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Viewing 1 to 30 of 10740
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Claudio Annicchiarico, Renzo Capitani
In a Formula SAE, as for almost all racecars, suppressing or limiting the differential action of the differential mechanism is the technique mostly adopted to improve the traction exiting the high lateral acceleration corners. The devices carrying out this function are usually called LSD, “Limited Slip Differentials”, which unbalance the traction force distribution, generating as a secondary effect a yaw torque acting on the vehicle. If the differential action is electronically controlled, this yaw torque can be used as a torque vectoring technique to affect the attitude of car. The yaw torque introduced by an electronically controlled LSD (also called SAD, “Semi-Active Differential”) could suddenly change from oversteering (i.e. pro-yaw) to understeering (i.e. anti-yaw), depending on the riding conditions. Therefore, controlling the vehicle attitude with a SAD could be quite tricky, and its effectiveness could be low if compared to the common torque vectoring systems, which usually act on the brake system of the car.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Jeffrey Blair, Glenn Bower
Operation of snowmobiles in national parks is restricted to vehicles meeting the Best Available Technology standard for exhaust and noise emissions as established by the National Parks Service. An engine exceeding these standards while operating on a blend of gasoline and bio-isobutanol has been developed based on a production 4 stroke snowmobile engine. Miller cycle operation was achieved via late intake valve closing and turbocharging. The production Rotax ACE 600cc 2 cylinder engine was modeled using Ricardo Wave. After this model was validated with physical testing, different valve lift profiles were evaluated for brake specific fuel consumption and brake power. The results from this analysis were used to determine the cam profile for Miller cycle operation. This was done to reduce part load pumping losses and increase engine efficiency while maintaining production power density. A catalytic converter was added to reduce exhaust gas emissions, as measured by the EPA 40 CFR Part 1051 5-mode emissions test cycle.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Thomas Bradley, Benjamin Geller, Jake Bucher, Shawn Salisbury
EcoCAR 2 is the premiere North American collegiate automotive competition that challenges 15 North American universities to redesign a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu to decrease the environmental impact of the Malibu while maintaining its performance, safety, and consumer appeal. The EcoCAR 2 project is a three year competition headline sponsored by General Motors and U.S. Department of Energy. In Year 1 of the competition, extensive modeling guided the Colorado State University (CSU) Vehicle Innovation Team (VIT) to choose an all-electric vehicle powertrain architecture with range extending hydrogen fuel cells, to be called the Malibu H2eV. During this year, the CSU VIT followed the EcoCAR 2 Vehicle Design Process (VDP) to develop the H2eV’s electric and hydrogen powertrain, energy storage system (ESS), control systems, and auxiliary systems. From the design developed in Year 1 of the EcoCAR 2 competition, a Malibu donated by General Motors was converted into a concept validating prototype during Year 2.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Di Zhu, Ewan Pritchard
Abstract EcoCAR 2: Plugging in to the Future is a three-year collegiate engineering competition established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and General Motors (GM). North Carolina State University is designing a Series Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) on a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu vehicle platform. The designed vehicle has a pure electric range of 55 miles and an overall range of 235 miles with a range extension system. The vehicle is designed to reduce fuel consumption and gas emission while maintaining consumer acceptability in the areas of performance, utility, and safety. This reports details the vehicle development process with an emphasis on control system development and refinement. Advanced manufacturing, modeling, and simulation have been used to ensure a safe and functional vehicle at the upcoming year 3 final competition.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Trevor Crain, Michael Ryan Mallory, Megan Cawley, Brian Fabien, Per Reinhall
Abstract This paper details the control system development process for the University of Washington (UW) EcoCAR 2 team over the three years of the competition. Particular emphasis is placed upon the control system development and validation process executed during Year 3 of the competition in an effort to meet Vehicle Technical Specifications (VTS) established and refined by the team. The EcoCAR 2 competition challenges 15 universities across North America to reduce the environmental impact of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu without compromising consumer acceptability. The project takes place over a three year design cycle, where teams select a hybrid architecture and fuel choice before defining a set of VTS goals for the vehicle. These VTS are selected based on the desired static and dynamic performance targets to balance fuel consumption and emissions with consumer acceptability requirements. The UW team selected a Parallel through the Road hybrid architecture due to its combination of performance capabilities, high power path efficiency, and reliability due to separated electric and biodiesel powertrains.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
P. Christopher Manning, Eduardo D. Marquez, Leonard Figueroa, Douglas J. Nelson, Eli Hampton White, Lucas Wayne Shoults
