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Viewing 31 to 60 of 13139
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0459
Vesna Savic, Louis Hector, Hesham Ezzat, Anil Sachdev, James Quinn, Ronald Krupitzer, Xin Sun
Abstract This paper presents an overview of a four-year project focused on development of an integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) toolset for third generation advanced high-strength steels (3GAHSS). Following a brief look at ICME as an emerging discipline within the Materials Genome Initiative, technical tasks in the ICME project will be discussed. Specific aims of the individual tasks are multi-scale, microstructure-based material model development using state-of-the-art computational and experimental techniques, forming, toolset assembly, design optimization, integration and technical cost modeling. The integrated approach is initially illustrated using a 980MPa grade transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel, subject to a two-step quenching and partitioning (Q&P) heat treatment, as an example.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0446
Ronald Lannan
Abstract Use of Model-Based Design (MBD) processes for embedded controls software development has been purported for nearly the last decade to result in cost, quality, and delivery improvements. Initially the business case for MBD was rather vague and qualitative in nature, but more data is now becoming available to support the premise for this development methodology. Many times the implementation of MBD in an organization is bundled with other software process improvements such as CMMI or industry safety standards compliance, so trying to unbundle the contributions from MBD has been problematic. This paper addresses the dominant factors for MBD cost savings and the business benefits that have been realized by companies in various industries engaged in MBD development. It also summarizes some key management best practices and success factors that have helped organizations achieve success in MBD deployment.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0447
Venkatesh Agaram, Julian Venegas
Abstract System dynamics modeling of complex processes such as product development, manufacturing, and service, is an efficient approach for assessing value potential of different business transformation alternatives at small and large enterprises. Process elements such as generation of concepts, detailed designs, pilot level plant trials, etc. can be modeled including first-pass work, testing and review, rework identification and defect fixing, along with release readiness, staffing, schedule pressures, overtime and many other business metrics. Enterprise level processes, with their complex logic loops, can be represented as a system of coupled nonlinear differential equations, whose solutions can reveal the intricate underlying dynamics. Design of experiments, performed on the system dynamics models representing the business processes, are an inexpensive way of gaining insights into the impact of interactions between the numerous process control variables.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0477
Sun Qi, Zhang Wen, Wan Liangyu, Wang Xiaochuan
Abstract The vehicle dimension parameters of the domestic passenger car in current Chinese market were analyzed. Combined with the human body golden ratio, a probability and statistics method was used to propose an intrinsic link between vehicle dimension and platform dimension, an intrinsic link between the dimensions of a vehicle. The proportion of coordination in different styles of models was analyzed also. A reference method was provided for the subsequent development models to define the dimension of the vehicle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0293
Yaamini Devi Loganathan
Abstract Indian automobile production increased at a CAGR of 12.2% over FY05-FY13, with a decline in Commercial Vehicle (CV) growth rate during FY09 and FY13. Globally, automotive industry suffered a decline in FY09 due to the global financial crisis and again on a decline in FY12 due to the European sovereign debt crisis. Apart from the global events, there are various internal risks the Indian OEMs need to consider: 1) regulatory risk due to excise duty hikes, decontrol of fuel pricing, etc., 2) market risks due to currency, inflation, interest rates, material cost, 3) industry risks due to increased competition, price war, etc. In this scenario, Indian Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) need to constantly recalibrate their strategies to the changing market dynamics and associated risks. A research on megatrends affecting the Indian CV industry has identified more focus on Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) as one of the megatrend.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0130
Julio Rodriguez, Ken Rogich, Philip Pidgeon, Kim Alexander, John R. Wagner
Abstract Driving skills and driving experience develop differently between a civilian and a military service member. Since 2000, the Department of Defense reports that two-thirds of non-related to war fatalities among active duty service members were due to transportation-related incidents. In addition, vehicle crashes are the leading non-related to war cause of both fatalities and serious injuries among active duty Marines. A pilot safe driving program for Marines was jointly developed by the Richard Petty Driving Experience and Clemson University Automotive Safety Research Institute. The pilot program includes four modules based on leading causes of vehicle crashes, and uses classroom and behind the wheel components to improve and reinforce safe driving skills and knowledge. The assessment results of this pilot program conducted with 192 Marines in September 2011 at Camp LeJeune, NC are presented and discussed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0137
