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2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0413
Anoma Malalasekera, Richard K. Stobart
In 2010, JLR launched their Technical Accreditation Scheme (TAS) in co-operation with a number of UK Universities to match their training and education needs – a system designed to tailor and develop the engineering expertise of their product development organisation. Loughborough University in the UK is a member of the consortium of universities offering several postgraduate masters level modules to this scheme. With this initiative, a new module to widen knowledge and expertise in engine calibration and emissions was developed in partnership with JLR. This paper focusses on aspects of course design, development, delivery and the continuous development of the course content. The module aims to present a balance respectively between the principles of modelling, design of experiments (DOE) and optimisation, and the practice of calibration.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1235
Kevin L. Snyder, Jerry Ku
The Wayne State University (WSU) EcoCAR2 student team converted a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu into a plug-in parallel hybrid for their participation in the EcoCAR2 design competition. EcoCAR2 was a three-year Department of Energy (DoE) Advanced Vehicle Technical Competition (AVTC) for 15 select university student teams competing on designing, building, and then optimizing their different plug-in hybrid reengineering of GM donated vehicles. WSU’s Parallel Through The Road (PTTR) powertrain design provides 49 km (30 miles) of electric driving using a rear axle mounted traction motor before the front axle mounted ethanol (E85) Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) powertrain is needed. This design allows the vehicle to operate the traction motor and ICE independently for increased reliability and also together: for increased fuel economy or increased dynamic performance.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0411
Richard K. Stobart, W. Ethan Eagle, Xunzhe Zhang
In a series of panel discussions conducted at the World Congress over the last two years, a range of issues have been discussed concerning the future of the profession. The consensus amongst panellists, participants and the reports they bring from industry suggest a substantial shortage of professional engineers. Attempts to improve the image of engineering in primary and secondary education have been successful, but reach too few students. AWIM provides one example of a project on a big scale that has been embraced by schools and which is characterised by an excellent co-operation between teachers and mentors. In spite of the success of such initiatives, the poor diversity in engineering that starts with undergraduate courses stands out as one of the biggest issues for the profession. There appear to be simply too many initiatives throughout the engineering experience.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0459
Vesna Savic, Louis Hector, Hesham Ezzat, Anil Sachdev, James Quinn, Ronald Krupitzer, Xin Sun
This paper presents an overview of a four-year project on integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) for third generation advanced high-strength steels (3GAHSS) development. Following a brief look at ICME as an emerging discipline within the Materials Genome Initiative, technical tasks in the ICME project will be discussed. Specific focus of the individual tasks is on multi-scale, microstructure-based material model development using state-of-the-art computational and experimental techniques, forming, assembly, design optimization, integration and technical cost modeling. The integrated approach is illustrated using a 980 grade transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel with a two-step quenching and partitioning (Q&P) heat treatment as an example.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0416
Howard Evans
This paper will cover the history and products of the UK based Rochdale marque from the 1950s to the 1970s.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1228
Zhuoran Zhang, Miriam Di Russo, Xianfeng Yan, Ahmed I. Uddin, Dhanya Sankaran, Jerry C. Ku
This paper presents the work performed by the Wayne State University (WSU) EcoCAR 3 student design competition team in its preparation for the hybrid electric vehicle architecture selection process. This process is recognized as one of the most pivotal steps in the EcoCAR 3 competition. With a key lesson learned from participation in EcoCAR 2 on “truly learning how to learn,” the team held additional training sessions on architecture selection tools and exercises with the goal of improving both fundamental and procedural skills. The work conducted represents a combination of the architecture feasibility study and final selection process in terms of content and procedure, respectively. At the end of this study the team was able to identify four potentially viable hybrid powertrain architectures, and thoroughly analyze the performance and packaging feasibility of various component options.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0242
Nick Smith
Correct by construction design processes can be dramatically enhanced using simulation techniques, especially early in the design process. But simulation is too often the preserve of specialist staff, who may work disconnected from day-to-day design updates. This paper highlights simulation and analysis tools that can be used by every electrical engineer, addressing topics ranging from functional verification to component sizing to failure modes & effects analysis. Furthermore, valuable results can be obtained with the simplest of models; and the models themselves can mature as the organization's use of simulation matures.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1174