Abstract The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team (HEVT) of Virginia Tech is ready to compete in the Year 3 Final Competition for EcoCAR 2: Plugging into the Future. The team is confident in the reliability of their vehicle, and expects to finish among the top schools at Final Competition. During Year 3, the team refined the vehicle while following the EcoCAR 2 Vehicle Development Process (VDP). Many refinements came about in Year 3 such as the implementation of a new rear subframe, the safety analysis of the high voltage (HV) bus, and the integration of Charge Sustaining (CS) control code. HEVT's vehicle architecture is an E85 Series-Parallel Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV), which has many strengths and weaknesses. The primary strength is the pure EV mode and Series mode, which extend the range of the vehicle and reduce Petroleum Energy Usage (PEU) and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. A primary weakness is the architectures complexity, which made it difficult for the team to truly reap the benefits of the added components to the vehicle which are utilized in Parallel mode.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Chris D. Monaco, Chris Golecki, Benjamin Sattler, Daniel C. Haworth, Jeffrey S. Mayer, Gary Neal
Abstract As one of the fifteen universities in North America taking part in the EcoCAR 2: Plugging into the Future competition, The Pennsylvania State University Advanced Vehicle Team (PSUAVT) designed and implemented a series plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) that reduces fuel consumption and emissions while maintaining high consumer acceptability and safety standards. This architecture allows the vehicle to operate as a pure electric vehicle until the Energy Storage System (ESS) State of Charge (SOC) is depleted. The Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) then supplements the battery to extend range beyond that of a purely electric vehicle. General Motors (GM) donated a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu for PSUAVT to use as the platform to implement the PSUAVT-selected series PHEV design. A 90 kW electric traction motor, a 16.2 kW-hr high capacity lithium-ion battery pack, and Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) are now integrated into the vehicle. The APU is a 750cc, two-cylinder engine running on an 85% ethanol/15% gasoline (E85) mixture coupled to an electric generator.
Technical Paper
2014-10-01
Berna Balta, Onur Erk, H. Ali Solak, Numan Durakbasa
Rear underrun protection device is crucial for rear impact and rear under-running of the passenger vehicles to the heavy duty trucks. Rear underrun protection device design should obey the safety regulative rules and successfully pass several test conditions. The objective and scope of this paper is the constrained optimization of the design of a rear underrun protection device (RUPD) beam of heavy duty trucks for impact loading using correlated CAE and test methodologies. In order to minimize the design iteration phase of the heavy duty truck RUPD, an effective, real-life testing correlated, finite element model have been constructed via RADIOSS software. Later on, Pareto Optimization has been applied to the finite element model, by constructing designed experiments. The best solution has been selected in terms of cost, manufacturing and performance. Finally, real-life verification testing has been applied for the correlation of the optimum solution.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Zhiguo Zhao, Guanyu Zheng, Fengshuang Wang, Suying Zhang, Jianhua Zhang
In order to satisfy China IV emissions regulations, a unique design concept was proposed with injector closely coupled with Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system outer body. The benefit of this design is significant in cost reduction and installation convenience. One paper was published to describe the vertical inlet layout [1]; this work is the second part describing applications of this concept to horizontal inlet configurations. For horizontal inlet pipe, two mixing pipe designs were proposed to avoid urea deposit and meet EU IV emission regulations. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique was used to evaluate two design concepts; experiments were performed to validate both designs. CFD computations and experiments give the same direction on ranking of the two decomposition tubes. With the straight decomposition pipe design and unique perforated baffle design, no urea deposits were found; in addition, the emission level satisfied EU IV regulations. Modeling of acoustic insertion loss with GT-Power was implemented and correlated with the tests, the resulting system insertion loss is higher than 20 dB under the rated engine load condition, meeting the acoustic performance targets.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Gurunathan Varun Kumar, Meer Reshma Sheerin, Vedachalam Saravana Prabu, Kallikadan Jean, Chaitanya Rajguru, Murugesan Dinesh, Andrew Croft
Abstract Automotive climate control systems are evolving at a rapid pace to meet the overall vehicle requirements and the user expectations for comfort and convenience. This poses a challenge in the product development life cycle of multi-platform vehicle systems with respect to development time and optimal performance in the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system. This paper proposes rapid HVAC plant model design and development using simplified one-dimensional (1D) simulation models for fast simulations. The specific accuracy limitations of such a simplified model are overcome using limited three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3D CFD) modelling. User-level control strategy is developed in an integrated simulation environment that includes a reference 1D model and a control algorithm simulator. The simulation data is used to study and analyse the temperature and airflow distribution in the system. Based on these results, simpler models for the HVAC system are derived.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Demetrio Cortese