Ying Fan
Abstract Accurate risk prioritizing is directly related to the effectiveness of risk management. To overcome the shortage of the single numerical evaluation value, aiming at improving the accuracy of risk factors, a new risk priority method was proposed based on geometric characteristics of triangular fuzzy number and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). This method was established on the basis of the fuzzy description of risk factors from experts, after the risk evaluation system was established. Then the fuzzy description of risk was processed with AHP, and fuzzy weights of risk factors were obtained and calculated it by using the geometric characteristics of triangular fuzzy number. Finally, the detailed ranking of risk factors by severity, probability and detection of risk was obtained. The risk priority of forklift system was processed to analyze the feasibility of this method.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0144
Diljith Muthuvana, Renuka prasad
Abstract System Engineering is a broad concept that can be applied to any business case to help transform the engineering and the organizational needs into understandable, unambiguous, achievable tasks with a fixed time-line. In today's dynamics of the demanding business needs it has become inevitable to think for solutions that guarantee faster delivery while maintaining the quality standards. Traditional processes tend to fall back when implemented to satisfy the challenges faced by engineers in real world while achieving the business need. Many processes have evolved based on the lessons learnt while organization strives towards continuous improvement and adhering to quality standards. Agile, Lean, Kanban are few proven set of principles and practices that has helped to deliver expected results.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0157
M Abu Anas Shuvom, M Zahurul Haq
Abstract As combustion can vary widely between engine cycles if left uncontrolled, strict and robust control is required to meet optimum performance at different operating conditions. In this research, intelligent control techniques implemented on a Gasoline Direct Compression Injection (GDCI/GDI) engine. A research four cylinder 2.0 L GDI engine modeled with optimal control hardware that is frequently called as the conceptual Cybernetic intelligent GDI or ‘iGDI’ engine. The engine features Free Valve Actuation (FVA) hardware and precision fuel injector connected directly to the engine cylinder that found assistive for control flexibility by technical assessments. Then a mechatronic neural control approach is proposed and discussed with adaptive control techniques. Adaptive and predictive neural network control architectures developed for two distinct plant operation modes.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0167
Amrut A. Patki
Abstract Feature Addition or Enhancement is a necessary fragment of product development. Feature Addition or Enhancement is a result of one of the following: scope addition to new product development or customer requirement on current products. When it comes to Scope Addition, most of the times, first phase design and engineering will have been completed. Feature Addition or Enhancement because of scope addition is done to improve quality, cost or marketability. Current or future customer request for a feature addition or enhancement to meet their needs leads to customer requirement Feature Addition or Enhancement. Most of the times, vehicle has already been launched and design is frozen. In both the cases, design and engineering is challenged by Time, Effort and Cost. Model Based Design approach helps save some time for implementation. It also helps to improve required effort and reduces the cost of the feature by optimization.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1664
Amardeep Singh, Anindya Deb, Amit Mohan Mensi, Ranga Srinivas Gunti
Despite the considerable advancements made in the applications of CAE for evaluation of an IC engine, an integrated approach to the design of such engines based on thermo-mechanical considerations appears to be lacking. The usage of heterogeneous tools for thermal, mechanical and vibration analysis in the industry decreases the efficiency of the product development process. In an effort to reduce this bottleneck, a unified framework is presented here according to which heat transfer and thermo-mechanical stress analysis of a four-stroke single cylinder diesel engine is carried out in a unified manner with the aid of a multi-physics explicit finite element analysis tool, LS-DYNA, with robust contact interfaces leading to a realistic representation of engine dynamics.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0980
Katsuya Minami, Yasuhiro Yoshimi
Abstract This study aims to build a conceptual simulation used at the early stage of PHEV development. This simulation enables to design vehicle concept and fundamental architecture with regard to fuel economy, vehicle acceleration and electric range. The model based on forward-looking method comprises of plant-model and controller-model which are made by one-dimensional simulation tool “GT-SUITE” and Matlab/SIMULINK respectively. In order to automatically couple between them and to implement iterative calculations of SOC (State-of-Charge) convergence, optimization and automation tool “modeFRONTIER” was used. As a case study of this simulation, we adopted series-parallel type plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and demonstrated the results on fuel economy of a legislative driving cycle and 0-60mph vehicle acceleration.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0461
