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Viewing 31 to 60 of 13105
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1268
Tomohiro Shinagawa, Masahito Kudo, Wataru Matsubara, Takashi Kawai
Toyota has developed a new 1.2-liter and 2.0-liter inline 4-cylinder engine called the ESTEC, a downsized turbocharged gasoline direct injection engine with superior thermal efficient combustion. This engine features a combination of a cylinder head with an integrated exhaust manifold and a turbocharger, and achieves high-speed combustion using a fan spray direct and port injection system and a high in-cylinder tumble ratio. The engine also adopts the Atkinson cycle using Toyota’s new center-spooled VVT with mid-position lock system (VVT-iW), crankcase ventilation using an ejector under boosted conditions, and heat management systems. This engine is capable of both seamless and invigorating acceleration while also ensuring superior thermal efficiency.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0461
Dennis Craggs
Analyze vehicle usage parameters with distribution free methods. Engineers are familiar with displaying vehicle data with interval count or percentile histograms. A cumulative time or mileage based histogram provides a direct visual means of characterizing the vehicle history. Combining the histograms from many vehicles results in a complex virtually unreadable plot. An alternative approach is to determine the 5%, median, and 95% usage and plot as a cumulative histogram . These provide design engineers with useful information to develop validation tests.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0131
Nick Smith
Abstract Demand for increased functionality in automotive electrical/electronic (E/E) systems is being propelled by both customers and various governmental regulations and requirements. This demand for more capabilities also introduces new challenges for OEMs who are responsible for implementing these functions. Of course, the cost of system development and manufacturing are considerable, but there are challenges beyond cost that the OEM must deal with, such as increased weight, reliability and quality concerns, exponentially-increasing complexity, and the government requirements. From the point of view of the electrical system platform as a whole, it provides the unique role of integrating all the individual E/E systems. When integrated, unanticipated problems can emerge that require design modifications. Often, these are discovered way down the design path, which results in delays in the program that can lead to missed deadlines and costly rework.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0148
Georg Macher, Harald Sporer, Eric Armengaud, Christian Kreiner
Abstract Increasing demands for safety, security, and certifiability of embedded automotive systems require additional development effort to generate the required evidences that the developed system can be trusted for the application and environment it is intended for. Safety standards such as ISO 26262 for road vehicles have been established to provide guidance during the development of safety-critical systems. The challenge in this context is to provide evidence of consistency, correctness, and completeness of system specifications over different work-products. One of these required work-products is the hardware-software interface (HSI) definition. This work-product is especially important since it defines the interfaces between different technologies. Model-based development (MBD) is a promising approach to support the description of the system under development in a more structured way, thus improving resulting consistency.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0472
Rongchao Jiang, Dengfeng Wang
The powertrain system has significant impacts on the power performance and fuel consumption of commercial trucks. However, there is usually a contradiction between the power performance and fuel economy during the parameter optimization of the powertrain system. The common method to deal with this contradiction is to integrate all the criteria for power performance and fuel economy into a single performance index according to weights of each criterion, which may be difficult to obtain a desired result. Therefore, a comprehensive methodology based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is presented in this paper to achieve parameter optimization for the powertrain system of a self-dumping truck, with the aim of reducing fuel consumption and improving power performance. In this paper, the vehicle performance simulation model of this self-dumping truck was created using AVL-Cruise software.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0475
Truong Nguyen, John Bell
Title: The Benefit of Co-Developing Vehicle Electrical & Electronic Architecture between OEM and Supplier Author: Truong Nguyen and John Bell Company: Yazaki North America Inc. Modern automotive electrical architecture is comprised of the battery and charging system, power distribution boxes, electronic control units, electronic devices, grounds, and the means of connecting all of these together - the wire harness or Electrical Distribution System (EDS). Current architecture design practices fix the packaging locations of the electronics and the EDS is designed and routed to fit in the limited remaining available physical space. As automotive electrical content and complexity increases so does the weight, size, and cost of the EDS. As Corporate Average Fuel Economy regulations become stricter it becomes imperative to optimize the weight, cost, and manufacturability of a vehicle.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1272
Jeffrey Jocsak, David White, Cedric Armand, Richard S. Davis