Abstract Using a Model-based approach to the embedded software development process contributed significantly in reducing the development time while also supporting a high quality level of the software code implementation. However, based on our experience with CNH Industrial application scenarios, involving multiple suppliers from vehicle ECU to the engine ECU, it only addressed the need of the implementation phase without any consistent influence in other software development life-cycle phases such as requirements and specification. Mandatory functional safety requirements, new complex functionalities, and reducing time to delivery while maintaining high quality level of software are driving factors in our new software development projects. Ideally the adoption of international standards, as for example the ISO 12007, and the safety standards, as the ISO 26262, ISO 25119 and ISO 13849, should represent a consistent guide to develop software. In this approach, the adoption of them should satisfy both the development guidelines and recommendations while at the same time to meeting application scenario requirements.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Xinyu Ge, Jonathan Jackson
Cost reduction in the automotive industry becomes a widely-adopted operational strategy not only for Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) that take cost leader generic corporation strategy, but also for many OEMs that take differentiation generic corporation strategy. Since differentiation generic strategy requires an organization to provide a product or service above the industry average level, a premium is typically included in the tag price for those products or services. Cost reduction measures could increase risks for the organizations that pursue differentiation strategy. Although manufacturers in the automotive industry dramatically improved production efficiency in past ten years, they are still facing the pressure of cost control. The big challenge in cost control for automakers and suppliers is increasing prices of raw materials, energy and labor costs. These costs create constraints for the traditional economic expansion model. Lean manufacturing and other traditional 6 Sigma processes have been widely utilized to reduce waste and improve efficiency in the automotive industry.
Technical Paper
2014-09-28
Mohamed Samy Barakat
The Braking System is the most crucial part of the racing vehicle. There is no doubt, that if only one minority failure in the braking system took place, this would be more than enough reason to cause the racing team disqualification from the competition. Time is the main and the most important criteria for any racing competition; on the other hand the formula student “FS UK SAE” competition care the most about developing the automotive engineering sense in the students by putting them under strict rules normally taken from the original version “formula 1” to encourage their creativity to reach the optimum performance under these strict rules. One of the most important rules is “No Braking by wire”, and the obvious consequences are more stopping distance and time. Braking distance is a critical facture in achieving racing success in a competitive domain. This report will cover using the bias bar, dynamic weight distribution “before and after braking” and carefully choosing the braking and suspension system components dimensions, in order to fulfill the main functions of “ABS and EBD” which are preventing the wheels from lock-up and preventing side skid of the vehicle during cornering in the different dynamic tests with full consideration of the maximum approachable deceleration of the vehicle without locking up without using any kind of electronic “actuators or control”.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Rostislav Sirotkin, Galina Susova, Gennadii Shcherbakov
Abstract Within the Russian aviation industry the necessary level of reliability risks related to the failures of aircraft mechanical parts and systems vital to the safety of flight is assured via the system of activities aimed at influencing the parameters of critical parts (CP). The goal of the system is to provide a relationship between activities aimed at prevention of dangerous failures at all phases of airplane life cycle. The system operation is regulated by the normative documents and by controlling their observance. Normative documents containing requirements and recommendations were developed about 15 years ago based on the industry experience and traditions and taking into account the requirements of AS9100 series of international standards [2] wherever possible. The documents were developed taking into account typical safety management errors outlined in [1]. Requirements specifying the necessity of CP-related activities are specified in the national standards concerning the organization of quality management system (QMS) in the aviation industry as well as programs of safety, reliability and maintainability activities.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Louis Columbus
Aerospace suppliers face the daunting task of constantly improving time-to-market, reducing cost of quality and turning compliance into a competitive advantage. Managing to these constraints while staying profitable is a challenge faced by the entire aerospace supply chain face today. The intent of this presentation is to share five lessons learned on how aerospace suppliers can optimize for these three constraints while growing their businesses. The first is electronically enabling traceability both within a multi-tier supply chains and throughout suppliers. Automating traceability at the shop floor improves quality management and accelerates compliance. Specific methodologies and metrics used to accomplish this will be provided. Second, lessons learned from implementing Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES) showing how shop floor visibility has a direct effect on supplier performance is illustrated with case studies and metrics. Third, lessons learned in making compliance pay by benchmarking performance to AS9100C, ISO9001, and ITAR standards is provided.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Janice Meraglia, Mitchell Miller
