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2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0413
Anoma Malalasekera, Richard K. Stobart
In 2010, JLR launched their Technical Accreditation Scheme (TAS) in co-operation with a number of UK Universities to match their training and education needs – a system designed to tailor and develop the engineering expertise of their product development organisation. Loughborough University in the UK is a member of the consortium of universities offering several postgraduate masters level modules to this scheme. With this initiative, a new module to widen knowledge and expertise in engine calibration and emissions was developed in partnership with JLR. This paper focusses on aspects of course design, development, delivery and the continuous development of the course content. The module aims to present a balance respectively between the principles of modelling, design of experiments (DOE) and optimisation, and the practice of calibration.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0416
Howard Evans
This paper will cover the history and products of the UK based Rochdale marque from the 1950s to the 1970s.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0469
Ning Wang, Yafei Liu
The Chinese government initiated the “Ten Cities, Thousand Vehicles” program for electric vehicles from the year of 2009 to 2012. The demonstration results indicate that an integral supporting system is required in the promotion of electric vehicles, including the government policies, charging infrastructure, after-sales service, business models and consumer awareness. Through the analysis of related literature and summary reports from 25 demonstration cities, a partial least squares (PLS) path model with 5 major factors and 13 observation indicators was developed to assess the city readiness of electric vehicle supporting system. The 5 factors consist of government policies and investment, charging infrastructure construction and operation, business models and maintenance service system, consumer awareness training, operation scale and environmental benefits. Then based on the PLS results 25 cities are divided into 6 groups with the clustering analysis model.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1235
Kevin L. Snyder, Jerry Ku
The Wayne State University (WSU) EcoCAR2 student team converted a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu into a plug-in parallel hybrid for their participation in the EcoCAR2 design competition. EcoCAR2 was a three-year Department of Energy (DoE) Advanced Vehicle Technical Competition (AVTC) for 15 select university student teams competing on designing, building, and then optimizing their different plug-in hybrid reengineering of GM donated vehicles. WSU’s Parallel Through The Road (PTTR) powertrain design provides 49 km (30 miles) of electric driving using a rear axle mounted traction motor before the front axle mounted ethanol (E85) Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) powertrain is needed. This design allows the vehicle to operate the traction motor and ICE independently for increased reliability and also together: for increased fuel economy or increased dynamic performance.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0415
R. Rajendran, T.R Tamilarasan, G. Ramanjaneyulu
Teaching in a lab is very different than teaching in a class room or lecture. Almost anything in a laboratory class can be done by including discussions and giving lectures. But most of us are not fortunate enough to hold all the theory classes in the laboratory, the real question is, how can we conduct the classes effectively?. This can be accomplished through simple experiments in the class room teaching or in the laboratory, and this depends on how we motivate the students to be creative and innovative. The objective is to teach material science concepts through activity based learning for undergraduate courses. The activity is designed with the simple paper clips which we use in our daily life, thus making cost effective process. This helps the student to learn the concepts by themselves work in groups and develop soft skills as they make presentation to the entire class which is the need of the industry.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0463
Kasiraja Thangapandian, Immanuel Rajkumar
In automotive embedded software developments, as the software functionality are added based on the user preference and technology growth. The software logic were added to the legacy code and the functionality is being visualized. Due to the complexity added to the software, there are chance of introducing a defect to the existing piece of code which makes the functionality to improperly function. In this paper, we will discuss how embedded software projects were developed across globally and how the data is collected. Based on the data collection and applying the statistical method to identify the exact root cause of the problem from injection standpoint, subsequently from escape by review method and testing. By applying the Lean six sigma methodology and Big data analytic method to analyses the data collected, based on analysis performed for data pattern continuous improvement actions were derived.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0480
Santosh Tiwari, Don Jones, Simon Xu
