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Viewing 31 to 60 of 13331
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0284
Junqi Yang, Zhenfei Zhan, Kai Zheng, Jie Hu
Simulation models based design has become the common practice in automotive product development. Before applying these models for product development, model validation needs to be conducted to assess the validity of the models by comparing model predictions with experimental observations. It is vital to develop appropriate validation metrics for intended applications. When dealing with multivariate systems, comparison of multiple quantities of model prediction and test data would lead to conflicting decisions. A Bayesian decision metric derived based on the error minimization criterion is exploited to address this issue. To further improve the performance of classification of the mathematical classifier, data processing algorithm of MSDC (Maximum Scatter Difference Criterion) is employed. MSDC helps to transform data into a proper space so that the attributes of two types of validation decisions (rejecting and accepting) are easily distinguished.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0883
Walter Mirabella, Francesco Avella, Marco Di Girolamo, Tim Abbott, Oliver Busch
An accurate bibliographic survey was carried out to collect information from the literature about blending octane numbers (BONs), BRON and BMON, of the most widely used ethers for the European industry (including MTBE and ETBE). The intention was to review the available BONs in the literature, to suggest the most appropriate values for future reference while also understanding the causes of the differences among the data reported in different sources. Summary tables collect all BON values explicitly reported in literature or calculated based on experimental results. Due to synergistic intermolecular interactions with hydrocarbons, BONs typically depend on base-stock composition. The octane gain tends to grow as the paraffin content in the base stock increases. Moreover BONs tend to decrease as the octane numbers of the base-stock increase.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0090
Patrick Barasa, Ye Tian, Stefan Hardes, Shahaboddin Owlia, Purvi Limaye, Derek Bailey, Tarun Sehgal
Increasingly advanced engines are having high degrees of flux in design, hardware, and requirement changes throughout the development process from initial design intent to production, all occurring at various points in the V cycle. New EGR schemes, VGT, VVT/VVL, and direct injection are part of new engine designs, coupled with 6-10 speed transmission or electric motors for increasing overall efficiency while maintaining performance. Developing and calibrating the control systems required to extract the best possible performance of these applied technologies is becoming a complex and resource consuming task when time, money, and test beds become scarce. Therefore, an equally rapid means to test completely new engine designs, new algorithms and optimized calibrations is required.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1159
Amanullah Khan, Timothy Grewe, Jinming Liu, Mohammad Anwar, Alan Holmes, Richard Balsley
This paper describes the capabilities of a new two-motor plug-in hybrid-electric propulsion system developed for rear wheel drive. The PHEV system comprises a 2.0L turbocharged 4-cylinder direct-injected gasoline engine with the new hybrid transmission [1], a new traction power inverter module, a liquid-cooled lithium-ion battery pack, and on-board battery charger and 12V power converter module. The capability and features of the system components are described, and component performance and vehicle data are reported. The resulting propulsion system provides an excellent combination of electric-only driving, acceleration, and fuel economy.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0138
Bernard Dion
This paper presents an approach for the development of ISO 26262 compliant software applications based on Model-Based Design (MBD) and certified Automatic Code Generation (ACG). When using such a method, strong benefits can be achieved in reducing software verification costs while meeting the objectives of ISO 26262 at the highest ASIL levels. After a brief summary of the ISO 26262 standard, the paper presents a detailed analysis of what is really expected by the standard for tool qualification, with strong emphasis on having a Safety Case that takes into accounts the various stakeholders, i.e. the tool developer and the tool user, considering all possible failure conditions and mitigation actions by performing hazard analysis and risk assessment (e.g. HAZOP). A Safety Case is then built for the qualification of the Automatic Code Generator (ACG) and it shows the various mitigation actions that should be taken.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0127
Agish George, William Taylor, Jody Nelson
One of the key premises of the ISO 26262 functional safety standard is the development of an appropriate Technical Safety Concept for the item under development. This is specified in detail in Part 4 of the standard – Product development at the system level. The Technical safety requirements and the technical safety concept form the basis for deriving the hardware and software safety requirements that are then used by engineering teams for developing a safe product. Just like any other form of product development, making multiple revisions of the requirements are highly undesirable. This is primarily due to cost increases, chances of having inconsistencies within work products and its impact on the overall project schedule. Good technical safety requirements are in fact the foundation for an effective functional safety implementation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0164
Jamy Li, Xuan Zhao, Mu-Jung Cho, Wendy Ju, Bertram F. Malle