Abstract Counterfeit items can be viewed as the by-product of a supply chain which has been compromised. While many industries are impacted, certain types of products can mean the difference between life and death. Electronics are of special interest, however, mechanical parts can also have dire consequences. The point is that the counterfeiting community is very diverse. The business model is fluid and unrestricted. Electronics today…hardware tomorrow. All of this leads to the need for an authentication platform that is agnostic to product. Most supply chains would benefit from a technical way to have assurance of authenticity - a benefit that could be shared by all. A comprehensive marking program, such as SigNature DNA, offers value to all supply chain participants as outlined below: Manufacturers will have the ability to effectively monitor their legacy components Authorized distributors will have an absolute way to verify and accept returns Defense contractors and agencies will have forensically authentic and traceable inventory at their disposal End users will have the power to authenticate stock to the component level
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Matthieu Hutchison, Grégoire Lenoble, Umberto Badiali, Yannick Sommerer, Olivier Verseux, Eric Desmet
An Airbus methodology for the assessment of accurate fuel pressure surge at early program stages in the complete aircraft and engine environment based on joint collaboration with LMS Engineering is presented. The aim is to comfort the prediction of the fuel pressure spike generated by an engine shutdown in order to avoid late airframe fuel system redesign and secure the aircraft entry-into-service.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Jace Allen
Abstract In the last few years, we have seen a tremendous increase in the rise in product complexity due to advances in technology and aircraft system functionality enhancement. The Model-based Design (MBD) process has helped manage the complexity of these systems while making product development faster by bringing more effective tools and methods to the entire process. Developing software using MBD has required extensive, sophisticated tool-chains that allow for efficient rapid controls prototyping, automatic code generation, and advanced validation and verification techniques using model-in-the-loop (MIL), software-in-the-loop (SIL), and hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) for both component testing and integration testing. However, the MBD process leads to generation of large volumes of data artifacts and work-products throughout the V-Cycle. The various components of these environments, from models to parameters to tests, can be inundating, and variants and versions of these artifacts lead to even larger amounts of data.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Andreas Himmler
Abstract To make the development of complex aircraft systems manageable and economical, tests must be performed as early as possible in the development process. The test goals are already set in advance before the first hardware for the ECUs exists, to be able to make statements about the system functions or possible malfunctions. This paper describes the requirements on and solutions for test systems for ECUs that arise from these goals. It especially focuses on how a seamless workflow and consistent use of test systems and necessary software tools can be achieved, from the virtual test of ECUs, which exist only as models, up to the test of real hardware. This will be shown in connection with a scalable, fully software-configurable hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) technology. The paper also covers the seamless use of software tools that are required for HIL testing throughout the different test phases, enabling the reuse of work products throughout the test phases.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Aurelie Beaugency, Marc Gatti, Didier Regis
Abstract Since 2000, avionics is facing several changes, mostly driven by technological improvements in the electronics industry and innovation requirements from aircraft manufacturers. First, it has progressively lost its technological leadership over innovation processes. Second, the explosion of the electronics consumer industry has contributed to shorten even more its technology life cycles, and promoted the use of COTS. Third, the increasing complexity of avionics systems, which integrate more and more functions, have encouraged new players to enter the market. The aim of this article is to analyze how technological changes can affect the competitiveness of avionics firms. We refer to criticality levels as a determinant of the market competitiveness. Certification processes and costs could stop new comers to bring innovations from the consumer electronics industry and protects traditional players. The study will compare three avionics systems regarding their patent dynamics since 1980: flight controls, Integrated Modular avionics and Head-Up Displays.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Manxue Lu
Abstract This article attempts to provide a big picture of systems engineering in both philosophy and engineering perspectives, discusses current status and issues, trends of systems engineering development, future directions and challenges, followed by certain examples.
