Display:

Results

Viewing 31 to 60 of 13117
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0259
Tyler Zellmer, Julio Rodriguez, John R. Wagner, Kim Alexander, Philip Pidgeon
Abstract According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), motor collisions account for nearly 2.4 million injuries and 37 thousand fatalities each year in the United States. A great deal of research has been done in the area of vehicular safety, but very little has been completed to ensure licensed drivers are properly trained. Given the inherent risks in driving itself, the test for licensure should be uniform and consistent. To address this issue, an inexpensive, portable data acquisition and analysis system has been developed for the evaluation of driver performance. A study was performed to evaluate the system, and each participant was given a normalized driver rating. The average driver rating was μ=55.6, with a standard deviation of σ=12.3. All but 3 drivers fell into the so-called “Target Zone”, defined by a Driver Rating of μ± 1σ.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0271
Fabian Joerg Uwe Koark, Christian Beul
Abstract Functional Safety engineering aligned to an international standard is already a long-lasting discussion. Nevertheless, the requirements of process conformance to assure functional safety have been detailed in description and interpretation. The ISO 26262 is seen as state-of-the-art Functional Safety engineering basement in Europe, the closer interpretation of the IEC 61508 is claimed by assessors in America and Asia. This work shows how stagnation in engineering process improvement is solved by re-engineering projects. The benefits of re-engineering are described in this context. A four month, proven-in-practice project plan is explained. The expected results of such a project are given as generic goals for similar projects. A practice report shows the realistic outcome of such a project for the Chinese automotive industry. The report shows how the motivation of the involved engineers was gained and how existing engineering documentation was used in an efficient way.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1174
Nobuhiko Nakagaki
Abstract Toyota Boshoku developed two completely new components for the fuel cell vehicle (FCV), Mirai. These are the fuel cell (FC) Separator, and Stack manifold. The separators are made from stamped metal plates. The anode and cathode separators sandwich the MEA(Membrane Electrode Assembly) between them. It has flow paths for the hydrogen, air and FC coolant. The Anode Separator has hydrogen flow paths on one side, and cooling liquid flow paths on the other side. The pitch used in the flow paths is very fine and it improves both the uniformity of the gas flow and of the surface pressure on the MEA. Therefore, it has contributes to improve the electric power generation performance. The FC Stack manifold is a component that attaches to the end of one side of the FC stack. It is a component that integrates end plate and pipes. The end plate is a portion of the FC stack which holds the fastening load of stack and is made of cast aluminum casting alloy.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0411
Richard K. Stobart, W. Ethan Eagle, Xunzhe Zhang
In a series of panel discussions conducted at the World Congress over the last two years, a range of issues have been discussed concerning the future of the profession. The consensus amongst panellists, participants and the reports they bring from industry suggest a substantial shortage of professional engineers. Attempts to improve the image of engineering in primary and secondary education have been successful, but reach too few students. AWIM provides one example of a project on a big scale that has been embraced by schools and which is characterised by an excellent co-operation between teachers and mentors. In spite of the success of such initiatives, the poor diversity in engineering that starts with undergraduate courses stands out as one of the biggest issues for the profession. There appear to be simply too many initiatives throughout the engineering experience.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0459
Vesna Savic, Louis Hector, Hesham Ezzat, Anil Sachdev, James Quinn, Ronald Krupitzer, Xin Sun
This paper presents an overview of a four-year project on integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) for third generation advanced high-strength steels (3GAHSS) development. Following a brief look at ICME as an emerging discipline within the Materials Genome Initiative, technical tasks in the ICME project will be discussed. Specific focus of the individual tasks is on multi-scale, microstructure-based material model development using state-of-the-art computational and experimental techniques, forming, assembly, design optimization, integration and technical cost modeling. The integrated approach is illustrated using a 980 grade transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel with a two-step quenching and partitioning (Q&P) heat treatment as an example.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0293
Yaamini Devi Loganathan
Abstract Indian automobile production increased at a CAGR of 12.2% over FY05-FY13, with a decline in Commercial Vehicle (CV) growth rate during FY09 and FY13. Globally, automotive industry suffered a decline in FY09 due to the global financial crisis and again on a decline in FY12 due to the European sovereign debt crisis. Apart from the global events, there are various internal risks the Indian OEMs need to consider: 1) regulatory risk due to excise duty hikes, decontrol of fuel pricing, etc., 2) market risks due to currency, inflation, interest rates, material cost, 3) industry risks due to increased competition, price war, etc. In this scenario, Indian Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) need to constantly recalibrate their strategies to the changing market dynamics and associated risks. A research on megatrends affecting the Indian CV industry has identified more focus on Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) as one of the megatrend.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0476
