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Viewing 61 to 90 of 13192
2015-05-26
WIP Standard
J656
This SAE Recommended Practice identifies and defines terms specifically related to brake systems.
2015-05-19
Magazine
Getting greener To meet upcoming fuel economy and emissions regulations, the developmental homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine shows promise, but pursuit of more conventional engine technologies may be the better path. Highlights of Baja SAEINDIA The 2015 event, the 8th edition with the theme of Beyond Boundaries, was won by the College of Engineering, Pune. Rise of the underdogs Problem-plagued effort last year spurs Baja SAE team from VIT University of India to overhaul itself and its car. Testing reality in an increasingly complex design space Digital simulation tools have transformed the designing and testing of new aircraft, as well as the way they are manufactured and sustained.
2015-05-19
Standard
AS9132B
This standard defines uniform quality and technical requirements relative to metallic parts marking performed using "data matrix symbology" within the aviation, space, and defense industry. ISO/IEC 16022 specifies general requirements (e.g., data character encodation, error correction rules, decoding algorithm). In addition to ISO/IEC 16022 specification, part identification with such symbology is subject to the requirements in this standard to ensure electronic reading of the symbol. The marking processes covered by this standard are as follows: - Dot Peening - Laser - Electro-Chemical Etching Further marking processes will be included, if required. Unless specified otherwise in the contractual business relationship, the company responsible for the design of the part shall determine the location of the data matrix marking. Symbol position should allow optimum illumination from all sides for readability. This standard does not specify information to be encoded.
2015-05-18
Article
Using the benchmark Alpha mixed-materials architecture that it pioneered on Cadillac ATS, GM takes over 200 lb out of the admittedly overweight 2015 Camaro and adds its first turbocharged four-cylinder powertrain.
2015-05-13
Technical Paper
2015-36-0027
Silvia F. Iombriller, Wesley B. Prado, Claudio R. Herrero
Summary It is very important and unquestionable that we need to have a clear technical requirement for Air Brake Systems and its components, since it is one of most important regarding safety. Looking to heavy commercial vehicles and possible air brake system failures, everything becomes clearly to pay total attention for these normative and regulatory requirements. Historically, the development of Brakes technology has started on EUA and Europe and consequently two strong and distinct requirements were structured: FMVSS 121 and ECE-R13. From decades people are trying to harmonize these requirements and for passenger cars, the evolution was faster. However, for commercial vehicles there are more peculiarities considering regional applications and some of them cultural and implementation time.
2015-05-07
Standard
J2980_201505
This SAE Recommended Practice presents a method and example results for determining the Automotive Safety Integrity Level (ASIL) for automotive electrical and electronic (E/E) systems. This activity is required by ISO 26262-3:2011 [1], and it is intended that the process and results herein are consistent with ISO 26262:2011 [1]. The technical focus of this document is on vehicle motion control systems. It is limited to passenger cars weighing up to 3.5 metric tons. Furthermore, the scope of this recommended practice is limited to collision-related hazards. ISO 26262:2011 [1] has a wider scope than SAE J2980, covering other functions and accidents (not just motion control or collisions as in SAE J2980).
2015-05-05
Magazine
Democratizing hybrid technologies Engineers continue to wring efficiency and mass out of their latest electrified propulsion systems with the aim of mainstreaming the technology. Automakers see possibilities, limits for gesture controls Recent concepts have shown the possibilities of gesture for controlling infotainment functions but the need for industry standards and control simplification complicate development. Ferrari massages 458 to create 488 GTB Ferrari engineers have further refined the 458 Italia model with a new turbocharged and downsized engine and revised aerodynamics to create the 488 GTB.
2015-04-21
Standard
ARP9034A
This document describes requirements for standardized processes (and associated technologies) that ensure type design data are retrievable and usable for the life of a type certificate (50+ years). These processes are primarily concerned with, but not limited to, digital type design data retained in threedimensional representations and associated data that is required for complete product definition, such as tolerances, specification call-outs, product structure and configuration control data, etc. This process standard includes process requirements for managing the evolution of technologies required to ensure the availability of the data for the life of the product. This data must be available to meet regulatory, legal, contractual and business requirements. This process standard is not intended to incorporate every company specific requirement and does not dictate specific organizational structures within a company.
2015-04-19
WIP Standard
J1115
Historically SAE has been concerned with nomenclature as an integral part of the standards development process. Guidelines for automotive nomenclature were written in 1916, were last revised in 1941, and were included in the SAE Handbook until 1962. The present diversity of groups working on nomenclature in the various ground vehicle committees led to the organization of the Nomenclature Advisory Committee under SAE Automotive Council.