General Motors has developed an all-new Ecotec 1.5 L range extender engine for use in the 2016 next generation Voltec propulsion system. This engine is part of a new Ecotec family of small displacement gasoline engines introduced in the 2015 model year. Major enhancements over the range extender engine in the current generation Voltec propulsion system include the adoption of direct injection (DI), cooled external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and a high 12.5:1 geometric compression ratio (CR). Additional enhancements include the adoption of high-authority phasers on both the intake and exhaust camshafts, and an integrated exhaust manifold (IEM). The combination of DI with cooled EGR has enabled significant thermal efficiency gains over the 1.4 L range extender engine in the current generation Voltec propulsion system at high engine loads.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0783
Raphael Gukelberger, Jess Gingrich, Terrence Alger, Steven Almaraz, Bradley Denton
The ongoing pursuit of improved engine efficiency and emissions are driving gasoline low-pressure loop EGR systems into production around the globe. The Dedicated EGR (D-EGR®) engine was invented to minimize the inevitable downsides of cooled EGR while maintaining its advantages. The D-EGR engine is a patented, cost-effective, high efficiency, low emissions internal combustion engine for automotive and off-highway applications. The core of this engine’s development focuses on a unique concept that combines the efficiency improvements associated with recirculated exhaust gas and the efficiency improvements associated with fuel reformation. A turbocharged 2.0 L PFI engine was modified to operate in both modes to outline the differences of the new engine concept with a conventional LPL EGR setup. The first part of the cooled EGR engine concept comparison investigates efficiency, emissions, combustion stability, and robustness at throttled part load conditions.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1103
Taiki Ando, Tooru Yagasaki, Shuji Ichijo, Kyohei Sakagami, Soichiro Sumida
We studied the reduction of pulley thrust and the deviation of the winding trajectory of the pushing V-belt on the pulleys to reduce friction loss due to slipping in metal pushing V-belt. Pulley thrust control, the amount of friction transmitted between the pulleys and the metal pushing V-belt, and a configuration that controls pulley inclination were three focal points in reducing transmission loss. The effects of the three methods of increasing transmission efficiency in OD ratio during cruising studied in this project were verified in tests. The new pulley thrust control employed reduced pulley thrust by approximately 40% and increased transmission efficiency by 2.6%. The trajectory of the pushing V-belt when it winds around the pulleys deviates from the theoretical winding radius due to the inclination of the pulley v-surfaces.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1208
Sinisa Jurkovic, Khwaja Rahman, Nitin Patel, Peter Savagian
The Chevrolet Volt is an electric vehicle with extended-range that is capable of operation on battery power alone, and on engine power after depletion of the battery charge. Since its introduction in 2011, Chevrolet Volts have been driven over half a billion miles: 63% as electric vehicles and 37% in extended range driving. For 2016, GM has developed the secon-generation of the Volt vehicle and “Voltec” propulsion system. The second-generation of Volt electric propulsion system is built on two electric machines; both interior permanent magnet type. While hybrid-electric vehicles are gaining in popularity in hopes of addressing cleaner, energy sustainable technology in transportation, materials sustainability and rare earth dependence mitigation has not been the first priority in the hybrids available on the market today.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0452
Junqi Yang, Zhenfei Zhan, Chong Chen, Yajing Shu, Ling Zheng, Ren-Jye Yang, Yan Fu, Saeed Barbat
Simulation based design optimization has become the common practice in automotive product development. Increasing computer models are developed to simulate various dynamic systems. Before applying these models for product development, model validation needs to be conducted to assess their validity. In model validation, for the purpose of obtaining results successfully, it is vital to select or develop appropriate metrics for specific applications. For dynamic systems, one of the key obstacles of model validation is that most of the responses are functional, such as time history curves. This calls for the development of a metric that can evaluate the differences in terms of phase shift, magnitude and shape, which requires information from both time and frequency domain. And by representing time histories in frequency domain, more intuitive information can be obtained, such as magnitude-frequency and phase-frequency characteristics.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0460
Saket Kansara, Sumeet Parashar, Zhendan Xue
Increased sophistication of engineering simulation tools, availability of computing power and demand for optimization is steering engineers towards multi-objective and multi-disciplinary formulation. It is becoming common to see problem setup with hundreds of input parameters, many objective functions and constraints. While modern optimization algorithms and software tools are able to handle large scale problems and generate even larger datasets, it is a challenge to analyze such large data sets and make effective decisions. Decision making is especially challenging when one has multiple objectives of conflicting nature. Pareto frontier solutions for two or three objective space are easy to visualize and comprehend, however, as the number of objectives increase, it becomes more and more difficult to understand and analyze trade-offs from the results coming out of optimization.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0470
