specific vehicle installation test - Method 2′. Vehicle manufacturers are required to apply either of the two methods. Focused on Method 2, the present study was conducted to determine the characteristics and validity of Method 2. Test results under identical burner flame temperature conditions and the effects of cylinder protection covers made of different materials were compared between Method 1 and Method 2. The following results were obtained: (1) Methods 1 and 2 produced nearly identical results when the minimum temperature profile in the GTR test procedure was followed in both cases. (2) A steel protection cover on the cylinder significantly lowered cylinder surface temperatures during the fire test until activation of the thermal pressure relief device (TPRD). (3) A thermoplastic cover on the cylinder melted during the fire test and produced an engulfing pool fire during the localized fire portion of the test that accelerated activation of the TPRD.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Sunil KV, Sunil Sheepri, Kiran Kandula, Amit Kumar
Abstract The durability evaluation of overhanging components of a vehicle (Ex: horn, radiator) is a challenge to durability engineers as resonance plays an important role in determining their fatigue life. As resonance cannot be avoided always, it is desirable to develop methods to evaluate life of the component in the presence of resonance. Though the existing vibration test standards suggest test profiles to evaluate resonance failures, there are cases in which, these methods do not yield the proving ground results. This may lead to unnecessary overdesign or unrealistic failures. In such cases it is suggested to generate a sweep endurance test procedure customized to the proving ground or actual roads. This paper studies a methodology for generating a sweep endurance test procedure for evaluation of resonating components. Responses like stress and accelerations were measured in test components in proving ground. Contribution of each frequency band towards overall damage is determined.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Rajasekhar MV, J. Perumal, Samir Rawte
Abstract The need for automotive OEMs to manage product complexities and tough time to market in a competitive global industry mandates systems-driven product development process, which combines systems engineering methodology across all development domains with an integrated definition of the product. Businesses unable to adapt quickly lose mind share as well as market share. It is critical to the success of an automotive OEM to apply a consistent process framework based on systems engineering to capture, manage and organize information and knowledge, beginning with the voice of the customer, and continuing through product development, service, support and end-of-life. Systems engineering is important because it effectively nourishes an initial idea into a full system description, with all necessary elements integrated to form a complete product. This approach is best when companies deal in a multi-disciplinary environment (electrical, mechanical, & software systems) where ever-increasing complexities weigh heavy on effective product development with manufactures to face ever changing market conditions, competitions, customer requirements, time to market and market demands of low cost.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Tomislav Lovric, Manuel Schneider-Scheyer, Samir Sarkic
Abstract Today's Automotive ECU development is a global engineering exercise. It requires efficient planning, design and implementation. Time to market, innovative customer functions and cost effective design are key to success. Not only the technical realization with compressed time schedules and frequent change requests, but also the documentation, and the proof of compliance to ISO-26262 requires efficient solutions to be applied. Key to successful ECU development of complex safety critical systems inside a global team is a systematic approach to identify the ideal realization out of multiple design alternatives. This is why TRW Electronics Engineering for its Braking ECU products decided to design the new product generation with the help of Model Based System Engineering methods (MBSE). With these methods the team is realizing the opportunities provided by top-down driven development considering Requirements Engineering, Semi-formal Architecture Description, and early support to create evidence to conform to ASIL D in accordance to ISO 26262.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Aaron Hula, Jeffrey Alson, Amy Bunker, Kevin Bolon
Abstract This paper examines the pace at which manufacturers have added certain powertrain technology into new vehicles from model year 1975 to the present. Based on data from the EPA's Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends database [1], the analysis will focus on several key technologies that have either reached a high level of penetration in light duty vehicles, or whose use in the new vehicle fleet has been growing in recent years. The findings indicate that individual manufacturers have, at times, implemented new technology across major portions of their new vehicle offerings in only a few model years. This is an important clarification to prior EPA analysis that indicated much longer adoption times for the industry as a whole. This new analysis suggests a technology penetration paradigm where individual manufacturers have a much shorter technology penetration cycle than the overall industry, due to “sequencing” by individual manufacturers.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Daniel S. Dobrzynski, Jason D. Harper
The purpose of this paper is to outline the development and implementation of SAE J2953. SAE J2953 contains the requirements and procedures of interoperability testing. Within SAE J2953 interoperability test articles are defined as an Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) paired with a Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV). SAE J2953 requires the development and application of test fixtures with the ability to monitor mechanical forces and electrical signals of a charge system without modification or disassembly of the EVSE and PEV under test. Electrical signal monitoring includes pilot, proximity, and line conductors of the SAE J1772 TM AC coupler. This paper will outline the requirements of the fixtures as well as a specific build. Data will be presented showing full implementation of the SAE J2953 procedures including root-cause analysis and standards gap discovery.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Nico Adler, Stefan Otten, Melanie Schwär, Klaus D. Müller-Glaser
The international standard ISO 26262 for functional safety of road vehicles claims processes and requirements for the entire product lifecycle of automotive electric and electronic systems. The demanded activities and work products within the standard are highly interconnected. Additionally, references to exemplarily external quality management standards or commonly recognized industry sources are given. Therefore, the application of functional safety processes in distributed development is challenging regarding description, understanding, analysis and planning of processes. To overcome these inconveniences, we provide a meta model extension for model-based architecture description languages regarding process description, organizational structures and resource assignment. This is related to the established “Business Process Model and Notation” (BPMN) according to ISO/IEC 19510:2013. Our integration in a domain specific environment for large-scaled electric and electronic (E/E) architectures provides graphical modeling of processes.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Michael LaLande
Systems engineering is not a new discipline for todays automotive OEMs and suppliers. So, why is it that many feel the discipline is under-utilized or not utilized at all in main-stream product development? For those that do believe systems engineering is a key activity in the development cycle, why is it common to disagree on a definition of what it is or how it manifests itself in the development cycle? If we examine the development activity of leading OEM's and suppliers in any industry, there can be no doubt that product development is a complex and intensive activity. Many disciplines are utilized with many specialized skills deployed throughout the lifecycle of the typical product, and even more so in the automotive industry. One can point to several processes that seem to indicate the presence of systems engineering, yet the ability to clearly define whether or not - and to what degree - we leverage systems engineering is still difficult. This paper will explore the benefits of looking at systems engineering as a core process from which the automotive community develops products and technology.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Fengzhu LI, Shunan Bao, Sijun LI
Lean logistics is an application of lean manufacturing principles. The core of lean logistics is to eliminate all non-value-added activities (waste) within productions, movements and storages. It reduces lead time, cuts cost, and improves quality. In order to be competitive, enterprises in western countries widely use lean manufacturing and logistics principles in automotive industries, especially for engine manufacturing system due to its high contents of assembly work. However, in China, lean logistics and its applications are fairly new to many companies. This article analyzes the current status of lean logistics in engine manufacturing in China, summarizes lean logistics principles, put forwards application of lean logistics principles based on a real case study of a new manufacturing system planning. In details, origins of the lean logistics are introduced, characteristics of engine manufacturing logistics are outlined, requirements of the lean logistics system are proposed, PFEP (Plan for Every Part) methodology is used, and packaging specifications are analyzed.
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