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Viewing 1 to 16 of 16
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0294
Silvio César Bastos
The Excellence of Quality has been approached by companies seeking competitive advantage in the global automotive sector . Product characteristics and functions should meet the expectations of customers in terms of warranty and reliability . The objective of this paper is to present a method to improve the synchronization of customers´s products requirements with their suppliers in terms of production process control and prevention of failure modes for suppliers can achieve quality performance along customer . The improvement allows Suppliers to take preventive and corrective actions by application specifications knowledge of its components in engines and vehicles . The interfaces of components consideres in Production Control Plans with methods and important characteristics for the product assembly and functional are provided on Supplier portal that allows interaction between the Supplier Quality Engineering , supply chain and Quality Assurance .
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0295
Sentao Miao, Yan Fu, Margaret Strumolo, Boxiao Chen, Xiuli Chao, Erica Klampfl, Michael Tamor
With increasing evidence for climate change in response to greenhouse gasses (GHG) emitted by human activities, pressure is growing to reduce fuel consumption via increased vehicle efficiency and to replace fossil fuels with renewable fuels. While real-world experience with bio-ethanol, and a growing body of research on many other renewable fuel pathways, provides some guidance as to the cost of renewable transportation fuel, there has been little work comparing that cost to alternative means of achieving equivalent GHG reductions. In earlier work, we developed an optimization model that allowed the transportation and electricity generating sectors to work separately or jointly to achieve GHG reduction targets, and showed that cooperation can significantly reduce the societal cost of GHG reductions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1150
Alan Holmes, Jinming Liu, David Ames, Vijay Neelakantan, Khwaja Rahman, Timothy Grewe
Abstract An all-new electric variable transmission (EVT) developed by General Motors for rear-wheel-drive products is at the center of the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) propulsion system for the Cadillac CT6. This transmission includes two integrated electric motors, planetary gearing, and hydraulic clutches. It is capable of power-split-hybrid operation in continuously variable transmission (CVT) ratio ranges, parallel-hybrid operation in fixed gear ratios, and all-electric propulsion in different ratio combinations. Transmission operation, mechanical design, controls design, motor design, and output capability are explained, and simulation results used as the benchmark for final development are included. All-electric launch and driving, selectable regeneration, and power blending with the turbocharged engine provide smooth and seamless propulsion through the entire driving range.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1171
Shota Hirose, Akemi Okawa, Kenji Ishida, Takahiro Misu, Takeshi Tojo
Abstract Electrification of the powertrain to improve vehicle fuel economy is a key technology to achieve strict fuel economy legislation. However, only limited numbers of small class vehicles such as a B segment adopt electric powertrain. This is presumed that cost effectiveness for fuel economy is small and mounting space for additional powertrain is limited. In this paper, the optimum solution of a strong hybrid system suitable for the small vehicles was studied. First, from the viewpoint of maximization of energy efficiency, we compared contributions of engine efficiency and transmission efficiency during mode cycle driving and selected automated manual transmission as a suitable transmission for small vehicles. In comparing the hybrid system function, we determined a motor generator connecting shaft and a necessary motor generator output power for attaining both fuel economy and drivability.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1164
Oguz H. Dagci, Huei Peng
Abstract The goal of this paper is to explore the complete set of single mode hybrid electric powertrain designs that can be generated with one and two planetary gearsets (PGs). Contrary to an automated design exploration approach, an analytically-based manual method is developed to identify all unique design modes for each hybrid electric powertrain architecture (parallel, series, power-split) that can be created with two planetary gearsets, one engine, one vehicle output shaft, two electric machines, and at most two brake clutches. Feasible design modes are generated according to a procedure that provably covers the entire design space.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1160
Jonathan Hall, Michael Bassett, Stephen Borman, Tom Lucas, Andrew Whitehead
Abstract Present automobile development is keenly focused on measures to reduce the CO2 output of vehicles. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) enable grid electricity, which is clean in tail-pipe emissions terms, to be utilised whilst the on-board electrical storage has sufficient charge. MAHLE Powertrain and Protean have jointly developed a plug-in hybrid demonstrator vehicle based on a C-segment passenger car. The vehicle features Protean’s compact direct drive in-wheel motors with integrated inverters on the rear axle and retains the standard gasoline engine, and manual transmission, on the front axle. To support this one-off prototype, a flexible vehicle control unit has been developed, which is easily re-configurable and adaptable to any hybrid vehicle architecture.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1159
