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2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8055
Rohit Saha, Long-Kung Hwang, Mahesh Madurai Kumar, Yunfeng Zhao PhD, Chen Yu, Bob Ransijn
Wheel-loaders’ sub-systems like engine, driveline, hydraulics, cooling and mechanism are becoming increasingly more integrated and complex. This is mostly caused increased demand of energy efficiency, electronic controls and performance requirements from competitors and customers. In order to understand the complex sub-system interactions it requires engineers to use a common simulation platform which captures the multi-domain nature of a wheel-loader. Engineers from different sub-system groups can use such model to validate the full system requirements. Wheel-loader sub-system are multi-domain (controls, mechanism, hydraulics, thermal etc.) in nature. This paper describes the process of the development of a Multi-domain simulation of a wheel-loader. Working hydraulics, kinematics of working tool, driveline, engine and cooling system are modelled in LMS Amesim. Contacts between boom/bucket and bucket/ground are defined to constrain the movement of the bucket and boom.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8062
Jham Kunwar Tikoliya, Ram Krishna Kumar Singh, Ramesh Kumar
The existing head cover is having external oil and blow by separation unit, which is not only costlier but also complex and leads to increase the overall height of engine which was difficult to integrate in new variants of vehicles. Existing head cover sealing system was also not foolproof and with slight variation in part dimensions, there were high chances of leakage. A new head cover has been designed with internal baffle type oil and blow by separation system to ensure efficient separation and proper packaging of the system in new varients.The new system has been finalized after 26 DOEs of different wire mesh sizes and different baffle plate size and positions. The final system has two bowl shaped separation unit with wire mesh with two cup type oil separation passages and one baffle plate for separating blow by. The system works on condensation and gravity method. The blow by is guided through a well-defined passage integrated in aluminum cylinder head cover itself.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-1984
Michael Krenz
The cost of going from point A to point B is really all about how efficiently we convert stored energy into the motion desired to move us to the desired end point in a given amount of time and within the constraints of infrastructure. While it may be theoretically possible to use a rocket powered car to go from New York to Los Angeles, it is not practical to consider doing so given the available infrastructure. Several constraints will bound this discussion. First, the desired travel distance is approximately 4,000nm within 1 business day (~8 hours). Second, this distance may be either over land or water. Third, existing infrastructure is assumed without significant changes. And fourth, the individual cost of the trip shall not exceed 75% of the cost of a comparable trip today (that is, a 25% cost reduction is required). While mature (e.g.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2024
Allan J. Volponi, Liang Tang
Engine module performance trending and engine system anomaly detection and identification is a core capability for any engine Condition Based Maintenance system. The genesis of on-condition monitoring can be traced back nearly 4 decades, and a methodology known as Gas Path Analysis (GPA) has played a pivotal role in its evolution. Gas Path Analysis is a general methodology that assesses and quantifies changes in the underlying performance of the major modules of the engine (compressors and turbines) which directly affect performance changes of interest such as fuel consumption, power availability, compressor surge margins, etc. It utilizes instrumentation such as spool speeds, inter-stage temperatures and pressures and power output, much of which is already available on the propulsion system for control purposes.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2027
Brett Robbins, Kevin J. Yost, Jon Zumberge
The next-generation of more electric aircraft (MEA) will rely heavily on multiple generators and energy storage to service a mix of constant power and resistive loads. This increase in system complexity, coupled with strict physical and performance requirements, necessitates the need for model-based system engineering (MBSE). As such, the validation of the component models is critical for the development process of MBSE. While it is not uncommon to develop/test component models with uncertainty studies combined with educated assumptions for the model parameters, the experimental hardware tests provide an important and effective means to validate the component models and quantify the variability of the model parameters. The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Intelligent Power program has procured numerous 40 kVA, 400 Hz, brushless synchronous generators at various stages of their life cycle.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2005
Jia Zeng, Zhenjie Shu, Shan Zhu
