Planning for the Application of ARP4754A for New and Modified Aircraft Projects with New, Simple, and Reused Systems
Abstract Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) 4754 Revision A (ARP4754A), “Guidelines for Development of Civil Aircraft and Systems,”  is recognized through Advisory Circular (AC) 20-174 (AC 20-174)  as a way (but not the only way) to provide development assurance for aircraft and systems to minimize the possibility of development errors. ARP4754A and its companion, Aerospace Information Report (AIR) 6110, “Contiguous Aircraft/System Development Process Example,”  primarily describe development processes for an all new, complex and highly integrated aircraft without strong consideration for reused systems or simple systems. While ARP4754A section 5 mentions reuse, similarity, and complexity, and section 6 is intended to cover modification programs, the descriptions in these sections can be unclear and inconsistent. The majority of aircraft projects are not completely new Products nor are they entirely comprised of complex and highly integrated systems.
Abstract The increasing functionality associated with the rising complexity of aircraft cabin systems which are used by cabin crew, passengers, maintenance staff and other stakeholders, requires a reconsideration of the methods for the development of aircraft cabin systems. This paper deals with a model-based security engineering approach based on the so called Three-V-Model as an appropriate process model, which represents the governing system engineering process (SEP) associated with the safety engineering process (SafEP) and the security engineering process (SecEP). All three processes are pursued concurrently and are interacting reciprocally by working within the same system model on each development level. We describe in detail the involved model-based security engineering activities of the SecEP and the integration of the CORAS risk analysis method in a consistent System Modeling Language (SysML) approach.
Abstract Aircrafts use Transponder for transmitting data to Air Traffic Control ground stations. Transponders automatically transmit a unique four-digit code when they receive a radio signal sent by radar. But when Transponder is shut down, and the redundant transponder fails to operate, there is no system within the aircraft which can continue transmitting altitude and important data to ATC ground stations. This has necessitated active research work to fundamentally design better and effective communication systems. At present, there is no evident redundant system to transponder unlike in case of Power-Plants, three-fold reliable, safety cum redundant power supply system are present. The present work introduces a novel design ‘RTSA’ which can be effective in catering safe transmission of emergency signal.
The smartphone in your pocket, the tablet you use to browse the web, the safety systems in your automobile: they all benefit from fast-evolving computer and electronic component technology. These components are lighter, hold more data, and can perform increasingly complex tasks. This electronic evolution has had an impact in the aviation industry as well. The electronic components used in today's engines can do more than ever before, but the need to replace older components has introduced some added complexity. Until now. The problem is obsolescence. Driven by an ever-demanding consumer market, electrical components - including those used for aircraft engines - are evolving faster than ever. Engine components installed just a few years ago are no longer being made. This means engine manufacturers need to install new models when replacing these older models or when building new engines.
Abstract World War 1 began with the airplane as a frail, unarmed means of observing enemy troop movements and ended with the airplane as a powerful, much more evolved weapon of war. There were specialized roles for fighter, bomber and ground attack aircraft as well as newly developed aerial strategies and tactics for operational effectiveness. Many aircraft design technologies greatly matured during the war. Four will be the subject of this paper: Drag reduction, aircraft handling qualities, stability and control, airfoil design technology, and structures design technology. Propulsion and armament also matured greatly but are not discussed in the paper. The discussion of drag reduction will illustrate the innovations of the British on external wire bracing drag, the French on cowl design and the Germans on cantilevered wings and induced drag.
Abstract It is generally accepted that the development of hardware and software for safety critical systems follow their own lifecycles as defined by standards such as RTCA DO254 and RTCA DO178C. What is less clear is what should be done to ensure the system safety objectives are met when the software is installed in the electronic hardware. This paper seeks to discuss the activities that may be undertaken do demonstrate not only that the integration of the software and hardware “work” together, but they do so in a manner that meets the safety objectives in line with the guidelines described in SAE ARP4754A. According to ARP4754A, hardware and software are different “items” developed according to their own requirements and standards, when two or more items are brought together, they are a system, which may be part of a larger system.
A keen focus on operations, cost management, leadership, and customer service is presented in this book for fleets to thrive in today’s competitive business environment. Basic concepts and customer service fundamentals, along with integrated best practices, and business tools are fully described. This model can be applied by service groups of any size to achieve quality performance benefits for both the customer and the fleet-provider. Fleet Services: Redefining Success presents: • A back-to-basics approach that begins by redefining a fleet's customers to fully identify and provide customer-driven services. • A hierarchy for success that includes development of management goals and strategies to exceed customer expectations. • Best practices and associated business tool requirements that assure exceptional service and win-win results. • An innovative business model that maximizes opportunities and positive outcomes for fleet service providers.
Dr. Phil Stephenson, General Manager of PACCAR Technical Center, and co-chairman for the SAE 2015 Commercial Vehicle Engineering Congress (ComVEC), discusses several major topics affecting on- and off-highway commercial vehicles, including emissions regulations, embedded software, 24-V electrification, operator assistance technologies, and cybersecurity.