Amanullah Khan, Timothy Grewe, Jinming Liu, Mohammad Anwar, Alan Holmes, Richard Balsley
Abstract This paper describes the capabilities of a new two-motor plug-in hybrid-electric propulsion system developed for rear wheel drive. The PHEV system comprises a 2.0L turbocharged 4-cylinder direct-injected gasoline engine with the new hybrid transmission [1], a new traction power inverter module, a liquid-cooled lithium-ion battery pack, and on-board battery charger and 12V power converter module. The capability and features of the system components are described, and component performance and vehicle data are reported. The resulting propulsion system provides an excellent combination of electric-only driving, acceleration, and fuel economy.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1180
Trevor Crain, Thomas Gorgia, R. Jesse Alley
Abstract EcoCAR is North America's premier collegiate automotive engineering competition, challenging students with systems-level advanced powertrain design and integration. The EcoCAR Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition series is organized by Argonne National Laboratory, headline sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and General Motors, and sponsored by more than 30 industry and government leaders. In the last competition series, EcoCAR 2, fifteen university teams from across North America were challenged to reduce the environmental impact of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu by redesigning the vehicle powertrain without compromising performance, safety, or consumer acceptability. This paper examines the results of the EcoCAR 2 competition’s emissions and energy consumption (E&EC) on-road test results for several prototype plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The official results for each vehicle are presented along with brief descriptions of the hybrid architectures.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1207
Hiroki Nagai, Masahiro Morita, Koichi Satoh
Abstract Toyota introduced the first generation Prius in 1997. The vehicle was conceived, designed and launched as a dedicated, mass-produced global hybrid vehicle platform, the first of its kind. The introduction of the 2nd and 3rd generation Prius (2003, 2009) saw vehicles with significantly improved performance, including fuel efficiency. The Prius Alpha (Japan/EU), launched in 2011, represented Toyota first foray with Li-ion battery in a strong hybrid configuration. For the Prius Alpha, the adoption of a compact Li-ion battery resulted in sufficient cabin space to allow a 3rd row of seats while maintaining high fuel efficiency. Before and after the launch of the Prius Alpha, an extensive list of tests was performed on the Li-ion battery pack, including electrical, electrochemical, mechanical, and safety. The evaluations were performed in the lab, in the field (demonstration fleets) and by acquiring vehicles used by customers.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1093
Takao Ohki, Tomoyasu Wada, Tomoyuki Kano, Tomoyoshi Ishimaru, Hideya Osawa
Abstract In recent years, awareness of environmental problems has increased on a global scale, and the development of low fuel consumption technologies has become more and more important in commercial vehicles, as it has been in passenger vehicles. A new 6-speed manual transmission was developed with direct-drive double-overdrive to contribute to the fuel economy performance and engine power of commercial vehicles through gear ratio optimization.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1083
Kenji Sato, Takeru Hamakawa, Takeyuki Yamasaki, Yoshimichi Ishihara, Hisashi Hashimoto, Chao Shi, Hiroaki Haneda, Shinichi Takahashi, Yoshiyuki Iida
Abstract The independent bearing cap is a cylinder block bearing structure that has high mass reduction effects. In general, this structure has low fastening stiffness compared to the rudder block structure. Furthermore, when using combination of different materials small sliding occurs at the mating surface, and fretting fatigue sometimes occurs at lower area than the material strength limit. Fretting fatigue was previously predicted using CAE, but there were issues with establishing a correlation with the actual engine under complex conditions, and the judgment criteria were not clear, so accurate prediction was a challenge. This paper reports on a new CAE-based prediction method to predict the fretting damage occurring on the bearing cap mating surface in an aluminum material cylinder block. First of all, condition a fretting fatigue test was performed with test pieces, and identification of CAE was performed for the strain and sliding amount.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1112
Byeong Wook Jeon, Sang-Hwan Kim, Donghoon Jeong, Joseph Young-il Chang
Abstract In general, driving performance is developed to meet preference of average customers. But there is no single standardized guideline which can satisfy various driving tastes of all drivers whose gender, cultural background, and age are different. To resolve this issue, automotive companies have introduced drive mode buttons which drivers can manually select from Normal, Eco, and Sport driving modes. Although this multi-mode manual systems is more efficient than single-mode system, it is in a transient state where drivers need to go through troubles of frequently selecting their preferred drive mode in volatile driving situations It is also doubtful whether the three-categorized driving mode can meet complex needs of drivers.. In order to settle these matters, it is necessary to analyze individual driving style automatically and to provide customized driving performance service in real time.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1097
Satoshi Fukuyama, Tomohide Suzuki, Akira Murata, Hiroshi Mizoguchi, Toshihiko Kamiya
