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Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Jeffrey Blair, Glenn Bower
Operation of snowmobiles in national parks is restricted to vehicles meeting the Best Available Technology standard for exhaust and noise emissions as established by the National Parks Service. An engine exceeding these standards while operating on a blend of gasoline and bio-isobutanol has been developed based on a production 4 stroke snowmobile engine. Miller cycle operation was achieved via late intake valve closing and turbocharging. The production Rotax ACE 600cc 2 cylinder engine was modeled using Ricardo Wave. After this model was validated with physical testing, different valve lift profiles were evaluated for brake specific fuel consumption and brake power. The results from this analysis were used to determine the cam profile for Miller cycle operation. This was done to reduce part load pumping losses and increase engine efficiency while maintaining production power density. A catalytic converter was added to reduce exhaust gas emissions, as measured by the EPA 40 CFR Part 1051 5-mode emissions test cycle.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Claudio Annicchiarico, Renzo Capitani
In a Formula SAE, as for almost all racecars, suppressing or limiting the differential action of the differential mechanism is the technique mostly adopted to improve the traction exiting the high lateral acceleration corners. The devices carrying out this function are usually called LSD, “Limited Slip Differentials”, which unbalance the traction force distribution, generating as a secondary effect a yaw torque acting on the vehicle. If the differential action is electronically controlled, this yaw torque can be used as a torque vectoring technique to affect the attitude of car. The yaw torque introduced by an electronically controlled LSD (also called SAD, “Semi-Active Differential”) could suddenly change from oversteering (i.e. pro-yaw) to understeering (i.e. anti-yaw), depending on the riding conditions. Therefore, controlling the vehicle attitude with a SAD could be quite tricky, and its effectiveness could be low if compared to the common torque vectoring systems, which usually act on the brake system of the car.
Book
2014-10-13
Gijs Mom
This book covers one and a quarter century of the automobile, conceived as a cultural history of its technology, aimed at engineering students and all those who wish to have a concise introduction into the basics of automotive technology and its long-term development . Its approach is systemic and includes the behavior of drivers, producers, nonusers, victims, and other "stakeholders" as well as the discourse around mobility. Nowadays, students of innovation prefer the term co-evolution, emphasizing the parallel and mutually dependent development of technology and society. This acknowledges the importance of contingency and of the impact of the past upon the present, the very reason why The Evolution of Automotive Technology: A Handbook looks at car technology from a long-term perspective. Often we will conclude that the innovation was in the (re)arrangement of existing technologies. Since its beginnings, car manufacturers have brought a total of 1 billion automobiles to the market. We are currently witnessing an explosion toward the second billion.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
R. Pradeepak, Mihir Bhambri
Motor scooters are popular in most parts of the world, especially in countries with local manufacturers. Parking, storage, and traffic issues in crowded cities, along with the easy driving position makes them a popular mode of transportation. Motor scooters are the segment of 2 wheelers which is driven by the entire family with ease unlike motorcycles which is a male dominated segment. Due to the importance that the scooters hold in the present time, it has become very important to manufacture stable, light weight yet robust scooters. For the best product in the market, testing is given a great importance in automotive manufacturing companies. Virtual testing has been the latest development in terms of testing a vehicle during the design stage itself. Multi Body Dynamics approach is used to study - 1) the articulation of various sub-assemblies and 2) the static & dynamic loads generated at various attachment points of the scooter. Integration of sub-assemblies into a final product creates a minimal scope of modification of the location of different components.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Chris D. Monaco, Chris Golecki, Benjamin Sattler, Daniel C. Haworth, Jeffrey S. Mayer, Gary Neal
As one of the fifteen universities in North America taking part in the EcoCAR 2: Plugging into the Future competition, The Pennsylvania State University Advanced Vehicle Team (PSUAVT) designed and implemented a series plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) that reduces fuel consumption and emissions while maintaining high consumer acceptability and safety standards. This architecture allows the vehicle to operate as a pure electric vehicle until the Energy Storage System (ESS) State of Charge (SOC) is depleted. The Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) then supplements the battery to extend range beyond that of a purely electric vehicle. General Motors (GM) donated a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu for PSUAVT to use as the platform to implement the PSUAVT-selected series PHEV design. A 90 kW electric traction motor, a 16.2 kW-hr high capacity lithium-ion battery pack, and Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) are now integrated into the vehicle. The APU is a 750cc, two-cylinder engine running on an 85% ethanol/15% gasoline (E85) mixture coupled to an electric generator.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Thomas Bradley, Benjamin Geller, Jake Bucher, Shawn Salisbury
