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2014-04-16
Article
In the wake of its ignition switch recall, General Motors CEO Mary Barra has announced creation of a Global Product Integrity organization. Housed within the Global Production Development group, it will "build on the formula and specific actions we have taken in recent years to lead the industry in vehicle dynamics," Barra said at the 2014 New York International Auto Show.
2014-04-16
Standard
J2246_201404
This SAE Information provides information applicable to production Original Equipment Manufacturer antilock braking systems found on some past and current passenger cars and light trucks. It is intended for readers with a technical background. It does not include information about aftermarket devices or future antilock brake systems. Information in this document reflects that which was available to the committee at the time of publication.
2014-04-11
Book
Today’s designers seek to integrate sensor technology, electronic and mechatronic systems in progressively introducing Electric Power Steering (EPS) systems. However, from a customer perspective on the one hand steering is one of the most visible or tangible aspects of vehicle quality in driving when quality is compromised (through NVH issues), while on the other hand, when executed well, a steering system is all but transparent to the driver. To a number of commentators and OEMs ‘steering feel’ has become termed as contributing to the essential ‘DNA” of the vehicle, and it is therefore an essential aspect of competitive advantage or position. This report examines steering feel and the increasing effect of vehicle electrification, and looks at steering and chassis performance. It also considers the key drivers including fuel efficiency and CO2 emissions, steering design, materials considerations and the packaging dilemma.
2014-04-08
Book
This report examines the macroeconomic situation in the Mercosur region, including planned investment in infrastructure development projects, national automotive policy and plans. It provides an overview of automotive industry and supply chain, and the vehicle component industry as a whole. It lists investments made by vehicle component suppliers, and relevant joint-ventures and mergers and acquisitions. The report takes a look at the involvement of automakers in supplier development, localization trends and the development automotive clusters. It covers at existing R&D capabilities in the Mercosur region, as well as new investments taking place there, together with its opportunities and challenges. The report includes a series of 119 supplier profiles from suppliers either based in Mercosur countries, or the localized operations of global tier-1 and tier-2 suppliers.
2014-04-07
Article
The 2014 Lexus CT 200h that recently hit dealers was engineered under the direction of the brand’s first female engineer. Chika Kako assumed CE duties on the compact hybrid in June 2013, guiding 94 distinct changes to the model—“which for a mid-life program represents a huge effort,” she said.
2014-04-04
Article
Shanghai is the location of Eaton's latest technical center in China. The new $3.3 million Vehicle Group Asia Pacific Technical Center will develop vehicle powertrain solutions for the Chinese and regional markets, according to the company.
2014-04-03
Book
This new report looks the marketplace for global medium and heavy commercial vehicle OEMs, their globalization process and the impact of new technologies on production. The report also includes an appendix of 21 major truck supplier profiles. These profiles provide relevant data on corporate strategy, investments, product offerings and contact information. Commercial-vehicle manufacturers around the world face a complex set of challenges that together add up to mounting pressure on their profit margins. Companies are grappling with the impact of the double-dip recession in Europe, with intensifying competition from emerging-market players, with the increased commoditization of their product, and with ever-tightening environmental regulations. In volume terms, capacity management remains the single most challenging issue for many OEMs.
2014-04-02
WIP Standard
J284
This SAE Recommended Practice presents the general uses, limitations on use, and appearance of the safety alert symbol.
2014-04-01
Collection
This technical paper collection addresses automotive requirements, high level system design, cost analysis, simulation, modeling, testing, and validation. System includes components, sub assemblies, computer based controllers, hardware and software. The session focuses on intelligent and efficient approaches to analysis, design (not detailed design), modeling, measurement, document management and optimizing performance. Topics on effect of cost, and human machine interface are covered.
