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2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1284
Andrew Burnham, Hao Cai, Michael Wang
A heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) module of the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory. In the past, the life-cycle GREET model has been published extensively and contains data on fuel-cycles and vehicle operation of light-duty vehicles. The addition of the HDV module to the GREET model allows for well-to-wheels (WTW) analyses of advanced technology and alternative fuel heavy-duty vehicles, which has been scarce in the literature. WTW analyses of HDVs becomes increasingly important to understand the impacts of newly enacted and future greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and fuel consumption regulations from the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Transportation’s National Highway Traffic Safety Administration on these vehicle types.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0686
Hui Liu, Zhi Wang, Margaret Wooldridge, Mohammad Fatouraie, Zhichao Jia, Yunliang Qi, Xin He, Mengke Wang, Jian-Xin Wang
Super-knock has been a significant obstacle for the development of highly turbocharged (downsized) gasoline engines with spark ignition, due to the catastrophic damage super-knock can cause to the engine. According to previous research by the authors, the combustion process of super-knock may be described as hot-spot induced pre-ignition followed by deflagration to hot-spot induced detonation followed by high pressure. The sources of the hot spots which lead to pre-ignition (including oil films, deposits, gas-dynamics, etc.) may induce super-knock sporadically, which leads to super-knock occurring randomly at practical engine operating conditions. In this study, a spark plasma was used to induce pre-ignition and the correlation between super-knock combustion and the thermodynamic state of the reactant mixture was investigated in a four-cylinder gasoline production engine.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1285
Xiang Cheng, Han Hao, Zongwei Liu, Fuquan Zhao
Compared with conventional vehicles, electric vehicles (EVs) offer the benefits of replacing petroleum consumption and reducing air pollutions. However, there have been controversies over greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of EVs from the life-cycle perspective in China’s coal-dominated power generation context. Besides, it is in doubt whether the cost-effectiveness of EVs in China exceeds other fuel-efficient vehicles considering the high prices. In this study, we compared the GHG emissions of existing vehicle models in the market. Afterwards, a cost model is established to compare the total costs of vehicles. Finally, the cost-effectiveness of various vehicle types are compared. It is concluded that in the current situation, the GHG emission intensity of EVs is lower than reference and hybrid vehicles and is expected to decrease with the improvement of the power grid.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1682
Pratap Dinkar Thorat, Shailesh Newase, Keyur Gupte, Pushkaraj Kaulgud
Electrical Power and Signal Distributions System in a vehicle is the most important among the Automotive Electrical and Electronic systems. In fact any electrical or electronic systems are realized and are physically formed by the Electrical Wiring Harness, which is a system in itself with the set of wires and connectors, connecting various devices to feed the power and act as physical channels for signal transmission, and in vehicle serial data communication. Thus, the Electrical Wiring Harness is one of the most complicated systems in a vehicle and is one of the most difficult one to design and develop, due to the sheer number of wires and cables and specific connectivity requirements. Further, the complexity is manifold due to number of harnesses in a vehicle and different operating conditions in different zones of the vehicle.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0007
Gopal Athani, Kapil Dongare, Rajesh Balusu, Subhabrata Gupta, Srinivasa Raju Gavarraju
Micro Hybrid Systems are essentially first step towards the electrification of the powertrains. They are aimed at improving the fuel efficiency of the conventional gasoline and diesel power trains with conventional 12 V electrical system, and thus reduce the CO2 emissions as well. Various technologies like Engine Stop-Start, Intelligent Alternator Control, and Electrical Energy Management Systems are included in the bracket of micro hybrid systems. These system functions demand a totally different approach for managing the SLI battery, which is a total departure from the conventional approach. Particularly, the Alternator Shutdown function of Intelligent Alternator Control maintains a calibrated average level of State of Charge, which is typically around 80%, to ensure that the battery can accept more current, during the energy recuperation, which indirectly improves fuel economy.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1247
Kevin L. Snyder, Jerry Ku
The objective of the research into modeling and simulation was to provide an iterative improvement to the Wayne State EcoCAR 2 team's math-based design tools for use in evaluating different outcomes based on hybrid powertrain architecture tweaks, controls code development and testing. This paper includes the results of the team's work in the EcoCAR 2 competition for university student teams to create and test a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle for reducing petroleum oil consumption, pollutant emissions, and Green House Gas (GHG) emissions. Plant model validations and advancements brought the vehicle plant model directionally closer to the actual vehicle's experimental data and achieved a significant error reduction in 10 of 11 metrics detailed in the research. The EcoCAR 2 competition events provided the opportunity for the team to get experimental data of the vehicle's behavior on the vehicle chassis dyno and the vehicle on road testing from General Motors proving ground test tracks.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0046
