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Viewing 1 to 30 of 10841
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2294
Kodali Ajay Krishna, Pankaj Bhardwaj, Sanjeevgouda Patil, Mansinh Kumbhar
One of the primary excitation sources in a passenger car comes from the powertrain [1]. Refinement of powertrain induced noise is one of the major tasks during a full vehicle NVH refinement. For better fuel efficiency and emission norms, vehicle manufacturers need to focus drastically on reducing the weight and also at the same time achieving defined NVH targets. Due to ever increasing demand for reducing the development cycle of the design, most critical decisions have to be made at the concept stage of the powertrain design itself. Combustion excitation forces and powertrain radiated noise are the most important design factors along with the thermal, durability, and strength requirements that must be evaluated during concept stage and also during other stages of the development process. Solution time for calculating the radiated noise using the existing acoustic solvers is very high and requires very expensive resources (software and hardware).
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2253
Kimitoshi Tsuji, Katsuhiko Yamamoto
It is important for vehicle concept planning to estimate fuel economy and the influence of vehicle vibration in advance, on virtual engine specifications and a virtual vehicle frame. In this paper, I will show the power plant model with electrical starter, battery and alternator that can predict transient torque and combustion heat results. Also vibration result with the power plant model connected to vehicle inertia model will be shown. The power plant was 1.3L 4cyl NA. The discussed vehicle was small size and 1300kg. The power plant model was realized by energy based model using VHDL-AMS. Here, VHDL-AMS is modelling language stored in IEC international standard (IEC61691-6) and can realize multi physics on 1D simulation. The modeling language supports electrical, magnetic, thermal, mechanical, fluidic and compressive fluidic domain. The model was created in house by fully VHDL-AMS and validated on ANSYS SIMPLORER.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2105
Darren Glenn Jackson
Aircraft icing has been a focus of the aviation industry for many years. While regulations existed for the certification of aircraft and engine ice protection systems (IPS), no FAA or EASA regulations pertaining to certification of ice detection systems existed for much of this time. Interim policy on ice detection systems has been issued through the form of AC 20-73A as well as FAA Issue Papers and EASA Certification Review Items to deal mainly with Primary Ice Detection Systems. A few years ago, the FAA released an update to 14 CFR 25.1419 through Amendment 25-129 which provided the framework for the usage of ice detection systems on aircraft. As a result of the ATR-72 crash in Roselawn, Indiana due to Supercooled Large Droplets (SLD) along with the Air France Flight 447 accident and numerous engine flame-outs due to ice crystals, both the FAA and EASA have developed new regulations to address these concerns.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2111
Marie-Laure Toulouse, Richard Lewis
Abstract The intent of this paper is to provide a general overview of the main engineering and test activities conducted in order to support A350XWB Ice and Rain Protection Systems certification. Several means of compliance have been used to demonstrate compliance with applicable Certification Basis (CS 25 at Amendment 8 + CS 25.795 at Amendment 9, FAR 25 up to Amendment 129) and Environmental protection requirements. The EASA Type Certificate for the A350XWB was received the 30th September 2014 after 7 years of development and verification that the design performs as required, with five A350XWB test aircraft accumulating more than 2600 flight test hours and over 600 flights. The flight tests were performed in dry air and measured natural icing conditions to demonstrate the performance of all ice and rain protection systems and to support the compliance demonstration with CS 25.1419 and CS25.21g.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2343
Jian Pan, Yuksel Gur
OEMs are racing to develop light weight vehicles as government regulations now mandate automakers to nearly double the average fuel economy of new cars and trucks by 2025. Light weight materials such as aluminum, magnesium and carbon fiber composites are being used as structural panels in vehicle body. The reduction in weight in structural panels increases noise transmission into passenger compartment. This poses a great challenge in sound package development since simply increasing weight in sound package components to reduce interior noise is no longer an option. This paper discusses weight saving approaches to reduce noise sources, noise transmission paths, and transmitted noise into the passenger. Light weight sound package materials are introduced to treat and reduced airborne noise transmission into multi-material light weight body structure.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2288
Abdelkrim Zouani, Joseph Stout, Salah Hanim, Changshen Gan, Gabriela Dziubinschi, William Baldwin, Zhi Fu
A new turbocharged 60◦ 2.7L V6 gasoline engine has been developed by Ford Motor Company for both the pickup truck and car applications. This engine was code named “Nano” due to its compact size and features a CGI cylinder block, an Aluminum ladder, an integrated exhaust manifold and twin turbochargers. The goal of this engine is to deliver 120HP/L, ULEV70 emission, fuel efficiency improvements and leadership level NVH. This paper describes the upfront design and optimization process used for the NVH development of this engine; it will discuss the critical NVH design features and the final results relative to the benchmarks.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2298