Hyunkwon Jo, Youngseung Kim, Hyunchul Lee, Hyunmin Park, Suckin Song
At early automobile development stage, we have simulated the optimization and then achieved effectively the performance improvement, weight reduction and so on. This benefit of the optimization analysis is to overcome the mechanical design limits by predicting problems and changing lay-out before the design is fixed. Therefore the optimization analysis has been carried out in many automobile components at the early stage. However, many interior parts depend on the design. This means that it is difficult to apply the general optimization of the interior parts – changing the lay-out and dimension – unlike automobile frame and body in which the optimization have been studied briskly. This is the reason why the optimization of plastic interior parts haven’t been studied prosperously. But as researching the structure in detail, we realized that there are factors that affect the performance without depending on design. In case of door trim, there are Fastener, Flange Rib, and so on.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0477
Sun Qi, Zhang Wen, Wan Liangyu, Wang Xiaochuan
The vehicle dimension parameters of the domestic passenger car in current Chinese market was analyzed. Combined with the human body golden ratio, a probability and statistics method was used to propose an intrinsic link between vehicle dimension and platform dimension, an intrinsic link between the dimensions of a vehicle. The proportion of coordination in different styles of models was analyzed also. Provides a reference method for the subsequent development of models to define the dimension of the vehicle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1228
Zhuoran Zhang, Miriam Di Russo, Xianfeng Yan, Ahmed I. Uddin, Dhanya Sankaran, Jerry C. Ku
Abstract This paper presents the work performed by the Wayne State University (WSU) EcoCAR 3 student design competition team in its preparation for the hybrid electric vehicle architecture selection process. This process is recognized as one of the most pivotal steps in the EcoCAR 3 competition. With a key lesson learned from participation in EcoCAR 2 on “truly learning how to learn,” the team held additional training sessions on architecture selection tools and exercises with the goal of improving both fundamental and procedural skills. The work conducted represents a combination of the architecture feasibility study and final selection process in terms of content and procedure, respectively. At the end of this study the team was able to identify four potentially viable hybrid powertrain architectures, and thoroughly analyze the performance and packaging feasibility of various component options.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1272
Jeffrey Jocsak, David White, Cedric Armand, Richard S. Davis
General Motors has developed an all-new Ecotec 1.5 L range extender engine for use in the 2016 next generation Voltec propulsion system. This engine is part of a new Ecotec family of small displacement gasoline engines introduced in the 2015 model year. Major enhancements over the range extender engine in the current generation Voltec propulsion system include the adoption of direct injection (DI), cooled external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and a high 12.5:1 geometric compression ratio (CR). Additional enhancements include the adoption of high-authority phasers on both the intake and exhaust camshafts, and an integrated exhaust manifold (IEM). The combination of DI with cooled EGR has enabled significant thermal efficiency gains over the 1.4 L range extender engine in the current generation Voltec propulsion system at high engine loads.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1701
Luciano Lukacs
The challenges around global products have been lately one of the key challenges for the Lighting community. This paper will present a survey which was held with costumers from China, India, Europe and Brazil understanding the difference and similarities regarding the lighting attributes. it brings also a discussion how to develop a lamp globally that fulfils everyone's needs and addresses potential trade-offs in design and performance.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1685
Omar Abu Mohareb, Phan-Lam Huynh, A. Al-Janabi, Michael Grimm, Hans-Christian Reuss
This paper addresses the performance and potential of using electric vehicles in the Gulf Arab states. The Research Institute of Automotive Engineering and Vehicle Engines Stuttgart (FKFS) in cooperation with Dhofar University in Salalah has established this research project, where several tests have been performed to study the performance of electric vehicles in the Gulf Arab states in general and in Oman in specific. This will give a deep insight of the electric vehicles use possibilities, in addition to the fuel saving potentials and environmental effects by using both electric vehicles and renewable energy charging stations. A survey with a questionnaire of 30 questions was carried out and distributed over 320 candidates representing population distribution in Salalah.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0974
Aaron Brooker, Jeffrey Gonder, Sean Lopp, Jacob Ward