2014-04-01
Collection
This technical paper collection will cover various aspects of system durability and system integration pertaining to Diesel Exhaust Emissions Control. It includes publications contributing to the understanding of durability of exhaust catalysts and particulate filters, mechanisms of their performance degradation and possible mitigation strategies, data from the field tests, analysis of the aged catalysts, laboratory and accelerated on-engine aging studies, along with relevant experimental tools and methodology.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1823
Richard A. Scholer, Hank McGlynn
Abstract This paper is the fifth in the series of documents designed to identify the progress on the SAE Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) communication task force that follows 2010-01-0837, 2011-01-0866, 2012-01-1036 and 2013-01-1475. The primary focus of this paper is to discuss the most recent revision of J2847/1 [1], which deals with Smart Charging applications, plus the initial release of J2847/3 [2], which can be thought of as dealing with “Smart Discharging” applications. Both documents are based on the use of the Smart Energy Profile 2.0 (SEP2) Application Protocol Standard (V1.0) which was completed by the ZigBee Alliance in April 2013. The standard was then accepted by the IEEE and subsequently released as IEEE 2030.5 [3].
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1715
Parul Goyal, Feng Liang, Olof Oberg
Abstract The aim of the paper is to describe how Volvo Construction Equipment uses a virtual product development process to analyze potential risks, find root causes and optimize future product development. A model based method is used to analyze a potential risk in the design of Wheel Loader transmissions. The risk was recognized from failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), and a simulation model using AMESim modeling tool was developed to analyze the behavior of the new design. Together with test rig result, it is proved that the model based method gives a considerably accurate prediction of the system behavior. By using the model based approach, lead time for development process is reduced and important feedbacks from simulation model are obtained on early stage of the development. This paper further presents the use of the simulation model as a tool to predict the potential risks in the extreme operating conditions, which are difficult to test on the vehicle test bench.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1635
Kyoung-Pyo Ha
Abstract Hyundai Motor Group launched a Continuously Variable Valve Lift (CVVL) engine in 2012. The engine is equipped with HMG's unique CVVL mechanism and is characterized by low fuel consumption, high performance and its responsiveness. The CVVL mechanism is based on a six-linkage mechanism and has advantages of compactness and durability. The engine is a 4 cylinder In-Line, 2.0L gasoline engine and is designed for a mid-sized passenger car. The engine increases fuel efficiency by 7.7% and the peak engine power by 4.2%. One of the most challenging issues in producing a CVVL engine is the valve lift deviations throughout the engine cylinders. The valve cap shim and set screw were designed to adjust the valve lift deviations. Cap shim thickness is chosen by measuring the valve top height, and shoe lift of the cam carrier assembly. The set screw is an auxiliary device to adjust the valve lift deviation.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0783
Seyed M. Mirmiran, Vern Scott, Bill Swenson, Stephen Funtig
Abstract The Sarbanes-Oxley Act created new standards for corporate accountability pertaining to all publicly-owned and traded firms. It holds top executives accountable for the accuracy of all financial data and statements, including reported tangible assets. It requires existence of auditable internal accounting control measures and specifies adherence to new internal controls and procedures designed to ensure the validity of their financial records and physical assets. The Act presents a challenge to every manufacturing firm to have a low-cost system implemented that can produce an exact physical-asset location, existence, verification and accounting on demand. Clearly, such low-cost solutions for enterprise-wide compliance would also provide verifiable and reliable data for corporate property tax, loan collateral, and audit requirements.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0781
Aaron Hula, Jeffrey Alson, Amy Bunker, Kevin Bolon
Abstract This paper examines the pace at which manufacturers have added certain powertrain technology into new vehicles from model year 1975 to the present. Based on data from the EPA's Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends database [1], the analysis will focus on several key technologies that have either reached a high level of penetration in light duty vehicles, or whose use in the new vehicle fleet has been growing in recent years. The findings indicate that individual manufacturers have, at times, implemented new technology across major portions of their new vehicle offerings in only a few model years. This is an important clarification to prior EPA analysis that indicated much longer adoption times for the industry as a whole.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0780