Nobuhiko Nakagaki
We have developed four completely new parts for fuel cell vehicles. They are called separator, stack manifold, ion exchanger, silencer. The separator is a pressed metal plate sandwiched between the MEA(Membrane Electrode Assembly) ,and it has a flow path of hydrogen, air and coolant. The separator we have developed is anode separator. It has hydrogen flow paths on one side, and cooling liquid flow paths on the other side. The pitch of flow paths is very fine, it improve the uniformity of the gas flow and uniformity of the surface pressure on the MEA, therefore, it have contributed to improve the power generation performance. Also since nearly 400 separators are stacked up for one Fuel Cell Stack, it has to be very accurate. We have succeeded in the mass production of the separator by applying a precision press technology. Stack manifold is a component that attaches to the end of one side of the fuel cell stack. It is a component that integrates end plate and pipes.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0723
Sebastian Bender, Raymond Khoo, Christoph Große, Felix M. Wunner, Heong Wah Ng, Markus Lienkamp
Upcoming stringent regulations on emissions and fuel efficiency are driving the automotive industry towards light-weight vehicle design. A higher share of carbon fiber composite materials in vehicle structures is expected. Current literature addresses development processes of composite components under a limited scope but the considerations of design parameters used in these studies are inadequate for the realistic development of a full vehicle structure, especially in a resource-constrained development project. In addition, existing vehicle structure design philosophies used for metallic structures cannot be directly ported over for composites design due to the differences in material properties, failure modes and design for manufacturing limitations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1101
Jun Hakamagi, Tetsuya Kono, Ryoji Habuchi, Naoki Nishimura, Masahiro Tawara, Naoki Tamura
As requirements for protecting the global environment are being heightened on a worldwide scale in recent years, the development of fuel-economy technologies in order to reduce CO2 emissions is an important issue for the automotive industry. Aiming of improving fuel economy, TOYOTA has developed a new belt-type continuously variable transmission (CVT), unit K114, for 2.0-liter class vehicles. The CVT has adopted various technologies fuel economy such as a coaxial 2-discharge port oil pump system, wider ratio coverage, flex lock-up control,and so on. Notably, a start-stop system, which makes the engine stop automatically while the vehicle stopping with “D” range to reduce wasting the energy, is compatible with the CVT with higher quality and lower cost. In addition, the CVT has been also worked on improving quietness by adopting new soundproofing cover and by revising the arrangement of the steel belt elements in order to reduce the vibrator force which generates the belt noise.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1685
Omar Abu Mohareb, Phan-Lam Huynh, A. Al-Janabi, Michael Grimm, Hans-Christian Reuss
This paper addresses the performance and potential of using electric vehicles in the Gulf Arab states. The Research Institute of Automotive Engineering and Vehicle Engines Stuttgart (FKFS) in cooperation with Dhofar University in Salalah has established this research project, where several tests have been performed to study the performance of electric vehicles in the Gulf Arab states in general and in Oman in specific. This will give a deep insight of the electric vehicles use possibilities, in addition to the fuel saving potentials and environmental effects by using both electric vehicles and renewable energy charging stations. A survey with a questionnaire of 30 questions was carried out and distributed over 320 candidates representing population distribution in Salalah.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0427
Zhigang Wei, Limin Luo, Shengbin Lin
In order to reduce time-to-market, fatigue design and validation of modern products are often based on accelerated testing results. This is especially true for the durability and reliability performance assessment of vehicle components and systems, based on the fact that the designed service lives with 10 years or greater for vehicle products are not very uncommon. However, fatigue test data often show intrinsic variations or noises due to the uncertainties involved in materials, testing and environment. Therefore, statistical data analysis, such as curve fitting and subsequent design curve construction, is a critical process for the accurate data interpretation and eventual product design and validation. Additionally, sample allocation and sample size can affect both the accuracy and the testing cost, therefore, testing should be properly planned and executed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0464
Christian-Andreas Schumann, Eric Forkel, Thomas Klein, Dieter Gerlach, Egon Mueller
Total quality is becoming increasingly important for competitiveness. In order to achieve high quality, the requirements must be continuously compared with the results achieved in the process. This is done by means of measurement parameters and comparative values. The acquisition of the data requires appropriate measurement methods. The measurement methods and procedures have to be constantly developed in order to measure more precisely and to generate an even higher quality. Thus, the achieved product quality can be determined absolutely and relatively. If deviations from the planned quality parameters occur, the operator will be able to intervene immediately. The presented procedure is one of the non-contact (optical) measurement methods using CMMs, 3D scanners and 3D cameras. It is a combination of stereo photography and photogrammetry.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0259
