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2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2886
Kebing Tang, Li He, Yao Zhao, Heinz Friz, Bo Li
Abstract The development of a new Dongfeng Heavy truck had very strict targets for fuel consumption. As the aerodynamic drag plays a crucial role for the fuel consumption, a low drag value had to be achieved. It was therefore essential to include evaluation and optimization of the aerodynamics in the development process. Because wind tunnel facilities were not available, the complete aerodynamics development was based on digital simulation. The major portion of the aerodynamic optimization was carried out during the styling phase where mirrors, sun visor, front bumper and aero devices were optimized for drag reduction. For optimizing corner vanes and mud guards, self-soiling from the wheel spray was included in the analysis. The aero results did also show that cooling air flow rates are sufficiently high to ensure proper cooling. During the detailed engineering phase an increase of the drag above the target required further optimization work to finally reach the target.
2015-09-29
WIP Standard
ARP6348
This document provides additional guidance on performing lifetime assessments and mitigations for ARP6338. It is intended for use by designers, reliability engineers, and others associated with the design, production, and support of electronic sub-assemblies, assemblies, and equipment used in ADHP applications.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2860
Xinyu Ge, Jonathan Jackson
The application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the automotive industry can dramatically reshape the industry. In past decades, many Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) applied neural network and pattern recognition technologies to powertrain calibration, emission prediction and virtual sensor development. The AI application is mostly focused on reducing product development and validation cost. AI technologies in these applications demonstrate certain cost-saving benefits, but are far from disruptive. A disruptive impact can be realized when AI applications finally bring cost-saving benefits directly to end users (e.g., automation of a vehicle or machine operation could dramatically improve the efficiency). However, there is still a gap between current technologies and those that can fully give a vehicle or machine intelligence, including reasoning, knowledge, planning and self-learning.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2864
Xinyu Ge, Jarrett Corcoran, Paul Gamble
With stringent emission regulations, many subsystems that abate engine tailpipe-out emissions become a necessary part for engines. The increased level of complexity poses technical challenges for the quality and reliability for modern engines. Among the spectrum of quality control methodologies, one conventional methodology focuses on every component's quality to ensure that the accumulative deviation is within predetermined limits. This conventional methodology tightens the component tolerance during the manufacturing process and typically results in increased cost. Another conventional methodology that is on the other side of the spectrum focuses on tailoring an engine calibration solution to offset the manufacturing differences. Although the tailored engine calibration solution reduces manufacturing cost for components, it increases the development and validation cost for engines.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2878
Peter Subke, Michael Eberl
Abstract SAE J1939 is the synonym for a CAN-based in-vehicle network for heavy-duty road-vehicles (trucks and buses) and non-road mobile machinery (NRMM). The SAE J1939 standards collection consists of 18 parts and 2 digital annexes. SAE J1939-21 (Data Link Layer) describes the data link layer using the CAN protocol with 29-bit identifiers, SAE J1939-73 (Application Layer – Diagnostics) includes the specification of diagnostic messages (DMs). The software components of external test equipment can be described by software interfaces (APIs). ISO 22900 (Modular Vehicle Communication Interface) contains the description of the D-Server that comes with the D-Server API for the diagnostic application and the D-PDU API for the connection to the in-vehicle network (e.g. CAN). ISO 22901-2 (D-PDU API) references SAE J1939-73 and SAE J1939-21 as “Truck and Bus CAN”. D-Server based external test equipment is powered by data which is described in ODX.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2863
Yogesh Sharma, Rohit Kumar Garg, Rishabh Raj Bhargava, Aadityeshwar Saran Singh Deo, Aditya Krishna, Shubham Garg, Rahul Mehendiratta, Ankit Goila
There has been a rapid increase in popularity of multipurpose All-terrain vehicles (ATV) across the globe over the past few years. SAE BAJA event gives student-community an opportunity to delve deeper into the nitty-gritty of designing a single seat, four-wheeled off road vehicle. The design and development methodology presented in this paper is useful in conceptualization of an ATV for SAE BAJA event. The vehicle is divided into various subsystems including chassis, suspension, drive train, steering, and braking system. Further these subsystems are designed and comprehensively analyzed in software like SolidWorks, ANSYS, WINGEO and MS-Excel. The 3-D model of roll cage is designed in SolidWorks and analyzed in ANSYS 9.0 for front, rear and side impact along with front and side roll-over conditions. Special case of wheel bump is also analyzed. Weight, wall thickness and bending strength of tubing used for roll cage are comprehensively studied.
