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Viewing 1 to 30 of 13118
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2111
Marie-Laure Toulouse
The intent of this paper is to provide a general overview of the main engineering and test activities conducted in order to support A350XWB Ice and Rain Protection Systems certification. Several means of compliance have been used to demonstrate compliance with applicable Certification Basis (CS 25 at Amendment 8 + CS 25.795 at Amendment 9, FAR 25 up to Amendment 129) and Environmental protection requirements. The EASA Type Certificate for the A350XWB was received the 30th September 2014 after 7 years of development and verification that the design performs as required, with five A350 XWB test aircraft accumulating more than 2600 flight test hours and over 600 flights. The flight tests have been carried out in dry air and measured natural icing conditions to demonstrate the performance of all ice and rain protection systems and to support the compliance demonstration with CS25.1419.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2285
Arne Nykänen, David Lennström, Roger Johnsson
Subjects who are well aware of what to judge commonly yield more consistent results in laboratory listening tests. This awareness may be raised by explicit instructions and training. However, too explicit instructions or use of only trained subjects may direct experiment results in an undesired way. An alternative is to give fairly open instructions to untrained subjects, but give the subjects a chance to get familiar with the product and context by, for example, riding a representative car under representative driving conditions before entering the laboratory. In this study, sound quality assessments of interior sounds of cars made by two groups were compared. In one group subjects were exposed to the same driving conditions that were later assessed in a laboratory listening test by taking them on a ride in one of the cars to be assessed, just before entering the laboratory. In the other group subjects made the laboratory assessments without prior car riding.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2286
Mohammed Eranpurwala, Md Sameer Ajuvath A
A leaf spring is subjected to vibration due to road profile irregularities, which leads to its fatigue failure. Also, if the natural frequency of the leaf spring matches the excitation frequency of the road profile, resonance occurs and the vibration is transmitted to the upper deck of the vehicle causing damage to fragile goods being transported. Hence, it is important to determine the modal frequencies of the leaf spring. This research work aims to highlight the experimental and computational techniques used to determine the modal frequencies of E-Glass/Epoxy mono composite leaf spring designed for the rear suspension of Tata Ace HD pickup truck. A prototype of E-Glass/Epoxy composite leaf is fabricated using conventional hand lay-up process and subjected to free and forced (harmonic) vibration test using DAQ (Data Acquisition) and DSA (Dynamic Signal Analyzer) system. The fundamental modal frequency obtained from real time test is validated using ANSYS Workbench 14.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0723
Sebastian Bender, Raymond Khoo, Christoph Große, Felix M. Wunner, Heong Wah Ng, Markus Lienkamp
Upcoming stringent regulations on emissions and fuel efficiency are driving the automotive industry towards light-weight vehicle design. A higher share of carbon fiber composite materials in vehicle structures is expected. Current literature addresses development processes of composite components under a limited scope but the considerations of design parameters used in these studies are inadequate for the realistic development of a full vehicle structure, especially in a resource-constrained development project. In addition, existing vehicle structure design philosophies used for metallic structures cannot be directly ported over for composites design due to the differences in material properties, failure modes and design for manufacturing limitations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1685
Omar Abu Mohareb, Phan-Lam Huynh, A. Al-Janabi, Michael Grimm, Hans-Christian Reuss
This paper addresses the performance and potential of using electric vehicles in the Gulf Arab states. The Research Institute of Automotive Engineering and Vehicle Engines Stuttgart (FKFS) in cooperation with Dhofar University in Salalah has established this research project, where several tests have been performed to study the performance of electric vehicles in the Gulf Arab states in general and in Oman in specific. This will give a deep insight of the electric vehicles use possibilities, in addition to the fuel saving potentials and environmental effects by using both electric vehicles and renewable energy charging stations. A survey with a questionnaire of 30 questions was carried out and distributed over 320 candidates representing population distribution in Salalah.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1390
Venk Kandadai, Helen Loeb, Guyrandy Jean-Gilles, Catherine McDonald, Andrew Winston, Thomas Seacrist, Flaura Winston
Driving simulators offer a safe alternative to on-road driving for the evaluation of performance. In addition, simulated drives allow for controlled manipulations of traffic situations producing a more consistent and objective assessment experience and outcome measure of crash risk. Our team at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia has developed a Simulated Driving Assessment (SDA) to reliably assess driving performance. In addition to work we previously presented on validation of the SDA (14B-0315) and data reduction routines, called DriveLab (14-B-0314), we developed a series of software routines, called “LiveMetrics,” to effectively convert reduced data generated from the DriveLab routines into a graphical report.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1664