Tyler Zellmer, Julio Rodriguez, John R. Wagner, Kim Alexander, Philip Pidgeon
Abstract According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), motor collisions account for nearly 2.4 million injuries and 37 thousand fatalities each year in the United States. A great deal of research has been done in the area of vehicular safety, but very little has been completed to ensure licensed drivers are properly trained. Given the inherent risks in driving itself, the test for licensure should be uniform and consistent. To address this issue, an inexpensive, portable data acquisition and analysis system has been developed for the evaluation of driver performance. A study was performed to evaluate the system, and each participant was given a normalized driver rating. The average driver rating was µ=55.6, with a standard deviation of σ=12.3. All but 3 drivers fell into the so-called "Target Zone", defined by a Driver Rating of µ± 1σ.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1390
Venk Kandadai, Helen Loeb, Guyrandy Jean-Gilles, Catherine McDonald, Andrew Winston, Thomas Seacrist, Flaura Winston
Driving simulators offer a safe alternative to on-road driving for the evaluation of performance. In addition, simulated drives allow for controlled manipulations of traffic situations producing a more consistent and objective assessment experience and outcome measure of crash risk. Our team at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia has developed a Simulated Driving Assessment (SDA) to reliably assess driving performance. In addition to work we previously presented on validation of the SDA (14B-0315) and data reduction routines, called DriveLab (14-B-0314), we developed a series of software routines, called “LiveMetrics,” to effectively convert reduced data generated from the DriveLab routines into a graphical report.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0247
Sonakshi Sharma, Shubhranshu Garg, Vipul Kumar, Sudhir Kashinath Gupte
There are variety of motors and generators/alternators being manufactured internationally, for variety of applications. It is a difficult task for the user to identify and select the type of motor /generator/alternator for a specific use, by the designer and ultimately the user is totally unaware of what is bought and why. There is a need to designate the motors and generators so that by interpretation of the identification nomenclature of the motor or generator it can be judged that what type it is, whether a series motor, an induction motor etc, in case of motors. This will eventually make it easy for the manufacturer, the buyer and the consumer to identify the motor or generator type. So a universally accepted and followed identification nomenclature is required to be developed which will henceforth make dealing in motors and generators simpler. It will prove to be useful during troubleshooting.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1229
Katherine Bovee, Amanda Hyde, Margaret Yatsko, Matthew Yard, Matthew Organiscak, Bharatkumar Hedge, Jason Ward, Andrew Garcia, Shawn Midlam-Mohler, Giorgio Rizzoni
The EcoCAR 2: Plugging into the Future team at The Ohio State University is designing a Parallel-Series Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle capable of 44 miles of all-electric range. The vehicle features an 18.9-kWh lithium-ion battery pack with range extending operation in both series and parallel modes. This is made possible by a 1.8-L ethanol (E85) engine and 6-speed automated manual transmission. This vehicle is designed to drastically reduce fuel consumption, with a utility factor weighted fuel economy of 50 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (mpgge), while meeting Tier II Bin 5 emissions standards. This paper details three years of modeling and simulation development for the OSU EcoCAR 2 vehicle. Included in this paper are the processes for developing simulation platform and model requirements, plant model and soft ECU development, test development and validation, automated regression testing, and controls and calibration optimization.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1175
Norishige Konno, Seiji Mizuno, Hiroya Nakaji, Yuji Ishikawa
Small size, high performance and affordable price are needed to launch a Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) on the market. Toyota makes it possible to adopt the no humidification system (the first among the world) and 3kW/L of power density (double in comparison with previous model) by innovation of structure of flow field and a Membrane Electrode Gas diffusion layer Assembly (MEGA) in the new FC stack for Toyota FCV 2015 model. Also Toyota has succeeded in compatible development with performance and cost by using items in below. Quantity of Pt is decreased by 1/3, replacing the gilding of bipolar plates to carbon nano-coating and simplifying a structure of stacking parts. Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) type fuel cell is generally used in vehicle, and generate electricity by chemical reaction utilize Pt as catalyst, H2 as fuel and O2 as oxidant.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0463
Kasiraja Thangapandian, Immanuel Rajkumar