EcoCAR 2 is the premiere North American collegiate automotive competition that challenges 15 North American universities to redesign a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu to decrease the environmental impact of the Malibu while maintaining its performance, safety, and consumer appeal. The EcoCAR 2 project is a three year competition headline sponsored by General Motors and U.S. Department of Energy. In Year 1 of the competition, extensive modeling guided the Colorado State University (CSU) Vehicle Innovation Team (VIT) to choose an all-electric vehicle powertrain architecture with range extending hydrogen fuel cells, to be called the Malibu H2eV. During this year, the CSU VIT followed the EcoCAR 2 Vehicle Design Process (VDP) to develop the H2eV’s electric and hydrogen powertrain, energy storage system (ESS), control systems, and auxiliary systems. From the design developed in Year 1 of the EcoCAR 2 competition, a Malibu donated by General Motors was converted into a concept validating prototype during Year 2.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
P. Christopher Manning, Eduardo D. Marquez, Leonard Figueroa, Douglas J. Nelson, Eli Hampton White, Lucas Wayne Shoults
The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team (HEVT) of Virginia Tech is ready to compete in the Year 3 Final Competition for EcoCAR 2: Plugging into the Future. The team is confident in the reliability of their vehicle, and expects to finish among the top schools at Final Competition. During Year 3, the team refined the vehicle while following the EcoCAR 2 Vehicle Development Process (VDP). Many refinements came about in Year 3 such as the implementation of a new rear subframe, the safety analysis of the high voltage (HV) bus, and the integration of Charge Sustaining (CS) control code. HEVT’s vehicle architecture is an E85 Series-Parallel Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV), which has many strengths and weaknesses. The primary strength is the pure EV mode and Series mode, which extend the range of the vehicle and reduce Petroleum Energy Usage (PEU) and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. A primary weakness is its complexity, which made it difficult for the team to truly reap the benefits of the added components to the vehicle which are utilized in Parallel mode.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Trevor Crain, Michael Ryan Mallory, Megan Cawley, Brian Fabien, Per Reinhall
This paper details the control system development process for the University of Washington (UW) EcoCAR 2 team over the three years of the competition. Particular emphasis is placed upon the control system development and validation process executed during Year 3 of the competition in an effort to meet Vehicle Technical Specifications (VTS) established and refined by the team. The EcoCAR 2 competition challenges 15 universities across North America to reduce the environmental impact of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu without compromising consumer acceptability. The project takes place over a three year design cycle, where teams select a hybrid architecture and fuel choice before defining a set of VTS goals for the vehicle. These VTS are selected based on the desired static and dynamic performance targets to balance fuel consumption and emissions with consumer acceptability requirements. The UW team selected a Parallel through the Road hybrid architecture due to its combination of performance capabilities, high power path efficiency, and reliability due to separated electric and biodiesel powertrains.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Di Zhu, Ewan Pritchard
EcoCAR 2: Plugging in to the Future is a three-year collegiate engineering competition established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and General Motors (GM). North Carolina State University is designing a Series Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) on a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu vehicle platform. The designed vehicle has a pure electric range of 55 miles and an overall range of 235 miles with a range extension system. The vehicle is designed to reduce fuel consumption and gas emission while maintaining consumer acceptability in the areas of performance, utility, and safety. This reports details the vehicle development process with an emphasis on control system development and refinement. Advanced manufacturing, modeling, and simulation have been used to ensure a safe and functional vehicle at the upcoming year 3 final competition.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Marc Auger, Larry Plourde, Melissa Trumbore, Terry Manuel
Design of body structures for commercial vehicles differs significantly from automotive due to government, design, usage requirements. Specifically the design of heavy truck doors differ as they are not required to meet side impact requirements due to their height off the ground as compared to automobiles. However, heavy truck doors are subjected to higher loads, longer life and less damage from events. Past aluminum designs relied either on bent extrusions around the periphery of the door or multiple steel and/or aluminum reinforcements joined to the inner in order to provide the necessary structure. Doors using aluminum extrusions for the peripheries were limited to two dimensional bending for the extrusions resulting in a planar door with limited styling features an opportunity for aerodynamic improvements. Doors with stamped reinforcements and door mounted mirrors require joining the inner and outer structure at the lower mirror mount forcing the use of a division bar to split the glass that impedes vision and drives cost for the extra parts.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Xinyu Ge, Jonathan Jackson