Autonomous vehicles represent a new class of transportation that may be qualitatively different from existing cars. We investigated how people perceive traffic incidents when an autonomous car is involved. Two exploratory surveys investigated responsibility attribution and moral norms with an autonomous car. In Pre-Study 1, 120 US adult participants (60 F, 60 M) read a vignette describing a traffic incident at an intersection between either an autonomous or normal car and a pedestrian. The car/driver, the pedestrian or both parties were manipulated to be at fault. Participants assigned far less responsibility to an autonomous car at fault than to a human driver at fault, suggesting that people did not treat the car itself as a moral agent responsible for its actions. Participants instead allocated blame toward the manufacturer and the government.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0133
Masahiro Matsubara, Fumio Narisawa, Atsuhiro Ohno, Toshiaki Aoki, Yuki Chiba
A safety concept is essential to conform to the functional safety standard ISO 26262 for automotive products. Safety requirements, which are included in a safety concept, are derived from a safety mechanism to achieve and maintain the safe state, to functional, technical, and hardware/software safety requirements in the layered structure. Incompleteness or inconsistency of the safety requirements should be avoided in such derivation. However, available checking is only reviewing when the safety requirements are described in a natural language. This checking is not objective and stringent. A novel method for notation and verification of safety requirements based on formal specification has been developed in our research to solve this problem. In this notation, safety requirements are expressed in goal tree models, which is from the goal-oriented requirement engineering KAOS. Each requirement is written with proposition variables and logical operators as a node of the tree.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0279
Chong Chen, Zhenfei Zhan, Jie Li, Yazhou Jiang, Helen YU
To reduce the computational time in the iterations of reliability-based design optimization, surrogate models are frequently utilized to approximate time-consuming computer aided engineering models. However, surrogate models introduces additional sources of uncertainty, such as model uncertainty. In this paper, an efficient uncertainty quantification method considering both model and parameter uncertainties is proposed. Firstly, the uncertainty of input parameters are represented in the form of Probability Density Function (PDF). Then, bias correction is then performed to improve the predictive capabilities of the surrogate models, whose uncertainty can be quantified as confidence intervals. Finally, Monte Carlo sampling is utilized to quantify the compound uncertainties. A numerical example and a real-world vehicle weight reduction design example are used to demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0137
Heiko Doerr, INGO STUERMER
A key component of developing a safety-critical automotive system in ISO 26262 is developing what is known as the safety case. This delivery justifies that the systems is free from unreasonable risk and that the safety requirements are complete and satisfied by given evidence from ISO 26262 work products. However, the standard provides neither practical guidance on how the safety case should be developed nor how the safety argument should be evaluated in the functional safety assessment process. This paper discusses quality and product readiness of the system under development in the context of safety case generation. We will focus on the software part and ISO 26262-6 requirements that relate to this. We will look at the software lifecycle of the system and how to measure and deliver key data throughout this lifecycle. A major focus will be on how to best homogenize quality data and monitor critical software quality indicators that contribute to argumentation of the safety case.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0053
Abhishek Sharma
Today open source software is widely used in different domains like Desktop systems, Consumer electronics (smart phones, TV, washing machines, camera, smart watches), Automotive, Automation etc. With the increased involvement of the open source software in the different domains including the safety critical ones, there has been a requirement of the well-defined test strategy to test and verify such systems. Currently there are multiple open source tools and frameworks to choose from. The paper describes the various open source test strategies and tools available to qualify such systems, their features, advantages and disadvantages. In Automotive domain Linux is increasingly becoming popular as a choice of the Operating System other than the propriety OS. There has been lot of push in industry to use the open source software stack in the product development.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0175
Edward G. Groff
Spark-ignition direct-injection technology existed since about 1930 for the primary purpose to give multifuel capability over what the compression-ignited diesel engine could provide. In subsequent decades development of multifuel engines continued both as higher-compression-ratio “spark-ignited diesel” and moderate-compression-ratio stratified-charge engines. Global events in the 1960-1970’s, namely the oil embargo, oil-supply crises, and the passage of the U.S. Clean Air Act intensified interest in such engines. The military and large commercial fleet operators were particularly focused on efficiency and multifuel capability over concerns for fuel supplies. Automobile manufacturers were focused on gasoline-fueled efficiency and the potential to reduce engine-out legislated NOx emissions with the stratified-charged combustion systems.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0177
Edward G. Groff