Stephen Chittick, Mark Swindell, Samir Raorane
As part of the long-term business strategy Jaguar Land Rover (JLR) has designed and developed a new family of advanced, highly efficient engines for future models. The all-new Ingenium family of inline 4 cylinder engines will increase JLR's capability to offer high performance engines with class-leading levels of refinement, whilst ensuring continued significant reductions in vehicle emissions. This paper details the NVH development of the lead engine, a 2.0 litre common rail turbo diesel. The task from the outset of this new programme was to reduce the mass of the engine by 21.5kg, whilst also improving the structural attenuation by 5 dB in comparison to the outgoing engine. Improving the structural attenuation by 5 dB was not only a key enabler in reducing combustion noise, but also helped to achieve a certified CO2 performance of 99 g/km in the all-new Jaguar XE model, by allowing more scope for increasing cylinder pressure forcing without compromising NVH.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1101
Jun Hakamagi, Tetsuya Kono, Ryoji Habuchi, Naoki Nishimura, Masahiro Tawara, Naoki Tamura
Abstract In response to increasing demands for measures to conserve the global environment and the introduction of more stringent CO2 emissions regulations around the world, the automotive industry is placing greater focus on reducing levels of CO2 through the development of fuel-efficient technologies. With the aim of improving fuel economy, a new continuously variable transmission (CVT) has been developed for 2.0-liter class vehicles. This new CVT features various technologies for improving fuel economy including a coaxial 2-discharge port oil pump system, wider ratio coverage, low-viscosity CVT fluid, and a flex start system. This CVT is also compatible with a stop and start (S&S) system that reduces fuel consumption by shutting off the engine while the vehicle is stopped. In addition, the development of the CVT improves driveability by setting both the driving force and engine speed independently.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1091
Fumikazu Maruyama, Moichio Kojima, Tomoyuki Kanda
Abstract A new CVT that is lighter in weight and more highly efficient than the previous CVT for use in compact vehicles has been developed and used in the 2014 model year FIT. The allowable torque capacity was expanded to that of the 1.8-L engine class, making this CVT usable in a greater number of vehicle models. The ratio coverage was also expanded and the transfer efficiency was increased to enhance fuel economy and drivability. Integration of hydraulic control system functional parts and reduction in the number of case component parts were carried out as structural modifications. Pulley side pressures were also reduced by the use of new CVT fluid so that the pulley could be made more compact and lighter in weight. Enhancements were made in CVT shift control, providing more acceleration considered from the driver's acceleration demand and more linearity between vehicle speed and engine speed than in previous models.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1235
Kevin L. Snyder, Jerry Ku
Abstract The Wayne State University student team reengineered a mid-sized sedan into a functional plug-in hybrid electric vehicle as participants in the EcoCAR 2 competition sponsored by the US Department of Energy and managed by Argonne National Laboratory. The competition goals included reducing petroleum usage, emissions, and energy consumption through implementing advanced vehicle technologies. During the competition, the team did plug-in charging of the 19 kWh high voltage traction battery, drove in pure electric mode (engine off) until the battery was depleted, then switched to hybrid mode and continued driving by using E85 from the fuel tank. The pure electric mode vehicle driving range was 48 km [30 miles] while pulling an emissions instrumented test trailer and projected to be 58 km [36 miles] without the test trailer load for the competition's city/highway blend drive cycle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1229
Katherine Bovee, Amanda Hyde, Margaret Yatsko, Matthew Yard, Matthew Organiscak, Bharatkumar Hegde, Jason Ward, Andrew Garcia, Shawn Midlam-Mohler, Giorgio Rizzoni
Abstract The EcoCAR 2: Plugging into the Future team at The Ohio State University is designing a Parallel-Series Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle capable of 44 miles of all-electric range. The vehicle features an 18.9-kWh lithium-ion battery pack with range extending operation in both series and parallel modes. This is made possible by a 1.8-L ethanol (E85) engine and 6-speed automated manual transmission. This vehicle is designed to drastically reduce fuel consumption, with a utility factor weighted fuel economy of 50 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (mpgge), while meeting Tier II Bin 5 emissions standards. This paper details three years of modeling and simulation development for the OSU EcoCAR 2 vehicle. Included in this paper are the processes for developing simulation platform and model requirements, plant model and soft ECU development, test development and validation, automated regression testing, and controls and calibration optimization.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1228
Zhuoran Zhang, Miriam Di Russo, Xianfeng Yan, Ahmed I. Uddin, Dhanya Sankaran, Jerry C. Ku