Dennis Craggs
Abstract Automobile companies recognized the need to understand how customers use their vehicles. To this end, telediagnostic modules were installed on fleet vehicles, with the consent of the owner, to collect and store usage data. This data was uploaded to a server when the module was able to communicate via Wi-Fi. The volume of data is enormous. The size of a single vehicle file can be over six gigabytes, contain millions of records, and contain hundreds of millions of measurements. Each vehicle needs to be analyzed and the results from different vehicles combined to determine typical and extreme vehicle usage. With hundreds or thousands of vehicles to be analyzed, the analytic task is daunting. To analyze continuous data, like speed, frequency histograms have been used. It will be shown here that the cumulative percentile histogram provides better information and can display single and multiple vehicle usage patterns.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0131
Nick Smith
Abstract Demand for increased functionality in automotive electrical/electronic (E/E) systems is being propelled by both customers and various governmental regulations and requirements. This demand for more capabilities also introduces new challenges for OEMs who are responsible for implementing these functions. Of course, the cost of system development and manufacturing are considerable, but there are challenges beyond cost that the OEM must deal with, such as increased weight, reliability and quality concerns, exponentially-increasing complexity, and the government requirements. From the point of view of the electrical system platform as a whole, it provides the unique role of integrating all the individual E/E systems. When integrated, unanticipated problems can emerge that require design modifications. Often, these are discovered way down the design path, which results in delays in the program that can lead to missed deadlines and costly rework.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0242
Nick Smith
Abstract Correct-by-construction design processes can be dramatically enhanced using simulation techniques, especially early in the design process. But simulation is too often the preserve of specialist staff, who may work disconnected from day-to-day design updates. This paper highlights simulation and analysis tools that can be used by every electrical engineer, addressing topics ranging from functional verification to component sizing to failure modes and effects analysis. Furthermore, valuable results can be obtained with the simplest of models; and the models themselves can mature as the organization's use of simulation matures.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0411
Richard K. Stobart, W. Ethan Eagle, Xunzhe Zhang
Abstract Panel Discussions held at the SAE World Congress in both 2013 and 2014 observed that a shortage of good quality engineering talent formed a chronic and major challenge. (“Good quality” refers to applicants that would be shortlisted for interview.) While doubts have been expressed in some quarters, the shortage is confirmed by automotive sector employers and the Panel's view was that it was symptomatic of a range of issues, all of which have some bearing on the future of the profession. Initiatives to improve recruitment and retention have had varying degrees of success. Efforts need to be intensified in primary schools where negative perceptions develop and deepen. Schemes like AWIM that operate on a large scale and are designed to supplement school curricula should operate at an international level. Universities represent the entry point into the engineering profession and their role in the recruitment process as well as education and training is crucial.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1255
Michael Pontoppidan, Jose G. C. Baeta
Abstract The paper presents a layout of a highly boosted Ethanol Direct Injected (EDI) engine with extreme downsizing, which represents a powerful means to reduce emissions at reduced production costs. The substitution of high-displacement engines (2.4- or 3.0-liter) by a downsized turbocharged EDI-engine is studied. The paper describes the detailed layout of all engine hardware and in particular, the cylinder head structure including the optimized intake and exhaust manifolds as well as implemented DI injectors. The paper continues with a presentation of the experimental data obtained at the engine test rig. The paper concludes presenting a series of experimental data obtained with the downsized engine mounted in a car as a replacement for its original high-displacement engine.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0972
Alexander Pawlowski, Derek Splitter
Abstract It is well known that spark ignited engine performance and efficiency is closely coupled to fuel octane number. The present work combines historical and recent trends in spark ignition engines to build a database of engine design, performance, and fuel octane requirements over the past 80 years. The database consists of engine compression ratio, required fuel octane number, peak mean effective pressure, specific output, and combined unadjusted fuel economy for passenger vehicles and light trucks. Recent trends in engine performance, efficiency, and fuel octane number requirement were used to develop correlations of fuel octane number utilization, performance, specific output. The results show that historically, engine compression ratio and specific output have been strongly coupled to fuel octane number.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0974
Aaron Brooker, Jeffrey Gonder, Sean Lopp, Jacob Ward
