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2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8062
Jham Kunwar Tikoliya, Ram Krishna Kumar Singh, Ramesh Kumar, Suresh Kumar Kandreegula
The existing head cover is having external oil and blow by separation unit, which is not only costlier but also complex and leads to increase the overall height of engine which was difficult to integrate in new variants of vehicles. Existing head cover sealing system was also not foolproof and with slight variation in part dimensions, there were high chances of leakage. A new head cover has been designed with internal baffle type oil and blow by separation system to ensure efficient separation and proper packaging of the system in new varients.The new system has been finalized after 26 DOEs of different wire mesh sizes and different baffle plate size and positions. The final system has two bowl shaped separation unit with wire mesh with two cup type oil separation passages and one baffle plate for separating blow by. The system works on condensation and gravity method. The blow by is guided through a well-defined passage integrated in aluminum cylinder head cover itself.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8055
Rohit Saha, Long-Kung Hwang, Mahesh Madurai Kumar, Yunfeng Zhao PhD, Chen Yu, Bob Ransijn
Wheel-loaders’ sub-systems like engine, driveline, hydraulics, cooling and mechanism are becoming increasingly more integrated and complex. This is mostly caused increased demand of energy efficiency, electronic controls and performance requirements from competitors and customers. In order to understand the complex sub-system interactions it requires engineers to use a common simulation platform which captures the multi-domain nature of a wheel-loader. Engineers from different sub-system groups can use such model to validate the full system requirements. Wheel-loader sub-system are multi-domain (controls, mechanism, hydraulics, thermal etc.) in nature. This paper describes the process of the development of a Multi-domain simulation of a wheel-loader. Working hydraulics, kinematics of working tool, driveline, engine and cooling system are modelled in LMS Amesim. Contacts between boom/bucket and bucket/ground are defined to constrain the movement of the bucket and boom.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8007
Chris Mentzer, Ryan D. Lamm, Jerry Towler
Since the turn of the millennium, automated vehicle technology has matured at exponential rates, evolving from largely military and agriculturally funded and motivated research to a near-production market centered on every day public road driving. Research and development has been conducted by a variety of entities ranging from universities to automotive manufacturers to technology firms demonstrating capabilities in both highway and urban environments. While this technology continues to show promise, corner cases have emerged highlighting scenarios that impede the realization of full automation anywhere, anytime. This paper will review several of these corner cases and research deficiencies that need to be addressed for automated driving systems to be broadly deployed and trusted.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8082
Kaushik Saha, Ahmed Abdul Moiz, Anita Ramirez PhD, Sibendu Som, Munidhar Biruduganti, Michael Bima, Patrick Powell
The medium and heavy duty vehicle industry has fostered an increase in emissions research with the aim of reducing NOx while maintaining power output and thermal efficiency. This research describes a proof-of-concept numerical study conducted on a Caterpillar single-cylinder research engine. The target of the study is to reduce NOx by taking a unique approach to combustion air handling and utilizing enriched nitrogen and oxygen gas streams provided by Air Separation Membranes. A large set of test cases were initially carried out for closed-cycle situations to determine an appropriate set of operating conditions that are conducive of NOx reduction and gas diffusion properties. Parameters such as, engine RPM, initial swirl ratio, adaptive mesh refinement, thickness of enriched nitrogen and oxygen regions, spray injection pressure, start of injection, spray inclusion angle, spray breakup parameters, and valve timing were all studied.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8078
He Changming, Xu Sichuan
Currently the downsizing of IC Engine has become the mainstream to meet fuel economy and emission regulations. It is required that higher power output while with lighter weight that is actually a daunting challenge for a common four-stroke IC engine, because it needs lots of new technologies and high manufacturing cost. For recent years the two-stroke opposed piston engine has drawn much attention in many developed countries for fundamental advantages itself. Double firing frequency means the increased power density causes smaller engine size and lighter weight, however, the low scavenge efficiency has been assumed the main disadvantage for a two-stroke engine for a long period, and adverse to combustion efficiency. The uniflow scavenging process was investigated by the transient CFD simulation for multiple Cases. The influence of port timing and exhaust back pressure on scavenging was analyzed for two different intake port layouts.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8074
Gaurav Kumar, Pavan Sindgikar, Narayan Jadhav, Sandip Gaidhane, Sarfaraj Shaikh
With the advent of most advanced diesel engines the demand for upgraded engine cooling modules capable of handling more heat rejection in a smaller space is surging. Moreover, the variance in the operating conditions, i.e., the simultaneous cooling demands for peak load as well as partial load in different ambient conditions of the vehicle operation, broadens the scope of development of a cooling system. Also, the cooling system needs to be configured judiciously so as to cater effective cooling at peak loads and efficient cooling at partial loads. This research paper deals with a cooling system developed using modularity approach in order to have a control over tuning of subsystems for varying operating conditions and also to achieve the performance targets with a compact design adhering to packaging constraints. Kuli simulation of different designed configurations were carried out for identification of best concept.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-1984