Miwoo Han, Yongpyo Lim, Seong-ho An
Abstract Many high risks of failure in developing and applying new technologies exist in the recent automotive industry because of big volume of selling cars in a global market. Several recalls cost companies more than $ 100 million per problem. New technologies always have uncertainty in performing intended functions at various given conditions despite the fact that engineers do their best to develop technologies to meet all the requirements. Uncertainty of new technologies put companies into danger of failing in their business. Therefore, many companies tend to take interest in reducing risks from the uncertainty in technologies, but the increasing complexity of modern automotive technologies make it difficult to develop complete technologies. A new engineering methodology called SPEED Engineering was introduced to reduce the risks of new technology applications and to facilitate engineers to conceive innovative ideas dominating the market in the future.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0804
Basant Sharma
Abstract Fast to market trends among automotive OEM's in introducing new vehicles has resulted in compressed product development time. Now it is fairly common to see CAE driven processes playing upfront role in the concept and advance stage of vehicle development thus adding pace to the Virtual Vehicle Development (VVD). In the recent decade we have also noticed acceptance of optimization driven by CAE models upfront in the virtual vehicle development process. Now a days it is not uncommon to use CAE models for optimization upfront at the advanced vehicle development stage with CRASH and NVH performance objectives. Yet another noticeable transformation happening in accelerating VVD is ability to use morphing techniques on CAE models to bring about design changes or enablers independent of CAD. Ability of morphing tools to make design changes in CAE model parametric adds significant value to the optimization process.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0821
Sunil KV, Sunil Sheepri, Kiran Kandula, Amit Kumar
Abstract The durability evaluation of overhanging components of a vehicle (Ex: horn, radiator) is a challenge to durability engineers as resonance plays an important role in determining their fatigue life. As resonance cannot be avoided always, it is desirable to develop methods to evaluate life of the component in the presence of resonance. Though the existing vibration test standards suggest test profiles to evaluate resonance failures, there are cases in which, these methods do not yield the proving ground results. This may lead to unnecessary overdesign or unrealistic failures. In such cases it is suggested to generate a sweep endurance test procedure customized to the proving ground or actual roads. This paper studies a methodology for generating a sweep endurance test procedure for evaluation of resonating components. Responses like stress and accelerations were measured in test components in proving ground.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0626
Mariaeugenia Salas Acosta, Krishan Bhatia, Eric Constans, Jennifer Kadlowec, Thomas Merrill, Hong Zhang
Abstract The Rowan University Mechanical Engineering program is studying the use of a long-term (five semester) design project on student learning and concept retention. The project, a bench-scale hybrid electric powertrain system, is designed, analyzed and fabricated by students in five modules, starting in their sophomore year and culminating in their final semester as seniors (see prior ASEE publication [1]). This complex project has been selected in order to integrate the core mechanical engineering courses: Mechanical Design, Thermodynamics, System Dynamics and Control, and Fluid Mechanics. A bench-scale hybrid-electric vehicle powertrain has sufficient complexity to involve all Mechanical Engineering disciplines and the simplicity to be built by students over the course of five semesters. In addition, hybrid-electric technology is at the cutting-edge of automotive technology, and has been found to hold a special fascination for most mechanical engineering students.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0625
Richard K. Stobart, Xunzhe Zhang
Abstract There has probably never been such a demand for professionally qualified engineers, and yet both the number and diversity of people entering the profession continue to decline. Worldwide, there are very many initiatives - some generally encouraging interest in the profession, and others targeting specific audiences. The reports speak of local success, but the overall picture remains discouraging. In this paper we focus on the “pipeline” from primary education through to the transition from graduate engineer into an experienced member of engineering staff. We have based the discussion on both the presentations and comments made during a panel discussion held at the 2013 SAE International Congress. The paper is intended as a summary of the points raised during that discussion and, we hope proves to be starting point for further investigation and analysis. Of particular note is the sheer diversity of initiatives, and the pressing need for role models and mentoring.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1960