Response Surface Models are often used as a surrogate for expensive black-box functions during optimization to reduce computational cost. Often, the CAE analysis models (e.g. Crash, NVH, etc.) are highly non-linear and multi-modal. A response surface approximation of such analysis as a result is highly multi-modal; i.e. it contains multiple local optima. A gradient-based optimizer working with such a response surface will often converge to the nearest local optimum. There does not exist any method to find/guarantee a global optima for non-convex multi-modal functions. For such problems, we propose an efficient algorithm to find as many distinct local optima as possible. The proposed method is specifically designed to work in large dimensions (about 100~1000 design variables) and can identify most of the locally optimal solutions in a reasonable amount of time.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0461
Dennis Craggs
Analyze vehicle usage parameters with distribution free methods. Engineers are familiar with displaying vehicle data with interval count or percentile histograms. A cumulative time or mileage based histogram provides a direct visual means of characterizing the vehicle history. Combining the histograms from many vehicles results in a complex virtually unreadable plot. An alternative approach is to determine the 5%, median, and 95% usage and plot as a cumulative histogram . These provide design engineers with useful information to develop validation tests.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0467
Jiangqi Zhou
Application of N-in-one mould technology in autobody closure panels is rare. This paper introduces a method satisfying multi-dimension requirements (involving the fields of product and manufacture engineering) based on concurrent engineering, and the successful development of a set of N-in-one dies for hood outer panel. Compared with the traditional one, mold development period is shortened by 15%, 7% reduction in cost, and 50% reduced in manufacturing cost. The case study shows that the appearance quality of parts is better than standard products. Some valuable guidelines for operation reliability and material selection flexibility design are proposed to better develop innovative stamping process. The future work of so called multi-dimension CE is also presented
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0472
Rongchao Jiang, Dengfeng Wang
The powertrain system has significant impacts on the power performance and fuel consumption of commercial trucks. However, there is usually a contradiction between the power performance and fuel economy during the parameter optimization of the powertrain system. The common method to deal with this contradiction is to integrate all the criteria for power performance and fuel economy into a single performance index according to weights of each criterion, which may be difficult to obtain a desired result. Therefore, a comprehensive methodology based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is presented in this paper to achieve parameter optimization for the powertrain system of a self-dumping truck, with the aim of reducing fuel consumption and improving power performance. In this paper, the vehicle performance simulation model of this self-dumping truck was created using AVL-Cruise software.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0474
Henric Pettersson, Maria Rodiouchkina, Gerald Micklow, Hamid hefazi
The automotive industry today is struggling an ever increasing number of complex and often conflicting requirements. Automotive manufacturers strive to compress vehicle design cycle time, lower the weight and cost of the vehicle in the same time as improve product performance, safety, quality, and reliability. To satisfy these requirements, the industry has an increasingly reliance on the use of more formal and structured approaches to design, analyze and optimize. The designing of advanced automotive engineering systems is done simultaneously over a wide spectrum of different disciplines such as powerplant, drivetrain, chassis, safety, electronics and economy. If an optimization on such a system could be done to find an optimal design in the beginning of the system design, it could prevent the changes later on in the design sequence and eliminate costly time consuming changes from taking place Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) offers methods for that specific purpose.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0464
Christian-Andreas Schumann, Eric Forkel, Thomas Klein, Dieter Gerlach, EGON MUELLER
Total quality is becoming increasingly important for competitiveness. In order to achieve high quality, the requirements must be continuously compared with the results achieved in the process. This is done by means of measurement parameters and comparative values. The acquisition of the data requires appropriate measurement methods. The measurement methods and procedures have to be constantly developed in order to measure more precisely and to generate an even higher quality. Thus, the achieved product quality can be determined absolutely and relatively. If deviations from the planned quality parameters occur, the operator will be able to intervene immediately. The presented procedure is one of the non-contact (optical) measurement methods using CMMs, 3D scanners and 3D cameras. It is a combination of stereo photography and photogrammetry.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0466
Boxiao Chen, Yan Fu, Margaret Strumolo, Xiuli Chao, Michael Tamor
Greenhouse gas emission targets are becoming more stringent for both automakers and electricity generators. With the introduction of plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles, the light duty vehicle (LDV) and electricity generation sectors become connected. This provides an opportunity for both sectors to work together to achieve the cost efficient reduction of CO2 emission. In addition, the abundant natural gas in USA is drawing increased attention from both policy makers and various industries recently due to its low cost and low carbon content. NG has the potential to ease the pressure from CO2 emission constraints for both the LDV and the electricity generation sectors while simultaneously reducing their fuel costs. An analytical model is developed to evaluate the total societal costs and CO2 emissions for both sectors. The model includes electric vehicles, as well as conventional, hybrid and plug-in hybrid vehicles that can be fueled by either gasoline or NG.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0471