Michael Krenz
The cost of going from point A to point B is really all about how efficiently we convert stored energy into the motion desired to move us to the desired end point in a given amount of time and within the constraints of infrastructure. While it may be theoretically possible to use a rocket powered car to go from New York to Los Angeles, it is not practical to consider doing so given the available infrastructure. Several constraints will bound this discussion. First, the desired travel distance is approximately 4,000nm within 1 business day (~8 hours). Second, this distance may be either over land or water. Third, existing infrastructure is assumed without significant changes. And fourth, the individual cost of the trip shall not exceed 75% of the cost of a comparable trip today (that is, a 25% cost reduction is required). While mature (e.g.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2024
Allan J. Volponi, Liang Tang
Engine module performance trending and engine system anomaly detection and identification is a core capability for any engine Condition Based Maintenance system. The genesis of on-condition monitoring can be traced back nearly 4 decades, and a methodology known as Gas Path Analysis (GPA) has played a pivotal role in its evolution. Gas Path Analysis is a general methodology that assesses and quantifies changes in the underlying performance of the major modules of the engine (compressors and turbines) which directly affect performance changes of interest such as fuel consumption, power availability, compressor surge margins, etc. It utilizes instrumentation such as spool speeds, inter-stage temperatures and pressures and power output, much of which is already available on the propulsion system for control purposes.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2027
Brett Robbins, Kevin J. Yost, Jon Zumberge
The next-generation of more electric aircraft (MEA) will rely heavily on multiple generators and energy storage to service a mix of constant power and resistive loads. This increase in system complexity, coupled with strict physical and performance requirements, necessitates the need for model-based system engineering (MBSE). As such, the validation of the component models is critical for the development process of MBSE. While it is not uncommon to develop/test component models with uncertainty studies combined with educated assumptions for the model parameters, the experimental hardware tests provide an important and effective means to validate the component models and quantify the variability of the model parameters. The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Intelligent Power program has procured numerous 40 kVA, 400 Hz, brushless synchronous generators at various stages of their life cycle.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2005
Jia Zeng, Zhenjie Shu, Shan Zhu
Interest in civil unmanned aircraft system (UAS) is growing worldwide, as it has the potential to create new applications and markets in civil domains. As the related technologies, including micro-electronics, composite structure, autonomous control, green energy, has been seen a rapid development, various types of UAS are constantly emerging following the expansion of functions and applications. Thus, there is a need for classified management supervision and certification for UAS. Considering the lacking of standardization for UAV category and classification, it is extremely urgent to raise a proper standard to classify and categorize UAS.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2020
Constanza Ahumada Sanhueza, Andrea Bristot, Shubham Kumar, Nicolas Schneider, Seamus Garvey, Herve Morvan
This paper proposes an integrated system’s approach towards design of some aero-engine subsystems - seals, bearing chamber, generator and power system. In a conventional design approach, the design of the overall system is typically broken-down into subsystems. Therefore, the focus is not on the mutual interaction between different components or subsystems, resulting in a lack of characterisation of the overall system performance at the design phase. A systems design approach adopts a much broader outlook, focusing on the overall optimization of the system performance. One of the principal contributors in the performance of an aircraft is the aero-engine. In particular, for a More Electric Aircraft, any abrupt changes to the electrical load from the power system can have an effect on the shaft dynamics, which in turn can affect the performance of air seals.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2017
Devesh Kumar, Konrad Juethner, Yves Fournier
The aero engine industry is experiencing both a design renaissance and an adherence to old values in recent years. Engine manufacturers have introduced remarkable next generation capabilities by achieving thermodynamic and mechanical efficiencies and exploring novel lightweighting concepts such as the open rotor configuration [1]. At the same time, the market adheres to 50+ year-old engine concepts that have proven extremely reliable and demands continuous adaption to new applications. In either domain, it is a common problem to keep engine simulation in step with changes to design, environmental conditions, and mission data – and this applied to both actual designs and those that belong to the hypothetical design space as explored in design of experiments (DOE). We present an effective simulation process and data management (SPDM) approach that hinges on a focus on components, their generalized connections and programmatic templating.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2055