Amardeep Singh, Anindya Deb, Amit Mohan Mensi, Ranga Srinivas Gunti
Despite the considerable advancements made in the applications of CAE for evaluation of an IC engine, an integrated approach to the design of such engines based on thermo-mechanical considerations appears to be lacking. The usage of heterogeneous tools for thermal, mechanical and vibration analysis in industry decreases the efficiency of the product development process. In an effort to reduce this bottleneck, a unified framework is presented here according to which heat transfer and thermo-mechanical stress analysis of a four-stroke single cylinder diesel engine is carried out in a unified manner with the aid of a multi-physics explicit finite element analysis tool, namely LS-DYNA, with robust contact interfaces leading to realistic representation of engine dynamics.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1701
Luciano Lukacs
The challenges around global products have been lately one of the key challenges for the Lighting community. This paper will present a survey which was held with costumers from China, India, Europe and Brazil understanding the difference and similarities regarding the lighting attributes. it brings also a discussion how to develop a lamp globally that fulfils everyone's needs and addresses potential trade-offs in design and performance.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0325
Alberto Boretti
Abstract The paper discusses the benefits of a four stroke engine having one intake and one exhaust rotary valve. The rotary valve has a speed of rotation half the crankshaft and defines an open passage that may permit up to extremely sharp opening or closing and very large gas exchange areas. This design also permits central direct injection and ignition by spark or jets. The dual rotary valve design is applied to a naturally aspirated V-four engine of 1000cc displacement, gasoline, methane or hydrogen fuelled with central direct injection and spark ignition. The engine is modeled by using a 1D engine & gas dynamics simulation software package to assess the potentials of the solution. The novelty in the proposed dual rotary valve system is the combustion chamber of good shape and high compression ratio with central direct injector and spark plug or jet ignition, coupled to the large gas exchange areas of the rotary system.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0980
Katsuya Minami, Yasuhiro Yoshimi
Abstract This study aims to build a conceptual simulation used at the early stage of PHEV development. This simulation enables to design vehicle concept and fundamental architecture with regard to fuel economy, vehicle acceleration and electric range. The model based on forward-looking method comprises of plant-model and controller-model which are made by one-dimensional simulation tool “GT-SUITE” and Matlab/SIMULINK respectively. In order to automatically couple between them and to implement iterative calculations of SOC (State-of-Charge) convergence, optimization and automation tool “modeFRONTIER” was used. As a case study of this simulation, we adopted series-parallel type plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and demonstrated the results on fuel economy of a legislative driving cycle and 0-60mph vehicle acceleration.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0178
James Price
Abstract AUTOSAR 4.x is being deployed by many of the world's top automotive OEMs. It has also seen increased adoption in regions outside of Europe. OEMs exert significant effort in the design, configuration, integration, and final build of AUTOSAR-based systems. This presentation gives an overview on the main advantages and critical gaps of adopting AUTOSAR to E/E design automation, including the digital interaction between Tier 1 suppliers and OEMs. This paper also discusses how the Electronics Architecture and Software Technology Architecture Description Language, or EAST-ADL, complements some of the weaknesses found in the current AUTOSAR release.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0972
Alexander Pawlowski, Derek Splitter
Abstract It is well known that spark ignited engine performance and efficiency is closely coupled to fuel octane number. The present work combines historical and recent trends in spark ignition engines to build a database of engine design, performance, and fuel octane requirements over the past 80 years. The database consists of engine compression ratio, required fuel octane number, peak mean effective pressure, specific output, and combined unadjusted fuel economy for passenger vehicles and light trucks. Recent trends in engine performance, efficiency, and fuel octane number requirement were used to develop correlations of fuel octane number utilization, performance, specific output. The results show that historically, engine compression ratio and specific output have been strongly coupled to fuel octane number.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0130
Julio Rodriguez, Ken Rogich, Philip Pidgeon, Kim Alexander, John R. Wagner
Abstract Driving skills and driving experience develop differently between a civilian and a military service member. Since 2000, the Department of Defense reports that two-thirds of non-related to war fatalities among active duty service members were due to transportation-related incidents. In addition, vehicle crashes are the leading non-related to war cause of both fatalities and serious injuries among active duty Marines. A pilot safe driving program for Marines was jointly developed by the Richard Petty Driving Experience and Clemson University Automotive Safety Research Institute. The pilot program includes four modules based on leading causes of vehicle crashes, and uses classroom and behind the wheel components to improve and reinforce safe driving skills and knowledge. The assessment results of this pilot program conducted with 192 Marines in September 2011 at Camp LeJeune, NC are presented and discussed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0131
