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Viewing 61 to 90 of 13331
2016-03-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-1714
Soravas Treenok, Angkee Sripakagorn, Raksit Thitipatanapong
Nowadays, the domestic transportation in Thailand shares more than 90% of oil consumption and this poses major impacts to GHG emission and fuel import. The fuel economy of road vehicle is presented within specific condition and apparently does not represent well the value in the real life usage under variations of load factor and dynamic traffic conditions. This paper aims to study a relation between fuel consumption, road-vehicle efficiency factor (REF) and average trip speed which include dynamic behavior and weight of vehicle for passenger cars in B-segment (1,300-1,500 cc) C-segment (1,600-2,000 cc) and compact crossover in the real traffic condition in Bangkok. The vehicle’s on-board diagnosis (OBD) was used in acquire engine information for the rate of fuel consumption based on the reading of engine mass air flow sensor and oxygen sensor. This study consists of various congestion level namely, city, sub-urban and highway traffic condition.
2016-03-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-1716
Piyamabhorn Uttamung
A lightweight structure has been widely identified as one of the key components for a sustainable success of electric vehicle (EV) implementation. The current study focuses on investigating a possibility to reduce the structural weight of an existing EV bus prototype developed in Thailand. The Multi Objective Genetic Algorithm (MOGA) was applied to the structural stiffness analysis for minimizing the bus weight to define the appropriate thickness of the structure. The numerical analysis considered both chassis and body structure of the EV bus prototype, which were comprised of both shell and beam elements. The structural stiffness analysis performed in this work consisted of loading behaviors commonly encountered during normal operation of the bus i.e. braking, cornering, torsional bending. Constrain variables considered were maximum stress and corresponding torsional stiffness.
2016-02-05
Magazine
Off-highway hybrids: Opportunities and challenges With oil prices declining and emissions regulations in North America 'stabilized,' is there a place for hybrid powertrains in this new world of cheap oil? Looking for a better image Display advances are helping to reduce operator fatigue. Charging up electrified powertrains Control technologies race forward while batteries improve and adopt standard sizes. Measuring and accounting for suspension TARDEC teamed with SEA Ltd. to develop a system to measure the suspension parameters, center of gravity, and moments of inertia of wheeled vehicles in the never ending quest to model and predict vehicle dynamic behavior. Looking at mobility in 2050 Cuneyt L. Oge begins his term as 2016 SAE International President with a vision about the future of auto- and aero-mobility.
2016-02-04
WIP Standard
J3131
The goal of the SAE ORAV RAI task force is to develop a shared framework and language for addressing the basic system functions and functional interfaces in the form of a reference architecture for automated vehicle to support the SAE levels of driving automation for on-road vehicles (e.g., J3016). While the final architecture may eventually support conformance testing for component level interoperability the deliverable for this task force (i.e., white paper) will describe of how requirements will be achieved through a model-based representation of reusable patterns of activity, functionality, information/data flows, and scenarios of sequenced responses to time events. To achieve this goal, the task force will conceptualize and define a reference architecture that contains modular software (and possibly hardware) components based on standardized interfaces.
2016-02-03
WIP Standard
AS6171/15
Non-conformance and now Suspect counterfeit packaging represents a hazard to electrostatic discharge (ESD) sensitive devices or components through cross contamination during transport and storage while generating high voltage discharges to ESD sensitive devices during in shipping, the inspection process, handling and manufacturing. Several aerospace related issues involve long-term storage supplier non-conformance with antistatic foams, antistatic bubble, antistatic pink poly, vacuum formed antistatic polymers, Type I moisture barrier bags and Type III static shielding bags have posed issues. The late John Kolyer, Ph.D. (Boeing, Ret.) and Ray Gompf, P.E., Ph.D. (NASA-KSC, Ret.) were advocates in the utilization of a formalized physical testing material qualification process. Today, however, prime contractors and CMs rely heavily upon a visual inspection process for ESD packaging materials.
