Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 13463
2016-12-21
Journal Article
2016-01-9082
Bradley Michael, Rani Sullivan, Dulip Samaratunga, Ratneshwar Jha
Abstract Polymer matrix composites are increasingly adopted in aerospace and automotive industries due to their many attributes, such as their high strength to weight ratio, tailorability, and high fatigue and durability performance. However, these materials also have complex damage and failure mechanisms, such as delaminations, which can severely degrade their strength and fatigue performance. To effectively and safely use composite materials in primary structures, it is essential to assess composite damage response for development of accurate predictive models. Therefore, this study focuses on determining the response of damaged and undamaged carbon epoxy beams subjected to vibration loadings at elevated temperatures. The Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) technique is used to analyze the beams’ modal response. The HHT shows potential in identifying the nonlinear damaged response of the beams.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0061
Da Wang, Dingchao Qian, Bo Wang
This article summarized the development methods and technical experiences on Formula Student race car engines acquired by Jilin University during 2011 and 2015. This series of engines are all based on 600cc 4-cylinder motorcycle gasoline engines and are modified to turbocharged engine within the Formula Student technical regulations, in order to achieve higher power output, wider torque band as well as lower fuel consumption. During the development process, multiple researches have been conducted surrounding the turbocharging technology. These researches covered areas including the matching of the flow rate characteristics of the engine and the turbocharger, the design of intake and exhaust systems, research on the wastegate as well as its actuator, the selection and control of boost pressure as well as the design of the lubrication system on the turbocharger, etc.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0074
Pradeep Ramachandra, Manohar Halahali, Prashanth Anantha
Personal mobility is evolving in the emerging markets, where the primary need for transportation is predominantly met with two wheelers. This reflects on the annual production volumes, which is forecasted to reach 145 million units by 2021. Around 28% of this volumes belong to electric 2wheelers from China and the remaining are predominantly ICE (Internal Combustion Engines). With the regulators across the globe enforcing stricter emission norms in order to improve the air quality, there is a need for technology to evolve towards harnessing the best energy efficiency using multiple topologies. However, considering that the majority of the 2 wheelers are used by middle and lower income groups, it is imperative that efficient topologies need to be made available at affordable costs. The authors attempt to decipher this need for personal mobility coupled with the stringent regulations.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0060
Ashish Jain, Sahil Kapahi
A Formula SAE competition is characterized by typical track layouts having slaloms, tight corners and short straights, which favor a particular range of engine speed for a given set of gear ratios. Therefore, it is imperative that the powertrain is optimized for the corresponding engine rpm band. This paper describes the process of designing, simulating and validating an air intake manifold for an inline four cylinder four-stroke internal combustion gasoline engine based on analysis of required vehicle performance. The requirements for the design of subject intake were set considering the rules of FSAE competitions and analysis of engine performance patterns for typical competition scenarios, carried out using OPTIMUM Lap software. Manifold geometry was optimized using results of air flow simulations performed on ANSYS CFX, and subsequent effect of this geometry on the engine was modelled using 1D simulation on RICARDO Wave.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0046
Stephan Schneider, Marco Chiodi, Horst Friedrich, Michael Bargende
The proposed paper deals with the development process and initial measurement results of an opposed piston engine for the use in a Free Piston Linear Generator (FPLG). The FPLG, which is being developed at the German Aerospace Center (DLR), is an innovative internal combustion engine for the generation of electrical power. With its arrangement, the piston freely oscillates between the compression chamber of the combustion unit and a gas spring with no mechanical coupling like a crank shaft. A linear alternator converts the kinetic energy of the moving piston into electric energy. The virtual development of the novel combustion system is divided into two stages: One the one hand, the combustion system including e.g. a cylinder liner, pistons, cooling and lubrication concepts has to be developed.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0096
Patrick Pertl, Michael Lang, Stephan Schmidt, Roland Kirchberger