Nick Smith
Abstract Demand for increased functionality in automotive electrical/electronic (E/E) systems is being propelled by both customers and various governmental regulations and requirements. This demand for more capabilities also introduces new challenges for OEMs who are responsible for implementing these functions. Of course, the cost of system development and manufacturing are considerable, but there are challenges beyond cost that the OEM must deal with, such as increased weight, reliability and quality concerns, exponentially-increasing complexity, and the government requirements. From the point of view of the electrical system platform as a whole, it provides the unique role of integrating all the individual E/E systems. When integrated, unanticipated problems can emerge that require design modifications. Often, these are discovered way down the design path, which results in delays in the program that can lead to missed deadlines and costly rework.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0148
Georg Macher, Harald Sporer, Eric Armengaud, Christian Kreiner
Abstract Increasing demands for safety, security, and certifiability of embedded automotive systems require additional development effort to generate the required evidences that the developed system can be trusted for the application and environment it is intended for. Safety standards such as ISO 26262 for road vehicles have been established to provide guidance during the development of safety-critical systems. The challenge in this context is to provide evidence of consistency, correctness, and completeness of system specifications over different work-products. One of these required work-products is the hardware-software interface (HSI) definition. This work-product is especially important since it defines the interfaces between different technologies. Model-based development (MBD) is a promising approach to support the description of the system under development in a more structured way, thus improving resulting consistency.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0144
Diljith Muthuvana, Renuka prasad
Abstract System Engineering is a broad concept that can be applied to any business case to help transform the engineering and the organizational needs into understandable, unambiguous, achievable tasks with a fixed time-line. In today's dynamics of the demanding business needs it has become inevitable to think for solutions that guarantee faster delivery while maintaining the quality standards. Traditional processes tend to fall back when implemented to satisfy the challenges faced by engineers in real world while achieving the business need. Many processes have evolved based on the lessons learnt while organization strives towards continuous improvement and adhering to quality standards. Agile, Lean, Kanban are few proven set of principles and practices that has helped to deliver expected results.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0416
Howard Evans
Abstract This paper summarises the history of Rochdale Motor Panels and Engineering Ltd. (RMP), established in England after the Second World War, from its origins as a small car-repair business though to the manufacture of sports coupés utilising an innovative glass-fibre monocoque construction. The political climate which caused RMP and similar undertakings to develop and flourish in the 1950s and 60s is explained together with details of the three men who had the defining influence on the cars that were created. Products, including aluminium-bodied cars, produced primarily for racing, are described, leading into the introduction of glass-fibre construction which enabled a profitable transition into higher volume body and chassis manufacture, and ultimately completely assembled cars.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0427
Zhigang Wei, Limin Luo, Shengbin Lin
Fatigue testing and related fatigue life assessment are essential parts of the design and validation processes of vehicle components and systems. Fatigue bench test is one of the most important testing methods for durability and reliability assessment, and its primary function is to construct design curves based on a certain amount of repeated tests, with which recommendations on product design can be advised. How to increase the accuracy of predictions from test results, the associated life assessment, and to reduce the cost through reducing test sample size is an active and continuous effort. In this paper the current engineering practices on constructing design curves for fatigue test data are reviewed first.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1229
Katherine Bovee, Amanda Hyde, Margaret Yatsko, Matthew Yard, Matthew Organiscak, Bharatkumar Hedge, Jason Ward, Andrew Garcia, Shawn Midlam-Mohler, Giorgio Rizzoni
The EcoCAR 2: Plugging into the Future team at The Ohio State University is designing a Parallel-Series Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle capable of 44 miles of all-electric range. The vehicle features an 18.9-kWh lithium-ion battery pack with range extending operation in both series and parallel modes. This is made possible by a 1.8-L ethanol (E85) engine and 6-speed automated manual transmission. This vehicle is designed to drastically reduce fuel consumption, with a utility factor weighted fuel economy of 50 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (mpgge), while meeting Tier II Bin 5 emissions standards. This paper details three years of modeling and simulation development for the OSU EcoCAR 2 vehicle. Included in this paper are the processes for developing simulation platform and model requirements, plant model and soft ECU development, test development and validation, automated regression testing, and controls and calibration optimization.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0157