In automotive embedded software developments, as the software functionality are added based on the user preference and technology growth. The software logic were added to the legacy code and the functionality is being visualized. Due to the complexity added to the software, there are chance of introducing a defect to the existing piece of code which makes the functionality to improperly function. In this paper, we will discuss how embedded software projects were developed across globally and how the data is collected. Based on the data collection and applying the statistical method to identify the exact root cause of the problem from injection standpoint, subsequently from escape by review method and testing. By applying the Lean six sigma methodology and Big data analytic method to analyses the data collected, based on analysis performed for data pattern continuous improvement actions were derived.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0972
Alexander Pawlowski, Derek Splitter
It is well known that spark ignited engine performance and efficiency is closely coupled to fuel octane number. The present work combines historical and recent trends in spark ignition engines to build a database of engine design, performance, and fuel octane requirements over the past 70 years. The database consists of engine compression ratio, required fuel octane number, peak mean effective pressure, specific output, and combined fuel economy for passenger vehicles and light trucks. Recent trends in engine performance, efficiency, and fuel octane number requirement were used to develop correlations of fuel octane number utilization, performance, specific output, and theoretical Otto cycle engine efficiency. The results show that historically, engine compression ratio, performance, and efficiency have been strongly coupled to fuel octane number.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0980
Katsuya Minami, Yasuhiro Yoshimi
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is one of the promising solutions for future transportation. Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is originally characterized by better fuel economy in comparison with conventional vehicles based on gasoline and diesel engine. However, in recent years, customers are becoming to expect the additional merits for environmentally friendly vehicle such as vehicle acceleration and dynamics. Moreover, electric range is a major concern of PHEV and significantly affects the vehicle architecture including battery capacity, power and vehicle weight. This study aims to build a comprehensive simulation used at the early stage of PHEV development. This simulation enables to design vehicle concept and fundamental architecture with regard to fuel economy, vehicle acceleration and electric range.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0293
Yaamini Devi Loganathan
Indian automobile production increased at a CAGR of 12.2% over FY05-FY13, with a decline in Commercial Vehicle (CV) growth rate during FY09 and FY13. Globally, automotive industry suffered a decline in FY09 due to the global financial crisis and again on a decline in FY12 due to the European sovereign debt crisis. Both these events took a toll on the economy as well as industrial activity, around the globe, as well as in India. Apart from the global events, there are various internal risks the Indian OEMs need to consider: 1) regulatory risk due to excise duty hikes, decontrol of fuel pricing, etc., 2) market risks due to currency, inflation, interest rates, material cost, 3) industry risks due to increased competition, price war, etc. In this scenario, Indian Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) need to constantly recalibrate their strategies to the changing market dynamics and associated risks.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1255
Michael Pontoppidan, Jose G. C. Baeta
The approach of combining highly boosted Ethanol Direct Injected (EDI) engines with extreme downsizing represents a powerful means to reduce CO2 emission at reduced production costs, making it possible to replace high-displacement E0 or E22 engines with smaller highly boosted engines running with bio-fuels such as hydrated ethanol in Brazil (E100) or in North America and Europe (E85). The DI approach is an ideal system for an ethanol engine as the fuel properties enable high compression ratios (CR) in the range of 12 to 13:1, eliminating knock occurrence and generating precise fuel metering. Applied initially to a single turbocharged downsized, down-speeded engine can be obtained a significant decrease in engine friction and a reduction in the exhaust emissions as well a recovery of the power output. This leads to a significant improvement in brake thermal efficiency.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0271
Fabian Joerg Uwe Koark, Christian Beul
Especially in chassis systems, Functional Safety Engineering aligned to an International Standard is already a long-lasting discussion. Nevertheless, the requirements of process conformance to assure functional safety have been detailed in description and interpretation. Where the ISO 26262 is seen as state-of-the-art engineering basement in Europe, the closer interpretation of the IEC 61508 is claimed by assessors in America and Asia. This work shows how stagnation in engineering process improvement is cracked by re-engineering projects. The benefits of re-engineering are described in this context. A four month, proven-in-practice project plan is explained. The expected results of such a project are given as generic goals for similar projects. A practice report shows the realistic outcome of such a project for the Chinese automotive industry.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0274