Apurva Gokhale, Sumeet Parashar, Saket Kansara
Uncertainties are introduced in design process from various sources like variability in material properties, manufacturing tolerances etc. It is important to quantify and account for these uncertainties to achieve a robust final design. Traditionally engineers have dealt with these uncertainties by applying factor of safety, while still treating all design variables as deterministic variables. However for the modern numerical approaches, uncertainties in design parameters can be modeled as stochastic variables. This allows to predict the probability of design failure based on probability distribution function of performance outputs. Typically, robust design formulations calculate mean and standard deviation of responses based on sampling. Reliability based formulations can use methods like First Order Reliability Method (FORM) or Second Order Reliability Method (SORM) which require nested optimization to evaluate joint probability distribution and reliability factor.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1234
Patrick Ellsworth, William Scott, Michael Fowler, Roydon Fraser, Ben Gaffney, Daniel VanLanen
Plug-in electric vehicles (PHEVs) represent a growing share of the automotive market. With the energy efficiency of a battery, coupled with the extended range of a fuel tank, modern PHEVs claim an impressive 98 mpg and a 380 mile range - although higher values have been reported [1] [2]. This is resultant of the vehicle control system, which discharges the battery in 'EV mode' (charge depletion mode) until a minimum state of charge (SOC) is reached before utilizing a 'charge sustaining' mode with the engine. However, this logic can be improved. Inspection of cell internal resistance (Rint) derived by the hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC) test indicates that Rint is a function of SOC, thus some SOC ranges are more efficient than others. Therefore energy losses can be minimized by moving the charge sustaining operation to an efficient range.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0462
Banu Sinanoglu Turan
In order to prepare a project timing plan; the procedure that is recommended by Project Management Institute ®, and followed by project management analysts is that after creating a work breakdown structure, the activities are defined, their sequence and relation are established, milestones are listed and finally the estimates for duration of each activity are made and put into the project plan. By using a Gantt chart or a network analysis, the critical path of the project is calculated and the project duration is finally estimated through the critical path. However, the question of the possibility of meeting the timing plan generally remains unknown. In this paper, this question is addressed via suggesting a process and calculation method for estimating the probability of finishing the project on target using Monte Carlo Simulation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0468
Mingxian Wang, Wei Chen, Yan Fu, Yong Yang
Being the world’s largest auto producer and consumer, China is becoming the most promising but complex market given the country’s rapid economic growth, huge population, and many regional and segment preference differences. This research is aimed at developing data-driven demand models for customer preference analysis and prediction under a competitive market environment. Regional analysis is first used to understand the impact of geographical factors on customer preference. Advanced multivariate analysis techniques are then employed to reduce a set of survey responses to key measures of customer preference. Finally, a new network analysis approach is proposed to model customer cross-shopping behavior that can inform the firm about the implied market structure and product competitive positioning. Our proposed approach is demonstrated by using a rich set of market data collected in China.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0475
Truong Nguyen, John Bell
Title: The Benefit of Co-Developing Vehicle Electrical & Electronic Architecture between OEM and Supplier Author: Truong Nguyen and John Bell Company: Yazaki North America Inc. Modern automotive electrical architecture is comprised of the battery and charging system, power distribution boxes, electronic control units, electronic devices, grounds, and the means of connecting all of these together - the wire harness or Electrical Distribution System (EDS). Current architecture design practices fix the packaging locations of the electronics and the EDS is designed and routed to fit in the limited remaining available physical space. As automotive electrical content and complexity increases so does the weight, size, and cost of the EDS. As Corporate Average Fuel Economy regulations become stricter it becomes imperative to optimize the weight, cost, and manufacturability of a vehicle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0460
Saket Kansara, Sumeet Parashar, Zhendan Xue