Cost reduction in automotive industry becomes a widely-adopted operational strategy not only for Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) that take cost leader generic corporation strategy, but also for many OMEs that take differentiation generic corporation strategy. Since differentiation generic strategy requires an organization to provide a product or service above the industry average level, a premium is typically included in the tag price for those products or services. Cost reduction measures could increase risks for the organizations that pursue differentiation strategy. Although manufacturers in automotive industry dramatically improved production efficiency in past ten years, they are still facing up with the pressure of cost control. The big challenge in the cost control for automakers and suppliers is increasing prices of raw materials, energy and labor costs. These costs construct constrains for the traditional economic expansion model. Lean manufacturing and other traditional Six Sigma processes have been widely utilized to reduce waste and improve efficiency further in the automotive industry.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Venkatesan C, DeepaLakshmi R
The automotive industry is constantly looking for new alternate material and cost is one of the major driving factors for selecting the right material. ABT is a safety critical part and care to be taken while selecting the appropriate material. Polyamide 12(PA12) is the commonly available material which is currently used for ABT applications. Availability and cost factor is always a major concern for commercial vehicle industries. This paper presents the development of an alternative material which has superior heat resistance. Thermoplastic copolyester (TEEE) materials were tried in place Polyamide 12 for many good reasons. The newly developed material has better elastic memory and improved resistance to battery acid, paints and solvents. It doesn’t require plasticizer for extrusion process because of which it has got excellent long term flexibility and superior kink resistance over a period of time. Also it has got better heat ageing properties and higher burst pressure at elevated temperature.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Rostislav Sirotkin, Galina Susova, Gennadii Shcherbakov
Abstract Within the Russian aviation industry the necessary level of reliability risks related to the failures of aircraft mechanical parts and systems vital to the safety of flight is assured via the system of activities aimed at influencing the parameters of critical parts (CP). The goal of the system is to provide a relationship between activities aimed at prevention of dangerous failures at all phases of airplane life cycle. The system operation is regulated by the normative documents and by controlling their observance. Normative documents containing requirements and recommendations were developed about 15 years ago based on the industry experience and traditions and taking into account the requirements of AS9100 series of international standards [2] wherever possible. The documents were developed taking into account typical safety management errors outlined in [1]. Requirements specifying the necessity of CP-related activities are specified in the national standards concerning the organization of quality management system (QMS) in the aviation industry as well as programs of safety, reliability and maintainability activities.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Manxue Lu
Abstract This article attempts to provide a big picture of systems engineering in both philosophy and engineering perspectives, discusses current status and issues, trends of systems engineering development, future directions and challenges, followed by certain examples.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Louis Columbus
Aerospace suppliers face the daunting task of constantly improving time-to-market, reducing cost of quality and turning compliance into a competitive advantage. Managing to these constraints while staying profitable is a challenge faced by the entire aerospace supply chain face today. The intent of this presentation is to share five lessons learned on how aerospace suppliers can optimize for these three constraints while growing their businesses. The first is electronically enabling traceability both within a multi-tier supply chains and throughout suppliers. Automating traceability at the shop floor improves quality management and accelerates compliance. Specific methodologies and metrics used to accomplish this will be provided. Second, lessons learned from implementing Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES) showing how shop floor visibility has a direct effect on supplier performance is illustrated with case studies and metrics. Third, lessons learned in making compliance pay by benchmarking performance to AS9100C, ISO9001, and ITAR standards is provided.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Jace Allen
Abstract In the last few years, we have seen a tremendous increase in the rise in product complexity due to advances in technology and aircraft system functionality enhancement. The Model-based Design (MBD) process has helped manage the complexity of these systems while making product development faster by bringing more effective tools and methods to the entire process. Developing software using MBD has required extensive, sophisticated tool-chains that allow for efficient rapid controls prototyping, automatic code generation, and advanced validation and verification techniques using model-in-the-loop (MIL), software-in-the-loop (SIL), and hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) for both component testing and integration testing. However, the MBD process leads to generation of large volumes of data artifacts and work-products throughout the V-Cycle. The various components of these environments, from models to parameters to tests, can be inundating, and variants and versions of these artifacts lead to even larger amounts of data.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Matthieu Hutchison, Grégoire Lenoble, Umberto Badiali, Yannick Sommerer, Olivier Verseux, Eric Desmet
An Airbus methodology for the assessment of accurate fuel pressure surge at early program stages in the complete aircraft and engine environment based on joint collaboration with LMS Engineering is presented. The aim is to comfort the prediction of the fuel pressure spike generated by an engine shutdown in order to avoid late airframe fuel system redesign and secure the aircraft entry-into-service.
