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Viewing 1 to 30 of 10735
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Jeffrey Blair, Glenn Bower
Operation of snowmobiles in national parks is restricted to vehicles meeting the Best Available Technology standard for exhaust and noise emissions as established by the National Parks Service. An engine exceeding these standards while operating on a blend of gasoline and bio-isobutanol has been developed based on a production 4 stroke snowmobile engine. Miller cycle operation was achieved via late intake valve closing and turbocharging. The production Rotax ACE 600cc 2 cylinder engine was modeled using Ricardo Wave. After this model was validated with physical testing, different valve lift profiles were evaluated for brake specific fuel consumption and brake power. The results from this analysis were used to determine the cam profile for Miller cycle operation. This was done to reduce part load pumping losses and increase engine efficiency while maintaining production power density. A catalytic converter was added to reduce exhaust gas emissions, as measured by the EPA 40 CFR Part 1051 5-mode emissions test cycle.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Claudio Annicchiarico, Renzo Capitani
In a Formula SAE, as for almost all racecars, suppressing or limiting the differential action of the differential mechanism is the technique mostly adopted to improve the traction exiting the high lateral acceleration corners. The devices carrying out this function are usually called LSD, “Limited Slip Differentials”, which unbalance the traction force distribution, generating as a secondary effect a yaw torque acting on the vehicle. If the differential action is electronically controlled, this yaw torque can be used as a torque vectoring technique to affect the attitude of car. The yaw torque introduced by an electronically controlled LSD (also called SAD, “Semi-Active Differential”) could suddenly change from oversteering (i.e. pro-yaw) to understeering (i.e. anti-yaw), depending on the riding conditions. Therefore, controlling the vehicle attitude with a SAD could be quite tricky, and its effectiveness could be low if compared to the common torque vectoring systems, which usually act on the brake system of the car.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
R. Pradeepak, Mihir Bhambri
Motor scooters are popular in most parts of the world, especially in countries with local manufacturers. Parking, storage, and traffic issues in crowded cities, along with the easy driving position makes them a popular mode of transportation. Motor scooters are the segment of 2 wheelers which is driven by the entire family with ease unlike motorcycles which is a male dominated segment. Due to the importance that the scooters hold in the present time, it has become very important to manufacture stable, light weight yet robust scooters. For the best product in the market, testing is given a great importance in automotive manufacturing companies. Virtual testing has been the latest development in terms of testing a vehicle during the design stage itself. Multi Body Dynamics approach is used to study - 1) the articulation of various sub-assemblies and 2) the static & dynamic loads generated at various attachment points of the scooter. Integration of sub-assemblies into a final product creates a minimal scope of modification of the location of different components.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Chris D. Monaco, Chris Golecki, Benjamin Sattler, Daniel C. Haworth, Jeffrey S. Mayer, Gary Neal
As one of the fifteen universities in North America taking part in the EcoCAR 2: Plugging into the Future competition, The Pennsylvania State University Advanced Vehicle Team (PSUAVT) designed and implemented a series plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) that reduces fuel consumption and emissions while maintaining high consumer acceptability and safety standards. This architecture allows the vehicle to operate as a pure electric vehicle until the Energy Storage System (ESS) State of Charge (SOC) is depleted. The Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) then supplements the battery to extend range beyond that of a purely electric vehicle. General Motors (GM) donated a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu for PSUAVT to use as the platform to implement the PSUAVT-selected series PHEV design. A 90 kW electric traction motor, a 16.2 kW-hr high capacity lithium-ion battery pack, and Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) are now integrated into the vehicle. The APU is a 750cc, two-cylinder engine running on an 85% ethanol/15% gasoline (E85) mixture coupled to an electric generator.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Thomas Bradley, Benjamin Geller, Jake Bucher, Shawn Salisbury
EcoCAR 2 is the premiere North American collegiate automotive competition that challenges 15 North American universities to redesign a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu to decrease the environmental impact of the Malibu while maintaining its performance, safety, and consumer appeal. The EcoCAR 2 project is a three year competition headline sponsored by General Motors and U.S. Department of Energy. In Year 1 of the competition, extensive modeling guided the Colorado State University (CSU) Vehicle Innovation Team (VIT) to choose an all-electric vehicle powertrain architecture with range extending hydrogen fuel cells, to be called the Malibu H2eV. During this year, the CSU VIT followed the EcoCAR 2 Vehicle Design Process (VDP) to develop the H2eV’s electric and hydrogen powertrain, energy storage system (ESS), control systems, and auxiliary systems. From the design developed in Year 1 of the EcoCAR 2 competition, a Malibu donated by General Motors was converted into a concept validating prototype during Year 2.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
P. Christopher Manning, Eduardo D. Marquez, Leonard Figueroa, Douglas J. Nelson, Eli Hampton White, Lucas Wayne Shoults