Markus Ernst, Mario Hirz, Jurgen Fabian
A steady increasing share and complexity of automotive software is a huge challenge for quality management during software development and in-use phases. In cases of faults occurring in customer’s use, warranty leads to product recalls which are typically associated with high costs. To avoid software faults efficiently, quality management and enhanced development processes have to be realised by the introduction of specific analysis methods and Key Process/Performance Indicators (KPIs) to enable objective quality evaluations as soon as possible during product development process. The paper introduces the application of specific analysis methods by using KPIs and discusses their potential for automotive software quality improvement. The aim is to support quality evaluation and risk-analysis for the release process of automotive software.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0295
Sentao Miao, Yan Fu, Margaret Strumolo, Boxiao Chen, Xiuli Chao, Erica Klampfl, Michael Tamor
With increasing evidence for climate change in response to greenhouse gasses (GHG) emitted by human activities, pressure is growing to reduce fuel consumption via increased vehicle efficiency and to replace fossil fuels with renewable fuels. While real-world experience with bio-ethanol, and a growing body of research on many other renewable fuel pathways, provides some guidance as to the cost of renewable transportation fuel, there has been little work comparing that cost to alternative means of achieving equivalent GHG reductions. In earlier work, we developed an optimization model that allowed the transportation and electricity generating sectors to work separately or jointly to achieve GHG reduction targets, and showed that cooperation can significantly reduce the societal cost of GHG reductions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1441
Jonathan Frank Antin, Justin Owens, James Foley, Kazutoshi Ebe, Brian Wotring
The theory of neuroplasticity posits that the brain continues to change as we age. Thus, cognitive or brain training has been offered as a way for seniors to remain cognitively engaged. Recent research has found substantial reductions in crash rates for seniors who underwent particular brain training protocols; however, specific behaviors or performance metrics which may have contributed to these findings were not examined. The current study is the first to document detailed measures of driver behavior that could support an improvement in driving safety following cognitive training. Fifty-five volunteers participated in one of two cognitive training programs (or were part of a control group). One training program was a commercially available computer-based approach. The other was a novel in-vehicle approach developed by Toyota engineers which employed an implicit learning paradigm.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1573
Ken Archibald, Kyle Archibald, Donald Neubauer
This paper will document a rationale for wheel straightening based on the rise of declining roads, increased use of lower profile tires, unintended consequences of wheel customization and the reduction in energy consumption. A recommended procedure detailing how A356-T6 wheels can be straightened will be presented. To validate the recommended procedure a sample of wheels was uniformly deformed and straightened and subsequently tested per SAE J328 and SAE J175. Test results are provided that indicate straightened wheels should be fully serviceable in their intended service.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1371
Satish jaju, Pritesh Jain, Gopal Musale
A unit analysis methodology is very popularly used for designing product in a product development process. This method used for designing crush box, bumper beam, crush can long member, B frame, A pillar etc. Same technique effectively used in many CAE load cases to evaluate Regulation like pedestrian, interior fittings impact etc. The UPD regulation used in commercial vehicle for CAE certification uses unit analysis method and correlate better with actual test. This paper gives idea how the cost of different processes in Product design reduces by using unit analysis .It reduces time of vehicle development, cost of prototype, testing cost, optimization cost and in analysis CPU cost as compared to Full vehicle simulation. In paper one Illustration CAE example shows that how Cost and time required for designing Product and development using Unit assembly simulation reduced approximately 500% as compared to full vehicle simulation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1097
Satoshi Fukuyama, Tomohide Suzuki, Akira Murata, Hiroshi Mizoguchi, Toshihiko Kamiya
Aisin AW has developed a new RWD 6 speed automatic transmission, AWR6B45-Ⅱ, suitable for SUV and LDT in worldwide market, not only for North America but also for other countries including emerging nations. This 6 speed automatic transmission has achieved low cost equivalent to our current 5 speed automatic transmission while realizing improvement in both fuel economy and driving performance against our current 5-speed and competitor’s 6-speed automatic transmission, in addition to satisfy both toughness against various usage and light weight/compactness. They are accomplished by using the compact gear train structure, the latest efficiency improvement technologies and the high-response compact hydraulic control system. In addition, the compactness of this 6 speed automatic transmission enables it to replace current 4 speed and 5 speed automatic transmissions for various engine application.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0480