2016-02-03
Magazine
Baking in protection With vehicles joining the Internet of Things, connectivity is making cybersecurity a must-have obligation for automotive engineers, from initial designs through end-of-life. New Engines 2016 Highlighting the design, engineering, and technologies inside some of the most competitive new gasoline and light-duty diesel ICEs. Citizen of the world Cuneyt L. Oge begins his term as 2016 SAE International President with a vision about auto-mobility and aero-mobility 2050. CES rollouts extend connectivity, app integration Ford looks to spread Corning's new lightweight Gorilla Glass beyond the 2017 GT New 40%-scale wind tunnel increases GM's aero-development capacity Surface Generation speeds composites throughput with one-shot stamp-forming process 2017 Cadillac XT5 debuts GM's new lightweight crossover architecture Porsche and Bentley plan electric future
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0024
Aditya Rai, Sanchit Vijh, P Baskara Sethupathi
Abstract To increase the range of a Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV), a lot of ideas have been proposed. A prominent one among them is the Battery swapping methodology or Rapid Battery Interchange (RBI), where standardized batteries can easily be removed from the BEV and replaced with recharged batteries quickly. The feasibility of this methodology has been highly debated and contested. This paper studies the feasibility of a very popular distribution and maintenance network currently used for LPG distribution in India, to be applied to battery distribution used across different makes and models of BEVs. In India, 33.6 million households subscribe to LPG Cylinders for domestic cooking usage. These standard sized (14.2Kg) cylinders are refilled and redistributed via multiple public sector and private companies.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0044
Ashish Rawat, Ashwinder Singh, Hardeep Singh, Deepak Sharma
Abstract India is a country of diversity. From North to South, east to west, one can find altogether different culture, religions, spoken languages, foods, weather conditions, people lifestyles, dressing styles etc. This vast diversity of India poses a great challenge in front of Indian Automobile Manufacturers, so as to assimilate all the requirements (of this big nation) in one single car (design). For example, many people in India wear turban (out of their religious beliefs or cultural heritage). So, is it required to keep enough consideration for Turban wearing population in vehicle design? Turban, unlike caps or hats, is something which is tied on the head (not just only kept). It is something which cannot be removed whenever required. So, it can somehow be considered as an integral part of body (as an added head dimension). So, it becomes all the more important to thoroughly understand this aspect & keep a consideration for the same in vehicle design.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0041
Ramsai Ramachandran, Ayan Bhattacharyya, Sukhchain Singh
Abstract Automobile components are usually subjected to complex varying loads. Thus, fatigue failure is a common mode of failure in automobile components. Accurately predicting the fatigue life is the key point for light weight and also reliability design of automobile components. Various life prediction theories are being used in the automotive industry for damage analysis using material S-N curves. However, due to variability in manufacturing, material spec etc. it is difficult to predict the experimental lives using conventional theories. Probability based statistical modeling is prevalent in the industry for life prediction. Probabilistic plots of cycles to failure to constant amplitude loads are plotted and used for prediction purpose. As the component is subjected to varying loads in real world, defining a single parameter i.e. damage would be more relevant compared to loads.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0079
Paramjeet Panwar
Abstract The paper discusses a low fidelity mathematical simulation model using a backward facing modelling approach to vehicle simulation for calculation of energy requirements and flow through a simplified Series-HEV. Mathematical modelling techniques for HEV’s are well established method for purposes such as vehicle system simulations, developing control strategies, energy usage and range estimation with high detail and high degree of accuracy, and have been discussed extensively in literature. The paper discusses a low fidelity mathematical model of a Series-HEV which can be used to introduce undergraduate engineering students to concepts of HEVs. The model will be used as a case study to introduce and inspire students into using mathematical modelling of systems for their engineering coursework.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0051
Sandip Sahoo, Abhinav Kuchhal, Sekharan Vineeth, Vikram Chauhan
Abstract Shielding vehicle underbody or engine room components from exhaust heat is becoming a difficult task with increasing packaging constraints, which lead to the proximity of components with high temperatures of the exhaust systems. Heat insulators are provided to protect various components from exhaust system parts. Generally the requirement of heat insulators are fixed on the basis of benchmarked temperatures measured on vehicles with similar layout, during the initial phase of vehicle design. Also various CFD techniques are available to predict the surface temperatures on components in order to determine the necessity of a heat insulator. The aforementioned techniques use radiation and convection heat transfer effects on a complete vehicle model and the overall process generally takes considerable time to provide the results. This paper deals with a theoretical approach to predict the temperatures on nearby components due to exhaust system heat.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0058
Ninad Pimpalkhare, Gaurav Kumar, Yuva Kishore Vaddi, Chetan Prakash Jain
Abstract Inside cabin of a passenger car, low frequency booming noise still presents a major hurdle for NVH engineers to fine tune a vehicle. Low frequency booming noise is presently taken care with addition of mass damper and large reinforcements. These conventional countermeasures add weight to the vehicle as well as increase the overall production cost. The study presented in this paper proposes a countermeasure model that not only reduces the booming noise but also avoids any weight and cost addition. It has been focused for low frequency booming noise around 30 ∼ 40 Hz. Within the range mentioned, one of the major reasons for booming noise in hatchback models is the bending resonance of backdoor. By modifying the mode of the backdoor in such a manner that it cancels the effect of bending on the vehicle acoustic cavity, improvement can be achieved in terms of sound pressure level at the driver’s right ear location (DREL).