2015-04-14
Article
Megacity growth and energy demand are driving a diverse future mix of autonomous vehicles, car sharing, and cycling, among other more sustainable future-transportation solutions.
2015-04-14
Collection
This technical paper collection covers intelligent and efficient approaches to high level system design, analysis and integration as well as considerations for vehicle-level optimization of cost and energy. System definition includes components, sub-assemblies and complete integrated vehicle systems, including electronic systems and human machine interfaces.
2015-04-14
WIP Standard
AS6509
Fibre Channel is the primary avionics bus on many modern military aircraft. It is also the defined High-Speed bus for MIL-STD-1760E weapons applications. Profiled Ethernet networks are the primary avionics bus in many commercial aircraft and Commercial Ethernet is an ever increasing presence in modern military aircraft as well. This network standard is a convergence of Fibre Channel and Ethernet into a unified network standard which will provide a seamless approach to integrating end systems from either technology into a merged network structure. This work is based upon the commercial data storage market industry’s work on the Converged Data Storage Network or FCoE (Fibre Channel over Ethernet). This effort will look at profiling the FCoE work done in the commercial industry and adding information where necessary to affect a networking standard that will seamlessly integrate end systems from Commercial Ethernet, Fibre Channel, or FCoE enhanced devices.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1701
Luciano Lukacs
Abstract The challenges around global products have been lately one of the key challenges for the lighting community. This paper will present a survey which was held with costumers from China, India, Europe and Brazil understanding the difference and similarities regarding the lighting attributes. It brings also a discussion how to develop a lamp globally that fulfils everyone's needs and addresses potential trade-offs in design and performance.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0242
Nick Smith
Abstract Correct-by-construction design processes can be dramatically enhanced using simulation techniques, especially early in the design process. But simulation is too often the preserve of specialist staff, who may work disconnected from day-to-day design updates. This paper highlights simulation and analysis tools that can be used by every electrical engineer, addressing topics ranging from functional verification to component sizing to failure modes and effects analysis. Furthermore, valuable results can be obtained with the simplest of models; and the models themselves can mature as the organization's use of simulation matures.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0259
Tyler Zellmer, Julio Rodriguez, John R. Wagner, Kim Alexander, Philip Pidgeon
Abstract According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), motor collisions account for nearly 2.4 million injuries and 37 thousand fatalities each year in the United States. A great deal of research has been done in the area of vehicular safety, but very little has been completed to ensure licensed drivers are properly trained. Given the inherent risks in driving itself, the test for licensure should be uniform and consistent. To address this issue, an inexpensive, portable data acquisition and analysis system has been developed for the evaluation of driver performance. A study was performed to evaluate the system, and each participant was given a normalized driver rating. The average driver rating was μ=55.6, with a standard deviation of σ=12.3. All but 3 drivers fell into the so-called “Target Zone”, defined by a Driver Rating of μ± 1σ.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0247
Sonakshi Sharma, Shubhranshu Garg, Vipul Kumar, Sudhir Kashinath Gupte
Abstract There are variety of motors and generators/alternators being manufactured internationally, for variety of applications. It is a difficult task for the user to identify and select the type of motor /generator/alternator for a specific use, by the designer and ultimately the user is totally unaware of what is bought and why. There is a need to designate the motors and generators. So that by interpretation of the identification nomenclature of the motor or generator, its type can be judged. Whether it is a series motor, an induction motor etc, in case of motors. This will eventually make it easy for the manufacturer, the buyer and the consumer to identify the motor or generator type. So a universally accepted and followed identification nomenclature is required to be developed which will henceforth make dealing in motors and generators simpler for all. It will prove to be useful during troubleshooting.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0274
John Thomas, John Sgueglia, Dajiang Suo, Nancy Leveson, Mark Vernacchia, Padma Sundaram
Abstract The introduction of new safety critical features using software-intensive systems presents a growing challenge to hazard analysis and requirements development. These systems are rich in feature content and can interact with other vehicle systems in complex ways, making the early development of proper requirements critical. Catching potential problems as early as possible is essential because the cost increases exponentially the longer problems remain undetected. However, in practice these problems are often subtle and can remain undetected until integration, testing, production, or even later, when the cost of fixing them is the highest. In this paper, a new technique is demonstrated to perform a hazard analysis in parallel with system and requirements development. The proposed model-based technique begins during early development when design uncertainty is highest and is refined iteratively as development progresses to drive the requirements and necessary design features.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0271
Fabian Joerg Uwe Koark, Christian Beul
