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Viewing 271 to 300 of 12968
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2406
Vijay Janardan Warade, Gopal Krishna Dalvi, Rakesh Rameshchandra Sharma
In the pursuit of Manufacturing Excellence, DivgiWarner follows Quality System Basics which includes operator training as one of the key elements. Any manufacturing process consists of 5M's. Out of these 5M's, Machine, Material, Method, Measurement can be engineered to get the desired output. Required control is possible with the fifth ‘M’ i.e. Man by providing Standardized Training, resulting in Repeatability & Reproducibility from each process. DivgiWarner has designed, developed and been practicing the unique process of Operator Training and Licensing. This paper describes the Operator Licensing process. The process is divided into seven subsections inclusive of: 1 Induction Training2 Classroom Training3 On-Job Training4 Written Test and Evaluation5 Issue Operator License i.e. Certification6 Monitoring operator through Layered Process Audits (Effectiveness of Training Process)7 Renewal of license As an operator goes through this process, his/her skill level and competency increases with continuous practice.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2441
Xinyu Ge
The growth of auto sales in emerging markets provides a good opportunity for automakers. Cost is a key factor for any automaker to win in an emerging market. This paper analyzes risks and opportunities in a low cost manufacturing environment. The Chinese auto market is used as an example and three categories of risks are analyzed. A typical risk assessment for cost reduction includes the analysis of environment risks, process risks and strategic risks associated with all phases of a product life. In an emerging market, emission regulations are a rapidly-evolving environment variable, since most countries with less regulated emission codes try to catch up with the newly- developed technologies to meet sustainable growth targets. Emission regulations have a huge impact on product design, manufacturing and maintenance in the automotive industry, and hence the related cost reduction must be thoroughly analyzed during risk assessment. Diesel engines optimized for minimum Particulate Matter (PM) engine out emission with only Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) are proposed in this paper as the most cost effective solution for Chinese on-highway and off-highway commercial automobiles, especially for heavy-duty trucks.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2439
Eldon Brasche
Since 1992, Caterpillar has invested millions of dollars to purchase CAD software, and spends nearly $2M per year keeping its engineers up-to-date, via instructor lead training (ILT), as new enhancements are introduced. Periodic upgrades to the software also require huge resource (people, costs) commitments for the planning and execution of the training requirements required for a large global workforce. This paper will examine gaps uncovered in the efficiency and effectiveness of the current training process, and the cultural change required as a result of switching from an instructor led environment to a completely web-based solution, which, once deployed, had promised to change the way Caterpillar approached training for the future. The proposed change promised to improve human resource capability by utilizing new technological capabilities, and resulted in improvements in organizational capabilities as well. Topics reviewed include: Reasons for initiating the change, including perceptions of the as-is process (voice of the customer), and pros/cons of the current state.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2438
Yaamini Devi Loganathan, Maksood Shaikh, Praveen Sharma
Foreign investments help in productive capacity building for both the parent organization in the home country, and in the host country. Preferably, investment promotion is encouraged as it creates biggest impact on creating backward and forward linkages besides generating direct and indirect employment. Commercial vehicle is one such industry. In this knowledge world, organizations can excel or sustain their excellence, only if there is a continuous learning at all levels. To a great extent, competitive advantage of a transnational organization lies in its ability to identify and transfer best practices, core competencies. Knowledge sharing happens in a natural way between its geographically dispersed and diverse units. Technology paves way in creating and leveraging knowledge at an exponential rate, besides reducing time, effort and cost while achieving business goals. Adoption of technology becomes highly pertinent if the parent company has strategies to enter into different markets.