UMich-Ann Arbor team takes home Baja season's Iron Team Award Cornell University also had a strong 2014 season, but not strong enough to fend off Michigan Baja Racing. Georgia Tech and Warsaw University were double-winners at SAE Aero Design competitions University of Akron and University of Cincinnati were the other winners at the twin 3-class competitions, the former setting a record in the process. West Coast teams win 2 of 3 Formula SAE events Oregon State captures its fifth crown while Jose State enjoys its first overall victory and UPenn tops the electric field. Taking action early to conquer the STEM crisis Interest in STEM subjects falls precipitously as students progress through elementary and middle school.
FCA powertrain engineers have shaved weight and increased the efficiency and power of their do-it-all V6, while preparing it for possible DI turbocharged duty in the not-so-distant future.
The new 2GR-FKS / FXS engines were developed to achieve stringent fuel economy and emission targets and respond to recent innovations in the field. The major parts of the 2GR-FKS/FXS engines were re-designed based on the well-received dynamic performance and fuel economy aspects of the 2GR-FE engine. The aims of this development were as follows. 1 Best-in-class power performance2 Environmental performance that maximizes thermal efficiency and complies with fuel economy and emission regulations in each country by a wide margin3 Engine response typical of V6 engines through drastic weight reduction of moving parts To achieve these conflicting aims, the developed engines use a modified version of the D-4S fuel injection system, which enables selective use of direct and port injection, in addition to advanced technologies such as variable valve technology (VVT) with a mid-position lock system and an exhaust port cooling system.
Diesel engines are widely used to reduce CO2 emission due to its higher thermal efficiency over gasoline engines. Considering long term CO2 targets, as well as tighter gas emission, especially NOx, diesel engines must become cleaner and more efficient. However, there is a tradeoff between CO2 and NOx and, naturally, engine developers choose lower CO2 because NOx can be reduced by a catalytic converter, such as a SCR catalyst. Lower CO2 engine calibration, unfortunately, leads to lower exhaust gas temperatures, which delays the activation of the catalytic converter. In order to overcome both problems, higher engine out NOx emission and lower exhaust gas temperatures, close-coupled a diesel particulate filter (DPF) system with integration of SCR catalyst technology is preferred. For SCR catalyst activity, it is known that the catalyst loading amount has an influence on NOx performance, so a high SCR catalyst loading will be required.
In 1991, linear O2 sensors for lean-burn control were introduced in production vehicles for the first time in the world. Since then, the linear O2 sensors have been used mainly for the precise λ control. Recently requirements for Oxygen sensors have become increasingly stringent in the trends of tighter vehicle EM control requirements and lower fuel consumption. In response to these trends, NGK SPARK PLUG CO., LTD. has developed a new generation linear O2 sensor, which has a high water toughness and requires less power consumption.
TECHNIQUES FOR SUSPECT/COUNTERFEIT EEE PARTS DETECTION OF CAPACITORS BY ACOUSTIC MICROSCOPY (AM) TEST METHODS
Acoustic Microscopy Test Methods for Counterfeit Capacitors
The SAE Aerospace Information Report AIR5315 – Generic Open Architecture (GOA) defines “a framework to identify interface classes for applying open systems to the design of a specific hardware/software system.” [sae] JAUS Service (Interface) Definition Language defines an XML schema for the interface definition of services at the Class 4L, or Application Layer, and Class 3L, or System Services Layer, of the Generic Open Architecture stack (see Figure 1). The specification of JAUS services shall be defined according to the JAUS Service (Interface) Definition Language document.
The 2017 GT development program has begun testing in southeastern Michigan, with the exotic American supercars running “naked” as they rack up miles amid daily commuter traffic. Automotive Engineering encountered and photographed one of the off-tool prototypes recently.
The primary focus of this standard is information of interest to Configuration Management (CM) practitioners related to the performance of CM functions as products are conceived, proposed, defined, developed, produced, operated, maintained, modified, and disposed. This information is stored when generated and, from time to time, must be moved or shared with others. This standard, through the use of the Data Dictionary, defines real world things of interest to the CM practitioner, which are the foundation of the following CM functional areas, and are needed for effective data exchange and interoperability: Configuration Management Planning and Management; Configuration Identification; Configuration Change Management; Configuration Audit; Configuration Verification; Configuration Status Accounting.
This product includes information on the manufacturer, engine, application, testing location, certified maximum horsepower, certified maximum torque along with the certified curves of horsepower and torque over a wide range of engine RPM speeds.
Ian Callum joined Jaguar in 1999, where he and his team created, among others, the R-Coupe, RD-6, C-X75, and C-X17 concepts. His Jaguar production model list spans, chronologically, the last generation XK (2006), followed by the XF, XJ, and the F-Type, in coupe and convertible forms. Now, Callum has led his team to create the new XF and future Jaguars.