Abstract Functional Safety engineering aligned to an international standard is already a long-lasting discussion. Nevertheless, the requirements of process conformance to assure functional safety have been detailed in description and interpretation. The ISO 26262 is seen as state-of-the-art Functional Safety engineering basement in Europe, the closer interpretation of the IEC 61508 is claimed by assessors in America and Asia. This work shows how stagnation in engineering process improvement is solved by re-engineering projects. The benefits of re-engineering are described in this context. A four month, proven-in-practice project plan is explained. The expected results of such a project are given as generic goals for similar projects. A practice report shows the realistic outcome of such a project for the Chinese automotive industry. The report shows how the motivation of the involved engineers was gained and how existing engineering documentation was used in an efficient way.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0416
Howard Evans
Abstract This paper summarises the history of Rochdale Motor Panels and Engineering Ltd. (RMP), established in England after the Second World War, from its origins as a small car-repair business though to the manufacture of sports coupés utilising an innovative glass-fibre monocoque construction. The political climate which caused RMP and similar undertakings to develop and flourish in the 1950s and 60s is explained together with details of the three men who had the defining influence on the cars that were created. Products, including aluminium-bodied cars, produced primarily for racing, are described, leading into the introduction of glass-fibre construction which enabled a profitable transition into higher volume body and chassis manufacture, and ultimately completely assembled cars.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0446
Ronald Lannan
Abstract Use of Model-Based Design (MBD) processes for embedded controls software development has been purported for nearly the last decade to result in cost, quality, and delivery improvements. Initially the business case for MBD was rather vague and qualitative in nature, but more data is now becoming available to support the premise for this development methodology. Many times the implementation of MBD in an organization is bundled with other software process improvements such as CMMI or industry safety standards compliance, so trying to unbundle the contributions from MBD has been problematic. This paper addresses the dominant factors for MBD cost savings and the business benefits that have been realized by companies in various industries engaged in MBD development. It also summarizes some key management best practices and success factors that have helped organizations achieve success in MBD deployment.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0447
Venkatesh Agaram, Julian Venegas
Abstract System dynamics modeling of complex processes such as product development, manufacturing, and service, is an efficient approach for assessing value potential of different business transformation alternatives at small and large enterprises. Process elements such as generation of concepts, detailed designs, pilot level plant trials, etc. can be modeled including first-pass work, testing and review, rework identification and defect fixing, along with release readiness, staffing, schedule pressures, overtime and many other business metrics. Enterprise level processes, with their complex logic loops, can be represented as a system of coupled nonlinear differential equations, whose solutions can reveal the intricate underlying dynamics. Design of experiments, performed on the system dynamics models representing the business processes, are an inexpensive way of gaining insights into the impact of interactions between the numerous process control variables.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0427
Zhigang Wei, Limin Luo, Shengbin Lin
Fatigue testing and related fatigue life assessment are essential parts of the design and validation processes of vehicle components and systems. Fatigue bench test is one of the most important testing methods for durability and reliability assessment, and its primary function is to construct design curves based on a certain amount of repeated tests, with which recommendations on product design can be advised. How to increase the accuracy of predictions from test results, the associated life assessment, and to reduce the cost through reducing test sample size is an active and continuous effort. In this paper the current engineering practices on constructing design curves for fatigue test data are reviewed first.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1664
Amardeep Singh, Anindya Deb, Amit Mohan Mensi, Ranga Srinivas Gunti
Despite the considerable advancements made in the applications of CAE for evaluation of an IC engine, an integrated approach to the design of such engines based on thermo-mechanical considerations appears to be lacking. The usage of heterogeneous tools for thermal, mechanical and vibration analysis in the industry decreases the efficiency of the product development process. In an effort to reduce this bottleneck, a unified framework is presented here according to which heat transfer and thermo-mechanical stress analysis of a four-stroke single cylinder diesel engine is carried out in a unified manner with the aid of a multi-physics explicit finite element analysis tool, LS-DYNA, with robust contact interfaces leading to a realistic representation of engine dynamics.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1685
Omar Abu Mohareb, Phan-Lam Huynh, A. Al-Janabi, Michael Grimm, Hans-Christian Reuss
Abstract This paper addresses the performance and potential of using electric vehicles in the Gulf Arab states. Based on a survey executed in Salalah, Oman, a representative test driving cycle has been set up. This cycle is the first of its kind for this region, where it is driven with a vehicle provided with special measurement equipment to log important values, e.g. vehicle's speed and position, temperatures and solar irradiance. More than 40 test drives are performed to obtain a representative driver profile. The driving cycle and driver profile are used in a simulation model which is capable of simulating the energy consumption for internal combustion engine or electric motor propulsion systems. The simulation model which contains detailed models for the driver, driving cycle, vehicle components and its dynamics is validated and used to compare the consumed energy for the two different propulsion systems.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0131