Technical Paper
2014-06-30
Gilles Nghiem, Shanjin Wang
Abstract The vehicle pass-by noise regulation will change in the near future and noise limits will be lowered significantly. This evolution will require improvement of engine's sound radiation. On the other hand, under the current pressure for fuel economy, future engines will be more and more lightened, and this will have negative impact on engine's sound emission. Therefore, the requirements related to the new pass-by noise regulation should be taken into account in the design of new powertrains, and in some cases, innovative solutions must be developed in order to improve the level of noise of the engine while reducing the masse of the engine. One effective way is to optimize the design of some key engine parts, such as crankshaft and engine bottom structure. Original approaches had been conducted and showed how much these engine parts can affect powertrain radiated noise, and in addition to find a quantitative relationship between crankshaft stiffness and powertrain radiated noise.
Technical Paper
2014-06-06
Jayant Hemachandra Bhangale, Ashish Manohar Mahalle
Presently, most of the companies have combination of process and product layout. Cellular manufacturing is a place where company has established one or more manufacturing cells. Due to competition, Automobile industries are changing existing plant layout to “Cellular Layout” in which manufacturing process is carried out by proper arrangement of machines. This research paper aims at the optimization of cellular manufacturing layout using: cell formation stage, cell layout stage. In the first stage, a heuristic based upon the material flow is developed, which allows the machines to be clustered more naturally. In the second stage, a genetic algorithm is used to optimize the machine layout within each cell, in which a previously defined material handling system is provided. This representation allows the design of the layout and aisle-structure simultaneously, and can be converted into a string representation adaptable by a genetic algorithm for optimization. The number of aisles in the optimized aisle-structure is also minimized.
Technical Paper
2014-04-28
Rohitt Ravi, Sivasubramanian, Bade Simhachalam, Dhanooj Balakrishnan, Krishna Srinivas
Abstract Tubular stabilizer bar for commercial vehicle is developed using advanced high strength steel material. Tubular section is proposed to replace the existing solid section. The tubular design is validated by component simulation using ANSYS Software. The tubes are then manufactured of the required size. The bend tool is designed to suit the size of the profile stabilizer bar and the prototypes are made using the tube bending machine. The strength of the tubular stabilizer is increased by using robotic induction hardening system. The tubular stabilizer bar is tested for fatigue load using Instron actuators. Higher weight reduction is achieved by replacing the existing solid stabilizer bar with the tubular stabilizer bar.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Parul Goyal, Feng Liang, Olof Oberg
Abstract The aim of the paper is to describe how Volvo Construction Equipment uses a virtual product development process to analyze potential risks, find root causes and optimize future product development. A model based method is used to analyze a potential risk in the design of Wheel Loader transmissions. The risk was recognized from failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), and a simulation model using AMESim modeling tool was developed to analyze the behavior of the new design. Together with test rig result, it is proved that the model based method gives a considerably accurate prediction of the system behavior. By using the model based approach, lead time for development process is reduced and important feedbacks from simulation model are obtained on early stage of the development. This paper further presents the use of the simulation model as a tool to predict the potential risks in the extreme operating conditions, which are difficult to test on the vehicle test bench.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Bert Bras, Andrew Carlile, Thomas Niemann, Sherry Mueller, Hyung Chul Kim, Timothy Wallington, Heidi McKenzie, Susan Rokosz
Abstract Tools are now publicly available that can potentially help a company assess the impact of its water use and risks in relation to their global operations and supply chains. In this paper we describe a comparative analysis of two publicly available tools, specifically the WWF/DEG Water Risk Filter and the WBCSD Global Water Tool that are used to measure the water impact and risk indicators for industrial facilities. By analyzing the risk assessments calculated by these tools for different scenarios that include varying facilities from different industries, one can better gauge the similarities and differences between these water strategy tools. Several scenarios were evaluated using the water tools, and the results are compared and contrasted. As will be shown, the results can vary significantly.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Vukica Jovanovic, Mileta Tomovic, Lisa Ncube, Ana Djuric, Petros Katsioloudis, Filip Cuckov