Weiguo Zhang, John White, Mark Likich, Mac Lynch
The noise radiated from the snorkel of an air induction system (AIS) can be a major noise source to the vehicle interior noise. This noise source is typically quantified as the snorkel volume velocity which is directly related to vehicle interior noise through the vehicle noise transfer function. It is important to predict the snorkel volume velocity robustly at the early design stage for the AIS development. Design For Six Sigma (DFSS) is an engineering approach that supports the new product development process. The IDDOV (Identify-Define-Develop-Optimize-Verify) method is a DFSS approach which can be used for creating innovative, low cost and trouble free products on significant short schedules. In this paper, an IDD project which is one type of DFSS project using IDDOV method is presented on developing a robust simulation process to predict the AIS snorkel volume velocity. First, the IDDOV method is overviewed and the innovative tools in each phase of IDDOV are introduced.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1535
Linli Tian, Yunkai Gao
Topology optimization is an effective tool to find the optimal structural layout in the concept design stage of the automotive industry. Mostly, topology optimization is carried out with linear finite element analysis because of its simplicity. However, in the real world, structural problems always involve various nonlinear and dynamic responses. Thus, there is a growing requirement to consider crashworthiness performance in the topology optimization process of the automotive development. In current study, a topology optimization method based on equivalent static loads method (ESL) is proposed to optimize an automotive body in white (BIW) subjected to representative crash loads. The chosen load conditions are frontal impact, side barrier impact, roof crush and high speed rear impact.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0088
Tervin Tan, Jin Seo Park, Patrick Leteinturier
The constant motivation for lower fuel consumption and emission levels has always been in the minds of most auto makers. With legislation playing a huge part in order to protect the environment. For instances, based on ICCT reports, EU passenger cars, weighing 1500kg, for today (2015) would need to meet the CO2 emission of 130g/km. This target is reduced to 95g/km in 2020. For the Chinese market, according to their CAFC target for passenger cars of 2015, has to meet the 6.9L/100km fuel consumption which translates to 163gCO2/km. At 2020, this target has been further reduced to 5L/100 which translate to 120gCO2/km. Though this is less than that of EU’s, the trend of fuel consumption and emission reduction is obvious and legislation needs to be met. Gasoline Port fuel injection has been a matured system for many years and cars sold in emerging markets still favor such system due to its less system complexity and cost.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0040
Ming Meng, Wilson Khoo
The Security Development Lifecycle (SDL) is a software development process that helps developers build more secure software and address security compliance requirements while reducing development cost. The SDL process has been developed to appropriately outline the development process specifically for the consumer electronics oriented mindset. Unfortunately this approach does not always correlate to an appropriate approach from the automotive OEM mindset. This paper will analyze the current SDL process in detail and provide suggestions with improvements to the overall SDL process creating an Automotive Security Development Lifecycle (ASDL).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0016
Jörg Schäuffele
Agenda: - Trends - Challenges - PREEvision approach - A practical example - Summary and outlook
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1537
Anindya Deb, Gunti R. Srinivas, Clifford C. Chou
The present work is concerned with the objective of developing an algorithm for practical multi disciplinary design optimization (MDO). The main goal adopted here is to minimize the weight of a vehicle body structure meeting NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness), durability, and crash safety targets. Initially, for simplicity a square tube is taken for the study. The design variables considered in the study are thickness, width and yield strength of the tube. Using the response surface method (RSM) and the design of experiments (DOE) technique, second order polynomial response surfaces are generated for prediction of the structural performance parameters such as lowest modal frequency, fatigue life, and peak deceleration value. The optimum solution is then obtained by using genetic algorithm functionality in commercial Matlab package.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1112
Byeong wook Jeon, Sang-Hwan Kim, Donghoon Jeong, Joseph Young-il Chang