Joanna Rakowska, Amir Chator, Bruno Barthelemy, Michael Lee, Shawn Morgans, Jeffrey Laya, Gregory Zinn, Ching-Hung Chuang, Sreekanth Reddy Gondipalle
Designing a vehicle body involves meeting numerous performance requirements related to different attributes such as NVH, Durability, Safety, and others. Multi-Disciplinary Optimization (MDO) is an efficient way to develop a design that optimizes vehicle performance while minimizing the weight. Since a body design evolves in course of the product development cycle, it is essential to repeat the MDO process several times as the design matures and more accurate data become available. This paper presents a real life application of the MDO process to reduce weight while optimizing performance over the design cycle of the 2015 Mustang. The paper discusses the timing and results of the applied Multi-Disciplinary Optimization process. The attributes considered during optimization include Safety, Durability and Body NVH. Several iterations of MDO have been performed at different milestones in the design cycle leading to significant weight savings of more than 11kg.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0474
Henric Pettersson, Maria Rodiouchkina, Gerald Micklow, Hamid Hefazi
The automotive industry today is struggling an ever increasing number of complex and often conflicting requirements. Automotive manufacturers strive to compress vehicle design cycle time, lower the weight and cost of the vehicle in the same time as improve product performance, safety, quality, and reliability. To satisfy these requirements, the industry has an increasingly reliance on the use of more formal and structured approaches to design, analyze and optimize. The designing of advanced automotive engineering systems is done simultaneously over a wide spectrum of different disciplines such as powerplant, drivetrain, chassis, safety, electronics and economy. If an optimization on such a system could be done to find an optimal design in the beginning of the system design, it could prevent the changes later on in the design sequence and eliminate costly time consuming changes from taking place Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) offers methods for that specific purpose.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0468
Mingxian Wang, Wei Chen, Yan Fu, Yong Yang
Being the world’s largest auto producer and consumer, China is becoming the most promising but complex market given the country’s rapid economic growth, huge population, and many regional and segment preference differences. This research is aimed at developing data-driven demand models for customer preference analysis and prediction under a competitive market environment. Regional analysis is first used to understand the impact of geographical factors on customer preference. Advanced multivariate analysis techniques are then employed to reduce a set of survey responses to key measures of customer preference. Finally, a new network analysis approach is proposed to model customer cross-shopping behavior that can inform the firm about the implied market structure and product competitive positioning. Our proposed approach is demonstrated by using a rich set of market data collected in China.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1701
Luciano Lukacs
The challenges around global products have been lately one of the key challenges for the Lighting community. This paper will present a survey which was held with costumers from China, India, Europe and Brazil understanding the difference and similarities regarding the lighting attributes. it brings also a discussion how to develop a lamp globally that fulfils everyone's needs and addresses potential trade-offs in design and performance.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0160
Ingo Stürmer, Elke Salecker
Developing software components in compliance with ISO 26262 is a challenging task. The ISO standard recognizes model-based development as a preferential development approach and recommends the use of model-based design in order to reduce possible software errors and improve software quality. The ISO standard recommends which techniques and methods should be used, but not how they should be applied or how these methods and techniques can be mapped to a company-specific development process. This paper describes a straightforward approach for achieving ISO 26262-compliant model-based software components in 10 steps. These steps include test-focused requirements, test coverage on integration level, modeling guidelines and model reviews, definition of the tool chain, as well as development process and software unit specification.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0278
Ingo Stürmer, Heiko Doerr, Thomas End
Managing ISO 26262 software development projects is a challenging task. This paper discusses major challenges in managing safety-critical projects from a high-level perspective, i.e. from a manager’s point of view. We address managers (directors) with full project responsibility including software and hardware teams. Rather than discussing how to fulfill (technical) requirements stated by the ISO standard, we highlight major challenges and tough decisions a manager has to face on her way from project start up to delivery of the safety case. We discuss important project management topics and best practices such as negotiation issues with the contractor (OEM), selection of the appropriate functional safety manager, general ISO 262626-related project management matters, as well as contractual issues with supplier such as development interface agreement. We discuss the topics on the basis of real-life experience we collected during several ISO 26262 management projects.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0325