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0149
Hemant Pratap Singh, Pulkit Sagar, Kartikey Singh
Abstract This paper deals with the problems which emanates in front of society in developing electric vehicles. Aim of this paper is to prepare ways through which we can develop electric vehicle with efficiency (more than 60%). So that these electric vehicles can substitute I.C engine vehicles, which are main cause of environment pollution. To achieve that goal, various competitions are arranged in which one sitter kart develop to ease mechanical constraints and easily utilize innovations in kart. To develop kart various type of modelling and simulation were done on INVENTOR and ANSYS 14.0. Different type of test were also taken into account like Brake test, Speed test, Power test, Load test, and efficiency test. This paper also motivates student in developing vehicles so that they can excel their knowledge and assist in research of electric vehicles.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0178
Santosh Shankara Murthy, Monish M. H. Gowda, Hima Kiran Venna
Abstract Vehicle dynamics is the study of response of the vehicle to driver’s input. Various parameters like location of center of gravity (CG), suspension spring stiffness, wheel alignment parameters, etc. determine the handling behavior of the vehicle. This is a study to investigate the effects of aforesaid parameters on handling characteristics of an intercity bus using MSC ADAMS software tool. Handling performance is determined by evaluating various parameters such as understeer gradient, roll gradient, etc. Understeer gradient is influenced by various parameters like location of CG, tire cornering stiffness, etc. Roll gradient of a vehicle depend on various parameters like vertical stiffness of tires, anti-roll bars (ARB) diameter, location of CG, etc. As a part of this study, four different configurations of MBD models were built to investigate the effect of location of ARB on handling behavior of bus.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0177
Sreedeep Thiyya Kkandiyil, Monish M. H. Gowda, Hima Kiran Venna
Abstract Vehicle dynamics is one of the important domains in the automotive field. It is the study of performance, ride and handling of the vehicle. The design of steering system, suspension system and front axle plays an important role in achieving good ride and handling characteristics of the vehicle. The wheel geometry is one of the suspension parameter that affects handling characteristics of the vehicle. Hence proper selection of wheel geometry angles such as caster, camber, toe, steering angle inclination and scrub radius plays an important role in suspension design. In this thesis work study has been conducted to analyze the influence of steering axis inclination and scrub radius on steering effort of passenger car. This study helps in selecting proper steering axis inclination and scrub radius with a goal of achieving lesser steering effort. Multi body dynamic model of selected passenger car has been built using ADAMS Car.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0203
Krishnakanth Pandurangan, Hima Kiran Vithal Venna, Vinod Banthia
Abstract Exposure to high level of vibrations encountered in driver’s cabin of heavy duty truck over extended time causes driver fatigue and leads to serious health disorders. In most of the current heavy duty trucks in India, absence of proper vibration isolation system for driver’s seat results in transmission of high levels of vibration to the driver. A proper seat isolation system, combined with proper cushioning of seat can considerably reduce vibration transmissibility to the driver. The work presented here addresses the problem of vibration levels in a heavy duty truck and proposes solution for reducing vibration transmissibility to driver seat by using isolation and cushioning system. Vibration levels on floor, driver’s seat and seat back of an existing truck were measured using tri-axial accelerometer and 9 channel spectrum analyzer. Measured vibration levels in the vertical direction were found to be exceeding comfortable level.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0198
Joydeep Chatterjee, Harveen Talwar, Srishti Garg
Abstract In a typical passenger vehicle, there can be different types of noises generated which are broadly categorized as Interior Noise and Exterior Noise. The interior noise sources can be further classified into noises which can be Structure Borne or Air Borne. One of the major sources of both structure borne and airborne noise generation is the powertrain of the vehicle. The structure-borne noise and vibrations generated from the powertrain is usually transferred to the vehicle body through its attachment points to the body and the powertrain driveline. These induced body vibrations can sometimes cause the acoustic cavity of the passenger cabin to go into resonance which results in an annoying and disturbing noise for the passengers, called Booming Noise. Very often, one or more than one vehicle body panels show a dominant contribution in inducing this acoustic cavity resonance.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0210