Abstract Aisin AW (AW) and Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC) have developed a new RWD 6 speed automatic transmission, AWR6B45(AC60), suitable for SUV’s and LDT’s in the worldwide market, not only for North America but also for other countries including emerging nations. This 6 speed automatic transmission has achieved low cost, equivalent to AW and TMCs’ current 5 speed automatic transmission, while realizing improvement in both fuel economy and driving performance against current in-house 5-speed automatic transmissions, in addition to satisfying both toughness against various usage and light weight/compactness. They are accomplished by using a compact gear train structure, the latest efficiency improvement technologies, and a high-response, compact hydraulic control system. In addition, the compactness of this 6 speed automatic transmission enables it to replace current 4 speed and 5 speed automatic transmissions for various engine applications.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1535
Linli Tian, Yunkai Gao
Abstract Based on equivalent static loads method (ESL), a nonlinear dynamic topology optimization is carried out to optimize an automotive body in white (BIW) subjected to representative legislative crash loads, including frontal impact, side barrier impact, roof crush and rear impact. To meet the crashworthiness performances, two evaluation indexes are defined to convert the practical engineering problems into mathematic optimization problems. The strain energy is treated as the stiffness evaluation index of the BIW and the relative displacement is employed as the compliance index of the components and parts.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1500
Renran Tian, Keyu Ruan, Lingxi Li, Jerry Le, Mike Rao
Abstract Driver state sensing technologies start to be widely used in vehicular systems developed from different manufacturers. To optimize the cost and minimize the intrusiveness towards driving, majority of these systems rely on in-cabin camera(s) and other optical sensors. With their great capabilities of detecting and intervening driver distraction and inattention, these technologies might become key components in future vehicle safety and control systems. However, currently there are no common standards available to compare the performance of these technologies, thus it is necessary to develop one standardized process for the evaluation purpose.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1573
Ken Archibald, Kyle Archibald, Donald Neubauer
Abstract This paper will document a rationale for wheel straightening based on the rise of declining roads, increased consumer preference for lower profile tires, unintended consequences of wheel customization and the reduction in energy consumption. A recommended patented procedure detailing how A356-T6 wheels can be straightened will be presented. To validate the recommended procedure a sample of wheels was uniformly deformed and straightened and subsequently tested per SAE J328 and SAE J175. Test results are provided that indicate straightened wheels should be fully serviceable in their intended service. A laboratory protocol to replicate the wheel flange cracks is described. The protocol is used to demonstrate that wheels without deformations do not result in flange cracks. Conversely wheels with deformations in excess of 1.5mm do result in cracks at less than 750,000 cycles.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1537
Anindya Deb, Gunti R. Srinivas, Clifford C. Chou
Abstract The present work is concerned with the objective of developing a process for practical multi-disciplinary design optimization (MDO). The main goal adopted here is to minimize the weight of a vehicle body structure meeting NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness), durability, and crash safety targets. Initially, for simplicity a square tube is taken for the study. The design variables considered in the study are width, thickness and yield strength of the tube. Using the Response Surface Method (RSM) and the Design Of Experiments (DOE) technique, second order polynomial response surfaces are generated for prediction of the structural performance parameters such as lowest modal frequency, fatigue life, and peak deceleration value. The optimum solution is then obtained by using traditional gradient-based search algorithm functionality “fmincon” in commercial Matlab package.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0982
Philip Lawson, John Houldcroft, Andrew Neil, Andrea Balcombe, Richard Osborne, Antonio Ciriello, Wilhelm Graupner
Abstract A recent trend in powertrain development organisations has been to apply processes historically associated with manufacturing. The aim is to capitalise on the resulting productivity gains to contain the increasing test demand necessary to develop current and future product. Significant obstacles to the implementation of manufacturing derived methods include the lack of clarity of the engineering test requirements and existing working practices in the product development environment. The System Optimisation Approach has been presented in previous work as a potential solution [1]. As an extension, this paper introduces a new concept closely related to the established manufacturing principle of Process Capability (Cp). Application of the resulting method quantifies the test facility’s capability to provide a test result subject to a specified statistical confidence within a certain number of test repeats.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0961
Satish Narayanan Ramachandran, Gillis Hommen, Paul Mentink, Xander Seykens, Frank Willems, Frank Kupper