Vukica Jovanovic, Mileta Tomovic, Lisa Ncube, Ana Djuric, Petros Katsioloudis, Filip Cuckov
Abstract Many vehicle subsystems were in essence mechatronic (electro-mechanical) designs. Modern vehicles have various subsystems which provide mechanical movements which were controlled by electronic and electrical systems. At the same time, they collect and track data about system performance and environmental conditions for on board diagnostics. Advances in mechanical, electrical, and embedded systems were making vehicles more intelligent. However, these mechatronics systems face new challenges including design for compliance and ensuring that all product specifications are transferred into the company's product data management system. This is especially important for electrical and electronic subsystems since they have to comply with ongoing changes related to the management of hazardous substances. Since modern vehicles were being manufactured in a global environment through outsourcing of many different components, this poses challenges with material tracking.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1958
Bert Bras, Andrew Carlile, Thomas Niemann, Sherry Mueller, Hyung Chul Kim, Timothy Wallington, Heidi McKenzie, Susan Rokosz
Abstract Tools are now publicly available that can potentially help a company assess the impact of its water use and risks in relation to their global operations and supply chains. In this paper we describe a comparative analysis of two publicly available tools, specifically the WWF/DEG Water Risk Filter and the WBCSD Global Water Tool that are used to measure the water impact and risk indicators for industrial facilities. By analyzing the risk assessments calculated by these tools for different scenarios that include varying facilities from different industries, one can better gauge the similarities and differences between these water strategy tools. Several scenarios were evaluated using the water tools, and the results are compared and contrasted. As will be shown, the results can vary significantly.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1922
Robert Jesse Alley, Patrick Walsh, Nicole Lambiase, Brian Benoy, Kristen De La Rosa, Douglas Nelson, Shawn Midlam-Mohler, Jerry Ku, Brian Fabien
Abstract EcoCAR 2: Plugging in to the Future (EcoCAR) is North America's premier collegiate automotive engineering competition, challenging students with systems-level advanced powertrain design and integration. The three-year Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition (AVTC) series is organized by Argonne National Laboratory, headline sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and General Motors (GM), and sponsored by more than 30 industry and government leaders. Fifteen university teams from across North America are challenged to reduce the environmental impact of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu by redesigning the vehicle powertrain without compromising performance, safety, or consumer acceptability. During the three-year program, EcoCAR teams follow a real-world Vehicle Development Process (VDP) modeled after GM's own VDP. The EcoCAR 2 VDP serves as a roadmap for the engineering process of designing, building and refining advanced technology vehicles.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1923
Trevor Crain, Trevor Fayer, Brian Fabien, Per Reinhall
Abstract This paper details the development process and model architecture used in the University of Washington's EcoCAR 2 hybrid supervisory controller. The EcoCAR 2 project challenges 15 universities across North America to create a hybrid vehicle that most effectively minimizes emissions and fuel consumption while still maintaining consumer acceptability. The supervisory controller for the University of Washington was designed to distribute torque to the various electric and combustion drive systems on a parallel though the road plug-in hybrid electric vehicle using Simulink and Stateflow. The graphical interface of Simulink offers some distinct advantages over text-based programming languages. However, there are also significant challenges posed by the software, particularly when several controls engineers are working in parallel on a large model with some type of version control.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1914
Idan Kovent, Jerry Ku
Abstract The Wayne State University EcoCAR2 team provided its members with Modeling and Simulation training course for the second summer of the competition. EcoCAR2 is a three-year Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition (AVTC) sponsored by General Motors and the Department of Energy. The course lasted three months and included 45 hours of formal lectures and class hands-on work and an estimated one hundred and fifty hours in home assignments that directly contributed to the team's deliverables. The course described here is unique. The design and class examples were extracted from an in-house complete vehicle simulation and control code to ensure hands-on, interactive training based on real-world problems. The course investigated the physics behind every major powertrain component of a hybrid electric vehicle and the different ways to model the components into a full vehicle simulation.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0066