Alberto Boretti
Abstract The paper discusses the benefits of a four stroke engine having one intake and one exhaust rotary valve. The rotary valve has a speed of rotation half the crankshaft and defines an open passage that may permit up to extremely sharp opening or closing and very large gas exchange areas. This design also permits central direct injection and ignition by spark or jets. The dual rotary valve design is applied to a naturally aspirated V-four engine of 1000cc displacement, gasoline, methane or hydrogen fuelled with central direct injection and spark ignition. The engine is modeled by using a 1D engine & gas dynamics simulation software package to assess the potentials of the solution. The novelty in the proposed dual rotary valve system is the combustion chamber of good shape and high compression ratio with central direct injector and spark plug or jet ignition, coupled to the large gas exchange areas of the rotary system.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0157
M Abu Anas Shuvom, M Zahurul Haq
As combustion can vary widely between engine cycles if left uncontrolled, strict and robust control is required to meet optimum performance at different operating conditions. In this research, intelligent control techniques implemented on a Gasoline Direct Compression Injection (GDCI/GDI) engine. A research four cylinder 2.0 L GDI engine is modeled with optimal control hardware that is frequently called as the conceptual Cybernetic intelligent GDI or ‘iGDI’ engine. The engine features Free Variable Valve Timing and Lift (FVVTL) hardware and precision fuel injector connected directly to the engine cylinder found assistive for control flexibility with technical assessments. Then a mechatronic neural control approach is proposed and discussed with adaptive control techniques. Adaptive and predictive neural network control architectures are discussed on two distinct plant operation modes.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0168
Steffen Lampke, Simon Schliecker, Dirk Ziegenbein, Arne Hamann
The underlying theories of, both, control engineering and real-time systems engineering, assume idealized system abstractions that mutually neglect central aspects of the other discipline. Control engineering theory, on the one hand, usually assumes jitter free sampling and insignificant (constant) input-output latencies disregarding complex real-world timing effects. Real-time engineering theory, on the other hand, uses abstract performance and resource models that neglect the functional behavior, and derives worst-case situations that have little expressiveness for control functionalities in automotive systems. As a consequence, there is a lot of potential for a systematic co-engineering between both disciplines, increasing design efficiency and confidence. We have taken a standard control-engineering tool (Simulink) and combined it with state-of-the-art real-time system design and analysis tools (SymTA/S and TraceAnalyzer from Symtavision).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0178
James Price
AUTOSAR 4.0.3 is now being deployed by many of the world’s top automotive OEMs and seeing increased adoption in regions outside of Europe. OEMs exert significant effort in the design, migration, configuration, integration, generation, and in the final build of AUTOSAR-based systems. The presentation gives an overview how to successfully adopt an AUTOSAR design methodology and how to manage the digital interaction  between Tier 1 suppliers and OEMs
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1383
Andrew Blum, Richard Thomas Long
Fires involving cars, trucks, and other highway vehicles are a common concern for emergency responders. In 2013 alone, there were approximately 188,000 highway vehicle fires. Fire Service personnel are accustomed to responding to conventional vehicle (i.e., internal combustion engine [ICE]) fires, and generally receive training on the hazards associated with those vehicles and their subsystems. However, in light of the recent proliferation of electric drive vehicles (EDVs), a key question for emergency responders is, “what is different with EDVs and what tactical adjustments are required when responding to EDV fires?” The overall goal of this research program was to develop the technical basis for best practices for emergency response procedures for EDV battery incidents, with consideration for suppression methods and agents, personal protective equipment (PPE), and clean-up/overhaul operations.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1526
Yasuyuki Onishi, Thomas Ramsay, Timothy Juan, James McKillen
A sports car exhibits many challenges from an aerodynamic point of view: drag that limits top speed, lift - or down force - and balance that affects handling, brake cooling and insuring that the heat exchangers have enough air flowing through them under several vehicle speeds and ambient conditions. All of which must be balanced with a sports car styling and esthetic. Since this sports car applies two electric motors to drive front axle and a high-rev V6 turbo charged engine in series with a 9-speed double-clutch transmission and one electric motor to drive rear axle, additional cooling was required, yielding a total of ten air cooled-heat exchangers. It is also a challenge to introduce cooling air into the rear engine room to protect the car under severe thermal conditions. This paper focuses on the cooling and heat resistance concept.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0167
Amrut A. Patki