Abstract Heavy-duty diesel engines are used in a wide range of applications. For varying operating environments, the engine and aftertreatment system must comply with the real-world emission legislation limits. Simultaneously, minimal fuel consumption and good drivability are crucial for economic competitiveness and usability. Meeting these requirements takes substantial development and calibration effort, and complying with regulations results in a trade-off between emissions and fuel consumption. TNO's Integrated Emission Management (IEM) strategy finds online, the cost-optimal point in this trade-off and is able to deal with variations in operating conditions, while complying with legislation limits. Based on the actual state of the engine and aftertreatment system, an optimal engine operating point is computed using a model-based optimal-control algorithm.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0936
Anoop Reghunathan Nair, Brett Schubring, Kiran Premchand, Andrew Brocker, Peter Croswell, Craig DiMaggio, Homayoun Ahari, Jeffrey Wuttke, Michael Zammit, Michael Andrew Smith
New Particulate Matter (PM) and Particulate Number (PN) regulations throughout the world have created a need for aftertreatment solutions that include particulate control as an option to comply with the legislation. However, limitations in other criteria emissions cannot be sacrificed to accomplish the reduction of PM/PN. For this work, three-way washcoat catalyzed wall-flow Gasoline Particulate Filters (GPF) and similarly catalyzed flow-through catalysts of common defined volume were tested. Their catalytic performance was determined by measuring NOx, CO and HC conversion efficiencies and CO2 levels over the U.S. Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) cycles. Analysis of the impact on CO2 emissions was also evaluated in relation to backpressure from 1-D modeling analysis. All exhaust systems used the same loading and ratio of Platinum Group Metals (PGM), but employed different cell structures in their substrates.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1020
Yusuke Wada, Koji Nakano, Kei Mochizuki, Ryuichi Hata
Abstract A 1.5 L downsizing turbocharged engine was developed to achieve both driving and environmental performance. The engine is intended to replace 1.8 - 2.4 L class NA engines. In downsizing turbocharged engines, mixture homogeneity is important for suppressing knocking and emission reduction. Particularly under high load, creating rapid combustion and a homogeneous mixture are key technologies. The authors used a long-stroke direct injection engine, which has outstanding rapid combustion and thermal efficiency, as a base engine meeting these requirements. They combined this with a high-tumble port and shallow-dish piston intended to support tumble flow. The combination enhanced flow within the cylinder. The combustion system was built to include a sodium-filled exhaust valve to reduce knocking and a multi-hole injector (six holes) for mixture homogeneity and to reduce the fuel wall wetting.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1017
Mitsutaka Jono, Masayuki Taguchi, Toshimitsu Shonohara, Shigeru Narihiro
Abstract It is important to take action regarding environmental issues on a global scale, and automakers are adding downsized turbocharged engines to their line-ups as a means of reducing CO2 emissions, particularly in Europe. Honda has recently announced a next-generation powertrain series that realizes a good balance between environmental performance and driving pleasure. As part of this series, the company has developed a downsized and turbocharged 2.0L gasoline direct injection engine. This is a high-powered sports car engine positioned in the European “hot hatch” category. The development balanced engine power with good environmental performance.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1153
Jinming Liu, Mohammad Anwar, Peter Chiang, Shawn Hawkins, Youngsoo Jeong, Faizul Momen, Stephen Poulos, Seunghan Song
Abstract Building on the experience of the Chevrolet Spark EV battery electric vehicle, General Motors (GM) has developed a propulsion system with increased capability for its next generation Chevrolet Bolt EV. It propels a new larger electric vehicle with significantly greater electric driving range. Through extensive analysis the primary propulsion system components, which include the drive unit, traction electric motor, power electronics, energy storage, and on-board charging module, were optimized individually and as an integrated system to deliver improvements in propulsion system energy, power, torque and efficiency. The results deliver outstanding EV range and fun-to-drive acceleration performance.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1334
Christopher Flegel, Parth Bhivate, Liang Li, Yash Mathur, Sanket Phalgaonkar, Mark Benton, Prasanth Muralidharan, Johnell Brooks, Srikanth Pilla, Paul Venhovens, David Lewis, Garrett DeBry, Craig Payne
Abstract The Deep Orange framework is an integral part of the graduate automotive engineering education at Clemson University International Center for Automotive Research (CU-ICAR). The initiative was developed to immerse students into the world of an OEM. For the 6th generation of Deep Orange, the goal was to develop an urban utility/activity vehicle for the year 2020. The objective of this paper is to describe the development of a multimaterial lightweight Body-in-White (BiW) structure to support an all-electric powertrain combined with an interior package that maximizes volume to enable a variety of interior configurations and activities for Generation Z users. AutoPacific data were first examined to define personas on the basis of their demographics and psychographics.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1333
Edward C. Fontana