Abstract Many vehicle subsystems were in essence mechatronic (electro-mechanical) designs. Modern vehicles have various subsystems which provide mechanical movements which were controlled by electronic and electrical systems. At the same time, they collect and track data about system performance and environmental conditions for on board diagnostics. Advances in mechanical, electrical, and embedded systems were making vehicles more intelligent. However, these mechatronics systems face new challenges including design for compliance and ensuring that all product specifications are transferred into the company's product data management system. This is especially important for electrical and electronic subsystems since they have to comply with ongoing changes related to the management of hazardous substances. Since modern vehicles were being manufactured in a global environment through outsourcing of many different components, this poses challenges with material tracking. Environmental regulations were not only different from country to country but were also constantly changing making it essential that systems are flexible and customizable.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Robert Jesse Alley, Patrick Walsh, Nicole Lambiase, Brian Benoy, Kristen De La Rosa, Douglas Nelson, Shawn Midlam-Mohler, Jerry Ku, Brian Fabien
Abstract EcoCAR 2: Plugging in to the Future (EcoCAR) is North America's premier collegiate automotive engineering competition, challenging students with systems-level advanced powertrain design and integration. The three-year Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition (AVTC) series is organized by Argonne National Laboratory, headline sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and General Motors (GM), and sponsored by more than 30 industry and government leaders. Fifteen university teams from across North America are challenged to reduce the environmental impact of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu by redesigning the vehicle powertrain without compromising performance, safety, or consumer acceptability. During the three-year program, EcoCAR teams follow a real-world Vehicle Development Process (VDP) modeled after GM's own VDP. The EcoCAR 2 VDP serves as a roadmap for the engineering process of designing, building and refining advanced technology vehicles. During the first and second years of EcoCAR 2, teams executed an Energy Storage System (ESS) design, integration and commissioning process.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Trevor Crain, Trevor Fayer, Brian Fabien, Per Reinhall
Abstract This paper details the development process and model architecture used in the University of Washington's EcoCAR 2 hybrid supervisory controller. The EcoCAR 2 project challenges 15 universities across North America to create a hybrid vehicle that most effectively minimizes emissions and fuel consumption while still maintaining consumer acceptability. The supervisory controller for the University of Washington was designed to distribute torque to the various electric and combustion drive systems on a parallel though the road plug-in hybrid electric vehicle using Simulink and Stateflow. The graphical interface of Simulink offers some distinct advantages over text-based programming languages. However, there are also significant challenges posed by the software, particularly when several controls engineers are working in parallel on a large model with some type of version control. In order to address some of these challenges, it is necessary to structure the model so that different areas of the program are properly partitioned to avoid instances of conflicting changes from different developers.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Brian Harries, Townsend Hyatt, Kenneth Leslie, Brandon Smith, Marc Compere
Abstract This paper describes the interdisciplinary architecture selection study conducted by Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (ERAU) to determine the Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) architecture for its entry into EcoCAR2: Plugging In To The Future. This study includes a fuel, component, and architecture comparison to determine the most viable strategy to convert the competition vehicle, a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu, into a strong PHEV. Performance, energy, emissions, and consumer acceptability goals were established and summarized in the Vehicle Technical Specifications (VTS). Drive cycle simulations were used to create vehicle and component requirements for achieving the VTS targets. Three candidate architectures were then evaluated and compared for energy consumption, well to wheel (WTW) emissions, WTW petroleum energy usage, performance, packaging, and consumer acceptability. The architectures compared were a front wheel drive Series PHEV, a series-parallel through the road PHEV, and pre-transmission PHEV.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 10740