SAE developed this document and associated spreadsheets at the request of automobile manufacturers to help compare products from multiple suppliers using standard data presentation formats. This document includes several preferred formats for presenting acoustical data on materials, components, systems, or vehicles. These formats cover the range of acoustical tests commonly conducted in the automotive industry. These tests follow SAE and ASTM test practices as well as vehicle specific test methods. For each test, the details of samples and test conditions can be entered into an applicable electronic spreadsheet together with the acoustical results data. These data are then linked to standard graphical display(s) for each test. All manufacturers and suppliers in this industry are encouraged to present data and results in these formats.
Since it is impossible to be all inclusive and cover every aspect of the design/validation process, this document can be used as a basis for preparation of a more comprehensive and detailed plan that reflects the accumulated "lessons learned" at a particular company. The following areas are addressed in this document: 1. Contemporary perspective including common validation issues and flaws. 2. A Robustness Validation (RV) process based on SAE J1211 handbook and SAE J2628. 3. Design checklists to aid in such a RV process.
The all-new 2016 XC90 is built on the mixed-materials SPA chassis and includes PHEV propulsion among its 4-cylinder-only powertrain packages. It shows the future direction of Volvo cars—including automated driving.
This interface document SAE J2286 revises the requirements for file formats as were originally described in SAE J1924. This document describes Interface 1 (I/F 1) in SAE J2461. This document does not imply the use of a specific hardware interface, but may be used with other hardware interfaces such as SAE J1939, ISO 15765 or ISO 14229. The requirements of SAE J2286 supersede the requirements defined by SAE J1924. SAE J2461 establishes the requirements for Interface 1 (I/F 1), as a replacement of the file-based interface described by SAE J1924, as shown by Figure 1. Interface 1 (I/F) is a bi-directional link between the OEM Shop Floor Program (CSCI 1) and the Vendor Component Program (CSCI 2). Using I/F 1, the OEM Shop Floor Program communicates the desired parameters and programming limits for an assembly job to the Vendor Component Program (VCP). In response, the VCP returns programming results to the OEM Shop Floor Program (CSCI 1).
This report looks at Ford’s global activities, introducing a more concise breakdown and review of the best-selling models, most-used model platforms and a wider-ranging review of global production activities, each with related analysis. Also included are details about key elements of the Ford Supplier Portal, the online repository of information and data which the OEM uses to disseminate information to its current suppliers and how it establishes contact with new part and service providers. The report further looks at the Aligned Business Framework, the group of preferred suppliers who currently deliver approximately 65% of all parts used across global vehicle assembly at Ford and are likely to gain further volumes under the One Ford programme. Yet, there are still opportunities to work with Ford around the world, and these are also discussed. This report provides information on how suppliers are now being invited to collaborate in early vehicle development meetings.
This SAE Recommended Practice applies to all portions of the vehicle, but design efforts should focus on components and systems with the highest contribution to the overall average repair cost (see 3.7). The costs to be minimized include not only insurance premiums, but also out-of-pocket costs incurred by the owner. Damageability, repairability, serviceability and diagnostics are inter-related. Some repairability, serviceability and diagnostics operations may be required for collision or comprehensive loss-related causes only, some operations for non-collision-related causes only (warranty, scheduled maintenance, non-scheduled maintenance, etc.), and some for both causes. The scope of this document deals with only those operations that involve collision and comprehensive insurance loss repairs.
Guideline for Development of Counterfeit Electronic Parts; Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition Systems
This document contains guidance for implementing a counterfeit mitigation program in adherence with AS5553B.
Bolts and Screws, Nickel Alloy UNS N07718, Classification: 185 ksi/1200 °F, Procurement Specification
This procurement specification covers bolts and screws made from a corrosion and heat resistant, age hardenable nickel base alloy of the type identified under the Unified Numbering System as UNS N07718.
This classification system tabulates the properties of vulcanized rubber materials (natural rubber, reclaimed rubber, synthetic rubbers, alone or in combination) that are intended for, but not limited to, use in rubber products for automotive applications. NOTE 1: The SAE Committee on Automotive Rubber Specifications (CARS) has the sole responsibility for SAE J200. CARS Works closely with and receives input from ASTM Subcommittee D11.30 on Classification of Rubber Compounds with the goal to keep SAE J200 and ASTM D 2000 technically equivalent. Candidate materials presented for development of new tables or for inclusion in Tables A1 or A2 of SAE J200 or Table X1.1 of ASTM D 2000 shall be initiated with the SAE CARS Committee. The procedure to be followed is detailed in Appendix C of SAE J200. NOTE 2: This document may serve many of the needs of other industries in much the same manner as SAE numbered steels.
Transmission: on a mission Ian Adcock speaks with Oerlikon Graziano's head of performance, automotive, Paolo Mantelli, about the revolution ahead for transmission systems. Inside the proving factory Ian Adcock reports on a new business model designed to bridge the skills gap between engineering start-ups and the motor industry. Sensing danger, maximum response Automotive Design looks into passenger safety systems.