Interest in civil unmanned aircraft system (UAS) is growing worldwide, as it has the potential to create new applications and markets in civil domains. As the related technologies, including micro-electronics, composite structure, autonomous control, green energy, has been seen a rapid development, various types of UAS are constantly emerging following the expansion of functions and applications. Thus, there is a need for classified management supervision and certification for UAS. Considering the lacking of standardization for UAV category and classification, it is extremely urgent to raise a proper standard to classify and categorize UAS.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2020
Constanza Ahumada Sanhueza, Andrea Bristot, Shubham Kumar, Nicolas Schneider, Seamus Garvey, Herve Morvan
This paper proposes an integrated system’s approach towards design of some aero-engine subsystems - seals, bearing chamber, generator and power system. In a conventional design approach, the design of the overall system is typically broken-down into subsystems. Therefore, the focus is not on the mutual interaction between different components or subsystems, resulting in a lack of characterisation of the overall system performance at the design phase. A systems design approach adopts a much broader outlook, focusing on the overall optimization of the system performance. One of the principal contributors in the performance of an aircraft is the aero-engine. In particular, for a More Electric Aircraft, any abrupt changes to the electrical load from the power system can have an effect on the shaft dynamics, which in turn can affect the performance of air seals.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2017
Devesh Kumar, Konrad Juethner, Yves Fournier
The aero engine industry is experiencing both a design renaissance and an adherence to old values in recent years. Engine manufacturers have introduced remarkable next generation capabilities by achieving thermodynamic and mechanical efficiencies and exploring novel lightweighting concepts such as the open rotor configuration [1]. At the same time, the market adheres to 50+ year-old engine concepts that have proven extremely reliable and demands continuous adaption to new applications. In either domain, it is a common problem to keep engine simulation in step with changes to design, environmental conditions, and mission data – and this applied to both actual designs and those that belong to the hypothetical design space as explored in design of experiments (DOE). We present an effective simulation process and data management (SPDM) approach that hinges on a focus on components, their generalized connections and programmatic templating.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2052
Virgilio Valdivia-Guerrero, Ray Foley, Stefano Riverso, Parithi Govindaraju, Atiyah Elsheikh, Leonardo Mangeruca, Gilberto Burgio, Alberto Ferrari, Marcel Gottschall, Torsten Blochwitz, Serge Bloch, Danielle Taylor, Declan Hayes-McCoy, Andreas Himmler
This paper presents an overview of a project called “Modelling and Simulation Tools for Systems Integration on Aircraft (MISSION)”. This is a collaborative project being developed under the European Union Clean Sky 2 Program, a public-private partnership bringing together aeronautics industrial leaders and public research organizations based in Europe. The provision of integrated modelling, simulation, and optimization tools to effectively support all stages of aircraft design remains a critical challenge in the aerospace industry. In particular the high level of system integration that is characteristic of new aircraft designs is dramatically increasing the complexity of both design and verification. Simultaneously, the multiphysics interactions between structural, electrical, thermal, and hydraulic components have become more significant as the systems become increasingly interconnected.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2055
Koji Muraoka, Daisuke Hirabayashi, Masayuki Sato, Yoshihisa Aoki
We have been conducting a research on a future commercial tilt wing VTOL transport under JAXA(Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency)'s "Sky Frontier" Program aiming to develop technologies for aircraft innovation. The research focuses on the QTW (Quad Tilt Wing) civil VTOL transport, which features tandem tilt wings with propellers mounted at the mid-span of each wing. Unlike current and previous tail rotors and twin-engine tilt wings, the quad tilt wing configuration does not require a tail rotor or a main rotor mechanism and would have advantages in cruise performance and payload carrying performances over them. In our previous research, we had developed fundamental technologies of the QTW aircraft such as tandem tilt wing design procedure, flight mechanics modeling, transition flight controllers and so on.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1937
Taylor Erva, Adam Loukus, Luke Luskin
Aluminum metal matrix composite brake rotors with a selective ceramic function reinforcement gradient (FRG) have been developed for automotive applications. This paper will highlight the design, manufacturing, and testing of the rotors. Weight saving of an aluminum composite rotor in comparison to an industry standard cast iron rotor is 50-60%. With this material change comes design considerations to manage rotor temperature, rotor surface integrity, and friction. Manufacturing methods to meet these design constraints were needed to develop a viable high performance aluminum composite rotor. High pressure squeeze casting with soluble coring techniques were developed to incorporate the selective FRG MMC rotors. Dynamometer testing was performed, concentrating on brake friction and temperature to evaluate the macro and micro interfaces in the rotors.