The enhancement of efficiency will play a more and more important role in the development of future (small) internal combustion engines. In recent years, the Atkinson (or Extended Expansion) cycle realized over the drive train attracted increasing attention. Several OEMs have been doing investigations on this efficiency-increasing principle in the whole range from small engines up to automotive engines up to now. In prior publications, the authors outlined the remarkable efficiency potentials of an Extended Expansion (EE) cycle. However, for an internal combustion engine, a smooth running performance as well as low vibrations and noise emissions are relevant aspects. This is especially true for an Extended Expansion engine realized over the drive train. Therefore, design measures concerning friction and NVH need to be taken to enable possible series production status. Basically, these measures strongly depend on the reduction of the free mass forces and moments.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2335
P. A. Lakshminarayanan, P. K. Senthilkumar
In this paper, the development and design of a new four stroke two cylinder diesel engine family of 1.3 liter capacity are discussed. Also, the salient features, performance and emission quality are presented. The transfer of design principles used in large engines resulted in providing highly enhanced wear life of the engine. The bore and stroke are 95 and 91 mm to maintain the piston velocity within 8 m/s. The engine is naturally aspirated (NA) for bmep less than 7.6 bar and turbocharged and intercooled (TCIC) for higher bmep. The high bmep engine uses fillet hardened chromium molybdenum steel. The engine is using a crankcase integrated with the flywheel housing and the timing case at the front; it reduces the cost and the number of parts and also makes the engine highly rigid against torsion and bending to form an integral part of a tractor chassis. For the tractor application, a cast iron sump in place of a light steel sump is designed for improving the rigidity.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2236
Jann Koch, Guoqing Xu, Yuri M. Wright, Konstantinos Boulouchos, Michele Schiliro
Three-dimensional reactive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) plays a crucial role in IC engine development tasks complementing experimental efforts by providing improved understanding of the combustion process. A widely adopted combustion model in the engine community for (partially) premixed combustion is the G-Equation where the flame front is represented by an iso-level of an arbitrary scalar G. A convective-reactive equation for this iso-surface is solved, for which the turbulent flame speed ST must be provided. In this study, the commonly used and well-established Damköhler approach is compared to a novel correlation, derived from an algebraic closure for the scalar dissipation of reaction progress as proposed by Kolla et al. [1].
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2224
Miriam Di Russo, Jerry Ku, Juan Briones Idrovo
Abstract This paper details the development of the control algorithms to characterize the behavior of an electrohydraulic actuated dry clutch used in the powertrain of the Wayne State University EcoCAR 3 Pre-Transmission Parallel hybrid vehicle. The paper describes the methodology and processes behind the development of the clutch physical model and electronic control unit to support the calibration of the vehicle’s hybrid supervisory controller. The EcoCAR 3 competition challenges sixteen North American universities to re-engineer the 2016 Chevrolet Camaro to reduce its environmental impact without compromising its performance and consumer acceptability. The team is in final stages of Year Two competition, which focuses on the powertrain components integration into the selected hybrid architecture. The dry clutch used by the team to enable the coupling between the engine and the electric motor is a key component of the Pre-Transmission Parallel configuration.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2225
Juan Sebastian Briones Idrovo, Jerry Ku
Abstract This paper details the development of a test-bench simulation to characterize the behavior of an electro-hydraulic actuated dry clutch used in a pre-transmission parallel hybrid powertrain architecture of Wayne State University EcoCAR 3. Engage and disengage systems play a crucial role in a pre-transmission parallel hybrid architecture. The most common device used to meet the purpose of physically connecting internal combustion engine and electric powertrains is a dry clutch. Its own characteristics and capabilities allow its usage for this application. The transition between the pure electric and hybrid modes is dictated by the main control strategy. Therefore, the engaging system will be widely used when switching from charge depleting to charge sustaining mode, and vice versa. In addition, when torque is required from both sources for higher performance, the clutch will be responsible for mechanically connecting both torque sources.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2243
Chen Yang, Haiyuan Cheng, Zizhu Fan, Jiandong Yin, Yuan Shen, Frank Haubner, Jeroen Slotman, Joerg Seibel, Stephan Baer