Abstract This paper presents the work performed by the Wayne State University (WSU) EcoCAR 3 student design competition team in its preparation for the hybrid electric vehicle architecture selection process. This process is recognized as one of the most pivotal steps in the EcoCAR 3 competition. With a key lesson learned from participation in EcoCAR 2 on “truly learning how to learn,” the team held additional training sessions on architecture selection tools and exercises with the goal of improving both fundamental and procedural skills. The work conducted represents a combination of the architecture feasibility study and final selection process in terms of content and procedure, respectively. At the end of this study the team was able to identify four potentially viable hybrid powertrain architectures, and thoroughly analyze the performance and packaging feasibility of various component options.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1390
Venk Kandadai, Helen Loeb, Guyrandy Jean-Gilles, Catherine McDonald, Andrew Winston, Thomas Seacrist, Flaura Winston
Abstract Driving simulators offer a safe alternative to on-road driving for the evaluation of driving performance. Standardized procedures for providing individualized feedback on driving performance are not readily available. The aim of this paper is to describe a methodology for developing standardized procedures that provide individualized feedback (“LiveMetrics”) from a simulated driving assessment used to measure driving performance. A preliminary evaluation is presented to test the performance of the LiveMetrics methodology. Three key performance indicators are used to evaluate the performance and utility of the method in the context of the preliminary evaluation. The results from the preliminary evaluation suggest abilities to customize reporting features for feedback and integrate these into existing driver training and education programs.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1685
Omar Abu Mohareb, Phan-Lam Huynh, A. Al-Janabi, Michael Grimm, Hans-Christian Reuss
Abstract This paper addresses the performance and potential of using electric vehicles in the Gulf Arab states. Based on a survey executed in Salalah, Oman, a representative test driving cycle has been set up. This cycle is the first of its kind for this region, where it is driven with a vehicle provided with special measurement equipment to log important values, e.g. vehicle's speed and position, temperatures and solar irradiance. More than 40 test drives are performed to obtain a representative driver profile. The driving cycle and driver profile are used in a simulation model which is capable of simulating the energy consumption for internal combustion engine or electric motor propulsion systems. The simulation model which contains detailed models for the driver, driving cycle, vehicle components and its dynamics is validated and used to compare the consumed energy for the two different propulsion systems.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0178
James Price
Abstract AUTOSAR 4.x is being deployed by many of the world's top automotive OEMs. It has also seen increased adoption in regions outside of Europe. OEMs exert significant effort in the design, configuration, integration, and final build of AUTOSAR-based systems. This presentation gives an overview on the main advantages and critical gaps of adopting AUTOSAR to E/E design automation, including the digital interaction between Tier 1 suppliers and OEMs. This paper also discusses how the Electronics Architecture and Software Technology Architecture Description Language, or EAST-ADL, complements some of the weaknesses found in the current AUTOSAR release.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0247
Sonakshi Sharma, Shubhranshu Garg, Vipul Kumar, Sudhir Kashinath Gupte
Abstract There are variety of motors and generators/alternators being manufactured internationally, for variety of applications. It is a difficult task for the user to identify and select the type of motor /generator/alternator for a specific use, by the designer and ultimately the user is totally unaware of what is bought and why. There is a need to designate the motors and generators. So that by interpretation of the identification nomenclature of the motor or generator, its type can be judged. Whether it is a series motor, an induction motor etc, in case of motors. This will eventually make it easy for the manufacturer, the buyer and the consumer to identify the motor or generator type. So a universally accepted and followed identification nomenclature is required to be developed which will henceforth make dealing in motors and generators simpler for all. It will prove to be useful during troubleshooting.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0259
Tyler Zellmer, Julio Rodriguez, John R. Wagner, Kim Alexander, Philip Pidgeon
Abstract According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), motor collisions account for nearly 2.4 million injuries and 37 thousand fatalities each year in the United States. A great deal of research has been done in the area of vehicular safety, but very little has been completed to ensure licensed drivers are properly trained. Given the inherent risks in driving itself, the test for licensure should be uniform and consistent. To address this issue, an inexpensive, portable data acquisition and analysis system has been developed for the evaluation of driver performance. A study was performed to evaluate the system, and each participant was given a normalized driver rating. The average driver rating was μ=55.6, with a standard deviation of σ=12.3. All but 3 drivers fell into the so-called “Target Zone”, defined by a Driver Rating of μ± 1σ.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0325
Alberto Boretti
Abstract The paper discusses the benefits of a four stroke engine having one intake and one exhaust rotary valve. The rotary valve has a speed of rotation half the crankshaft and defines an open passage that may permit up to extremely sharp opening or closing and very large gas exchange areas. This design also permits central direct injection and ignition by spark or jets. The dual rotary valve design is applied to a naturally aspirated V-four engine of 1000cc displacement, gasoline, methane or hydrogen fuelled with central direct injection and spark ignition. The engine is modeled by using a 1D engine & gas dynamics simulation software package to assess the potentials of the solution. The novelty in the proposed dual rotary valve system is the combustion chamber of good shape and high compression ratio with central direct injector and spark plug or jet ignition, coupled to the large gas exchange areas of the rotary system.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0427