The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team (HEVT) of Virginia Tech is ready to compete in the Year 3 Final Competition for EcoCAR 2: Plugging into the Future. The team is confident in the reliability of their vehicle, and expects to finish among the top schools at Final Competition. During Year 3, the team refined the vehicle while following the EcoCAR 2 Vehicle Development Process (VDP). Many refinements came about in Year 3 such as the implementation of a new rear subframe, the safety analysis of the high voltage (HV) bus, and the integration of Charge Sustaining (CS) control code. HEVT’s vehicle architecture is an E85 Series-Parallel Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV), which has many strengths and weaknesses. The primary strength is the pure EV mode and Series mode, which extend the range of the vehicle and reduce Petroleum Energy Usage (PEU) and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. A primary weakness is its complexity, which made it difficult for the team to truly reap the benefits of the added components to the vehicle which are utilized in Parallel mode.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Trevor Crain, Michael Ryan Mallory, Megan Cawley, Brian Fabien, Per Reinhall
This paper details the control system development process for the University of Washington (UW) EcoCAR 2 team over the three years of the competition. Particular emphasis is placed upon the control system development and validation process executed during Year 3 of the competition in an effort to meet Vehicle Technical Specifications (VTS) established and refined by the team. The EcoCAR 2 competition challenges 15 universities across North America to reduce the environmental impact of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu without compromising consumer acceptability. The project takes place over a three year design cycle, where teams select a hybrid architecture and fuel choice before defining a set of VTS goals for the vehicle. These VTS are selected based on the desired static and dynamic performance targets to balance fuel consumption and emissions with consumer acceptability requirements. The UW team selected a Parallel through the Road hybrid architecture due to its combination of performance capabilities, high power path efficiency, and reliability due to separated electric and biodiesel powertrains.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Di Zhu, Ewan Pritchard
EcoCAR 2: Plugging in to the Future is a three-year collegiate engineering competition established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and General Motors (GM). North Carolina State University is designing a Series Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) on a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu vehicle platform. The designed vehicle has a pure electric range of 55 miles and an overall range of 235 miles with a range extension system. The vehicle is designed to reduce fuel consumption and gas emission while maintaining consumer acceptability in the areas of performance, utility, and safety. This reports details the vehicle development process with an emphasis on control system development and refinement. Advanced manufacturing, modeling, and simulation have been used to ensure a safe and functional vehicle at the upcoming year 3 final competition.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Marc Auger, Larry Plourde, Melissa Trumbore, Terry Manuel
Design of body structures for commercial vehicles differs significantly from automotive due to government, design, usage requirements. Specifically the design of heavy truck doors differ as they are not required to meet side impact requirements due to their height off the ground as compared to automobiles. However, heavy truck doors are subjected to higher loads, longer life and less damage from events. Past aluminum designs relied either on bent extrusions around the periphery of the door or multiple steel and/or aluminum reinforcements joined to the inner in order to provide the necessary structure. Doors using aluminum extrusions for the peripheries were limited to two dimensional bending for the extrusions resulting in a planar door with limited styling features an opportunity for aerodynamic improvements. Doors with stamped reinforcements and door mounted mirrors require joining the inner and outer structure at the lower mirror mount forcing the use of a division bar to split the glass that impedes vision and drives cost for the extra parts.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Xinyu Ge, Jonathan Jackson
Cost reduction in automotive industry becomes a widely-adopted operational strategy not only for Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) that take cost leader generic corporation strategy, but also for many OMEs that take differentiation generic corporation strategy. Since differentiation generic strategy requires an organization to provide a product or service above the industry average level, a premium is typically included in the tag price for those products or services. Cost reduction measures could increase risks for the organizations that pursue differentiation strategy. Although manufacturers in automotive industry dramatically improved production efficiency in past ten years, they are still facing up with the pressure of cost control. The big challenge in the cost control for automakers and suppliers is increasing prices of raw materials, energy and labor costs. These costs construct constrains for the traditional economic expansion model. Lean manufacturing and other traditional Six Sigma processes have been widely utilized to reduce waste and improve efficiency further in the automotive industry.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Venkatesan C, DeepaLakshmi R