2015-09-29
WIP Standard
J386
This standard provides performance and test requirements for operator restraint systems provided for off-road self-propelled work machines. This document applies to pelvic restraint systems (Type 1) for off-road, self-propelled work machines fitted with ROPS and commonly used in construction, earthmoving, forestry, and mining as referred to in SAE J1040 and industrial machines fitted with ROPS as referred to in SAE J1042.
2015-09-28
WIP Standard
TB0003A
This Technical Bulletin covers the following areas of concern. Prevention: Actions recommended for procuring parts and materials with a full warranty; Actions recommended for minimizing risks and protecting your Program from counterfeiting; Actions recommended when buying from a non-authorized supplier. Detection: Actions recommended when procuring parts from an unauthorized supplier or otherwise suspect that a part or material at risk of being counterfeit has been procured. Risk Mitigation: Actions recommended when no reasonable alternatives exist (e.g., a redesign is required, an unacceptable schedule delay will result, the program or customer cannot bear the additional cost) and the decision has been made to procure from a non-authorized supplier.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-01-2680
Kazuhiko Tani, Hironori Nakamura
Abstract Combined Brake System for small motorcycles has been developed. In small motorcycles, some models have a hydraulic disc brake both in the front and rear wheels but many of them have a hydraulic disc front brake and a mechanical drum rear brake. Accordingly, it was necessary to develop a new system to link the hydraulic system with the mechanical system to allow an application of Combined Brake System to these models. In this paper, a CBS having a new configuration is described where a disc brake and a drum brake are linked in a simple lever structure of an input force distributor, and an inhibitor spring at the foot pedal. With this mechanism equipped, the distribution of brake forces is controlled. When a large input force is applied, a large proportion of brake force is applied to the front brake to obtain adequate deceleration. When a mild input force is applied, which is frequently operated, the brake force proportion is large in the rear compared to the front.
2015-09-23
Article
Infor Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) Accelerate, powered by Aras, is a new PLM solution designed for automotive, industrial manufacturing, high-tech, and aerospace and defense customers.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0158
Filipe Fabian Buscariolo, Felipe C. Magazoni, Flavio Maruyama, Julio Cesar Lelis Alves, Leonardo D. Volpe
Abstract Aerodynamics plays a key role in nowadays vehicle development, aiming efficiency on fuel consumption, which leads to a green technology. Several initiatives around the world are regulating emissions and efficiency of vehicles such as EURO for European Marketing and the INOVAR Auto Project to be implemented in Brazil on 2017. In order to meet requirements in terms of performance, especially on aerodynamics, automakers are focusing on aero-efficient exterior designs and also adding deflectors, covers, active spoilers and several other features to meet the drag coefficient. Usually, the aerodynamics properties of a vehicle are measured in both CFD simulations and wind tunnels, which provide controlled conditions for the test that could be easily reproduced. During the real operations conditions, external factors can affect the flow over the vehicle such as cross wind in open highways.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0171
André Tognolli, Jamilton Vidal da Silva, Ernani Dorador Martinez, Fabio Santos Batista, Emilio Morales Neto
Abstract Through computational dynamic simulations is possible to achieve high reliability index in the development of automotive components, thereby enabling the reduction of cost and time of a product development with considerable gain in quality. This work suggests the validation of a methodology for simulation where is possible to improve the confidence level for design flexible components, such Heater and Cooling hoses that are under dynamic engine action, in relation to the physical model. Known the difficulty in predicting non-linear mathematical relationship deformation under effect of forces and moments, was established a study based on experimental measurements where were used as input parameters to simulate the dynamic behavior of flexible components, in this case, coolant hoses.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0245
Guilherme Silva, Reinaldo Santos
Abstract Modern customer and legislation requirements have led to a high demand for energy efficient low pollutant engines. Such efficiency is commonly achieved through the deployment of turbochargers, in both Diesel and Otto engines. This strategy, replacing high displacement engines, is a tendency commonly designated as downsizing. This allows higher power outputs, increased energy efficiency and lower emissions allied with lower weight on the vehicle’s power pack. Those turbocharger units consists basically of a compressor connected by a solid shaft to a turbine, which is propelled by the exhaust gases in order to compress (boost) the intake charge air to the engine, increasing pressure in the system. The turbocharger system is commonly a source for synchronous/sub-synchronous noises, as well as compressor or turbine related NVH issues, which must be mitigated in order to fulfill customers’ expectations.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0286