During the late 1980's and early 1990's the two-stroke-cycle engine was an extremely popular and highly publicized automotive powertrain technology globally. Active development programs existed at many OEMs during that period, including GM, where the author was involved, and production seemed eminent. Autoweek stated on the cover of its March 12, 1990 issue, "Revolution for the millennium or Wankel of the '90s?" This paper covers the new technologies that led to the generation of so much excitement in the industry and press, the advantages and disadvantages of the engine concept, R&D tools developed at that time that are still in use today, and various engine concepts pursued in the industry. The story is not only interesting from engineering and technology perspectives but illustrates how innovations in certain subsystems become enablers to revive a system technology by eliminating issues that prevented it from making it to production in the past.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0176
Joseph M. Colucci
This paper summarizes the history and most significant accomplishments of the GMR-GMR&D Fuels and Lubricants Department from its predecessor organization starting about 100 years ago to its demise during a reorganization in the late 1990s. It covers: • Combustion research to improve engine efficiency and reduce emissions, • Development of chemical, bench, engine, and vehicle tests to improve fuel and lubricant quality, • Development of technology to reduce vehicle emissions, • Research to understand and reduce air pollution, and • Evaluation of alternative fuels and lubricants. In total, the above activities helped not only GM and the worldwide auto industry, but also society. They improved the operation of vehicles and the quality of the air in the United States and around the globe, favorably affecting the lives of hundreds of millions of people. They also created the recognition of and the reputation of the Fuels and Lubricants Department as the best of its kind in the world.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0001
Sergey P. Gladyshev, Pavel Gladyshev, Irina Okrainskaya
DC motors are the most controllable electrical machines but more complicated for fabrication in comparison with induction motors having simplified design but more complicated for control. Regular DC motor contain excitation (field) coil on the stator and armature coil on the rotor. Armature coil connected with external voltage source by a mechanical commutator with brushes. This arrangement complicates fabrication of DC machine, increases its cost, lowered reliability and demands regular maintenance. Electromagnets inside of the stator increase dimensions of DC motor. In DC motor with salient pole rotor, there are no coils on the rotor and mechanical commutator with brushes are eliminated and eliminated all disadvantages connected with this arrangement. In this paper, we consider the new version of DC machine with DC stator excitation which we presented earlier.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0003
Alberto Taraborrelli, Francesco Braghin
The main aim of our gearshifter system is lightness, compact packaging and versatility. To reach that target our solution was to develop an “Electronic, Electro-actuated gearshifter and clutch controller”. It is made of three main subsystems: shifter DC motor, clutch servo and Control Unit. The system has to be reliable, fully customizable and capable of modulating the clutch release to allow any driver to start the car without shutting off the engine. Its power consumption is 50 to 70% higher if compared to pneumatic or hydraulic shifters but it does not need to be reloaded with gas (a problem that gives a limited useful life) and there are no oil, hydraulic valves and pressurized pipes passing through the car. The engine generator can accomplish the task of charging the battery with no modifications. The whole system weights between 40 and 80% less than any other shifting system and its known that low weight means higher performances.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0004
Ganesh Dharmar, Rambabu Radakrishnan, Subramanian Premananth, Sarath Padattil
Achieving comfortable Ingress-Egress (I/E) is a major ergonomic challenge for Occupant packaging engineers during vehicle design. Vehicles should be designed so that the targeted drivers are able to comfortably get in and out of it. Simulating occupant ingress/egress motion for vehicle involves many constraints and capturing actual behavior of human motion is cumbersome. In recent years, there are number of studies to investigate occupant ingress/egress motion and to understand perceived discomfort, influence of specific design parameters, age impact etc. These studies majorly used techniques like real time motion capturing in a vehicle mockup, comparison of joint torques developed during the ingress/egress motions etc., to identify the occupants discomfort aspects. This paper aims to capture the ingress/egress influencing parameters and incorporating the parameters in vehicle architecture layout during concept phase itself considering various anthropometric measurements.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0008
Johnathan Putrus, Stanley Jones, Badih Jawad, Giscard Kfoury, Selin Arslan, Peter Schihl
Thermal management systems (TMS) of armored ground vehicle designs are often incapable of sustained heat rejection during high tractive effort conditions and ambient conditions. Latent heat energy storage systems that utilize Phase Change Materials (PCMs) present an effective way of storing thermal energy and offer key advantages such as high-energy storage density, high heat of fusion values, and greater stability in temperature control. Military vehicles frequently undergo high-transient thermal loads and often do not provide adequate cooling for drivetrain subsystems. During this conditions gear oil temperatures can rise over 200°F in less than thirty minutes. This work outlines an approach to temporarily store excess heat generated by the differential during high tractive effort situations through the use of a passive PCM retrofit thereby extending the operating time, reducing temperature transients, and limiting overheating.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0009
Soham Bakshi, Badih Jawad, Selin Arslan, Liping Liu, Kingman Yee