Abstract The Automotive Deployment Options Projection Tool (ADOPT) is a light-duty vehicle consumer choice and stock model supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office. It estimates technology improvement impacts on future U.S. light-duty vehicles sales, petroleum use, and greenhouse gas emissions. ADOPT uses techniques from the multinomial logit method and the mixed logit method to estimate vehicle sales. Specifically, it estimate sales based on the weighted value of key attributes including vehicle price, fuel cost, acceleration, range and usable volume. The average importance of several attributes changes nonlinearly across its range and changes with income. For several attributes, a distribution of importance around the average value is used to represent consumer heterogeneity. The majority of existing vehicle makes, models, and trims are included to fully represent the market. The Corporate Average Fuel Economy regulations are enforced.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1701
Luciano Lukacs
Abstract The challenges around global products have been lately one of the key challenges for the lighting community. This paper will present a survey which was held with costumers from China, India, Europe and Brazil understanding the difference and similarities regarding the lighting attributes. It brings also a discussion how to develop a lamp globally that fulfils everyone's needs and addresses potential trade-offs in design and performance.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0463
Kasiraja Thangapandian, Immanuel Rajkumar
Abstract In recent years the automotive industry is facing unprecedented influx of new technology advancements and ever-increasing consumer demands for media, entertainment and connectivity applications. This drives the automotive industry to deliver the products at a faster pace, thereby reducing time to market which results in issues from end users and dealers. Automotive industries are striving hard to keep pace with these radical changes with increase in software and electronics which in turn necessitates a systematic and effective software engineering approach to deliver high quality product from the core embedded software industry. This paper details how embedded software projects are developed globally and customer issues are collected and analyzed. It also discuss about the method used for performing effective Root cause analysis for identifying the systemic issues and formulating the systemic improvement actions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0160
Ingo Stürmer, Elke Salecker
Model-based software development is a well-established software development process and recognized by ISO26262 [1] as allowing for highly consistent and efficient development. Nevertheless, enhancing a model-based development process in such a way that it is compliant with the ISO26262 safety standard is a challenging task. To achieve ISO26262 compliance, the development team of a safety-related software project faces a multitude of additional requirements for the development process without a corresponding increase of the project budget to fulfill them. The fact that many of the requirements of ISO26262 are defined in a very generic way such that an interpretation is required further hampers their implementation. We propose a 10-step strategy to achieve an ISO26262 compliant model-based software development process. This strategy relates ISO26262 requirements with state-of-the art methods and approaches currently used for model-based software development.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0271
Fabian Joerg Uwe Koark, Christian Beul
Abstract Functional Safety engineering aligned to an international standard is already a long-lasting discussion. Nevertheless, the requirements of process conformance to assure functional safety have been detailed in description and interpretation. The ISO 26262 is seen as state-of-the-art Functional Safety engineering basement in Europe, the closer interpretation of the IEC 61508 is claimed by assessors in America and Asia. This work shows how stagnation in engineering process improvement is solved by re-engineering projects. The benefits of re-engineering are described in this context. A four month, proven-in-practice project plan is explained. The expected results of such a project are given as generic goals for similar projects. A practice report shows the realistic outcome of such a project for the Chinese automotive industry. The report shows how the motivation of the involved engineers was gained and how existing engineering documentation was used in an efficient way.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0278
Ingo Stürmer, Heiko Doerr, Thomas End
Managing ISO 26262 software development projects is a challenging task. This paper discusses major challenges in managing safety-critical projects from a high-level perspective, i.e. from a manager's point of view. We address managers (directors) with full project responsibility including software and hardware teams. Rather than discussing how to fulfill (technical) requirements stated by the ISO standard, we highlight major challenges and tough decisions a manager has to face on her way from project start up to delivery of the safety case. We discuss important project management topics and best practices such as negotiation issues with the contractor (OEM), selection of the appropriate functional safety manager, general ISO 262626-related project management matters, as well as contractual issues with supplier such as development interface agreement. We discuss the topics on the basis of real-life experience we collected during several ISO 26262 management projects.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0274