Zhigang Wei, Limin Luo, Shengbin Lin
Fatigue testing and related fatigue life assessment are essential parts of the design and validation processes of vehicle components and systems. Fatigue bench test is one of the most important testing methods for durability and reliability assessment, and its primary function is to construct design curves based on a certain amount of repeated tests, with which recommendations on product design can be advised. How to increase the accuracy of predictions from test results, the associated life assessment, and to reduce the cost through reducing test sample size is an active and continuous effort. In this paper the current engineering practices on constructing design curves for fatigue test data are reviewed first.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0464
Christian-Andreas Schumann, Eric Forkel, Thomas Klein, Dieter Gerlach, Egon Mueller
Abstract Total quality is becoming increasingly important for competitiveness. In order to achieve high quality, the requirements must be continuously compared with the results achieved in the process. This is done by means of measurement parameters and comparative values. The acquisition of the data requires appropriate measurement methods. The measurement methods and procedures have to be constantly developed in order to measure more precisely and to generate an even higher quality. Thus, the achieved product quality can be determined absolutely and relatively. If deviations from the planned quality parameters occur, the operator will be able to intervene immediately. The presented procedure is one of the noncontact (optical) measurement methods using CMMs, 3D scanners and 3D cameras. It is a combination of stereo photography and photogrammetry.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0459
Vesna Savic, Louis Hector, Hesham Ezzat, Anil Sachdev, James Quinn, Ronald Krupitzer, Xin Sun
Abstract This paper presents an overview of a four-year project focused on development of an integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) toolset for third generation advanced high-strength steels (3GAHSS). Following a brief look at ICME as an emerging discipline within the Materials Genome Initiative, technical tasks in the ICME project will be discussed. Specific aims of the individual tasks are multi-scale, microstructure-based material model development using state-of-the-art computational and experimental techniques, forming, toolset assembly, design optimization, integration and technical cost modeling. The integrated approach is initially illustrated using a 980MPa grade transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel, subject to a two-step quenching and partitioning (Q&P) heat treatment, as an example.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0446
Ronald Lannan
Abstract Use of Model-Based Design (MBD) processes for embedded controls software development has been purported for nearly the last decade to result in cost, quality, and delivery improvements. Initially the business case for MBD was rather vague and qualitative in nature, but more data is now becoming available to support the premise for this development methodology. Many times the implementation of MBD in an organization is bundled with other software process improvements such as CMMI or industry safety standards compliance, so trying to unbundle the contributions from MBD has been problematic. This paper addresses the dominant factors for MBD cost savings and the business benefits that have been realized by companies in various industries engaged in MBD development. It also summarizes some key management best practices and success factors that have helped organizations achieve success in MBD deployment.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0447
Venkatesh Agaram, Julian Venegas
Abstract System dynamics modeling of complex processes such as product development, manufacturing, and service, is an efficient approach for assessing value potential of different business transformation alternatives at small and large enterprises. Process elements such as generation of concepts, detailed designs, pilot level plant trials, etc. can be modeled including first-pass work, testing and review, rework identification and defect fixing, along with release readiness, staffing, schedule pressures, overtime and many other business metrics. Enterprise level processes, with their complex logic loops, can be represented as a system of coupled nonlinear differential equations, whose solutions can reveal the intricate underlying dynamics. Design of experiments, performed on the system dynamics models representing the business processes, are an inexpensive way of gaining insights into the impact of interactions between the numerous process control variables.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0477
Sun Qi, Zhang Wen, Wan Liangyu, Wang Xiaochuan
Abstract The vehicle dimension parameters of the domestic passenger car in current Chinese market were analyzed. Combined with the human body golden ratio, a probability and statistics method was used to propose an intrinsic link between vehicle dimension and platform dimension, an intrinsic link between the dimensions of a vehicle. The proportion of coordination in different styles of models was analyzed also. A reference method was provided for the subsequent development models to define the dimension of the vehicle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0293
Yaamini Devi Loganathan