2013-09-17
Article
No other sports car can match the C7's combination of performance, value, and overall efficiency. Chief Engineer Tadge Juechter provides insight on executing a masterpiece.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2103
Francesco Grimaccia
In this paper the regulatory and standardization aspects regarding the light UAV segment are described reporting main steps and activities carried out during the FP7 European SkyMedia funded project. With respect to the Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle regulation achievements, a detailed process conducted beside the Italian Flight Regulation Authority (ENAC) is reported emphasizing the key points that led to receive multiple Permit to Fly for Nimbus novel hybrid UAV platform, the first case in Italy in the category of “light UAV”. With specific reference to the UAV segment, after showing the complex procedure defined with such Authority to receive authorization to fly for project final demo, some light on the future perspectives for light UAV regulation will be provided underlining efforts and contributions to define a clear track on the UAV development in civil applications. In this context, further experimental procedures can be implemented in the next future to extend such procedures to other motivated cases likes, for example, national security or similar civil protection operations.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2162
Jan Verbeek
An aerospace production system is one of the world's most complicated systems. It consists of highly specialized manufacturing and assembly processes coupled in complex global supply chains. The production system has to comply with rigorous certification and other regulatory requirements and is subjected to increasing commercial pressure. Commercial Air Transport may have become a commodity but commercial aircraft production systems are certainly not in that position yet due to the continuous increasing operational demands. A substantial amount of work is still required to continually improve the performance of aircraft and spacecraft, but also of the aerospace production system used to produce them, now and in the future. A comprehensive Systems Engineering approach towards the development and optimization of aerospace production systems is therefore essential. A key goal is to integrate the complete set of requirements from all the stakeholders into the development of the production system timely, in order to create an optimized but flexible and adaptable set of processes and production means.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2121
Zdzislaw H. Klim, Adam Skorek
The safe operation of technical systems is a mandatory basic requirement for the entire industry. However, there are specific industries where the safety of operation is critical and is considered as a required characteristic. These types of industries include the aerospace, military, civil aviation, nuclear power, as well as chemical and automotive industries. Safety is everyone's responsibility but engineering plays the most important role in the course of achieving a safe product operation. There are two specific phases of the product life cycle where the safety characteristics should be addressed by engineering activities: the design and development and operation phases. Modern engineering education is oriented to provide future engineers with a sufficient background to be able to Conceive-Design-Implement-Operate. The emphasis of this approach is on the achievement of dual objectives; first to teach the students a large spectrum of technologies and second to develop their personal and interpersonal capabilities in order for them to be able to build complex engineering systems.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2124
Valérie Berger
Airbus business and Extended Enterprise require more and more involvement of design and built suppliers, tier 1 but also across the complete supply chain i.e. tier 2-n. These suppliers are not working only for Aerospace industry and may have different cultures. The pressure on cost and overall efficiency is high and everybody has to cope with obsolescence and new regulation (e.g. REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals)). So it became very important for Airbus to clarify the criteria under which a change can be done without Airbus review, and criteria under which a change can be done without Airworthiness authority review. This document details the Airbus recommendations and requirements to ensure full compliance with Part 21 to Airbus (and suppliers) with regards to: Change to Aircraft Type Design Change to Aircraft Type Design identification Change to Aircraft Type Design identification assessment This covers the complete scope of the detail design of the Aircraft.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2123
Moises Martinez-Ablanedo
From a past perspective, System Engineering was able to control the product data accuracy with respect to its requirements and towards product certification and delivery avoiding operational disruptions in the development lifecycle. But we usually do it by increasing the complexity of the product data management and administration what makes heavier the product integration. The trends indicate that the product complexity is intensifying and that the increasing load rate of changes will create serious efficiency disruptions if we persevere with today System Engineering approaches. New System Engineering paradigm is then proposed. It conducts to an innovative management of product identification and business integration. It is supported 4 key pillars: The Semantic Product Identification The Business Driven Intelligence The Product Life-Cycle Social Management The Data Management of Things It is highlighted the wide range of possibilities that could offer new product data aggregation laws based on correlating semantic context information.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2225
Yves Guiochon, Christophe Secheret
The aerospace assembly process has always been famous to be very demanding in specialized and unique prototyped tooling. But in the recent years, the demand for standardization has grown while the aerospace drilling and assembly environment have remained as diverse as before. However some solutions exist to match those opposite requirements. It is possible to keep most flexibility required by the aerospace assembly floor and at the same time to standardize and reduce customer total cost of acquisition: this is what has been implemented through a wide product range successfully. We will illustrate through this paper how modern modular tooling design (covering namely Drills, ADU, squeezers and Battery Nutrunner) will not only strengthen aerospace assembly process but reduce total cost at the same time.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2235