Today's strict fuel economy requirement produces the need for the cars to have really optimized shapes among other characteristics as optimized cooling packages, reduced weight, to name a few. With the advances in automotive technology, tight global oil resources, lightweight automotive design process becomes a problem deserving important consideration. It is not however always clear how to modify the shape of the exterior of a car in order to minimize its aerodynamic resistance. Air motion is complex and operates differently at different weather conditions. Air motion around a vehicle has been studied quite exhaustively, but due to immense complex nature of air flow, which differs with different velocity, the nature of air, direction of flow et cetera, there is no complete study of aerodynamic analysis for a car. Something always can be done to further optimize the air flow around a car body.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0010
Gopal Athani, Kapil Dongare, Srinivasa Raju Gavarraju, Shashi Kulkarni, Prasad Yerraguntla
Micro hybrid Systems are emerging as a promising solution to reduce the fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in emerging markets, where the strict emission requirements are being enforced gradually. Micro hybrid Systems reduce the fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in a conventional vehicle with 12 V electrical system, by optimizing the electrical energy generation, storage, and distribution, with functions like Intelligent Alternator Control, Engine Stop/Start, and Load Management. With the advent of Connected Car Systems, information about the vehicle is seamlessly provided to the customer not just through the Human Machine Interface systems within the vehicle, but to other mobile devices used by the customers.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0011
Salah Alhasia, Sharif Gindy, Badih Jawad, Chris Riedel, Selin Arslan
As the need for super high speed components pumps, motors, etc continue to grow rapidly, so does the need to make measurements at speeds higher than ever before. Bearings are a major component in any rotating system. With continually increasing speeds, bearing failure modes take new unconventional forms that often are not understood. Such measurements are impossible if bearings fail to perform. In high speed ball bearings centrifugal forces and gyroscopic moments acting on the individual balls of the rolling elements can be significantly higher compared to applied forces acting on the bearing. While most bearing manufacturers acknowledge bearing race rotations (creep) as one of the problems causing premature failure, most denote it to improper fits. Literature review reveals several attempts to understand the mechanism of bearing race rotations and the dynamics behind it.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0936
Anoop Reghunathan Nair, Brett Schubring, Kiran Premchand, Andrew Brocker, Peter Croswell, Craig DiMaggio, Homayoun Ahari, Jeffrey Wuttke, Michael Zammit, Michael Andrew Smith
New Particulate Matter (PM) and/or Particulate Number (PN) regulations throughout the world have created an interest in aftertreatment solutions as an option to comply with the legislation. Limitations in other criteria emissions cannot be sacrificed to accomplish the reduction of PM/PN. Catalytic functions and volume requirement for consistent catalytic performance was determined through NOX , CO and HC conversion over U.S. Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) on a catalytic wall flow GPF (4WC) and flow through TWC catalyst. Four flow-through TWC and four wall-flow GPF catalysts were used for the study. All the exhaust systems had the same PGM loading and different cell structures. It was observed that replacing the flow through catalyst with a GPF will reduce the effective volume, which results in a more compact architecture.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0293
Jaspreet Singh, Vishnu Agrawal PhD
The paper expresses an important issue of optimum selection of a supercharger for a given application from the global market in the presence of a variety of superchargers available commercially off the shelf (COTS). Coding scheme suggested is based on developing an attribute based scheme for all superchargers available off the shelf. N-digit coding scheme provides in-depth understanding of all the attributes to be considered by the customers, designers, engineers and engineers of the industry for further improvement. We also aim to create exhaustive database of superchargers along with their attributes. Paper adopts a MADM-TOPSIS (Multiple Attribute Decision Making -Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) technique and graphical methods used widely in different disciplines and are published. The method ensures that the optimum supercharger is closest to the hypothetically best solution and farthest from the worst solution.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0075
Steven Holland, Tim Felke, Luis Hernandez, Robab Safa-Bakhsh, Matthew A. Wuensch
Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) 6268 has been developed to specify a common process by which IVHM functionality and supporting design data for components and subsystems can be integrated into larger Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) applications. The ARP has been developed within the Framework of the SAE HM1 committee by engineering focals from automotive and aerospace perspectives. The intent of the ARP is to facilitate a substantial reduction in the cost to develop, deploy and support IVHM systems through the use of standard interfaces and machine interpretable data submittals. This paper will provide an overview of the principle elements of the ARP and describe how it would be applied by Integrators and suppliers of components and systems for Aerospace and Automotive applications.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0277
Xingxing Feng, Kaimin Zhuo, Jinglai Wu, Vikas Godara, Yunqing Zhang