Lincoln Lima, Andre Pereira, Jose Lincoln Cavalcanti, Mauricio Kawano, Roberto Ferreira
Abstract In the vehicle development, part design has a huge influence in its mass, cost and performance. In addition, the part design can be helpful to solve some structure issues such as sheet metal cracks and boom noise, and at the same time achieving the project requirements in performance tests as crash, durability, noise and vibration (N&V) etc. Some design changes as adding reinforcements in the structure and increase the part thickness are largely used by the design engineers. On the other hand, these changes has a great potential for increase mass, cost and affect directly the fuel consumption, which are very sensitive factors for the OEM′s. In order to achieve its target some options may be considered like the use of aluminum or premium material such as Advance High Strength Steel (AHSS) or Pre Hardened Steel (PHS), which has a high cost considering the common sheet metal used in the vehicle structures.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0324
André Baroni Selim, Airton Nabarrete
Abstract The combustion engines evolution leads the engine manufacturers look for developments focused on downsizing, more powerful, lighter, with great fuel consumption and less noisy. With special attention to NVH, specifically to vibration issue, this work aims at studying the influence of mass balancer and inertia forces coming from engine components on internal combustion engine dynamics supported by vibration dampers. For mass balancer study several experimental analyses were performed in a dynamometer. The conclusions are obtained by comparison between measured engine displacements with and without mass balancer. In order to study the influence of inertia forces from engine internal components, a mathematical model was developed. In this model the inertia forces act on a rigid body, supported by four vibration dampers and six degrees of freedom.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0316
Marcelo Luiz Vieira Lóss, Luciana Pisati Jansen
Abstract Costumers today are discerning, savvy, style conscious and extremely well aware of latest design trends and quite naturally, are lot more demanding than any generation before then. The growth in the application of plastic replacing natural leather, fabrics, metallic and ceramic materials, in order to increase productivity and decrease production costs, has been demanding process development to improve quality and not only mirror the appearance of the original materials, with their texture and colors but also presenting new opportunities and alternatives. The Challenge in automotive interior Design for emerging markets are the choice of materials finish, execution and harmony to guarantee customer satisfaction considering that costumers are spending more time on interior vehicles than ever.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0518
Renan Francisco Soares, Francisco José de Souza
Abstract Since the Brazilian government established the Inovar-Auto programme in 2012, the automotive industry has pursued tax savings by signing up for the programme. This new plan (from 2013 to 2017) has three main objectives: fortification of the industry and domestic market; increase incentives for investment and innovation; and enhance energy efficiency of vehicles produced in Brazil. For instance, manufacturers can gain up to 2% extra in IPI tax credits (aside 30% from Inovar-Auto achievements) by producing even more fuel-efficient models. In relation to energy efficiency, the aerodynamic drag over a vehicle contributes to the share of energy requested to promote its movement in high speed. Thus, the drag forces are the major reasons of fuel consumption. In this context, this paper presents a profile comparison of Hatch 2015 cars models produced in Brazil, in regards to drag and geometry features as roof end angle, rear slant angle and rear-end spoiler.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0144
Alisson Sarmento, André Luiz J. Pereira, Bruno Segobi, Fausto Saito, Pedro Maciel
Abstract This paper aims present information regarding Automotive Body in White (BIW) development fundamentals, providing a link between physics fundamentals and real automotive development. An introduction about product development process will be shown in order to allow the reader comprehension about timeline decision process. A properly revision regarding applied loads, body in white materials, safety and virtual/physical validation will be covered. Structural fundamental knowledge has a key role of Design Engineer background mindset to achieve challenges vehicle targets about cost, mass and performance. The paper information provides a clear technical reader understanding how product engineers use structural fundamental theories to design BIW in real design development application. A study of case regarding Front-end tie-bar was used. A real vehicle load application was simulated by CAE analysis.