Increased sophistication of engineering simulation tools, availability of computing power and demand for optimization is steering engineers towards multi-objective and multi-disciplinary formulation. It is becoming common to see problem setup with hundreds of input parameters, many objective functions and constraints. While modern optimization algorithms and software tools are able to handle large scale problems and generate even larger datasets, it is a challenge to analyze such large data sets and make effective decisions. Decision making is especially challenging when one has multiple objectives of conflicting nature. Pareto frontier solutions for two or three objective space are easy to visualize and comprehend, however, as the number of objectives increase, it becomes more and more difficult to understand and analyze trade-offs from the results coming out of optimization.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0470
Joanna Rakowska, Shawn Morgans, Michael Lee, Jeffrey Laya, Amir Chator, Gregory Zinn, Ching-Hung Chuang, Bruno Barthelemy, Sreekanth Reddy gondipalle
Designing a vehicle body involves meeting numerous performance requirements related to different attributes such as NVH, Durability, Safety, and others. Multi-Disciplinary Optimization (MDO) is an efficient way to develop a design that optimizes vehicle performance while minimizing the weight. Since a body design evolves in course of the product development cycle, it is essential to repeat the MDO process several times as the design matures and more accurate data become available. This paper presents a real life application of the MDO process to reduce weight while optimizing performance over the design cycle of the 2015 Mustang. The paper discusses the timing and results of the applied Multi-Disciplinary Optimization process. The attributes considered during optimization include Safety, Durability and Body NVH. Several iterations of MDO have been performed at different milestones in the design cycle leading to significant weight savings of more than 11kg.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0412
Ruben Morales-Menendez, Horacio Ahuett Garza PhD, Carlos Vivas Lopez cEng, Ricardo Ramírez Mendoza PhD
Using a prototype scale (1: 5), the vertical dynamic of a Quarter of Vehicle (QoV) with an electro-rheological (ER) semi-active damper is simulated. The platform is equipped with several sensors for measuring: the positions on the motor base, the suspended mass and between the rim and the sprung mass, the acceleration in the tire and the sprung mass, and the damper force. A PC is the HMI of the system. The HMI talks with a DSpace data acquisition card that communicates with the sensors / actuators system and works directly with Matlab. An application that allows and encourages the Research-Based Learning (RBL) and Active Learning (AL) was developed. This facilitates students the interaction with the real prototype under the Plug & Play concept.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0160
Ingo Stürmer, Elke Salecker PhD
Developing software components in compliance with ISO 26262 is a challenging task. The ISO standard recognizes model-based development as a preferential development approach and recommends the use of model-based design in order to reduce possible software errors and improve software quality. The ISO standard recommends which techniques and methods should be used, but not how they should be applied or how these methods and techniques can be mapped to a company-specific development process. This paper describes a straightforward approach for achieving ISO 26262-compliant model-based software components in 10 steps. These steps include test-focused requirements, test coverage on integration level, modeling guidelines and model reviews, definition of the tool chain, as well as development process and software unit specification.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0473
YiRui Wang
With the rapid development of Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) technology, computer simulation is widely used to research the complex engineering application problem. The Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) of an automobile, considering mass, stiffness, strength and modal, is a challenging but effective method in the automotive lightweight. The objective of this paper is to apply the MDO method to a vehicle’s body structure optimization. The finite element model of the frame is established firstly, according to the frame structure of the distribution of stress and strain, the mathematical model of optimization is bulit. The resulit shows that the stiffness and strength of this frame are meet the requirements completely, and this optimization method is proved valid and feasible.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1101
Jun Hakamagi, Tetsuya Kono, Ryoji Habuchi, Masahiro Tawara
As requirements for protecting the global environment are being heightened on a worldwide scale in recent years, the development of fuel-economy technologies in order to reduce CO2 emissions is an important issue for the automotive industry. Aiming of improving fuel economy, TOYOTA has developed a new belt-type continuously variable transmission (CVT), unit K114, for 2.0-liter class vehicles. The CVT has adopted various technologies fuel economy such as a coaxial 2-discharge port oil pump system, wider ratio coverage, flex lock-up control,and so on. Notably, a start-stop system, which makes the engine stop automatically while the vehicle stopping with “D” range to reduce wasting the energy, is compatible with the CVT with higher quality and lower cost. In addition, the CVT has been also worked on improving quietness by adopting new soundproofing cover and by revising the arrangement of the steel belt elements in order to reduce the vibrator force which generates the belt noise.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1103
Taiki Ando