John Thomas, John Sgueglia, Dajiang Suo, Nancy Leveson, Mark Vernacchia, Padma Sundaram
Abstract The introduction of new safety critical features using software-intensive systems presents a growing challenge to hazard analysis and requirements development. These systems are rich in feature content and can interact with other vehicle systems in complex ways, making the early development of proper requirements critical. Catching potential problems as early as possible is essential because the cost increases exponentially the longer problems remain undetected. However, in practice these problems are often subtle and can remain undetected until integration, testing, production, or even later, when the cost of fixing them is the highest. In this paper, a new technique is demonstrated to perform a hazard analysis in parallel with system and requirements development. The proposed model-based technique begins during early development when design uncertainty is highest and is refined iteratively as development progresses to drive the requirements and necessary design features.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0416
Howard Evans
Abstract This paper summarises the history of Rochdale Motor Panels and Engineering Ltd. (RMP), established in England after the Second World War, from its origins as a small car-repair business though to the manufacture of sports coupés utilising an innovative glass-fibre monocoque construction. The political climate which caused RMP and similar undertakings to develop and flourish in the 1950s and 60s is explained together with details of the three men who had the defining influence on the cars that were created. Products, including aluminium-bodied cars, produced primarily for racing, are described, leading into the introduction of glass-fibre construction which enabled a profitable transition into higher volume body and chassis manufacture, and ultimately completely assembled cars.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1268
Tomohiro Shinagawa, Masahito Kudo, Wataru Matsubara, Takashi Kawai
Abstract Toyota Motor Corporation is developing a series of engines belonging to its ESTEC (Economy with Superior Thermal Efficient Combustion) development concept. This paper describes the development of 8NR-FTS after the subsequent launch of the 2.0-liter DI Turbocharged 8AR-FTS. 8NR-FTS is a 1.2-liter inline 4-cylinder spark ignition downsized turbocharged direct injection (DI) gasoline engine. By following the same basic concepts as 8AR-FTS engine [1], the 8NR-FTS incorporates various fuel efficient technologies such as a cylinder head with an integrated exhaust manifold, the Atkinson cycle using the center-spooled variable valve timing with mid-position lock system (VVT-iW), and intensified in-cylinder turbulence to achieve high-speed combustion.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1383
Andrew Blum, Richard Thomas Long
Abstract Fires involving cars, trucks, and other highway vehicles are a common concern for emergency responders. In 2013 alone, there were approximately 188,000 highway vehicle fires. Fire Service personnel are accustomed to responding to conventional vehicle (i.e., internal combustion engine [ICE]) fires, and generally receive training on the hazards associated with those vehicles and their subsystems. However, in light of the recent proliferation of electric drive vehicles (EDVs), a key question for emergency responders is, “what is different with EDVs and what tactical adjustments are required when responding to EDV fires?” The overall goal of this research program was to develop the technical basis for best practices for emergency response procedures for EDV battery incidents, with consideration for suppression methods and agents, personal protective equipment (PPE), and clean-up/overhaul operations.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1526
Yasuyuki Onishi, Thomas Ramsay, Timothy Juan, James McKillen
Abstract A sports car exhibits many challenges from an aerodynamic point of view: drag that limits top speed, lift - or down force - and balance that affects handling, brake cooling and insuring that the heat exchangers have enough air flowing through them under several vehicle speeds and ambient conditions. All of which must be balanced with a sports car styling and esthetic. Since this sports car applies two electric motors to drive front axle and a high-rev V6 turbo charged engine in series with a 9-speed double-clutch transmission and one electric motor to drive rear axle, additional cooling was required, yielding a total of ten air cooled-heat exchangers. It is also a challenge to introduce cooling air into the rear engine room to protect the car under severe thermal conditions. This paper focuses on the cooling and heat resistance concept.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0272
Ludovic Pintard, Michel Leeman, Abdelillah Ymlahi-Ouazzani, Jean-Charles Fabre, Karama Kanoun, Matthieu Roy
Abstract The complexity and the criticality of automotive electronic embedded systems are steadily increasing today, and that is particularly the case for software development. The new ISO 26262 standard for functional safety is one of the answers to these challenges. The ISO 26262 defines requirements on the development process in order to ensure the safety. Among these requirements, fault injection (FI) is introduced as a dedicated technique to assess the effectiveness of safety mechanisms and demonstrate the correct implementation of the safety requirements. Our work aims at developing an approach that will help integrate FI in the whole development process in a continuous way, from system requirements to the verification and validation phase.
Viewing 31 to 60 of 13139

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