John Thomas, John Sgueglia, Dajiang Suo, Nancy Leveson, Mark Vernacchia, Padma Sundaram
The introduction of new safety critical features using software-intensive systems presents a growing challenge to hazard analysis and requirements development. These systems are rich in feature content and can interact with other vehicle systems in complex ways, making the early development of proper requirements critical. Catching potential problems as early as possible is essential because the cost increases exponentially the longer problems remain undetected. However, in practice these problems are often subtle and can remain undetected until integration, test, production, or even later when the cost of fixing them is the highest. In this paper, a new technique is demonstrated to perform the hazard analysis iteratively in parallel with the development process. This safety-driven design technique is based on Systems-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) and is demonstrated in this paper using a realistic Shift-By-Wire design concept.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0178
James Price
AUTOSAR 4.0.3 is now being deployed by many of the world’s top automotive OEMs and seeing increased adoption in regions outside of Europe. OEMs exert significant effort in the design, migration, configuration, integration, generation, and in the final build of AUTOSAR-based systems. The presentation gives an overview how to successfully adopt an AUTOSAR design methodology and how to manage the digital interaction  between Tier 1 suppliers and OEMs
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0157
M Abu Anas Shuvom, M Zahurul Haq
As combustion can vary widely between engine cycles if left uncontrolled, strict and robust control is required to meet optimum performance at different operating conditions. In this research, intelligent control techniques implemented on a Gasoline Direct Compression Injection (GDCI/GDI) engine. A research four cylinder 2.0 L GDI engine is modeled with optimal control hardware that is frequently called as the conceptual Cybernetic intelligent GDI or ‘iGDI’ engine. The engine features Free Variable Valve Timing and Lift (FVVTL) hardware and precision fuel injector connected directly to the engine cylinder found assistive for control flexibility with technical assessments. Then a mechatronic neural control approach is proposed and discussed with adaptive control techniques. Adaptive and predictive neural network control architectures are discussed on two distinct plant operation modes.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0446
Ronald Lannan
The Business Case for MBD Abstract : Use of MBD processes for embedded controls software development has been purported to result in cost, quality, and delivery improvements. Initially the business case for MBD was rather vague and qualitative, but more data is now becoming available to support the premise for this development methodology. Often, the implementation of MBD in an organization is bundled with other software process improvements, so trying to unbundle the contributions from MBD has been problematic. This paper addresses the dominant factors for MBD cost savings and the business benefits that have been realized by companies in various industries engaged in MBD development. It also summarizes some key management best practices and success factors that have helped organizations achieve success in MBD deployment. Note: This paper complements the other paper submitted: The Benefits of MBD
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0447
Venkatesh Agaram, Julian Venegas
Simulation Based Process Reliability Design Venkatesh Agaram PTC, Inc., USA Processes involved in product development, manufacturing, and service can be complex, so much so that experts with many years of experience may not have a good understanding of the sensitivity of the process performance metrics to the process control variables, particularly to the interactions between the control variables. Consequently, it is unrealistic to expect that process performance reliability can be based on the experience-based judgment of a few subject matter experts (SMEs). Simulation tools that can take into account the interaction between variations of different process control variables in order to predict the overall process performance reliability are needed to enhance the intuition of SMEs Processes such as product development, manufacturing, and service can be modeled as a system of coupled, nonlinear, first-order differential equations in time.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0476
Hyunkwon Jo, Youngseung Kim, Hyunchul Lee, Hyunmin Park, Suckin Song
At early automobile development stage, we have simulated the optimization and then achieved effectively the performance improvement, weight reduction and so on. This benefit of the optimization analysis is to overcome the mechanical design limits by predicting problems and changing lay-out before the design is fixed. Therefore the optimization analysis has been carried out in many automobile components at the early stage. However, many interior parts depend on the design. This means that it is difficult to apply the general optimization of the interior parts – changing the lay-out and dimension – unlike automobile frame and body in which the optimization have been studied briskly. This is the reason why the optimization of plastic interior parts haven’t been studied prosperously. But as researching the structure in detail, we realized that there are factors that affect the performance without depending on design. In case of door trim, there are Fastener, Flange Rib, and so on.
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