2015-09-22
WIP Standard
EIA632A
This Standard is intended to enable an enterprise to strengthen its competitiveness in global markets by engineering and producing quality systems, and by delivering its products on time at an affordable price or cost. The focus, therefore, is on conceptualizing, creating and realizing a system and the products that make up a system. This Standards was developed as a joint project of the Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA) and the International Counci on Systems Engineering (INCOSE). This effort was chartered by the G-47 Systems Engineering Committee of EIA and has been designed as Project PN-3537. this Standard has been approved by the EIA Engineering Department Executive Committee.
2015-09-21
Article
Aras Flow features a new Windows 8 mobile tablet app that helps companies accelerate product realization with visual collaboration.
2015-09-21
Article
SsangYong is set on making meaningful inroads into the challenging European market, where aesthetics and engineering need to cohere convincingly to achieve real success. UK CEO Paul Williams describes it as a "challenger brand."
2015-09-18
WIP Standard
AS6171/13
To define capabilities and limitations of SIMS as it pertains to counterfeit detection of EEE parts and suggest possible applications to these ends. Additionally, this document outlines requirements associated with the application of SIMS including: Operator training; Sample preparation; Data interpretation; Equipment maintenance; and Reporting of data.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2401
Michael Schmidt, Philipp Nguyen, Mirko Hornung
Abstract The projected uptick in world passenger traffic challenges the involved stakeholders to optimise the current aviation system and to find new solutions being able to cope with this trend. Since especially large hub airports are congested, operate at their capacity limit and further extensions are difficult to realise. Delays due to late arrival of aircraft or less predictable ground operation processes disrupt the airport operations in a serious way. Various concepts improving the current turnaround processes have been presented thus far, whereby radical aircraft design changes have little chances for realisation in the short term. By maintaining the established overall aircraft configuration, the concepts promote higher probability to become commercially available for aircraft manufactures and operators.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2422
Michele Trancossi, Antonio Dumas, Mauro Madonia, Maharshi Subhash, Jose Pascoa, Shyam Das, Francesco Grimaccia, Chris Bingham, Tim Smith, Dean Vucinic, Anna Sunol
Abstract One of the best airplanes ever realized by the European Aircraft industry was the Dornier Do 28D Skyservant, an extraordinary STOL light utility aircraft with the capability to carry up to 13 passengers. It has been a simple and rugged aircraft capable also of operating under arduous conditions and very easy and simple maintenance. The architecture of this airplane, which has operated actively for more than 20 years, is very interesting analyzing the implementation of a new propulsion system because of the unusual incorporation of two engines, as well as the two main landing gear shock struts of the faired main landing gear attached to short pylons on either side of the forward fuselage. This unconventional design allows an easy implementation of different propulsion units, such as the history of different experimental versions allowed.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2438
Robert E. Voros
Abstract Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) 4754 Revision A (ARP4754A), Guidelines for Development of Civil Aircraft and Systems [1], and ARP4761, Guidelines and Methods for Conducting the Safety Assessment Process on Civil Airborne Systems and Equipment [2], together describe a complex set of intertwining processes which comprehensively prioritize development activities for a product's systems based on their safety criticality. These processes work at specific levels of detail (aircraft and system) and interact with a set of processes at lower levels of detail (item) defined by Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA) standards. The aircraft and system development process (ARP4754A) supplies functions, requirements, and architectural definitions to the System Safety process (ARP4761), which in turn supplies Development Assurance Levels back to the development process and on to the RTCA processes.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2447