M Abu Anas Shuvom, M Zahurul Haq
Abstract As combustion can vary widely between engine cycles if left uncontrolled, strict and robust control is required to meet optimum performance at different operating conditions. In this research, intelligent control techniques implemented on a Gasoline Direct Compression Injection (GDCI/GDI) engine. A research four cylinder 2.0 L GDI engine modeled with optimal control hardware that is frequently called as the conceptual Cybernetic intelligent GDI or ‘iGDI’ engine. The engine features Free Valve Actuation (FVA) hardware and precision fuel injector connected directly to the engine cylinder that found assistive for control flexibility by technical assessments. Then a mechatronic neural control approach is proposed and discussed with adaptive control techniques. Adaptive and predictive neural network control architectures developed for two distinct plant operation modes.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0167
Amrut A. Patki
Abstract Feature Addition or Enhancement is a necessary fragment of product development. Feature Addition or Enhancement is a result of one of the following: scope addition to new product development or customer requirement on current products. When it comes to Scope Addition, most of the times, first phase design and engineering will have been completed. Feature Addition or Enhancement because of scope addition is done to improve quality, cost or marketability. Current or future customer request for a feature addition or enhancement to meet their needs leads to customer requirement Feature Addition or Enhancement. Most of the times, vehicle has already been launched and design is frozen. In both the cases, design and engineering is challenged by Time, Effort and Cost. Model Based Design approach helps save some time for implementation. It also helps to improve required effort and reduces the cost of the feature by optimization.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0272
Ludovic Pintard, Michel Leeman, Abdelillah Ymlahi-Ouazzani, Jean-Charles Fabre, Karama Kanoun, Matthieu Roy
Abstract The complexity and the criticality of automotive electronic embedded systems are steadily increasing today, and that is particularly the case for software development. The new ISO 26262 standard for functional safety is one of the answers to these challenges. The ISO 26262 defines requirements on the development process in order to ensure the safety. Among these requirements, fault injection (FI) is introduced as a dedicated technique to assess the effectiveness of safety mechanisms and demonstrate the correct implementation of the safety requirements. Our work aims at developing an approach that will help integrate FI in the whole development process in a continuous way, from system requirements to the verification and validation phase.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0278
Ingo Stürmer, Heiko Doerr, Thomas End
Managing ISO 26262 software development projects is a challenging task. This paper discusses major challenges in managing safety-critical projects from a high-level perspective, i.e. from a manager’s point of view. We address managers (directors) with full project responsibility including software and hardware teams. Rather than discussing how to fulfill (technical) requirements stated by the ISO standard, we highlight major challenges and tough decisions a manager has to face on her way from project start up to delivery of the safety case. We discuss important project management topics and best practices such as negotiation issues with the contractor (OEM), selection of the appropriate functional safety manager, general ISO 262626-related project management matters, as well as contractual issues with supplier such as development interface agreement. We discuss the topics on the basis of real-life experience we collected during several ISO 26262 management projects.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0274
John Thomas, John Sgueglia, Dajiang Suo, Nancy Leveson, Mark Vernacchia, Padma Sundaram
Abstract The introduction of new safety critical features using software-intensive systems presents a growing challenge to hazard analysis and requirements development. These systems are rich in feature content and can interact with other vehicle systems in complex ways, making the early development of proper requirements critical. Catching potential problems as early as possible is essential because the cost increases exponentially the longer problems remain undetected. However, in practice these problems are often subtle and can remain undetected until integration, testing, production, or even later, when the cost of fixing them is the highest. In this paper, a new technique is demonstrated to perform a hazard analysis in parallel with system and requirements development. The proposed model-based technique begins during early development when design uncertainty is highest and is refined iteratively as development progresses to drive the requirements and necessary design features.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0446
Ronald Lannan