In general, driving performance development of a vehicle is focused on satisfying preference of average customers. But there is no single standardized setup which can fulfill various driving tastes of all drivers, since they are different by gender, culture, age group, and personal habits. To resolve this issue, automotive companies have introduced selectable drive mode buttons which drivers can manually select desired drive mode among Normal, Eco, and Sport. These manually selected multi-mode systems provides variety of choices than single-mode system, but it still is a transitory solution which induces inconvenience of requiring drivers' effort to select and frequently change preferred drive mode in volatile driving situations. Also, it is a questionable supposition that categorizing complex needs of drivers into 3 modes is sufficient.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0094
Jaya Gaitonde, R B Lohani
Photodetectors are important components in automotive industry. Sensitivity, speed, responsivity, quantum efficiency and power dissipation are the important characteristics of a photodetector. We report a high performance photodetector based on GaAs Metal- Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MESFET), with very high responsivity, high sensitivity, very high quantum efficiency, high speed and low power dissipation, surpassing their photodiode and phototransistor counterparts. A theoretical model of GaAs front illuminated Optical Field Effect transistor is presented. The photovoltaic and photoconductive effects have been taken into account. The gate of the OPFET device has been left open to make a reduction in the number of power supplies. The device shows high potential in automotive applications.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0002
Scott Eisele, Masahiro Yamaura, Nikos Arechiga, Shinichi Shiraishi, Joseph Hite, Jason Scott, Sandeep Neema, Theodore Bapty
Complex systems, such as modern advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), consist of many interacting components. The number of component options promise a great deal of flexibility for configuring systems with a wide range of cost-performance-value tradeoffs, however the potential unique configurations are exponentially many prohibiting a build-test-fix approach. Instead, engineering analysis tools for rapid design-space navigation and analysis can be applied to rapidly find feasible options and evaluate their potential for correct system behavior and performance across the range of functional requirements. The OpenMETA toolchain is a component-based, design space creation and analysis tool for rapidly defining and analyzing systems with large variability and many requirements. The tool supports the creation of compositional, multi-domain components, based on a user-defined ontology, which capture the behavior and structure of components and the allowable interfaces.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0078
Eric DiBiaso, Bert Bergner, Jens Wuelfing, Robert Wuerker, Carlos Almeida
Ethernet technology utilizing a single unshielded twisted pair (UTP) is considered to have a promising future in the automotive industry. While 100Mbps transmission speeds can be achieved with standard connector platforms, 1Gbps requires specific design rules in order to ensure error free transmissions. This paper will explain the specific challenges for high speed UTP solutions in automotive environments. Connector limits relating to signal integrity and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) are also discussed in detail. Through simulations and testing, connector design criteria are established to fulfill all electrical and mechanical requirements. These design rules are followed by the introduction of a modular and scalable Ethernet connection system utilizing an optimum cable termination technology. Lastly, the electrical performance of this connection hardware will be demonstrated through both component and link level test results.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0458
Jiawei Li, Gangfeng Tan, Yangjie Ji, Yongchi Zhou, Ziang Liu, Yingxiao Xu
This paper proposed a novel concept of Integrated Energy-recuperation retarder (IEER). Facing the conventional eddy current retarders’ (ECR) braking torque attenuation under high speed domain and the poor braking property of the regenerative brake (RGB) in low speed domain, the IEER is designed to take the advantages of both the ECR and the RGB to overcome their disadvantages. The IEER integrates the rotary eddy current retarder (RECR) and the RGB, both of which share a stator. Slots are grooved on the stator of the IEER, and armature-windings are inserted in slots. Poles are arranged on the rotator. Eddy currents are excited in the stator core, and the current is excited in the armature-windings. Braking torque of the IEER produced by stator core and armature-windings can stack together, and therefore the IEER can provide greater braking torque than the RECR. Besides, the IEER can recover electric energy from armature-windings.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1419
Helen S. Loeb, Sam chamberlain, Yi-Ching Lee
Motor vehicles crashes are the leading cause of injury and death of US teens. Driving simulators offer a way to safely expose drivers to specific events in a controlled and repeatable manner. They empower researchers by enabling them to compare different groups and driving behaviors and assess the cognitive and attention skills that are essential to safe driving. Classically, assessment of eye glances and gaze duration relies largely on time-consuming data reduction and video coding. In addition, the synchronization of eye tracker and simulator data is essential to a valid analysis of the eye glances patterns in relation to the driving scenario. To better understand and quantify eye glances in relation to a driving scene, Eyesync was developed as a synchronization bridge between an eye tracker and a driving simulator. It allows the real time synchronization and logging of eye tracking and simulator data. The design of the software is presented in this paper.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0005