2016-09-14
Technical Paper
2016-01-1872
Bin Wu, Xichan Zhu, Lin li
This paper aims to determine how vehicle driver steering behavior seen in the emergency lane change event. Through the emergency lane change cases extracted from the China naturalistic driving data, the driver’s steering characteristics can be obtained and analyzed. Then the driving steering behaviors divides into avoidance and stabilization steering phases, and the different steering characteristics were found. It’s shown that during the avoidance phase, the steering generally follow the bell-shaped profiles of steering angle rate, and a linear relationship was found between the maximum steering wheel rate and steering wheel angle, which indicates a constant movement time for the avoidance steering. However, during the stabilization phase, the steering angle rate can be described using two or more overlapping bell-shaped profiles, something which relates to the different steering strategies in the avoidance phase.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0883
Walter Mirabella, Francesco Avella, Marco Di Girolamo, Tim Abbott, Oliver Busch
Abstract A thorough bibliographic survey was carried out to collect literature-available information about blending octane numbers (BONs) of most widely used ethers by the refining industry (mainly MTBE and ETBE). The intention was to review the publicly reported BONs values, to suggest the most appropriate figures for future reference, while also understanding the causes of the differences. Summary tables feature all BON values, either explicitly reported in literature or calculated based on experimental results. Due to synergistic intermolecular interactions with hydrocarbons, BONs typically depend on base stock composition. The octane gain tends to grow as the paraffin content in the base stock increases. Moreover BONs tend to decrease as the octane numbers (ON) of the base stock increase.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1012
Seiji Furumata, Takashi Kakinuma, Hirokazu Tochiki
Abstract This paper introduces the newly developed super sports car engine mounted in the new model NSX. A super sports car engine was newly developed to satisfy the high power performance required by the body package. Higher power and compactness were simultaneously achieved by selecting an engine displacement of 3.5 L and by using a V6 layout and a turbocharger. This enabled to mount a power train that combines a hybrid motor with a newly developed transmission in the rear of the body. The lubrication system uses a dry sump system capable of maintaining reliable lubrication in all possible super sports car driving scenarios. The combustion system uses high tumble-flow ports, a direct injection and a port injection system that increase power performance and thermal efficiency, emission reduction. To support the increased heat load due to higher power, a 3-piece water jacket is used around the combustion chamber and the exhaust ports.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1017
Mitsutaka Jono, Masayuki Taguchi, Toshimitsu Shonohara, Shigeru Narihiro
Abstract It is important to take action regarding environmental issues on a global scale, and automakers are adding downsized turbocharged engines to their line-ups as a means of reducing CO2 emissions, particularly in Europe. Honda has recently announced a next-generation powertrain series that realizes a good balance between environmental performance and driving pleasure. As part of this series, the company has developed a downsized and turbocharged 2.0L gasoline direct injection engine. This is a high-powered sports car engine positioned in the European “hot hatch” category. The development balanced engine power with good environmental performance.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1180
Trevor Crain, Thomas Gorgia, R. Jesse Alley
Abstract EcoCAR is North America's premier collegiate automotive engineering competition, challenging students with systems-level advanced powertrain design and integration. The EcoCAR Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition series is organized by Argonne National Laboratory, headline sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and General Motors, and sponsored by more than 30 industry and government leaders. In the last competition series, EcoCAR 2, fifteen university teams from across North America were challenged to reduce the environmental impact of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu by redesigning the vehicle powertrain without compromising performance, safety, or consumer acceptability. This paper examines the results of the EcoCAR 2 competition’s emissions and energy consumption (E&EC) on-road test results for several prototype plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The official results for each vehicle are presented along with brief descriptions of the hybrid architectures.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1371
Satish Jaju, Pritesh Jain, Gopal Musale