Interval inverse problems can be defined as problems to estimate input through given output, where the input and output are interval numbers. Many problems in engineering can be formulated as inverse problems like vehicle suspension design. Interval metrics, instead of deterministic metrics, are used for the suspension design of a vehicle vibration model with five degrees of freedom. The vibration properties of a vehicle vibration model are described by reasonable intervals and the suspension interval parameters are to be solved. A new interval inverse analysis method, which is a combination of Chebyshev inclusion function and optimization algorithm such as multi-island genetic algorithm, is presented and used for the suspension design of a vehicle vibration model with six conflicting objective functions. The interval design of suspension using such an interval inverse analysis method is shown and validated, and some useful conclusions are reached.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0288
Zhenfei Zhan, Junqi Yang, Xueqian Chen, Zhanpeng SHEN
In automobile industry, computerized models are increasingly employed to replace prototype tests to evaluate the quality and performance of new vehicles. To assess the validity or predictive capabilities of the model for its intended usage, model validation is required to compare computational model outputs with test measurements. Validation becomes difficult when dealing with dynamic systems as the characteristics of the time histories responses need to be appropriately considered. One of the promising metrics, namely Enhanced Error Assessment of Response Time Histories (EEARTH), was previously developed by the authors to evaluate the errors in phase, magnitude, and slope. However, the current metric shows its limitations when applying different data filters and dealing with multiple responses. In addition, techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA) have been adopted to address the possible conflicting inferences due to data correlation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0344
Mohamed El-Sayed
Success in any lean implementation depends on the ability to discern and stream value from the voice of the customer throughout the new product development process. In addition to other lean principles the two principles of value and value streaming are the main factors in identifying and eliminating wastes. The challenge in discerning and streaming value with the current structure of product development processes, however, is that the external participations including participation of the customers are only to the voice of the customer provided during the planning phase at the beginning of the process. By shifting the process paradigm from planning, design, and manufacturing to viewing product development as mappings between the perceptual, virtual, and physical reality domains more external participations including participation of the customers can be facilitated.
2016-03-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-1711
Pol-Ake Budsayahem
The wear of internal parts is the internal combustion engine is one of the reasons the performance engine is reduced. To measure wear, so it is important to prevent damage of the parts. The research investigations focused on analyzing the physical and chemical properties of the lubricant used compared with new oil to analysis wear of the elements and shapes. The deterioration of oil and contamination. Extrapolation metal wear, debris obtained from the test. To find trend of wear per increase distance does not exceed the maximum extent. The samples were collected 80-100 ml of oil to every 1,000 km range to 10,000 km. The engine is a 4-clinder 16 valve i-VTEC use E85 fuel standard SAE 0W20 lubricating samples were analyzed by involving ASTM standard methods. To demonstrate the results and plot graphs analyzing data with a range of sampling lubricant. Note that the sampling period is more the valuable than the total wear when the lubricant tends to increase.
2016-03-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-1712
Praneeth Kurisetty
To compete with the current market trends, there is always a need to develop cost effective frame designs to meet the needs of the customer. During the development of new vehicles, the major focus is on weight reduction, so as to improve the load carrying capacity and fuel efficiency. Due to the introduction of new high strength materials, the static strength conditions can be met by the use of thinner frames, but the dynamic behaviour of the frame deteriorates. The dynamic behaviours like ride & handling, comfort are affected by the stiffness of the vehicle frame. The stiffness of the frame is majorly defined by its Vertical stiffness, Lateral Stiffness and Torsional stiffness. The vertical stiffness of the frame plays major role in isolating road vibrations to frame mounted aggregates. The Lateral stiffness plays a very important role in the handling of the vehicle and cornering ability of the vehicle. Torsional stiffness effects the roll and lateral load transfer distribution.
2016-03-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-1713
Jenwit Soparat
Large ground vehicles, such as buses, typically have high drag force because of their large cross section area and shape. The flat-shaped front and back surfaces of the bus tend to induce high drag forces. In order to reduce the fuel consumption of these vehicles, the reduction of drag force is a crucial topic. In this study, chamfer features were introduced along the top and bottom edges of the front and back surfaces of the bus to reduce drag force. Several design parameters, such as edge length and chamfer angle, were investigated focusing on the existing 12-meter bus. The computational fluid dynamics technique was utilized to simulate the resulting air flow and pressure distribution from different design combinations of the front and back surfaces on a bus model with a forward translation under different velocities.
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