Nick Smith
Abstract Demand for increased functionality in automotive electrical/electronic (E/E) systems is being propelled by both customers and various governmental regulations and requirements. This demand for more capabilities also introduces new challenges for OEMs who are responsible for implementing these functions. Of course, the cost of system development and manufacturing are considerable, but there are challenges beyond cost that the OEM must deal with, such as increased weight, reliability and quality concerns, exponentially-increasing complexity, and the government requirements. From the point of view of the electrical system platform as a whole, it provides the unique role of integrating all the individual E/E systems. When integrated, unanticipated problems can emerge that require design modifications. Often, these are discovered way down the design path, which results in delays in the program that can lead to missed deadlines and costly rework.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0130
Julio Rodriguez, Ken Rogich, Philip Pidgeon, Kim Alexander, John R. Wagner
Abstract Driving skills and driving experience develop differently between a civilian and a military service member. Since 2000, the Department of Defense reports that two-thirds of non-related to war fatalities among active duty service members were due to transportation-related incidents. In addition, vehicle crashes are the leading non-related to war cause of both fatalities and serious injuries among active duty Marines. A pilot safe driving program for Marines was jointly developed by the Richard Petty Driving Experience and Clemson University Automotive Safety Research Institute. The pilot program includes four modules based on leading causes of vehicle crashes, and uses classroom and behind the wheel components to improve and reinforce safe driving skills and knowledge. The assessment results of this pilot program conducted with 192 Marines in September 2011 at Camp LeJeune, NC are presented and discussed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0144
Diljith Muthuvana, Renuka prasad
Abstract System Engineering is a broad concept that can be applied to any business case to help transform the engineering and the organizational needs into understandable, unambiguous, achievable tasks with a fixed time-line. In today's dynamics of the demanding business needs it has become inevitable to think for solutions that guarantee faster delivery while maintaining the quality standards. Traditional processes tend to fall back when implemented to satisfy the challenges faced by engineers in real world while achieving the business need. Many processes have evolved based on the lessons learnt while organization strives towards continuous improvement and adhering to quality standards. Agile, Lean, Kanban are few proven set of principles and practices that has helped to deliver expected results.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0137
Ying Fan
Abstract Accurate risk prioritizing is directly related to the effectiveness of risk management. To overcome the shortage of the single numerical evaluation value, aiming at improving the accuracy of risk factors, a new risk priority method was proposed based on geometric characteristics of triangular fuzzy number and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). This method was established on the basis of the fuzzy description of risk factors from experts, after the risk evaluation system was established. Then the fuzzy description of risk was processed with AHP, and fuzzy weights of risk factors were obtained and calculated it by using the geometric characteristics of triangular fuzzy number. Finally, the detailed ranking of risk factors by severity, probability and detection of risk was obtained. The risk priority of forklift system was processed to analyze the feasibility of this method.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0160
Ingo Stürmer, Elke Salecker
Model-based software development is a well-established software development process and recognized by ISO26262 [1] as allowing for highly consistent and efficient development. Nevertheless, enhancing a model-based development process in such a way that it is compliant with the ISO26262 safety standard is a challenging task. To achieve ISO26262 compliance, the development team of a safety-related software project faces a multitude of additional requirements for the development process without a corresponding increase of the project budget to fulfill them. The fact that many of the requirements of ISO26262 are defined in a very generic way such that an interpretation is required further hampers their implementation. We propose a 10-step strategy to achieve an ISO26262 compliant model-based software development process. This strategy relates ISO26262 requirements with state-of-the art methods and approaches currently used for model-based software development.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0167
Amrut A. Patki
Abstract Feature Addition or Enhancement is a necessary fragment of product development. Feature Addition or Enhancement is a result of one of the following: scope addition to new product development or customer requirement on current products. When it comes to Scope Addition, most of the times, first phase design and engineering will have been completed. Feature Addition or Enhancement because of scope addition is done to improve quality, cost or marketability. Current or future customer request for a feature addition or enhancement to meet their needs leads to customer requirement Feature Addition or Enhancement. Most of the times, vehicle has already been launched and design is frozen. In both the cases, design and engineering is challenged by Time, Effort and Cost. Model Based Design approach helps save some time for implementation. It also helps to improve required effort and reduces the cost of the feature by optimization.
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