The automotive industry is constantly looking for new alternate material and cost is one of the major driving factors for selecting the right material. ABT is a safety critical part and care to be taken while selecting the appropriate material. Polyamide 12(PA12) is the commonly available material which is currently used for ABT applications. Availability and cost factor is always a major concern for commercial vehicle industries. This paper presents the development of an alternative material which has superior heat resistance. Thermoplastic copolyester (TEEE) materials were tried in place Polyamide 12 for many good reasons. The newly developed material has better elastic memory and improved resistance to battery acid, paints and solvents. It doesn’t require plasticizer for extrusion process because of which it has got excellent long term flexibility and superior kink resistance over a period of time. Also it has got better heat ageing properties and higher burst pressure at elevated temperature.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Rostislav Sirotkin, Galina Susova, Gennadii Shcherbakov
Abstract Within the Russian aviation industry the necessary level of reliability risks related to the failures of aircraft mechanical parts and systems vital to the safety of flight is assured via the system of activities aimed at influencing the parameters of critical parts (CP). The goal of the system is to provide a relationship between activities aimed at prevention of dangerous failures at all phases of airplane life cycle. The system operation is regulated by the normative documents and by controlling their observance. Normative documents containing requirements and recommendations were developed about 15 years ago based on the industry experience and traditions and taking into account the requirements of AS9100 series of international standards [2] wherever possible. The documents were developed taking into account typical safety management errors outlined in [1]. Requirements specifying the necessity of CP-related activities are specified in the national standards concerning the organization of quality management system (QMS) in the aviation industry as well as programs of safety, reliability and maintainability activities.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Manxue Lu
Abstract This article attempts to provide a big picture of systems engineering in both philosophy and engineering perspectives, discusses current status and issues, trends of systems engineering development, future directions and challenges, followed by certain examples.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Jace Allen
Abstract In the last few years, we have seen a tremendous increase in the rise in product complexity due to advances in technology and aircraft system functionality enhancement. The Model-based Design (MBD) process has helped manage the complexity of these systems while making product development faster by bringing more effective tools and methods to the entire process. Developing software using MBD has required extensive, sophisticated tool-chains that allow for efficient rapid controls prototyping, automatic code generation, and advanced validation and verification techniques using model-in-the-loop (MIL), software-in-the-loop (SIL), and hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) for both component testing and integration testing. However, the MBD process leads to generation of large volumes of data artifacts and work-products throughout the V-Cycle. The various components of these environments, from models to parameters to tests, can be inundating, and variants and versions of these artifacts lead to even larger amounts of data.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Matthieu Hutchison, Grégoire Lenoble, Umberto Badiali, Yannick Sommerer, Olivier Verseux, Eric Desmet
An Airbus methodology for the assessment of accurate fuel pressure surge at early program stages in the complete aircraft and engine environment based on joint collaboration with LMS Engineering is presented. The aim is to comfort the prediction of the fuel pressure spike generated by an engine shutdown in order to avoid late airframe fuel system redesign and secure the aircraft entry-into-service.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Aurelie Beaugency, Marc Gatti, Didier Regis
Abstract Since 2000, avionics is facing several changes, mostly driven by technological improvements in the electronics industry and innovation requirements from aircraft manufacturers. First, it has progressively lost its technological leadership over innovation processes. Second, the explosion of the electronics consumer industry has contributed to shorten even more its technology life cycles, and promoted the use of COTS. Third, the increasing complexity of avionics systems, which integrate more and more functions, have encouraged new players to enter the market. The aim of this article is to analyze how technological changes can affect the competitiveness of avionics firms. We refer to criticality levels as a determinant of the market competitiveness. Certification processes and costs could stop new comers to bring innovations from the consumer electronics industry and protects traditional players. The study will compare three avionics systems regarding their patent dynamics since 1980: flight controls, Integrated Modular avionics and Head-Up Displays.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Louis Columbus
Aerospace suppliers face the daunting task of constantly improving time-to-market, reducing cost of quality and turning compliance into a competitive advantage. Managing to these constraints while staying profitable is a challenge faced by the entire aerospace supply chain face today. The intent of this presentation is to share five lessons learned on how aerospace suppliers can optimize for these three constraints while growing their businesses. The first is electronically enabling traceability both within a multi-tier supply chains and throughout suppliers. Automating traceability at the shop floor improves quality management and accelerates compliance. Specific methodologies and metrics used to accomplish this will be provided. Second, lessons learned from implementing Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES) showing how shop floor visibility has a direct effect on supplier performance is illustrated with case studies and metrics. Third, lessons learned in making compliance pay by benchmarking performance to AS9100C, ISO9001, and ITAR standards is provided.