Abstract The Automotive Deployment Options Projection Tool (ADOPT) is a light-duty vehicle consumer choice and stock model supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office. It estimates technology improvement impacts on future U.S. light-duty vehicles sales, petroleum use, and greenhouse gas emissions. ADOPT uses techniques from the multinomial logit method and the mixed logit method to estimate vehicle sales. Specifically, it estimate sales based on the weighted value of key attributes including vehicle price, fuel cost, acceleration, range and usable volume. The average importance of several attributes changes nonlinearly across its range and changes with income. For several attributes, a distribution of importance around the average value is used to represent consumer heterogeneity. The majority of existing vehicle makes, models, and trims are included to fully represent the market. The Corporate Average Fuel Economy regulations are enforced.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1091
Fumikazu Maruyama, Moichio Kojima, Tomoyuki Kanda
Abstract A new CVT that is lighter in weight and more highly efficient than the previous CVT for use in compact vehicles has been developed and used in the 2014 model year FIT. The allowable torque capacity was expanded to that of the 1.8-L engine class, making this CVT usable in a greater number of vehicle models. The ratio coverage was also expanded and the transfer efficiency was increased to enhance fuel economy and drivability. Integration of hydraulic control system functional parts and reduction in the number of case component parts were carried out as structural modifications. Pulley side pressures were also reduced by the use of new CVT fluid so that the pulley could be made more compact and lighter in weight. Enhancements were made in CVT shift control, providing more acceleration considered from the driver's acceleration demand and more linearity between vehicle speed and engine speed than in previous models.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1101
Jun Hakamagi, Tetsuya Kono, Ryoji Habuchi, Naoki Nishimura, Masahiro Tawara, Naoki Tamura
Abstract In response to increasing demands for measures to conserve the global environment and the introduction of more stringent CO2 emissions regulations around the world, the automotive industry is placing greater focus on reducing levels of CO2 through the development of fuel-efficient technologies. With the aim of improving fuel economy, a new continuously variable transmission (CVT) has been developed for 2.0-liter class vehicles. This new CVT features various technologies for improving fuel economy including a coaxial 2-discharge port oil pump system, wider ratio coverage, low-viscosity CVT fluid, and a flex start system. This CVT is also compatible with a stop and start (S&S) system that reduces fuel consumption by shutting off the engine while the vehicle is stopped. In addition, the development of the CVT improves driveability by setting both the driving force and engine speed independently.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1664
Amardeep Singh, Anindya Deb, Amit Mohan Mensi, Ranga Srinivas Gunti
Despite the considerable advancements made in the applications of CAE for evaluation of an IC engine, an integrated approach to the design of such engines based on thermo-mechanical considerations appears to be lacking. The usage of heterogeneous tools for thermal, mechanical and vibration analysis in industry decreases the efficiency of the product development process. In an effort to reduce this bottleneck, a unified framework is presented here according to which heat transfer and thermo-mechanical stress analysis of a four-stroke single cylinder diesel engine is carried out in a unified manner with the aid of a multi-physics explicit finite element analysis tool, namely LS-DYNA, with robust contact interfaces leading to realistic representation of engine dynamics.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1103
Taiki Ando, Tooru Yagasaki, Shuji Ichijo, Kyohei Sakagami, Soichiro Sumida
Abstract Pulley thrust control, changes in the trajectory of the belt as it winds around the pulleys, and the amount of friction transmission were focused on in order to reduce transmission loss and increase the transmission efficiency of CVT. In the case of pulley thrust control, making use of the linear relationship between the rotary speed fluctuation transfer characteristic and the torque transmission capacity between the pulleys and the belt, it was possible to reduce the excess safety factor of the torque transmission volume. Due to pulley tilt, the trajectory of the belt displays deviations with the theoretical geometrical winding radius. The structure of the pulleys was modified in order to reduce this deviation and increase transmission efficiency. Optimization of the additives in the CVT fluid increased the coefficient of friction, decreasing pulley thrust and increasing transmission efficiency.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1235
Kevin L. Snyder, Jerry Ku
Abstract The Wayne State University student team reengineered a mid-sized sedan into a functional plug-in hybrid electric vehicle as participants in the EcoCAR 2 competition sponsored by the US Department of Energy and managed by Argonne National Laboratory. The competition goals included reducing petroleum usage, emissions, and energy consumption through implementing advanced vehicle technologies. During the competition, the team did plug-in charging of the 19 kWh high voltage traction battery, drove in pure electric mode (engine off) until the battery was depleted, then switched to hybrid mode and continued driving by using E85 from the fuel tank. The pure electric mode vehicle driving range was 48 km [30 miles] while pulling an emissions instrumented test trailer and projected to be 58 km [36 miles] without the test trailer load for the competition's city/highway blend drive cycle.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1208
Sinisa Jurkovic, Khwaja Rahman, Nitin Patel, Peter Savagian