John Low
Abstract The development of the Electrical Wire Interconnection System, or EWIS, for today's advanced aircraft is one of the most complicated engineering activities around. In addition to having to respond to very high rates of change during development, the aircraft are continually evolving in electronic and electrical content through their entire lifecycle. Relatively new mandates, such as the CFR Part 25 Subpart H EWIS, have put additional demands on aircraft OEMs and their key suppliers, forcing companies to reassess their design practices and methodologies. This paper investigates how a systems engineering approach to the development of the electrical wiring systems can enable and facilitate a more efficient EWIS development and maintenance methodology.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2469
Reece Clothier, Brendan Williams, Achim Washington
Abstract One of the primary hazards associated with the operation of Unmanned Aircraft (UA) is the controlled or uncontrolled impact of the UA with terrain or objects on the terrain (e.g., people or structures). National Aviation Authorities (NAAs) have the responsibility of ensuring that the risks associated with this hazard are managed to an acceptable level. The NAA can mandate a range of technical (e.g., design standards) and operational (e.g., restrictions on flight) regulatory requirements. However, work to develop these regulations for UA is ongoing. Underpinning this rule-making process is a safety case showing how the regulatory requirements put in place ensure that the UA operation is acceptably safe for the given application and environment.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2464
Anna Suñol Jiménez, Tao Yang, Dean Vucinic
Abstract Thrust vectoring is an interesting propulsion solution in aeronautic applications due to its fast response, improving aircraft's performance for take-off, landing and flight, and enabling Short/Vertical Take-Off and Landing (S/VTOL). In this context, an attempt to design a radically new concept of thrust vectoring nozzle is in current development. This novel nozzle, called ACHEON, bases the jet deviation control on the interaction of two primary jets of different velocities, where the one with higher velocity entrains the one with lower velocity. Two cylindrical walls are positioned after the two air jets mixing. If the inlet conditions are not symmetric, the Coanda effect on the walls forces the resulting air jet to divert from the symmetry axis. This paper shows the experimental pressure distribution along the Coanda wall for different inlet.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2472
Tom Owen
Abstract SUAV is a 4 year investigation with the aim of designing, manufacturing and integrating a 3kg Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) into an existing 11kg fixed wing UAV which is already in commercial service. The project comprises of a collaboration of ten partners, each having a commercial or scientific interest in the design. Individual partners provide specific specialist knowledge at system component level. This paper will present an overview of the problem space and show the methods used to generate the system level requirements. A top level overview of the resultant system design is also given.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2550
Kiran Thupakula
Abstract In Aerospace Industry, the major challenge is to meet the safety and quality of subsystem / system elements to comply with the standards defined by regulatory authorities for product certification. Engineering test labs are created to provide such precision oriented test platforms ranging from component level to fully integrated test labs/test systems, standalone or distributed network. Even after massive initial capital investment and with the evolution of technologies followed by principles of practice in establishing test facilities, industry is facing open challenges in meeting the performance parameters like productivity, optimum usage, accessibility, monitoring, control and ease of maintenance to list a few. It's very important to standardize the test facilities to optimize time to market and reduce the product cost.
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