Abstract Use of Model-Based Design (MBD) processes for embedded controls software development has been purported for nearly the last decade to result in cost, quality, and delivery improvements. Initially the business case for MBD was rather vague and qualitative in nature, but more data is now becoming available to support the premise for this development methodology. Many times the implementation of MBD in an organization is bundled with other software process improvements such as CMMI or industry safety standards compliance, so trying to unbundle the contributions from MBD has been problematic. This paper addresses the dominant factors for MBD cost savings and the business benefits that have been realized by companies in various industries engaged in MBD development. It also summarizes some key management best practices and success factors that have helped organizations achieve success in MBD deployment.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0447
Venkatesh Agaram, Julian Venegas
Abstract System dynamics modeling of complex processes such as product development, manufacturing, and service, is an efficient approach for assessing value potential of different business transformation alternatives at small and large enterprises. Process elements such as generation of concepts, detailed designs, pilot level plant trials, etc. can be modeled including first-pass work, testing and review, rework identification and defect fixing, along with release readiness, staffing, schedule pressures, overtime and many other business metrics. Enterprise level processes, with their complex logic loops, can be represented as a system of coupled nonlinear differential equations, whose solutions can reveal the intricate underlying dynamics. Design of experiments, performed on the system dynamics models representing the business processes, are an inexpensive way of gaining insights into the impact of interactions between the numerous process control variables.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0464
Christian-Andreas Schumann, Eric Forkel, Thomas Klein, Dieter Gerlach, Egon Mueller
Abstract Total quality is becoming increasingly important for competitiveness. In order to achieve high quality, the requirements must be continuously compared with the results achieved in the process. This is done by means of measurement parameters and comparative values. The acquisition of the data requires appropriate measurement methods. The measurement methods and procedures have to be constantly developed in order to measure more precisely and to generate an even higher quality. Thus, the achieved product quality can be determined absolutely and relatively. If deviations from the planned quality parameters occur, the operator will be able to intervene immediately. The presented procedure is one of the noncontact (optical) measurement methods using CMMs, 3D scanners and 3D cameras. It is a combination of stereo photography and photogrammetry.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0461
Dennis Craggs
Abstract Automobile companies recognized the need to understand how customers use their vehicles. To this end, telediagnostic modules were installed on fleet vehicles, with the consent of the owner, to collect and store usage data. This data was uploaded to a server when the module was able to communicate via Wi-Fi. The volume of data is enormous. The size of a single vehicle file can be over six gigabytes, contain millions of records, and contain hundreds of millions of measurements. Each vehicle needs to be analyzed and the results from different vehicles combined to determine typical and extreme vehicle usage. With hundreds or thousands of vehicles to be analyzed, the analytic task is daunting. To analyze continuous data, like speed, frequency histograms have been used. It will be shown here that the cumulative percentile histogram provides better information and can display single and multiple vehicle usage patterns.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0463
Kasiraja Thangapandian, Immanuel Rajkumar
Abstract In recent years the automotive industry is facing unprecedented influx of new technology advancements and ever-increasing consumer demands for media, entertainment and connectivity applications. This drives the automotive industry to deliver the products at a faster pace, thereby reducing time to market which results in issues from end users and dealers. Automotive industries are striving hard to keep pace with these radical changes with increase in software and electronics which in turn necessitates a systematic and effective software engineering approach to deliver high quality product from the core embedded software industry. This paper details how embedded software projects are developed globally and customer issues are collected and analyzed. It also discuss about the method used for performing effective Root cause analysis for identifying the systemic issues and formulating the systemic improvement actions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1101
Jun Hakamagi, Tetsuya Kono, Ryoji Habuchi, Naoki Nishimura, Masahiro Tawara, Naoki Tamura
Abstract In response to increasing demands for measures to conserve the global environment and the introduction of more stringent CO2 emissions regulations around the world, the automotive industry is placing greater focus on reducing levels of CO2 through the development of fuel-efficient technologies. With the aim of improving fuel economy, a new continuously variable transmission (CVT) has been developed for 2.0-liter class vehicles. This new CVT features various technologies for improving fuel economy including a coaxial 2-discharge port oil pump system, wider ratio coverage, low-viscosity CVT fluid, and a flex start system. This CVT is also compatible with a stop and start (S&S) system that reduces fuel consumption by shutting off the engine while the vehicle is stopped. In addition, the development of the CVT improves driveability by setting both the driving force and engine speed independently.
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