This paper presents the design and performance details of electric propulsion system for GM's second generation Extended Range Electric Vehicle (EREV). First generation Chevrolet Volts have been driven over half a billion miles in North America from October 2013 through September 2014, 74% of which were all-electric. The second generation of Volt brings a significant mass reduction and increased performance, EV driving range and fuel economy while simultaneously reducing rare earth content in its traction electric motors. The electric propulsion system is built on two electric machines; both PMAC topology. While hybrid-electric vehicles are gaining in popularity in hopes of addressing cleaner, energy sustainable technology in transportation, materials sustainability and rare earth dependence mitigation has not been the first priority in the hybrids available on the market today.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0783
Raphael Gukelberger, Jess Gingrich, Terrence Alger, Steven Almaraz, Bradley Denton
Abstract The ongoing pursuit of improved engine efficiency and emissions are driving gasoline low-pressure loop EGR systems into production around the globe. To minimize inevitable downsides of cooled EGR while maintaining its advantages, the Dedicated EGR (D-EGR®) engine was developed. The core of the D-EGR engine development focused on a unique concept that combines the efficiency improvements associated with recirculated exhaust gas and the efficiency improvements associated with fuel reformation. To outline the differences of the new engine concept with a conventional low-pressure loop (LPL) EGR setup, a turbocharged 2.0 L PFI engine was modified to operate in both modes and also compared to the baseline. The first part of the cooled EGR engine concept comparison investigates efficiency, emissions, combustion stability, and robustness at throttled part load conditions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1255
Michael Pontoppidan, Jose G. C. Baeta
Abstract The paper presents a layout of a highly boosted Ethanol Direct Injected (EDI) engine with extreme downsizing, which represents a powerful means to reduce emissions at reduced production costs. The substitution of high-displacement engines (2.4- or 3.0-liter) by a downsized turbocharged EDI-engine is studied. The paper describes the detailed layout of all engine hardware and in particular, the cylinder head structure including the optimized intake and exhaust manifolds as well as implemented DI injectors. The paper continues with a presentation of the experimental data obtained at the engine test rig. The paper concludes presenting a series of experimental data obtained with the downsized engine mounted in a car as a replacement for its original high-displacement engine.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1268
Tomohiro Shinagawa, Masahito Kudo, Wataru Matsubara, Takashi Kawai
Abstract Toyota Motor Corporation is developing a series of engines belonging to its ESTEC (Economy with Superior Thermal Efficient Combustion) development concept. This paper describes the development of 8NR-FTS after the subsequent launch of the 2.0-liter DI Turbocharged 8AR-FTS. 8NR-FTS is a 1.2-liter inline 4-cylinder spark ignition downsized turbocharged direct injection (DI) gasoline engine. By following the same basic concepts as 8AR-FTS engine [1], the 8NR-FTS incorporates various fuel efficient technologies such as a cylinder head with an integrated exhaust manifold, the Atkinson cycle using the center-spooled variable valve timing with mid-position lock system (VVT-iW), and intensified in-cylinder turbulence to achieve high-speed combustion.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1383
Andrew Blum, Richard Thomas Long
Fires involving cars, trucks, and other highway vehicles are a common concern for emergency responders. In 2013 alone, there were approximately 188,000 highway vehicle fires. Fire Service personnel are accustomed to responding to conventional vehicle (i.e., internal combustion engine [ICE]) fires, and generally receive training on the hazards associated with those vehicles and their subsystems. However, in light of the recent proliferation of electric drive vehicles (EDVs), a key question for emergency responders is, “what is different with EDVs and what tactical adjustments are required when responding to EDV fires?” The overall goal of this research program was to develop the technical basis for best practices for emergency response procedures for EDV battery incidents, with consideration for suppression methods and agents, personal protective equipment (PPE), and clean-up/overhaul operations.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1526
Yasuyuki Onishi, Thomas Ramsay, Timothy Juan, James McKillen
Abstract A sports car exhibits many challenges from an aerodynamic point of view: drag that limits top speed, lift - or down force - and balance that affects handling, brake cooling and insuring that the heat exchangers have enough air flowing through them under several vehicle speeds and ambient conditions. All of which must be balanced with a sports car styling and esthetic. Since this sports car applies two electric motors to drive front axle and a high-rev V6 turbo charged engine in series with a 9-speed double-clutch transmission and one electric motor to drive rear axle, additional cooling was required, yielding a total of ten air cooled-heat exchangers. It is also a challenge to introduce cooling air into the rear engine room to protect the car under severe thermal conditions. This paper focuses on the cooling and heat resistance concept.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0452
Junqi Yang, Zhenfei Zhan, Chong Chen, Yajing Shu, Ling Zheng, Ren-Jye Yang, Yan Fu, Saeed Barbat