Abstract In recent years, more attention has been focused on environment pollution and energy source issues. As a result, increasingly stringent fuel consumption and emission legislations have been implemented all over the world. For automakers, enhancing engine’s efficiency as a must contributes to lower vehicle fuel consumption. To reach this goal, Geely auto started the development of a 3-cylinder 1.0L turbocharged direct injection (TGDI) gasoline engine to achieve a challenging fuel economy target while maintaining fun-to-drive and NVH performance. Demanding development targets for performance (specific torque 205Nm/L and specific power 100kW/L) and excellent part-load BSFC were defined, which lead to a major challenge for the design of the combustion system. Considering air/fuel mixture, fuel wall impingement and even future potential for lean burn combustion, a symmetrical layout and a central position for the injector with 200bar injection pressure was determined.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2222
Eduardo D. Marquez, Douglas Nelson
The energy management strategy of a hybrid vehicle minimizes energy consumption while maintaining performance and meeting driver demand. Sets of fuzzy rules are developed to determine the torque split between motor and engine using pedal position, vehicle speed and state of charge as input variables. The vehicle model is based off a 2016 Chevrolet Camaro converted into a rear wheel drive post transmission hybrid electric vehicle. The two torque producing components are a 280 kW V8 L83 engine with active fuel management (AFM) and a post-transmission (P3) 100 kW custom motor powered by a 120 kW LiFePO4 battery pack. The vehicle has two modes of operation: charge depleting (CD) and charge sustaining (CS) modes. The vehicle operates in electric vehicle (EV) mode and depletes the battery pack till a lower state of charge threshold is reached.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8062
Jham Kunwar Tikoliya, Ram Krishna Kumar Singh, Ramesh Kumar, Suresh Kumar Kandreegula
Abstract The existing head cover is having external oil and blow by separation unit, which is not only costlier but also complex and leads to increase in overall height of engine which was difficult to integrate in new variants of vehicles. A new head cover has been designed with internal baffle type oil and blow by separation system to ensure efficient separation and proper packaging of the system in new variants. The new system has been finalized after 26 DOE’s of different wire mesh sizes and different baffle plate size and positions. The final system has two bowl shaped separation unit with wire mesh, two cup type oil separation passages and one baffle plate for separating blow by. The system works on condensation and gravity method. The blow by is guided through a well-defined passage integrated in aluminum cylinder head cover itself. The passage angle is maintained to ensure minimum oil flow with blow by.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8074
Gaurav Kumar, Pavan Sindgikar, Narayan Jadhav, Sandip Gaidhane, Sarfaraj Shaikh
Abstract With the advent of most advanced diesel engines the demand for upgraded engine cooling modules capable of handling more heat rejection in a smaller space is surging. Moreover, the variance in the operating conditions, i.e., the simultaneous cooling demands for peak load as well as partial load in different ambient conditions of the vehicle operation, broadens the scope of development of a cooling system. Also, the cooling system needs to be configured judiciously so as to cater effective cooling at peak loads and efficient cooling at partial loads. This research paper deals with a cooling system developed using modularity approach in order to have a control over tuning of subsystems for varying operating conditions and also to achieve the performance targets with a compact design adhering to packaging constraints. Kuli simulation of different designed configurations were carried out for identification of best concept.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8082
Kaushik Saha, Ahmed Abdul Moiz, Anita Ramirez, Sibendu Som, Munidhar Biruduganti, Michael Bima, Patrick Powell
Abstract The medium and heavy duty vehicle industry has fostered an increase in emissions research with the aim of reducing NOx while maintaining power output and thermal efficiency. This research describes a proof-of-concept numerical study conducted on a Caterpillar single-cylinder research engine. The target of the study is to reduce NOx by taking a unique approach to combustion air handling and utilizing enriched nitrogen and oxygen gas streams provided by Air Separation Membranes. A large set of test cases were initially carried out for closed-cycle situations to determine an appropriate set of operating conditions that are conducive for NOx reduction and gas diffusion properties. Several parameters - experimental and numerical, were considered. Experimental aspects, such as engine RPM, fuel injection pressure, start of injection, spray inclusion angle, and valve timings were considered for the parametric study.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8078
He Changming, Xu Sichuan