Koji Muraoka, Daisuke Hirabayashi, Masayuki Sato, Yoshihisa Aoki
We have been conducting a research on a future commercial tilt wing VTOL transport under JAXA(Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency)'s "Sky Frontier" Program aiming to develop technologies for aircraft innovation. The research focuses on the QTW (Quad Tilt Wing) civil VTOL transport, which features tandem tilt wings with propellers mounted at the mid-span of each wing. Unlike current and previous tail rotors and twin-engine tilt wings, the quad tilt wing configuration does not require a tail rotor or a main rotor mechanism and would have advantages in cruise performance and payload carrying performances over them. In our previous research, we had developed fundamental technologies of the QTW aircraft such as tandem tilt wing design procedure, flight mechanics modeling, transition flight controllers and so on.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2052
Virgilio Valdivia-Guerrero, Ray Foley, Stefano Riverso, Parithi Govindaraju, Atiyah Elsheikh, Leonardo Mangeruca, Gilberto Burgio, Alberto Ferrari, Marcel Gottschall, Torsten Blochwitz, Serge Bloch, Danielle Taylor, Declan Hayes-McCoy, Andreas Himmler
This paper presents an overview of a project called “Modelling and Simulation Tools for Systems Integration on Aircraft (MISSION)”. This is a collaborative project being developed under the European Union Clean Sky 2 Program, a public-private partnership bringing together aeronautics industrial leaders and public research organizations based in Europe. The provision of integrated modelling, simulation, and optimization tools to effectively support all stages of aircraft design remains a critical challenge in the aerospace industry. In particular the high level of system integration that is characteristic of new aircraft designs is dramatically increasing the complexity of both design and verification. Simultaneously, the multiphysics interactions between structural, electrical, thermal, and hydraulic components have become more significant as the systems become increasingly interconnected.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1937
Taylor Erva, Adam Loukus, Luke Luskin
Aluminum metal matrix composite brake rotors with a selective ceramic function reinforcement gradient (FRG) have been developed for automotive applications. This paper will highlight the design, manufacturing, and testing of the rotors. Weight saving of an aluminum composite rotor in comparison to an industry standard cast iron rotor is 50-60%. With this material change comes design considerations to manage rotor temperature, rotor surface integrity, and friction. Manufacturing methods to meet these design constraints were needed to develop a viable high performance aluminum composite rotor. High pressure squeeze casting with soluble coring techniques were developed to incorporate the selective FRG MMC rotors. Dynamometer testing was performed, concentrating on brake friction and temperature to evaluate the macro and micro interfaces in the rotors.
2016-09-14
Technical Paper
2016-01-1872
Bin Wu, Xichan Zhu, Lin li
This paper aims to determine how vehicle driver steering behavior seen in the emergency lane change event. Through the emergency lane change cases extracted from the China naturalistic driving data, the driver’s steering characteristics can be obtained and analyzed. Then the driving steering behaviors divides into avoidance and stabilization steering phases, and the different steering characteristics were found. It’s shown that during the avoidance phase, the steering generally follow the bell-shaped profiles of steering angle rate, and a linear relationship was found between the maximum steering wheel rate and steering wheel angle, which indicates a constant movement time for the avoidance steering. However, during the stabilization phase, the steering angle rate can be described using two or more overlapping bell-shaped profiles, something which relates to the different steering strategies in the avoidance phase.
2016-09-01
Book
Jon M. Quigley, Roopa Shenoy
Project Management for Automotive Engineers: A Field Guide was developed to help automotive engineers be better project managers as automotive projects involve suppliers dispersed across the globe, and can often span multiple years. Project scope change is common, and so too are the budget constraints and tight deadlines. This book is an excellent guide on how to manage continuous change. As project management in this particular industry is intrinsically linked to product development, the chapters focus on the project management aspects that are significant during the various stages of a product development cycle, including business case evaluation, process development cycle, test phases, production ramp up at the plant and at the Tier 1 supplier level, and how to work within a matrix-structured organization. The principles of value projects and how to revive failing projects are discussed.
2016-08-11
Book
Rani Elhajiar, Tracy Gill
Additive manufacturing (AM) for space exploration has become a growing opportunity as long-range space missions evolve. In partnership with the National Space Grant Foundation and NASA, students from the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee participated in the 2014-15 X-Hab Academic Innovation Challenge, with participants tasked with developing new AM solutions that would be recyclable with minimal loss in mechanical properties. The teams investigated materials, characterization, testing, modeling, and tool development, including the ability to employ reusable carbon-fiber tension ties. The tools developed show that it is possible to employ thermoplastic polymer materials fabricated using AM together with reusable and flexible high-performance carbon-fiber-based composite ties. The AM-printed part is completely recyclable. The carbon-fiber composite ties are repurposed into new structural configurations without loss in properties.