Ben Wen, Gregory Rogerson, Alan Hartke
Abstract Tire rolling resistance is one of tire performance indicator that represents a force needed to maintain the constant rolling of a tire. There are quite few methods and standards to measure tire rolling resistance, such as ISO-28585, ISO-18164, SAE-J1269, SAE-J2452, …. These tests have been used by tire companies, vehicle manufactures, and government agencies to evaluate tire rolling resistance performance. SAE-J1269 and SAE-J2452 are two popularly used multi-condition rolling resistance tests for passenger and light truck tires. Examining the test conditions and procedures of these two test standards showed that some key procedures and conditions from both standards are similar although there are many difference as well. The study presented here is to analyze test results from both tests and their correlation under certain conditions. If the correlation exists, one test may provide test results for both test conditions, therefore, test efficiency can be improved.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0073
Ken Archibald, William Schnaidt, Rick Wallace, Kyle Archibald
Abstract SAE J2562 defines the background, apparatus and the directions for modifying the Scaled Base Load Sequence for a given a wheel rated load for a wheel design. This practice has been conducted on multiple wheel designs and over one hundred wheel specimens. All of the wheels were tested to fracture. Concurrently, some of the wheel designs were found to be unserviceable in prior or subsequent proving grounds on-vehicle testing. The remainder of the wheel designs have sufficient fatigue strength to sustain the intended service for the life of the vehicle. This is termed serviceable. Using the empirical data with industry accepted statistics a minimum requirement can be projected, below which a wheel design will likely have samples unserviceable in its intended service. The projections of serviceability result in a recommendation of a minimum cycle requirement for SAE J2562 Ballasted Passenger Vehicle Load Sequence.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0218
Helmut Martin, Stephan Baumgart, Andrea Leitner, Daniel Watzenig
Abstract The need for cost efficient development and shorter time to market requires reuse of safety-critical embedded systems. One main challenge for reuse approaches in a safety-critical context is to provide evidence that assumptions of the safety artifacts for the reused component are still valid in the new system definition. This paper summarizes the major findings from an explorative study conducted in order to identify the state of practice of reuse in the context of different functional safety standards. The explorative study consists of a set of questions, which have been discussed with interviewees from companies of various domains. The companies act in safety-critical domains with diverse product portfolios. We covered several points of view by interviewing persons with different background. The results of the study reveal industrial challenges, which built the input for the derivation of possible future work based on the identified practical needs.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0212
Tomislav Lovric, Manuel Schneider-Scheyer, Samir Sarkic
Abstract Today's Automotive ECU development is a global engineering exercise. It requires efficient planning, design and implementation. Time to market, innovative customer functions and cost effective design are key to success. Not only the technical realization with compressed time schedules and frequent change requests, but also the documentation, and the proof of compliance to ISO-26262 requires efficient solutions to be applied. Key to successful ECU development of complex safety critical systems inside a global team is a systematic approach to identify the ideal realization out of multiple design alternatives. This is why TRW Electronics Engineering for its Braking ECU products decided to design the new product generation with the help of Model Based System Engineering methods (MBSE).
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0291
Gopal Athani, Prasad Yerraguntla, Anand Gajaraj, Kapil Dongare
Abstract Micro Hybrid Systems are a premier approach for improving fuel efficiency and reducing emissions, by improving the efficiency of electrical energy generation, storage, distribution and consumption, yet with lower costs associated with development and implementation. However, significant efforts are required while implementing micro hybrid systems, arising out of components like Intelligent Battery Sensor (IBS). IBS provides battery measurements and battery status, and in addition mission critical diagnostic data on a communication line to micro hybrid controller. However, this set of data from IBS is not available instantly after its initialization, as it enters into a lengthy learning phase, where it learns the battery parameters, before it gives the required data on the communication line. This learning period spans from 3 to 8 hours, until the IBS is fully functional and is capable of supporting the system functionalities.
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