Susan Liscouet-Hanke, Kenny Huynh
This paper presents a methodology for conceptual aircraft design to evaluate the space available for systems (top-down approach) and to estimate the space required for critical components impacting the aircraft configuration (bottom-up approach). The presented top-down approach introduces the concept of “equivalent design volume”, including the space required for systems and the associated empty space to access, maintain and ventilate them. This approach enables an early feasibility check for aircraft configuration exploration regarding the integration and installation of systems, without having to detail the system architecture. In complement, the bottom-up approach introduces the estimation of the required dimensions for critical components. Here, the example of the flight control actuators integration in the wing tip is presented.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2258
Shu Lin, Torsten Liesk, Sean Lahey
This paper presents a generic Redundancy Management (RM) requirements definition process that is applicable to a complex system RM requirements development. In the aerospace industry, the ‘Aerospace Recommended Practices’ (ARP) 4754 and 4761 are typically used processes to ensure given safety and availability goals for complex systems. The process proposed in this paper is based on these standard guidelines and enhances them to provide a standardized process for the development of RM requirements with interactions between the system requirements development and the preliminary system safety assessment processes. The output of this process will help to achieve the following objectives: The system RM/failure monitoring requirements are defined commensurate with the system safety and availability requirements; the system is fault-tolerant to the degree necessary to meet the system safety and availability requirements; the system is robust and the system architecture is optimized.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2308
José Rui Marcelino, André castro
Design Studios can work in collaboration with multidisciplinary partners throughout the whole product development process offering a unique approach for creating new products through visual integration and “cross pollination” processes. The process ranges from identifying and structuring requirements to conceptualizing and developing solutions for production. In the past three years a Lisbon based design studio has been involved in three R&D projects named “the trilogy of innovation”. The goal of the projects was to bridge competencies, experiences and synergies from companies in different transport sectors - automotive, railway and aeronautic - to develop lightweight, integrated and eco-efficient solutions focusing on the passenger experience. To tackle these challenges Project IBUS, Project ISEAT and Project LIFE required design to drive innovation through “cross-pollination” processes.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2333
Ravi Rajamani, Abhinav Saxena, Frank Kramer, Michael Augustin, J.B. Schroeder, Kai Goebel, Ginger Shao, Indranil Roychoudhury, Wei Lin
The term Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) describes a set of capabilities that enable sustainable and safe operation of components and subsystems within aerospace platforms. However, very little guidance exists for the systems engineering aspects of design with IVHM in mind. It is probably because of this that designers have to use knowledge picked up exclusively by experience rather than by established process. This motivated a group of leading IVHM practitioners within the aerospace industry under the aegis of SAE's HM-1 technical committee to author a document that hopes to give working engineers and program managers clear guidance on all the elements of IVHM that they need to consider before designing a system. This proposed recommended practice (ARP6883 [1]) will describe all the steps of requirements generation and management as it applies to IVHM systems, and demonstrate these with a “real-world” example related to designing a landing gear system. The team hopes that this paper and presentation will help start a dialog with the larger aerospace community and that the feedback can be used to improve the ARP and subsequently the practice of IVHM from a systems engineering point-of-view.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2122
Klaus Fritz, Nikolaus Kurz, Eric Peterson, Rolf Buese
Avionics equipment, especially for safety-critical systems, is developed by means of a series of design steps, propagating and refining requirements through a number of hierarchical levels, from the aircraft level, through system and sub-system levels, down to equipment, subassemblies and individual components (see SAE ARP4754A [11]). At each development level, accompanying safety assessments (e.g. per SAE ARP4761 [12]) are performed to derive safety requirements which ensure compliance to the overall safety requirements determined by the aircraft and systems functional hazard assessments (FHAs). The safety related requirements of all development levels flow through the process down into the individual equipment specifications and are ultimately implemented in the equipment design where the design data is approved for the certificated aircraft (or engine) type. The equipment production process builds the equipment according to this approved design data. Safety assessment methodologies assume that each produced aircraft is equivalent to the type design.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2091
Onur Hisarciklilar, Omer Khalid Babar Sheikh, Harshad Ajit Yadav, Vincent Thomson
Aircraft development projects at Bombardier Aerospace involve a large number of tasks executed by a network of professionals from various disciplines. As the complexity of products and the development process increases, it becomes more difficult to manage the interactions among tasks and people. In fact, it may be impossible to even predict the impact of a single design decision across the development process. At Bombardier, investigation has shown that there was a lack of communication between design processes when dealing with aeroelasticity information. This resulted in duplicated design effort, reduced quality, and increased time to complete tasks when small design changes from one task induced delays in other tasks. Processes that deal with aeroelasticity work integrate system inertial, aerodynamics and structural information to make aircraft models and perform analyses. These processes have been creating similar models to perform aeroelasticity analyses. A study was started to determine the effect of using a single aeroelastic model to reduce overall design effort.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2228