We studied the reduction of pulley thrust and the deviation of the winding trajectory of the pushing V-belt on the pulleys to reduce friction loss due to slipping in metal pushing V-belt. Pulley thrust control, the amount of friction transmitted between the pulleys and the metal pushing V-belt, and a configuration that controls pulley inclination were three focal points in reducing transmission loss. The effects of the three methods of increasing transmission efficiency in OD ratio during cruising studied in this project were verified in tests. The new pulley thrust control employed reduced pulley thrust by approximately 40% and increased transmission efficiency by 2.6%. The trajectory of the pushing V-belt when it winds around the pulleys deviates from the theoretical winding radius due to the inclination of the pulley v-surfaces.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0476
Hyunkwon Jo, Youngseung Kim, Hyunchul Lee, Hyunmin Park, Suck In Song
At early automobile development stage, we have simulated the optimization and then achieved effectively the performance improvement, weight reduction and so on. This benefit of the optimization analysis is to overcome the mechanical design limits by predicting problems and changing lay-out before the design is fixed. Therefore the optimization analysis has been carried out in many automobile components at the early stage. However, many interior parts depend on the design. This means that it is difficult to apply the general optimization of the interior parts – changing the lay-out and dimension – unlike automobile frame and body in which the optimization have been studied briskly. This is the reason why the optimization of plastic interior parts haven’t been studied prosperously. But as researching the structure in detail, we realized that there are factors that affect the performance without depending on design. In case of door trim, there are Fastener, Flange Rib, and so on.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1091
Fumikazu Maruyama, Moichio Kojima, Tomoyuki Kanda
The framework structure of this Continuously Variable Transmissions (CVT) differs from that of previous CVT. For this CVT, we used the framework structure of our CVT for midsize cars, and changed the pulley shaft support structure and consolidated the arrangement of the hydraulic control system and hydraulic supply unit. To achieve a higher level of both starting acceleration and fuel efficiency in which the CVT is installed, we set the ratio coverage to 6.2, which represents a 14% improvement. We set the Low side ratio to the same as the previous CVT and increased the OD side ratio To ensure that the components of the fundamental framework can be mounted in vehicles with widely varying engine capacities, we designed the components to tolerate torque levels comparable to those of a 1.8 liter engine while reducing their weight by approximately 12%.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1232
Yuxia Liu, Idan Kovent, Miriam Di Russo, Jerry C. Ku
As the automotive control systems are becoming more complex and advanced, there are increasing demands on software automated testing to reduce the costs, resources and time associated with such testing. In this paper, an in-situ approach for automated testing is developed for EcoCAR2 project at Wayne State University (WSU). EcoCAR2 is a three-year student design competition sponsored by Department of Energy, under the Advanced Vehicle Technology Competitions (AVTC) program, to re-engineer a 2013 General Motors Chevrolet Malibu. The WSU EcoCAR2 team has developed its in-house vehicle controls code starting with a set of requirements. Code validation is conducted at each stage via software-in-the-loop (SIL), hardware-in-the-loop (HIL), and vehicle-in-the-loop (VIL) testing.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0157
Abu A. Xhuvom, Dr. Md. Zahurul Haque PhD
As combustion can vary widely between engine cycles if left uncontrolled, strict and robust control is required to meet optimum performance at different operating conditions. In this research, intelligent control techniques implemented on a Gasoline Direct Compression Injection (GDCI/GDI) engine. A research four cylinder 2.0 L GDI engine is modeled with optimal control hardware that is frequently called as the conceptual Cybernetic intelligent GDI or ‘iGDI’ engine. The engine features Free Variable Valve Timing and Lift (FVVTL) hardware and precision fuel injector connected directly to the engine cylinder found assistive for control flexibility with technical assessments. Then a mechatronic neural control approach is proposed and discussed with adaptive control techniques. Adaptive and predictive neural network control architectures are discussed on two distinct plant operation modes.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1229
Katherine Bovee, Amanda Hyde, Margaret Yatsko, Matthew Yard, Matthew Organiscak, Bharatkumar Hedge, Jason Ward, Andrew Garcia, Shawn Midlam-Mohler, Giorgio Rizzoni
The EcoCAR 2: Plugging into the Future team at The Ohio State University is designing a Parallel-Series Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle capable of 44 miles of all-electric range. The vehicle features an 18.9-kWh lithium-ion battery pack with range extending operation in both series and parallel modes. This is made possible by a 1.8-L ethanol (E85) engine and 6-speed automated manual transmission. This vehicle is designed to drastically reduce fuel consumption, with a utility factor weighted fuel economy of 50 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (mpgge), while meeting Tier II Bin 5 emissions standards. This paper details three years of modeling and simulation development for the OSU EcoCAR 2 vehicle. Included in this paper are the processes for developing simulation platform and model requirements, plant model and soft ECU development, test development and validation, automated regression testing, and controls and calibration optimization.
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