Nick Smith
Thought leaders identify Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) as a solution to the extreme design challenges caused by EE complexity. This presentation explores how coherency in early stage design can be applied across the entire EE life cycle. Starting from functional abstractions, we introduce a new lightweight solution to evaluate & guide optimized implementations for integrating software, networks, devices, and connectivity. The pattern used for this and the data created can be directly driven into downstream, domain-specific design flows delivering lower costs, better quality, and faster innovation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0171
Xunzhe Zhang, Richard Stobart, Ran Bao
China is the world's largest automotive producer and also the world's biggest automobile market. However, in the past decades, China's automotive industry has been developed largely by foreign direct investment, and the domestic automakers have struggled in the lower ranks of car producers. In recent years, China's automotive industry, supported by government policy, has been improving their original research and development (R&D) ability, to compete with their international peers. Against this background, China's automotive industry requires a large number of talented individuals who possess not only a higher degree but also the applied and practical R&D knowledge and skills. To meet the industry's needs, China's postgraduate education sector introduced the new professional engineering master's programme, including an automotive engineering programme, in 2009.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0467
Haizhen Liu, Weiwen Deng, Rui He, Jian Wu, Bing Zhu
Modern brake control system has been widely used not only for handling and stability, but also more and more towards handling driver assistance and active safety features, such as ACC, and RBS for EVs. As a result of the increasing number and complexity of brake control features, the functional overlap and interaction of each subsystem become inevitable with multiple objectives ranging from enhanced safety and stability, comfort and convenience, to energy saving. Under the conventional control architecture, since each of these features or subsystems may be developed by an individual supplier independently from each other, the integration and coordination among them become more and more complex. The ability to interchange one supplier's subsystem with another becomes problematic, which often causes inevitable duplications. This paper presents a novel function-based brake control architecture, which is designed based on a top-down approach with functional abstraction and modularity.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0346
Patrick Garcia, Jiri Radous, Artur Krol, Jacek Bosek, Caroline Baeten
Lean Product Development. How to create flow? Reflection after a 4 years Implementation in one Business Unit of Tenneco. Author P. Garcia. Tenneco Artur Krol, Jacek Bosek, Jiri Radous Technical Session; Integrated Design and Manufacturing / Lean Manufacturing. Status 31 August 2015. ABSTRACT. During the 4 last years, Lean has been successfully implemented in one of the Tenneco Business Unit, Ride Performance. This paper reflects on the results and more specifically on the third principle of Lean [Womack] “how to make flow” and on the fifth one “to strive for perfection” obtained in the fields of “Product Development” related to Processes, Tools and People. Processes and hard Tools. How to improve the flow in the engineering processes?
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1207
Hiroki Nagai, Masahiro Morita, Koichi Satoh
Toyota has been a global leader in hybrid vehicle technology since the launch of Prius, the first mass produced hybrid electric vehicle, in 1997. The introduction of the 2nd and 3rd generation Prius (2004, 2009) saw vehicles with significantly improved performance, including fuel efficiency. Toyota introduced Li-ion batteries into its hybrid lineup with the launch of the Prius Alpha (Japan, EU) in 2011.  Adopting a compact Li-ion battery resulted in sufficient cabin space for a 3rd row of seats while maintaining the expected high fuel efficiency of the Prius. Pre and post- vehicle launch, an extensive list of performance tests were run on the Li-ion battery pack, including electrical, electrochemical, mechanical, and safety. The evaluations were performed in the lab, in the field (demonstration fleets) and by acquiring vehicles used by customers. The MY16 Prius (4th generation), to be launched in 2015, will offer a Li-ion battery pack.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1365
Siddharth Bhupendra Unadkat, Suhas Kangde, Mahalingesh Burkul, Mahesh Badireddy
The overall automotive industry is moving toward first time right test which in turn needs first time right analysis. This is due to the enormous pressure of cost, mass, time to market and availability of prototype vehicles for testing. Use of finite element methods enables to upfront predict the system behavior in operating conditions and evaluation of structural strength. In vehicle product development process, hood slam durability evaluation is one of the important test for body closure structure. Current work showcases an effort made for developing virtual Hood slam test. The virtual model consists of BIW, hood, hinge joint, interface like CRFM and latch mechanism with spring preload. Analysis performed with LSDyna solver. An impact loading is applied by converting potential energy to kinetic energy, mimicking the hood dropping from a specified height on the hood latch.
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