Technical Paper
2014-06-30
Gilles Nghiem, Shanjin Wang
Abstract The vehicle pass-by noise regulation will change in the near future and noise limits will be lowered significantly. This evolution will require improvement of engine's sound radiation. On the other hand, under the current pressure for fuel economy, future engines will be more and more lightened, and this will have negative impact on engine's sound emission. Therefore, the requirements related to the new pass-by noise regulation should be taken into account in the design of new powertrains, and in some cases, innovative solutions must be developed in order to improve the level of noise of the engine while reducing the masse of the engine. One effective way is to optimize the design of some key engine parts, such as crankshaft and engine bottom structure. Original approaches had been conducted and showed how much these engine parts can affect powertrain radiated noise, and in addition to find a quantitative relationship between crankshaft stiffness and powertrain radiated noise.
Technical Paper
2014-04-28
Rohitt Ravi, Sivasubramanian, Bade Simhachalam, Dhanooj Balakrishnan, Krishna Srinivas
Abstract Tubular stabilizer bar for commercial vehicle is developed using advanced high strength steel material. Tubular section is proposed to replace the existing solid section. The tubular design is validated by component simulation using ANSYS Software. The tubes are then manufactured of the required size. The bend tool is designed to suit the size of the profile stabilizer bar and the prototypes are made using the tube bending machine. The strength of the tubular stabilizer is increased by using robotic induction hardening system. The tubular stabilizer bar is tested for fatigue load using Instron actuators. Higher weight reduction is achieved by replacing the existing solid stabilizer bar with the tubular stabilizer bar.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Kyoung-Pyo Ha
Abstract Hyundai Motor Group launched a Continuously Variable Valve Lift (CVVL) engine in 2012. The engine is equipped with HMG's unique CVVL mechanism and is characterized by low fuel consumption, high performance and its responsiveness. The CVVL mechanism is based on a six-linkage mechanism and has advantages of compactness and durability. The engine is a 4 cylinder In-Line, 2.0L gasoline engine and is designed for a mid-sized passenger car. The engine increases fuel efficiency by 7.7% and the peak engine power by 4.2%. One of the most challenging issues in producing a CVVL engine is the valve lift deviations throughout the engine cylinders. The valve cap shim and set screw were designed to adjust the valve lift deviations. Cap shim thickness is chosen by measuring the valve top height, and shoe lift of the cam carrier assembly. The set screw is an auxiliary device to adjust the valve lift deviation. Present study developed a diagnostic system for the valve lift deviations that is applicable to the assembly line of the CVVL engine plant.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Soovadeep Bakshi, Parveen Dhillon, Teja Maruvada
This paper presents the method of designing an optimized light weight, cost effective planetary gearbox for a Formula Student vehicle. The gearbox has a high speed functioning capability, in addition to the compact size and light weight. The iterative optimization procedure used provides a technique for selecting the best possible configuration of the gearbox. Conventional gearboxes used for this purpose are generally two step reduction gearboxes, which are bulkier in terms of weight and volume. Also, a review of the existing market reveals that the planetary gearboxes manufactured in India are not capable of handling high speeds, thus rendering them futile for racing applications. The target reduction ratio for the gearbox is a fixed parameter. The method involves design and optimization of the gear-train with the calculated ratio. A detailed algorithm has been used, which involves developing a mathematically modelled code for deciding gear characteristics, physical modelling using CAD, and structural testing of the same through simulation, with repeated iterations with a target to reduce both weight and volume.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Parul Goyal, Feng Liang, Olof Oberg