David K. Winstanley
Honeywell has developed a unique turbofan engine for application to the super mid-size business aviation market, the HTF7000. This paper will describe the design of this engine including aeromechanical design of its components. The unique design features of this engine will be described along with the technology growth path to keep the engine current. This paper will also describe several features which have been developed for this engine in response to new regulatory requirements. Some aspects of the engine to aircraft integration will also be described.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2234
John C. Dalton, Roger Nicholson
We live in an era of increasing twin-engine commercial airplane operations, with large and very quiet high bypass ratio engines. At the same time, due to several decades of increased attention to the environment, we have large and increasing hazardous species bird populations. These trends, when combined, are not a prescription for continued assurance of a remarkable and enviable safety record for commercial aviation. Therefore, greater diligence must be placed on the evaluation of the current and future aviation wildlife hazard. We have some new weapons in this fight for greater capability to live with this situation. The basic problem is that different databases are populated independently from one another and often contain conflicting, contradictory, and erroneous data. Databases that were used individually, but not necessarily combined, are being utilized in a conjoined methodology to give us a better picture of the actual risk involved. And new analytical techniques are being applied that will enable us to better visualize and evaluate the nature of the wildlife threat.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2239
Doug Howarth
This paper shows how the quantity demanded, viewed as an independent variable, interacts with customer values, producer costs and constraints. Failure to analyze Demand as Independent Variable (pronounced “Dave”) increases the chances that new programs will not launch, or once started, will fail. All producers in all markets face demand curves that describe their customers' reaction to price changes. Aggregate market demand curves show how buyers react to price changes within broad product sets, while product demand curves show buyer responses to a specific item. Demand curves relate quantities sold relative to their prices. In several military, transit and fleet cases, minimum quantity requirements form upper price boundaries along demand curves. Allowing prices to go so high that buying authorities cannot acquire the required numbers of units likely means that there may not be sufficient resources to form systems that can accomplish the buyers' goals. Simultaneously, pressure on producers to reduce costs and prices without relaxing requirements may force them into historically unattainable cost estimates.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2237
Chien-Chang Lee, Jon Friedman
For many mission critical systems, demonstrating that all requirements have been met via a set of requirements-based tests is often mandated by internal processes or external standards. Traditional coverage approaches, however, do not address this mandate because they measure only the coverage of the design by determining which paths in the design have been executed. Determining whether a given set of test vectors covers the design requirements (as opposed to merely covering the design) is a challenge. Creating a set of test vectors to cover the requirements can be difficult and time consuming. Using techniques first identified in the 1970s and modern Model-Based Design tools, we present a novel approach, based on work presented in [2], to automatically generate a set of requirements-based test vectors. In this paper, we discuss how requirements captured in a natural language can be modeled using Cause-Effect graphs, introduced in [1]. We then translate the Cause-Effect graph into Simulink® and Stateflow® to identify conflicting requirements and automatically generate a set of test vectors that can be assessed for completeness using coverage objectives such as Modified Condition/Decision Coverage (MCDC).
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2261
Verena Cavalheiro, Svetan Ratchev, Mark Summers
This paper details the development of a user-friendly computerised tool created to evaluate the Manufacturing Readiness Levels (MRL) of an emerging technology. The main benefits achieved are to manage technology development planning and tracking, make visually clear and standardised analysis, and improve team communication. The new approach is applied to the Technology Readiness Levels (TRL), currently used by Airbus Research & Technology (R&T) UK. The main focus is on the improvement of the analysis criteria. The first phase of the study was to interpret the manufacturing criteria used by Airbus at TRL 4, including a brief benchmarking review of similar practices in industry and other Airbus' project management tools. All information gathered contributed to the creation of a complete set of criteria. In the second phase, a questionnaire format, using the new set of criteria, was used through a user-friendly computer tool, which was programmed to quantify and plot the maturity of a technology into tracking graphs.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2330
Olivier Pahud, Didier Hoste
The composites development team at Bombardier Aerospace has pushed the Integrated Product Development Team to a new level. The team has been created outside the business priorities and was partially funded by a provincial government initiative to create a greener aircraft. A dedicated R&D team can reduce the gap between the different disciplines by encouraging them to work as one entity and rapidly develop high Technology Readiness Level (TRL) and high Manufacturing Readiness Level (MRL) solutions. Additionally, the interactions between the groups create a harmonization of the development philosophy and a sharing of the building block approach. This leads to a significant cost and lead time reduction in the coupon, element and detail testing. The constitution of the team also has a great impact on the level of expertise and the flexibility to adjust to new demands. The team has built through the years an entire and complete external partner network that helps the team in specific subject matters.