Currently the downsizing of IC Engine has become the mainstream to meet fuel economy and emission regulations. It is required that higher power output while with lighter weight that is actually a daunting challenge for a common four-stroke IC engine, because it needs lots of new technologies and high manufacturing cost. For recent years the two-stroke opposed piston engine has drawn much attention in many developed countries for fundamental advantages itself. Double firing frequency means the increased power density brings about smaller engine size and lighter weight. However, the low scavenge efficiency has been assumed the main disadvantage for a two-stroke engine for a long period, and adverse to combustion efficiency. The uniflow scavenging process was investigated by the transient CFD simulation for multiple Cases. The influence of port timing and exhaust back pressure on scavenging was analyzed for two different intake port layouts.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8032
Anatoliy Dubrovskiy, Sergei Aliukov, Andrei Keller, Sergei Dubrovskiy, Alexander Alyukov
Abstract In this paper we consider a new design of adaptive suspension systems of vehicles with better technical characteristics and functional abilities in comparison with existing designs. We have developed the following main suspension components of vehicles: a lockable adaptive shock absorber with a wide range of control performance, implementing "lockout" mode by means of blocking adaptive shock absorber, and an elastic element with progressive non-linear characteristic and automatic optimization of localization of work areas. Advantages of our developments in the vehicle suspensions are the following: 1) when the vehicle is in a wide range of speeds in a so-called "comfort zone", we have managed, by applying the non-linear elastic element, to reduce significantly the stiffness of the elastic suspension elements in compare with the regular structures - at least in two times.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8007
Chris Mentzer, Ryan D. Lamm, Jerry Towler
Abstract Since the turn of the millennium, automated vehicle technology has matured at an exponential rate, evolving from research largely funded and motivated by military and agricultural needs to a near-production market focused on everyday driving on public roads. Research and development has been conducted by a variety of entities ranging from universities to automotive manufacturers to technology firms demonstrating capabilities in both highway and urban environments. While this technology continues to show promise, corner cases, or situations outside the average driving environment, have emerged highlighting scenarios that impede the realization of full automation anywhere, anytime. This paper will review several of these corner cases and research deficiencies that need to be addressed for automated driving systems to be broadly deployed and trusted.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8055
Rohit Saha, Long-Kung Hwang, Mahesh Madurai Kumar, Yunfeng Zhao, Chen Yu, Bob Ransijn
Abstract Wheel loader subsystems are multi-domain in nature, including controls, mechanisms, hydraulics, and thermal. This paper describes the process of developing a multi-domain simulation of a wheel loader. Working hydraulics, kinematics of the working tool, driveline, engine, and cooling system are modeled in LMS Imagine.Lab Amesim. Contacts between boom/bucket and bucket/ground are defined to constrain the movement of the bucket and boom. The wheel loader has four heat exchangers: charge air cooler, radiator, transmission oil cooler, and hydraulic oil cooler. Heat rejection from engine, energy losses from driveline, and hydraulic subsystem are inputs to the heat exchangers. 3D CFD modeling was done to calibrate airflows through heat exchangers in LMS Amesim. CFD modeling was done in ANSYS FLUENT® using a standard k - ε model with detailed fan and underhood geometry.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8118
QingHui Yuan
Emission, fuel economy and productivity in non-road mobile machinery (NRMM) depend largely on drive cycles. Understanding drive cycles can provide the in-depth information and knowledge that help the system integrator better optimize the vehicle management system. Some non-road engine test cycles already exist nowadays. However, these cycles are mainly for engine emission regulation purpose, and not closely tied to real world applications. Therefore, from both industries and academia, it has been the common practice to instrument and retrofit a vehicle, assign a professional driver operate the retrofitted vehicle for real testing, and compare the results to the baseline vehicle under the similar operating conditions. Obviously this approach is time consuming and resource intensive. In this paper, we attempt to address this issue by introducing a method of constructing standard drive cycles from in-field operation data.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8087
Xia Meng
Abstract The output power of a turbocharged diesel engine will decrease and the maximum torque point in the full load torque map will move backwards when the engine is operating at plateau.
2016-09-25
Article
The new organization, DATC, is aimed at reducing the time and cost of vehicle-technology transfer while minimizing the bureaucracy and risks typically associated with government contract awards.
2016-09-22
Article
The automotive cyber wars are just getting started. Regardless of what side of the battle you’re on, there are valuable insights into the other guy’s strategies and tactics in an excellent new book, The Car Hacker's Handbook .