Abstract The aim of the paper is to describe how Volvo Construction Equipment uses a virtual product development process to analyze potential risks, find root causes and optimize future product development. A model based method is used to analyze a potential risk in the design of Wheel Loader transmissions. The risk was recognized from failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), and a simulation model using AMESim modeling tool was developed to analyze the behavior of the new design. Together with test rig result, it is proved that the model based method gives a considerably accurate prediction of the system behavior. By using the model based approach, lead time for development process is reduced and important feedbacks from simulation model are obtained on early stage of the development. This paper further presents the use of the simulation model as a tool to predict the potential risks in the extreme operating conditions, which are difficult to test on the vehicle test bench.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Bert Bras, Andrew Carlile, Thomas Niemann, Sherry Mueller, Hyung Chul Kim, Timothy Wallington, Heidi McKenzie, Susan Rokosz
Abstract Tools are now publicly available that can potentially help a company assess the impact of its water use and risks in relation to their global operations and supply chains. In this paper we describe a comparative analysis of two publicly available tools, specifically the WWF/DEG Water Risk Filter and the WBCSD Global Water Tool that are used to measure the water impact and risk indicators for industrial facilities. By analyzing the risk assessments calculated by these tools for different scenarios that include varying facilities from different industries, one can better gauge the similarities and differences between these water strategy tools. Several scenarios were evaluated using the water tools, and the results are compared and contrasted. As will be shown, the results can vary significantly.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Vukica Jovanovic, Mileta Tomovic, Lisa Ncube, Ana Djuric, Petros Katsioloudis, Filip Cuckov
Abstract Many vehicle subsystems were in essence mechatronic (electro-mechanical) designs. Modern vehicles have various subsystems which provide mechanical movements which were controlled by electronic and electrical systems. At the same time, they collect and track data about system performance and environmental conditions for on board diagnostics. Advances in mechanical, electrical, and embedded systems were making vehicles more intelligent. However, these mechatronics systems face new challenges including design for compliance and ensuring that all product specifications are transferred into the company's product data management system. This is especially important for electrical and electronic subsystems since they have to comply with ongoing changes related to the management of hazardous substances. Since modern vehicles were being manufactured in a global environment through outsourcing of many different components, this poses challenges with material tracking. Environmental regulations were not only different from country to country but were also constantly changing making it essential that systems are flexible and customizable.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Robert Jesse Alley, Patrick Walsh, Nicole Lambiase, Brian Benoy, Kristen De La Rosa, Douglas Nelson, Shawn Midlam-Mohler, Jerry Ku, Brian Fabien
Abstract EcoCAR 2: Plugging in to the Future (EcoCAR) is North America's premier collegiate automotive engineering competition, challenging students with systems-level advanced powertrain design and integration. The three-year Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition (AVTC) series is organized by Argonne National Laboratory, headline sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and General Motors (GM), and sponsored by more than 30 industry and government leaders. Fifteen university teams from across North America are challenged to reduce the environmental impact of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu by redesigning the vehicle powertrain without compromising performance, safety, or consumer acceptability. During the three-year program, EcoCAR teams follow a real-world Vehicle Development Process (VDP) modeled after GM's own VDP. The EcoCAR 2 VDP serves as a roadmap for the engineering process of designing, building and refining advanced technology vehicles. During the first and second years of EcoCAR 2, teams executed an Energy Storage System (ESS) design, integration and commissioning process.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Trevor Crain, Trevor Fayer, Brian Fabien, Per Reinhall
Abstract This paper details the development process and model architecture used in the University of Washington's EcoCAR 2 hybrid supervisory controller. The EcoCAR 2 project challenges 15 universities across North America to create a hybrid vehicle that most effectively minimizes emissions and fuel consumption while still maintaining consumer acceptability. The supervisory controller for the University of Washington was designed to distribute torque to the various electric and combustion drive systems on a parallel though the road plug-in hybrid electric vehicle using Simulink and Stateflow. The graphical interface of Simulink offers some distinct advantages over text-based programming languages. However, there are also significant challenges posed by the software, particularly when several controls engineers are working in parallel on a large model with some type of version control. In order to address some of these challenges, it is necessary to structure the model so that different areas of the program are properly partitioned to avoid instances of conflicting changes from different developers.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Brian Harries, Townsend Hyatt, Kenneth Leslie, Brandon Smith, Marc Compere