Abstract Feature Addition or Enhancement is a necessary fragment of product development. Feature Addition or Enhancement is a result of one of the following: scope addition to new product development or customer requirement on current products. When it comes to Scope Addition, most of the times, first phase design and engineering will have been completed. Feature Addition or Enhancement because of scope addition is done to improve quality, cost or marketability. Current or future customer request for a feature addition or enhancement to meet their needs leads to customer requirement Feature Addition or Enhancement. Most of the times, vehicle has already been launched and design is frozen. In both the cases, design and engineering is challenged by Time, Effort and Cost. Model Based Design approach helps save some time for implementation. It also helps to improve required effort and reduces the cost of the feature by optimization.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1175
Norishige Konno, Seiji Mizuno, Hiroya Nakaji, Yuji Ishikawa
Abstract Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC) has been developing fuel cell (FC) technology since 1992, and finally “MIRAI” was launched in 15th Dec. 2014. An important step was achieved with the release of the “FCHV-adv” in 2008. It established major improvements in efficiency, driving range, durability, and cold start capability. However, enhancing performance and further reductions in size and cost are required to facilitate the commercial widespread adoption of fuel cell vehicles (FCVs). TMC met these challenges by developing the world's first FC stack without a humidifying system. This was achieved by the development of an innovative cell flow field structure and membrane electrode assembly (MEA), enabling a compact and high-performance FC stack. Other cost reduction measures incorporated by the FC stack include reducing the amount of platinum in the catalyst by two-thirds and adopting a carbon nano-coating for the separator surface treatment.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0272
Ludovic Pintard, Michel Leeman, Abdelillah Ymlahi-Ouazzani, Jean-Charles Fabre, Karama Kanoun, Matthieu Roy
The complexity and the criticality of automotive electronic embedded systems are steadily increasing today, and that is particularly the case for software development. The new ISO 26262 standard for functional safety is one of the answers to these challenges. The ISO 26262 defines requirements on the development process in order to ensure the safety. Among these requirements, Fault Injection (FI) is introduced as a dedicated technique to assess the effectiveness of the safety mechanisms and demonstrate the correct implementation of the safety requirements. Our work aims at developing an approach that will help integrate FI in the whole development process in a continuous way, from system requirements to the verification and validation phase. This leads us to explore the benefits of safety analyses (FMEA, FTA, CPA or FFI Analysis…) for the definition of the test plan and particularly define efficient FI tests cases.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0094
Supakit Rooppakhun, Pornporm Boonporm, Worawat Puangcha-um
Abstract In this study, the method of analyzing the thin-wall crashing box of impact attenuator for student formula is proposed by the means of simulation and validation following Formula Society of Automotive Engineers-SAE rules. The analysis was performed based on computerized simulation software for calculated the absorption capacity of the simple and multiple cell of thin-walled tubes. The effect of thin-wall thickness consisted of 1.2 mm, 1.6 mm and 2.0 mm was also evaluated. The simulation results as energy absorption, crashing force efficiency, and absorbed energy per unit mass were identified among nine patterns. According to the results, the increase of interior cell number and the wall thickness contribute the absorbed energy ability. However, the increment of wall thickness lead to the increase of crashing force magnitude. Regarding the kinetic energy, a 2×2 multiple cell box with the thickness of 2 mm is designated for construction and verify.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0073
Hayden Charles Smith, Sam Paterson, Clara Mazzone, Sammy Diasinos, Graham Doig
Abstract The Sunswift Solar Car project has been running at UNSW Australia in Sydney for 20 years as of 2015. It is an entirely student-run endeavour which revolves around the design and development of a solar/electric vehicle nominally designed to compete in the World Solar Challenge rally from Darwin to Adelaide every 2 years. The student cohort is drawn from a range of schools, disciplines and backgrounds, and the team has been increasingly successful and high-profile particularly in its second decade. The excellent level of hands-on training that the project provides to students is not rewarded with academic credit yet many of the alumni credit the project with launching their careers and ambitions. The team's world record-breaking latest vehicle, eVe, is the fifth constructed and presents a radical departure from previous cars in that it carries a passenger in a conventional layout and is based around a road-going sports car.
2015-02-26
WIP Standard
AS6171/7
The scope of this document is to: 1. Specify techniques to detect suspect SFC parts using electrical testing. 2. Provide various levels of electrical testing that can be used by end user to define test plans for detecting SFC parts. 3. Provide guidelines to end users for determining which test houses have the necessary capabilities. (i.e., equipment, procedures and protocols) for performing electrical testing for authenticity analysis.
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