Abstract Simulation based design optimization has become the common practice in automotive product development. Increasing computer models are developed to simulate various dynamic systems. Before applying these models for product development, model validation needs to be conducted to assess their validity. In model validation, for the purpose of obtaining results successfully, it is vital to select or develop appropriate metrics for specific applications. For dynamic systems, one of the key obstacles of model validation is that most of the responses are functional, such as time history curves. This calls for the development of a metric that can evaluate the differences in terms of phase shift, magnitude and shape, which requires information from both time and frequency domain. And by representing time histories in frequency domain, more intuitive information can be obtained, such as magnitude-frequency and phase-frequency characteristics.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0460
Saket Kansara, Sumeet Parashar, Zhendan Xue
Abstract Decision making in engineering design is complicated, especially when dealing with high-dimensional data. Modern software tools are able to produce a large amount of data while performing optimization studies. A typical optimization problem with many objectives may produce 100s or even 1000s of Pareto Optimal solutions. It is a challenge to analyze this data and make a decision about which design/s to choose for further testing or as a final design. To tackle the problem, two data analysis techniques are used in this paper. Partitive Clustering (PC) is used to locate groups of similar designs in the dataset while Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is used to reduce the dimensionality of the data and visualize it in two and three dimensions. Although these techniques can be used independently, when used together, they prove to be a tremendous help in decision making. This paper underlines the benefit of using these two methods together.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0470
Joanna Rakowska, Amir Chator, Bruno Barthelemy, Michael Lee, Shawn Morgans, Jeffrey Laya, Gregory Zinn, Ching-Hung Chuang, Sreekanth Reddy Gondipalle
Abstract Designing a vehicle body involves meeting numerous performance requirements related to different attributes such as NVH, Durability, Safety, and others. Multi-Disciplinary Optimization (MDO) is an efficient way to develop a design that optimizes vehicle performance while minimizing the weight. Since a body design evolves in course of the product development cycle, it is essential to repeat the MDO process several times as a design matures and more accurate data become available. This paper presents a real life application of the MDO process to reduce weight while optimizing performance over the design cycle of the 2015 Mustang. The paper discusses the timing and results of the applied Multi-Disciplinary Optimization process. The attributes considered during optimization include Safety, Durability and Body NVH.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0468
Mingxian Wang, Wei Chen, Yan Fu, Yong Yang
Abstract As the world's largest auto producer and consumer, China is both the most promising and complex market given the country's rapid economic growth, huge population, and many regional and segment preference differences. This research is aimed at developing data-driven demand models for customer preference analysis and prediction under a competitive market environment. Regional analysis is first used to understand the impact of geographical factors on customer preference. After a comprehensive data exploration, a customer-level mixed logit model is built to shed light on fast-growing vehicle segments in the Chinese auto market. By combining the data of vehicle purchase, consideration, and past choice, cross-shopping behaviors and brand influence are explicitly modeled in addition to the impact of customer demographics, usage behaviors, and attributes of vehicles.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0500
Emilio Larrodé, Alberto Torne, Alberto Fraile
Abstract The analysis and decision making on design, behavior and use of a prototype electric vehicle is the main focus has been pursued in this paper. It was modeled a prototype electric vehicle, called Gorila EV, as from the software tool Adams/Car. The dimensional parameters needed to create the model were obtained by measurements, calculations and approximations. Subsequently, it was determined a route to be travelled by the vehicle and proceeded to simulation of the vehicle on that route. Different modifications in the model were performed to compare their results with the original model through simulation in Adams/Car. These changes ranged from a simple change in the mass of the chassis until a change in the type of vehicle traction. After made the changes and simulations, it carried out the analysis of the most remarkable results. These results were studied subsystem by subsystem, beginning with the wheels, to suspensions and engine until vehicle chassis.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0168
Steffen Lampke, Simon Schliecker, Dirk Ziegenbein, Arne Hamann
Abstract The underlying theories of both control engineering and real-time systems engineering assume idealized system abstractions that mutually neglect central aspects of the other discipline. Control engineering theory, on the one hand, usually assumes jitter free sampling and constant input-output latencies disregarding complex real-world timing effects. Real-time engineering theory, on the other hand, uses abstract performance models that neglect the functional behavior, and derives worst-case situations that have little expressiveness for control functionalities in physically dominated automotive systems. As a consequence, there is a lot of potential for a systematic co-engineering between both disciplines, increasing design efficiency and confidence. We have taken a standard control-engineering tool, Simulink, and combined it with state-of-the-art real-time system design and analysis tools, SymTA/S and TraceAnalyzer from Symtavision.
Viewing 31 to 60 of 13117

Filter