Abhishek Sinha, Kamlesh Yadav, Rajdeep Singh Khurana
Abstract The biggest challenge in vehicle BIW design today is to make a light, cost effective and energy absorbing structure. With the increasing competition as well as increasing customer awareness, today’s vehicle has to satisfy several aesthetic and functional requirements besides the mandatory regulatory requirements. While working on global platform, it is challenging to comply with both pedestrian protection and low speed bumper impact (ECE-R42) and at the same time meeting the styling intent of reducing the front overhang. Pedestrian lower leg compliance demands space between bumper member and bumper, a condition that reduces the space available for energy absorption during low speed impact (ECE-R42). Therefore, reduction in front overhang poses a problem in meeting both the requirements with limited space.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0188
Pradeep Jawale, Nagesh Voderahobli Karanth
Abstract Day by day, customer expectations for comfort in the vehicle interior are driving automotive manufactures to provide better environment in their vehicles. Considering the ongoing developments in diesel powered engines and vehicles in India, the necessity of noise reduction has become more relevant. In such a scenario, NVH benchmarking has become very critical for new product development. Also, given the increasing customer awareness, noise and vibration have also become indicators of overall vehicle perception and hence provide crucial inputs for NVH design, optimization and target setting. In this paper, two families of diesel powered cars in India have been evaluated for their NVH performance, both for exterior & interior noise to arrive at noise & vibration contribution relevant to passenger comfort in order to quantify contribution of powertrain, tire, wind etc. to the overall noise and their trends are presented.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0185
Narayan Venkitachalam, David Neihguk, Gurdeep Singh Pahwa, Parth Lunia, Abhinav Prasad, J Perumal
Abstract The excitation to a vehicle is from two sources, road excitation and powertrain excitation. Vehicle Suspension is designed to isolate the road excitation coming to passenger cabin. Powertrain mounts play a vital role in isolating the engine excitation. The current study focuses on developing an analytical approach using Low-Fidelity computer programs to design the Powertrain Mount layout and stiffness during the initial stage of product development. Three programs have been developed as a part of this study that satisfy the packaging needs, NVH requirements and static load bearing requirements. The applications are capable of providing the Kinetic Energy Distribution and Static Analysis (Powertrain Enveloping and Mount Durability) for 3-point and 4-point mounting systems and the ideal mount positions and stiffness for 3-point mounting systems.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0195
Bibin Alias, Eswar Kurukundu, Savitha Nandagudi
Abstract A simplified mathematical model of tandem suspension is presented to study the different parameters of tandem suspension. The equations of motion are compiled considering the system to be 3 degrees of freedom system, taking into accounts both oscillation and deflection of the leaf spring. The response characteristics for vibration isolation for the company test track road profiles at different speeds of the vehicle are calculated. The sensitivity of acceleration to variations in un-sprung masses and axle spacing is illustrated. Further, the usefulness of the model for studying the effect of shock absorber positioning on ride of tandem bogie suspension system is demonstrated.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0194
Srikanta Nahak, Sagar Bhojne
Abstract Earth moving machines are steered using various steering methodology. Articulated steering mechanism is the most popular type of steering methods. It is actuated by hydraulic cylinders connected to the steering linkages. While the machine is deployed with articulated type steering, vehicle stability is proportionate to the steering velocity. Articulated steering provides two important features, shorter turning radius, allows front and back axle to be solid. Directional stability refers to a vehicle’s ability to stabilize its direction of motion against disturbances. Majority of earth moving equipment operates on basic cycle of Load-Haul-Dump. During each cycle, vehicle needs to be steered at least once. To optimize the machine performance for improved productivity it is essential to study the correlation between articulation speed and operational weight of the vehicle.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0235
Manish Dixit, V Sundaram, S. Sathish Kumar