2013-09-13
Standard
AS8700A
This specification covers the general requirements for the installation and test of electronic equipment in piloted aircraft.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0125
Luigi Arnone, Stefano Manelli, Massimiliano Bonanni, Chris Such, Simon Fagg, Paolo Gatti
This paper describes the design and performance development of the new Kohler / Lombardini KDI engine range which is a family of 3 and 4 cylinder, in line, water cooled engines covering the power range 37 - 56 kW. The paper covers the following aspects: Performance and economy Exhaust emissions over legislative cycles Deterioration factor test results Effect of fuel quality on emissions
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0121
Ruud Eichhorn, T.H.W. willekens, Michael Boot, David Smeulders
To increase the efficiency of a Variable Geometry Turbine at low massflow rates the vaneless space of the vanes is reduced. It is researched if this modification can reduce turbo lag. A turbine with modified vane ring is installed in the exhaust of a naturally aspirated engine and wide open throttle accelerations are performed to test the turbine performance. The new (reduced vaneless space) vane configuration induced a lower exhaust backpressure which allowed the engine to accelerate faster. The acceleration from 1500 to 3000 RPM was an average of 8 % faster for the new vane configuration. This in turn increased the massflow rate through the turbine which caused the power available to the turbine to be similar in compared vane rings. The initial turbine speeds was lower for the new vane configuration but it quickly caught up with the conventional configuration because the turbine acceleration was higher. The turbine efficiency was higher for the new vane configuration in most cases. The mean increase in turbine efficiency during the initial acceleration was 4 %.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0079
Gianfranco Rizzo, Cecilia Pisanti, Mario D'Agostino, Massimo Naddeo
In last decade, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) have emerged as real alternatives to engine-driven vehicles, in order to reduce fuel consumption and emissions. But their market share is still limited, as their impact on global fossil fuel demand and CO2 production. In parallel, the possibility of upgrading conventional vehicles to HEV is gaining interest. A research work on the development of a kit for converting a conventional vehicle into a Through-The-Road (TTR) Hybrid Solar Vehicle (HSV) has been recently performed at the University of Salerno, where flexible solar cells, an additional Lithium-Ion battery and two electrically driven wheel-motors have been mounted on a FIAT Punto. Preliminary studies performed by simulation have shown the technical and economic feasibility of this solution. In the proposed vehicle, the control of wheel motors is performed via a Vehicle Management Unit (VMU), which in turn reads data from the OBD port. In order to develop an effective and safe control strategy for wheel-motors, a precise real-time knowledge of the Driver Intention is required.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0095
Clément Ailloud, Bernard Delaporte, Gerhard Schmitz, Alan Keromnes, Luis Le Moyne
Internal combustion engine development is mainly driven by new emission regulations and fuel cost. The introduction of hybrid power trains allows the development of highly efficient non-traditional internal combustion engines. One way of increasing thermal efficiency while avoiding issues like high mechanical stress or knock, is to realize different expansion and compression strokes. Different solutions exist such as the Miller/Atkinson cycle or the five stroke engine. A 5-stroke turbo-charged port-injection spark-ignition engine has been developed in the present study for use as a range extender or series-hybrid main power source. Its development and design are based on 0D/1D model and experimental results have been compared with the engine model. The 5-stroke engine is a three-cylinder in which two cylinders, called high pressure (HP) cylinders, perform a four-stroke cycle with a volumetric compression ratio of 8:1 and alternatively a second expansion of the burnt gases is performed in the third cylinder, called low pressure (LP) cylinder with a volumetric compression ratio of 30:1, the overall expansion ratio being 12.7:1.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0078
Eric C. Leonhardt, Edoh Amiran
Faculty and undergraduate students at the Vehicle Research Institute developed the parallel electric hybrid Viking 45 to compete in the Progressive Automotive X Prize. The contest challenged auto manufacturers to build vehicles that could achieve a gasoline equivalent fuel efficiency of 2.35 liter per 100 km while meeting a subset of U.S. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emission standards. The contest offered a $10 million purse to encourage participation. Viking 45 features a 50 kW, three cylinder gasoline engine coupled with a 23 kW electric motor. A 9.6 kWh lithium polymer battery pack allows the vehicle to travel more than 100 km at 100 km/hr. Carbon fiber composite vacuum assisted resin transfer techniques were developed to demonstrate the potential for low volume (10,000 units/year) production. The monocoque chassis demonstrated carbon fiber honeycomb for impact attenuation structures to manage front and side impacts.
2013-09-06
Article
Toyota has announced it will invest more than $28 million to expand powertrain operations at its technical center in Ann Arbor, MI. The expansion will support design, evaluation, and calibration on new engine and transmission projects.
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