Standard
2014-08-26
This set of criteria shall be utilized by accredited Certification Bodies (CBs) to establish compliance, and grant certification to AS5553A, Aerospace Standard; Counterfeit Electronic Parts; Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation, and Disposition.
Standard
2014-08-26
This document is not a standard, it is a candidate for a standard being submitted to SAE for their consideration as a comment to SAE J2735. The term SAE J2735 SE candidate is used within this document to refer to this submission. This document specifies dialogs, messages, and the data frames and data elements that make up the messages specifically for use by applications intended to utilize the 5.9 GHz Dedicated Short Range Communications for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (DSRC/WAVE, referenced in this document simply as “DSRC"), communications systems. Although the scope of this Standard is focused on DSRC, these dialogs, messages, data frames and data elements have been designed, to the extent possible, to be of use for applications that may be deployed in conjunction with other wireless communications technologies. This standard therefore specifies the definitive message structure and provides sufficient background information to allow readers to properly interpret the message definitions from the point of view of an application developer implementing the messages according to the DSRC Standards.
Magazine
2014-08-22
SMACing the automotive industry: from concept to consumer Technology is making a more significant impact on today's auto industry. Perhaps one of the most notable examples is the development of connected technologies coupled with social, mobile, analytics, and cloud (SMAC) technologies. The 3i paradigm: India's story The concept of ideation, incubation, and implementation is enhancing the growth of the Indian automotive industry. Virtualization for automotive IVI systems As the demand for modern in-vehicle infotainment systems grows, automakers are increasingly looking toward virtualization as a solution to bridge the gap between consumer and automotive electronics. Command Center: Securing connected cars of the future automotive An architectural approach to minimize connectivity interfaces acts as a secure, intelligent gateway between the car and external devices/networks to better guard against malicious or sensitive data from being compromised.
Standard
2014-08-21
This SAE Information Report defines a procedure for indicating the severity of narrowband emissions from an electronic system-component.
Article
2014-08-20
A soon-to-be-published SAE International standard, AS6500, is designed to encourage suppliers and OEMs to put more focus on manufacturability during the early phases of a product’s life cycle. The objective: more reliable, affordable, and on-schedule weapon systems.
WIP Standard
2014-08-20
This SAE Standard includes only those towing winches commonly used on skidders and crawler tractors. These winches are used on self-propelled machines described in SAE J1057; J1116; and J1209. Specifically excluded are those winches used for hoisting operations. This document classifies the major types of winch and establishes nomenclature for major winch components. Examples used here are not intended to include all existing winches nor to be descriptive of any particular winch.
Standard
2014-08-20
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) identifies the requirements for mitigating counterfeit products in the Authorized Distribution supply chain by the Authorized Distributor. If not performing Authorized Distribution, such as an Authorized Reseller, Broker, or Independent Distributor, refer to another applicable SAE standard.
Article
2014-08-19
A former player on Google's self-driving car project has been named head of a new Continental unit that will focus on intelligent transportation systems (ITS). Based in Silicon Valley, Seval Oz will lead an international team to be composed of engineers and related professionals from the information-technology and automotive industries.
Article
2014-08-12
Chrysler Group on Aug. 12 announced creation of a vehicle safety and compliance office, and appointed the former Senior Vice President-Engineering, Scot Kunselman (SAE Member, 1985), to the post. Previously, the company’s global engineering group was responsible for vehicle safety and regulatory compliance.
Article
2014-08-06
Dongfeng Nissan announced groundbreaking for three new design/engineering business units at its Passenger Vehicle Company (DFL-PV) in China. The $81 million (500 million RMB) facility includes the Venucia Design Center, an Advanced Engineering Technology Center, and a Corporate University, with the main phase of construction to be finished in 2015. 
Article
2014-08-05
Volkswagen recently introduced its Modular Transverse Matrix (MQB) to the U.S. market, with the introduction of the 2015 Golf and GTI. MQB is at the heart of VW Group's production strategy to overtake Toyota to become the world's biggest automaker by 2018.
WIP Standard
2014-08-04
This SAE Standard applies to horizontal earthboring machines of the following types: Auger Machines Pipe Pushers Rotary Rod Machines Impact Machines Directional Boring/Drilling Machinessystems, and microtunnelers. The purpose of this document is to encourage common terminology of machine control names, types, and definitions for horizontal earthboring machines.
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