Abstract The performance of any automotive engine depends not only upon its core engine parts but also on the effectiveness of the sub-systems attached to the engine, like the intake, fuel, engine cooling and exhaust systems. The exhaust system being a critical system of any automotive vehicle plays a responsible role of improving the ride quality of the vehicle and fuel economy. The effective design of exhaust system is critical in order to ensure the required exhaust gas is exited from the engine and at the same time the noise is attenuated. In this paper a novel approach is developed in order to characterize the flow through the cold end exhaust system and reduce the pressure drop to achieve desired performance. The exhaust system attenuates the noise from the engine without deteriorating the engine performance by ensuring an optimum value of exhaust back pressure.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0240
Naveen Sukumar, Sayak Mukherjee, Praneeth Kurisetty, Umashanker Gupta
Abstract The cabin or cab is an enclosed space where the driver and co-driver are seated. Structural parameters such as modal and stiffness characteristics are of key importance for its durability study and driver’s comfort. The desired strength and stiffness value of the cabin have to be met at the development phase itself. In developing new cabin models numerical simulations are used for estimating vehicle performance to reduce the development cycle. But, the conventional method of modeling the cabin using 2-d elements and performing subsequent iteration steps to arrive at the desired stiffness and strength value will be cumbersome and time consuming. Thus, a methodology of FE modeling of the truck cabin using 1-D elements has been proposed in this paper which will reduce the analysis time of successive iterations. For this purpose an existing proven driver’s cabin is modeled using 1-D elements.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0258
Eeshan Bashir, Sanjay A Patil
Abstract In the field of automotive if a vehicle is designed for a particular per person riding capacity considering the aspects of safety, design and power exceeding those limits puts the driver and pillion riders at considerable risk. With a step ahead in this paper we are trying to detect and limit the number of persons sitting on two wheeler. As per the traffic rules in India the maximum number of persons cannot exceed two, apart from the driver only one pillion rider can be carried in behind while driving. Despite of the ban, driver carries more than a single person. Two Pillion riding is also a root of a lot of accidents happening in two wheelers. To make the detection process effective, robust and cost effective a new sensor design was to be put forward. There is no sensor available that could detect the differential load over the larger area at effective cost. To cater to this problem Bubble based tactile based sensors were developed and checked for this application.
2016-02-01
Magazine
Stanford goes solar down under Team takes sixth place in Bridgestone World Solar Challenge to cap a rigorous two-year design and development program. Taking the lead Being in charge of an SAE Student Chapter entails everything from organizing meetings to issuing 'nastygrams.' A winning video from a winning Collegiate Design Series team The defending champion of the Formula SAE Michigan competition, Oregon State University, has found another way to win. SAE U.K. Section co-hosts lecture series 'starring' NASA engineer/expert Dr. Ravi Margasahayam of NASA is the engineer responsible for ensuring payload safety for the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station.
2016-01-22
WIP Standard
J3016
This Information Report provides a taxonomy for motor vehicle automation ranging in level from no automation to full automation. However, it provides detailed definitions only for the highest three levels of automation provided in the taxonomy (namely, conditional, high and full automation) in the context of motor vehicles (hereafter also referred to as “vehicle” or “vehicles”) and their operation on public roadways. These latter levels of advanced automation refer to cases in which the dynamic driving task is performed entirely by an automated driving system during a given driving mode or trip. Popular, media, and legislative references to “autonomous” or “self-driving” vehicles encompass some or all of these levels of automation. These definitions can be used to describe the automation of (1) on-road vehicles, (2) particular systems within those vehicles, and (3) the operation of those vehicles.
2016-01-15
WIP Standard
J1121
This recommended practice has been developed to assist engineers and designers in the preparation of specifications for the major types of helical compression and extension springs. It is restricted to a concise presentation of items which will promote an adequate understanding between spring manufacturer and spring user of the major practical requirements in the finished spring. Closer tolerances are obtainable where greater accuracy is required and the increased cost is justified. For the basic concepts underlying the spring design and for many of the details see the SAE Information Report MANUAL ON DESIGN AND APPLICATION OF HELICAL AND SPIRAL SPRINGS, SAE HS 795, which is available from SAE Headquarters in Warrendale, PA 15096. A uniform method for specifying design information is shown in the TYPICAL DESIGN CHECK LISTS FOR HELICAL SPRINGS, SAE J1122.
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