Abstract This paper describes the interdisciplinary architecture selection study conducted by Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (ERAU) to determine the Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) architecture for its entry into EcoCAR2: Plugging In To The Future. This study includes a fuel, component, and architecture comparison to determine the most viable strategy to convert the competition vehicle, a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu, into a strong PHEV. Performance, energy, emissions, and consumer acceptability goals were established and summarized in the Vehicle Technical Specifications (VTS). Drive cycle simulations were used to create vehicle and component requirements for achieving the VTS targets. Three candidate architectures were then evaluated and compared for energy consumption, well to wheel (WTW) emissions, WTW petroleum energy usage, performance, packaging, and consumer acceptability. The architectures compared were a front wheel drive Series PHEV, a series-parallel through the road PHEV, and pre-transmission PHEV.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Idan Kovent, Jerry Ku
Abstract The Wayne State University EcoCAR2 team provided its members with Modeling and Simulation training course for the second summer of the competition. EcoCAR2 is a three-year Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition (AVTC) sponsored by General Motors and the Department of Energy. The course lasted three months and included 45 hours of formal lectures and class hands-on work and an estimated one hundred and fifty hours in home assignments that directly contributed to the team's deliverables. The course described here is unique. The design and class examples were extracted from an in-house complete vehicle simulation and control code to ensure hands-on, interactive training based on real-world problems. The course investigated the physics behind every major powertrain component of a hybrid electric vehicle and the different ways to model the components into a full vehicle simulation. Different engineering approaches were discussed to improve performance and fuel consumption while addressing the different tradeoffs.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Richard A. Scholer, Hank McGlynn
Abstract This paper is the fifth in the series of documents designed to identify the progress on the SAE Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) communication task force that follows 2010-01-0837, 2011-01-0866, 2012-01-1036 and 2013-01-1475. The primary focus of this paper is to discuss the most recent revision of J2847/1 [1], which deals with Smart Charging applications, plus the initial release of J2847/3 [2], which can be thought of as dealing with “Smart Discharging” applications. Both documents are based on the use of the Smart Energy Profile 2.0 (SEP2) Application Protocol Standard (V1.0) which was completed by the ZigBee Alliance in April 2013. The standard was then accepted by the IEEE and subsequently released as IEEE 2030.5 [3]. SEP2 started with a Marketing Requirements Document (MRD) that J2836/1™ [4]expanded for the automotive Use Cases for Smart Charging, The MRD was then used to generate the SEP2 Technical Requirements Document (TRD) that set the automotive requirements in J2931/1 [5].
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Ken Archibald, William Schnaidt, Rick Wallace, Kyle Archibald
Abstract SAE J2562 defines the background, apparatus and the directions for modifying the Scaled Base Load Sequence for a given a wheel rated load for a wheel design. This practice has been conducted on multiple wheel designs and over one hundred wheel specimens. All of the wheels were tested to fracture. Concurrently, some of the wheel designs were found to be unserviceable in prior or subsequent proving grounds on-vehicle testing. The remainder of the wheel designs have sufficient fatigue strength to sustain the intended service for the life of the vehicle. This is termed serviceable. Using the empirical data with industry accepted statistics a minimum requirement can be projected, below which a wheel design will likely have samples unserviceable in its intended service. The projections of serviceability result in a recommendation of a minimum cycle requirement for SAE J2562 Ballasted Passenger Vehicle Load Sequence.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 10735