Abstract Individuals in the United States consume twice as much energy as those in any other region. Solitary workday commutes in light vehicles are the leading reason for this difference. An electric vehicle design is proposed to help catalyze more social, higher occupancy, commuting habits - through application of existing technology. Performance criteria are: 1) attract passengers to the suburban front yard at 6:30 AM, 2) match market leading crash test performance, cargo capability, and sense of freedom, and 3) deliver easier parking, better acoustics and better passenger mile efficiency. A vehicle as a rolling event venue determines a large windscreen, side-by-side upright seating arrangements, and acoustic excellence -an experience where there are only good seats. These requirements force a decision to close the wake along a vertical line to form a narrow wake. The chassis is platform batteries with dual motor electric rear drive and undetermined front drive.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1497
William Bortles, Wayne Biever, Neal Carter, Connor Smith
Abstract This paper presents a comprehensive literature review of original equipment event data recorders (EDR) installed in passenger vehicles, as well as a summary of results from the instrumented validation studies. The authors compiled 187 peer-reviewed studies, textbooks, legal opinions, governmental rulemaking policies, industry publications and presentations pertaining to event data recorders. Of the 187 total references, there were 64 that contained testing data. The authors conducted a validation analysis using data from 27 papers that presented both the EDR and corresponding independent instrumentation values for: Vehicle velocity change (ΔV) Pre-Crash vehicle speed The combined results from these studies highlight unique observations of EDR system testing and demonstrate the observed performance of original equipment event data recorders in passenger vehicles.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1685
Sayaka Tamura, Tsutomu Yoshinari
Abstract A three-motor hybrid system suitable for a super sports car was developed. This system features high power, light weight and high response, and has high cooling performance for high-load operation such as circuit driving. The power plant drives the rear wheels using the combination of a midship-mounted V6 twin-turbo engine, the direct drive motor of a hybrid system mounted directly on the engine, and a 9-speed dual-clutch transmission (DCT). The front wheels are driven by a twin-motor unit (TMU), and the size and weight of the Intelligent Power Unit (IPU) that supplies electric power to the TMU has been reduced to enable mounting behind the seats inside the cabin. In addition, the IPU uses air-conditioner cooperative cooling to enhance the cooling performance. As a result, assist is performed even during high-load operation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1682
Pratap Dinkar Thorat, Shailesh Newase, Keyur Gupte, Pushkaraj Kaulgud
Abstract Electrical Power and Signal Distributions System in a vehicle is the most important among the Automotive Electrical and Electronic systems. In fact any electrical or electronic systems are realized and are physically formed by the Electrical Wiring Harness. This is a system in itself with the set of wires and connectors connecting various devices to feed the power and act as physical channels for signal transmission and serial data communication. Thus, the Electrical Wiring Harness becomes huge complicated systems in a vehicle. Because of the number of wires, cables and the specific connectivity requirement the design and development will become very difficult. Further, the complexity is manifold due to number of harnesses in a vehicle and different operating conditions in different zones of the vehicle. The design and development of an Electrical Wiring Harness involves primarily the design of the electrical circuit. This is based on the vehicle architecture.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1598
Frank Meinert, Kristian Johannessen, Fernando Saito, Bongha Song, Jewel Barlow, David Burton, Taehwan Cho, Luis Fernando Gouveia de Moraes
Abstract Wind tunnel testing of reduced-scale models is a valuable tool for aerodynamic development during the early stages of a new vehicle program, when basic design themes are being evaluated. Both full-and reduced-scale testing have been conducted for many years at the General Motors Aerodynamics Laboratory (GMAL), but with increased emphasis on aerodynamic drag reduction, it was necessary to identify additional facilities to provide increased test capacity. With vehicle development distributed among engineering teams around the world, it was also necessary to identify facilities local to those teams, to support their work. This paper describes a cooperative effort to determine the correlation among five wind tunnels: GMAL, the Glenn L.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1584
Kenichi Ando, Naoshi Kuratani, Hideo Fukuda
Abstract An aerodynamic styling evaluation system employed at an early automotive development stage was constructed. The system based on CFD consists of exterior model morphing, computational mesh generation, flow calculation and result analysis, and the process is automatically and successively executed by process automation software. Response surfaces and a parallel coordinates chart output by the system allow users to find a well-balanced exterior form, in terms of aerodynamics and exterior styling, in a wide design space which are often arduous to be obtained by a conventional CAE manner and scale model wind tunnel testing. The system was designed so that 5-parameter study is completed within approximately two days, and consequently, has been widely applied to actual exterior styling development. An application for a hatchback vehicle is also introduced as an actual example.
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