Abstract Indian automobile production increased at a CAGR of 12.2% over FY05-FY13, with a decline in Commercial Vehicle (CV) growth rate during FY09 and FY13. Globally, automotive industry suffered a decline in FY09 due to the global financial crisis and again on a decline in FY12 due to the European sovereign debt crisis. Apart from the global events, there are various internal risks the Indian OEMs need to consider: 1) regulatory risk due to excise duty hikes, decontrol of fuel pricing, etc., 2) market risks due to currency, inflation, interest rates, material cost, 3) industry risks due to increased competition, price war, etc. In this scenario, Indian Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) need to constantly recalibrate their strategies to the changing market dynamics and associated risks. A research on megatrends affecting the Indian CV industry has identified more focus on Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) as one of the megatrend.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0130
Julio Rodriguez, Ken Rogich, Philip Pidgeon, Kim Alexander, John R. Wagner
Abstract Driving skills and driving experience develop differently between a civilian and a military service member. Since 2000, the Department of Defense reports that two-thirds of non-related to war fatalities among active duty service members were due to transportation-related incidents. In addition, vehicle crashes are the leading non-related to war cause of both fatalities and serious injuries among active duty Marines. A pilot safe driving program for Marines was jointly developed by the Richard Petty Driving Experience and Clemson University Automotive Safety Research Institute. The pilot program includes four modules based on leading causes of vehicle crashes, and uses classroom and behind the wheel components to improve and reinforce safe driving skills and knowledge. The assessment results of this pilot program conducted with 192 Marines in September 2011 at Camp LeJeune, NC are presented and discussed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0137
Ying Fan
Abstract Accurate risk prioritizing is directly related to the effectiveness of risk management. To overcome the shortage of the single numerical evaluation value, aiming at improving the accuracy of risk factors, a new risk priority method was proposed based on geometric characteristics of triangular fuzzy number and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). This method was established on the basis of the fuzzy description of risk factors from experts, after the risk evaluation system was established. Then the fuzzy description of risk was processed with AHP, and fuzzy weights of risk factors were obtained and calculated it by using the geometric characteristics of triangular fuzzy number. Finally, the detailed ranking of risk factors by severity, probability and detection of risk was obtained. The risk priority of forklift system was processed to analyze the feasibility of this method.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0144
Diljith Muthuvana, Renuka prasad
Abstract System Engineering is a broad concept that can be applied to any business case to help transform the engineering and the organizational needs into understandable, unambiguous, achievable tasks with a fixed time-line. In today's dynamics of the demanding business needs it has become inevitable to think for solutions that guarantee faster delivery while maintaining the quality standards. Traditional processes tend to fall back when implemented to satisfy the challenges faced by engineers in real world while achieving the business need. Many processes have evolved based on the lessons learnt while organization strives towards continuous improvement and adhering to quality standards. Agile, Lean, Kanban are few proven set of principles and practices that has helped to deliver expected results.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0157
M Abu Anas Shuvom, M Zahurul Haq
Abstract As combustion can vary widely between engine cycles if left uncontrolled, strict and robust control is required to meet optimum performance at different operating conditions. In this research, intelligent control techniques implemented on a Gasoline Direct Compression Injection (GDCI/GDI) engine. A research four cylinder 2.0 L GDI engine modeled with optimal control hardware that is frequently called as the conceptual Cybernetic intelligent GDI or ‘iGDI’ engine. The engine features Free Valve Actuation (FVA) hardware and precision fuel injector connected directly to the engine cylinder that found assistive for control flexibility by technical assessments. Then a mechatronic neural control approach is proposed and discussed with adaptive control techniques. Adaptive and predictive neural network control architectures developed for two distinct plant operation modes.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0167
Amrut A. Patki
Abstract Feature Addition or Enhancement is a necessary fragment of product development. Feature Addition or Enhancement is a result of one of the following: scope addition to new product development or customer requirement on current products. When it comes to Scope Addition, most of the times, first phase design and engineering will have been completed. Feature Addition or Enhancement because of scope addition is done to improve quality, cost or marketability. Current or future customer request for a feature addition or enhancement to meet their needs leads to customer requirement Feature Addition or Enhancement. Most of the times, vehicle has already been launched and design is frozen. In both the cases, design and engineering is challenged by Time, Effort and Cost. Model Based Design approach helps save some time for implementation. It also helps to improve required effort and reduces the cost of the feature by optimization.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 10841