2016-09-21
WIP Standard
AS6859
The purpose of the "Integrated Project Processes for Engineering a System(IPPES)" Standard is to provide an integrated set of fundamental technical processes to aid a project in the engineering or reengineering of a system over the full life cycle. Covers systems that can be any combination of people (humans); product (hardware or software); or process (service). Applicable to any type of system: commercial or non-commercial; small or large, simple or complex, precedented or unprecedented; new or legacy or any combination of these characteristics.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-1984
Michael Krenz
Abstract This paper proposes a method of optimizing aircraft system architectures by considering the efficiencies of each energy conversion step necessary to fulfill the intended function. In addition, these conversion efficiencies need to be evaluated at all critical operating points for the systems involved (e.g. engine, generator, loads, etc.). The methodology starts with examining the energy sources on the aircraft, the energy loads and the energy transfer efficiencies between the sources and the loads. Modern aircraft architecture trends are broadly addressed along with a framework for applying this methodology, but specific aircraft are not analyzed due to the proprietary nature of some of the conversion efficiency data.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2020
Constanza Ahumada Sanhueza, Andrea Bristot, Shubham Kumar, Nicolas Schneider, Seamus Garvey, Herve Morvan
Abstract This paper proposes an integrated system’s approach towards design of aero-engine subsystems - seals, bearing chamber, generator and power system. In a conventional design approach, the design of the overall system is typically broken-down into subsystems. Therefore, the focus is not on the mutual interaction between different components or subsystems, resulting in a lack of characterization of the overall system performance at the design phase. A systems design approach adopts a much broader outlook, focusing on the overall optimization of the system performance. This paper is divided into two parts. The first part presents an integrated approach for modelling the electrical, mechanical and hydraulic subsystems of aero engines, in order to analyze the fluid dynamics interactions and reduce the transversal shaft vibrations. For this, an in-line starter/generator and an air-riding seal are studied.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2018
Syed J. Khalid
Abstract The key commercial aircraft propulsion requirements toward ensuring flight safety, operational efficiency, reduced CO2 footprint, and community acceptability include high installed thrust, low specific fuel consumption, and reduced noise. The objective of this paper is to highlight the various ways turbofan performance can be enhanced. First the advantage of high bypass ratio (BPR) configurations will be explained with the help of clean sheet cycle designs with the corresponding off-design performance. The achievement of hot day performance and improved durability with high BPR designs, and the benefit from core supercharging has been presented. Next, the use of on-line control effector modulations, including variable bypass exhaust nozzle, for further improvement in cruise SFC (up to an indicated 2.6%) is shown. This is followed by a discussion of medium BPR mixed exhaust designs which have a performance advantage compared to the same BPR separate exhaust configurations.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2017
Devesh Kumar, Konrad Juethner, Yves Fournier
Abstract In modern complex engine design, it is a common challenge to keep simulation in step with changes to component geometry, environmental conditions, and mission data - and this applies to both actual designs and those that belong to the hypothetical design space as explored in design of experiments (DOE). In this paper, an effective simulation process and data management (SPDM) approach is presented that hinges on a focus on components, their generalized connections and programmatic templating. This simulation approach improves the fidelity of engine analysis, engineering productivity, quality, scalability across the gas turbine engine organization, and HPC utilization. In addition to this new analysis machinery, gas turbine engine modeling fidelity is elevated by surpassing commonly used one-dimensional (1D) models of rotors.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2027
Brett Robbins, Kevin J. Yost, Jon Zumberge
Abstract Detailed machine models are, and will continue to be, a critical component of both the design and validation processes for engineering future aircraft, which will undoubtedly continue to push the boundaries for the demand of electric power. This paper presents a survey of experimental testing procedures for typical synchronous machines that are applied to brushless synchronous machines with rotating rectifiers to characterize their operational impedances. The relevance and limitations of these procedures are discussed, which include steady-state drive stand tests, sudden short-circuit transient (SSC) tests, and standstill frequency response (SSFR) tests. Then, results captured in laboratory of the aforementioned tests are presented.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2052
Virgilio Valdivia-Guerrero, Ray Foley, Stefano Riverso, Parithi Govindaraju, Atiyah Elsheikh, Leonardo Mangeruca, Gilberto Burgio, Alberto Ferrari, Marcel Gottschall, Torsten Blochwitz, Serge Bloch, Danielle Taylor, Declan Hayes-McCoy, Andreas Himmler
Abstract This paper presents an overview of a project called “Modelling and Simulation Tools for Systems Integration on Aircraft (MISSION)”. This is a collaborative project being developed under the European Union Clean Sky 2 Program, a public-private partnership bringing together aeronautics industrial leaders and public research organizations based in Europe. The provision of integrated modeling, simulation, and optimization tools to effectively support all stages of aircraft design remains a critical challenge in the Aerospace industry. In particular the high level of system integration that is characteristic of new aircraft designs is dramatically increasing the complexity of both design and verification. Simultaneously, the multi-physics interactions between structural, electrical, thermal, and hydraulic components have become more significant as the systems become increasingly interconnected.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 13463

Filter