2016-07-22
Book
2016-07-15
Article
Validation testing of the new 2-step VCR by several OEMs has been successful to date and is expanding, as the industry examines more sophisticated solutions to meet CO2 regulations.
2016-07-14
Book
EXCLUSIVE MEMBER BENEFIT: 2016 MOBILITY ENGINEERING PROFESSIONAL SALARY SURVEY AND CALCULATOR Gain better insight into compensation practices: this salary survey is the only study its kind to explore levels and changes in compensation and employment for engineers and technical employees in the automotive, aerospace, and commercial vehicle industries. It benchmarks compensation levels based by geography, education, industry sector, experience, and managerial and budgetary responsibility. The full report is available to SAE International members by signing into your My SAE account and downloading it into your My Library area. Members also have full access to the updated online interactive salary calculator by visiting SAE’s website. Become a member of SAE International to access this exclusive benefit for free, or purchase it today. YOU BELONG HERE. Membership helps you succeed both personally and professionally. Join us today.
2016-07-12
Standard
GEIAOP0003
This handbook details the TechAmerica Technical Fellowship Selection Process. It identifies the tasks to be performed and associates them with participants in the process. The focus is intended to keep the process implementation as uniform as possible. There are three types of information in this handbook: Process details Candidate Application Package format Process infrastructure and description Each Section of this handbook describes a significant segment of the selection process. There are also appendices that contain a variety of supporting material relevant to the different process participants.
2016-07-12
Standard
J1939DA_201607
This document is intended to supplement the J1939 documents by offering the J1939 information in a form that can be sorted and search for easier use. The J1939 Digital Annex, introduced in August 2013, offers key J1939 technical data in an Electronic Spreadsheet that can be easily searched, sorted, and adapted to other formats. J1939DA contains all of the SPNs (parameters), PGNs (messages), and other J1939 data previously published in the SAE J1939 top level document. J1939DA also contains all of the SLOTs, Manufacturer ID Codes, NAME Functions, and Preferred Addresses previously published in the SAE J1939 top level and the J1939-71 document. J1939DA contains the complete technical details for all of the SPNs and PGNs previously published in the SAE J1939-71 document. It also includes the supporting descriptions and figures previously published in the SAE J1939-71 document.
2016-07-01
Book
Eric Walter, Richard Walter
Modern vehicles have electronic control units (ECUs) to control various subsystems such as the engine, brakes, steering, air conditioning, and infotainment. These ECUs (or simply ‘controllers’) are networked together to share information, and output directly measured and calculated data to each other. This in-vehicle network is a data goldmine for improved maintenance, measuring vehicle performance and its subsystems, fleet management, warranty and legal issues, reliability, durability, and accident reconstruction. The focus of Data Acquisition from HD Vehicles Using J1939 CAN Bus is to guide the reader on how to acquire and correctly interpret data from the in-vehicle network of heavy-duty (HD) vehicles. The reader will learn how to convert messages to scaled engineering parameters, and how to determine the available parameters on HD vehicles, along with their accuracy and update rate. Written by two specialists in this field, Richard (Rick) P. Walter and Eric P.
2016-06-28
Standard
EIA511
The Manufacturing Message Specification is an application layer standard designed to support messaging communications to and from programmable devices in a Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) environment. This environment is referred to in this standard as the manufacturing environment. This standard does not specify a complete set of services for remote programming of devices, although provision or such a set of services may be subject of future standardization efforts.
2016-06-28
WIP Standard
J1698/1
This Recommended Practice provides common data output formats and definitions for a variety of data elements that may be useful for analyzing vehicle crash and crash-like events that meet specified trigger criteria. The document is intended to govern data element definitions and EDR record format as applicable for light-duty motor vehicle Original Equipment applications.
2016-06-17
Standard
EIA765A
This index is presented to provide a quick reference of international and national quality standards and publications that support general quality system elements. This reference is a list of quality standards a company may with to consider when implementing or improving their quality system.
2016-06-17
Standard
EIA599A
This Standard is applicable to suppliers of electronic components, assemblies, equipment and related materials. This standard establishes the general requirements to achieve a certified process. The use of this standard is intended for any manufacturing or service company whose goal is to achieve customer satisfaction through continuous improvement.
2016-06-16
Standard
EIA441
This standard is intended to serve as a guide in the coordination of system design to promote uniformity of the nomenclature and description of the operator devices.
2016-06-16
Standard
EIAAB3D
Scope is unavailable.
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