Abstract The unit analysis methodology can be used for designing component or product in a product development process. This method may be used for designing the crush can, bumper beam, crush can long member, B-frame or A-pillar in frontal impact analysis. Unit assembly model technique can be effectively used in many CAE load cases to evaluate CAE simulations such as pedestrian impact analysis (ECE R78 / ENCAP), interior trim related head impact simulations (FMVSS201U), under run protection simulation for commercial vehicles (Front Underrun Protection Device ECE R93, Rear Underrun Protection Device ECE R58, Side Underrun Protection Device ECE R73), airbag deployment optimization etc. These CAE analyses correlate better with actual test. This paper gives idea about how the cost of product design can be reduced by using unit analysis. To reduce time of vehicle development such as cost of prototype, testing cost, optimization cost unit analysis is more economical.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1365
Siddharth Bhupendra Unadkat, Suhas Kangde, Mahalingesh Burkul, Mahesh Badireddy
Abstract The overall automotive industry is moving toward first time right test which in turn needs first time right analysis. This is due to the enormous pressure of cost, mass, time to market and availability of prototype vehicles for testing. Use of finite element methods enables to upfront predict the system behavior in operating conditions and evaluation of structural strength. In vehicle product development process, hood slam durability evaluation is one of the important tests for body closure structure. Current work showcases an effort made for developing virtual hood slam test. The virtual model consists of BIW, hood, hinge joint, interface like CRFM (cooling-radiator-fan module) and latch mechanism with spring preload. Analysis performed with LSDyna solver. An impact loading is applied by converting potential energy to kinetic energy, mimicking the hood dropping from a specified height on the hood latch.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1682
Pratap Dinkar Thorat, Shailesh Newase, Keyur Gupte, Pushkaraj Kaulgud
Abstract Electrical Power and Signal Distributions System in a vehicle is the most important among the Automotive Electrical and Electronic systems. In fact any electrical or electronic systems are realized and are physically formed by the Electrical Wiring Harness. This is a system in itself with the set of wires and connectors connecting various devices to feed the power and act as physical channels for signal transmission and serial data communication. Thus, the Electrical Wiring Harness becomes huge complicated systems in a vehicle. Because of the number of wires, cables and the specific connectivity requirement the design and development will become very difficult. Further, the complexity is manifold due to number of harnesses in a vehicle and different operating conditions in different zones of the vehicle. The design and development of an Electrical Wiring Harness involves primarily the design of the electrical circuit. This is based on the vehicle architecture.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1685
Sayaka Tamura, Tsutomu Yoshinari
Abstract A three-motor hybrid system suitable for a super sports car was developed. This system features high power, light weight and high response, and has high cooling performance for high-load operation such as circuit driving. The power plant drives the rear wheels using the combination of a midship-mounted V6 twin-turbo engine, the direct drive motor of a hybrid system mounted directly on the engine, and a 9-speed dual-clutch transmission (DCT). The front wheels are driven by a twin-motor unit (TMU), and the size and weight of the Intelligent Power Unit (IPU) that supplies electric power to the TMU has been reduced to enable mounting behind the seats inside the cabin. In addition, the IPU uses air-conditioner cooperative cooling to enhance the cooling performance. As a result, assist is performed even during high-load operation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1535
Linli Tian, Yunkai Gao
Abstract Based on equivalent static loads method (ESL), a nonlinear dynamic topology optimization is carried out to optimize an automotive body in white (BIW) subjected to representative legislative crash loads, including frontal impact, side barrier impact, roof crush and rear impact. To meet the crashworthiness performances, two evaluation indexes are defined to convert the practical engineering problems into mathematic optimization problems. The strain energy is treated as the stiffness evaluation index of the BIW and the relative displacement is employed as the compliance index of the components and parts.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1537
Anindya Deb, Gunti R. Srinivas, Clifford C. Chou
Abstract The present work is concerned with the objective of developing a process for practical multi-disciplinary design optimization (MDO). The main goal adopted here is to minimize the weight of a vehicle body structure meeting NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness), durability, and crash safety targets. Initially, for simplicity a square tube is taken for the study. The design variables considered in the study are width, thickness and yield strength of the tube. Using the Response Surface Method (RSM) and the Design Of Experiments (DOE) technique, second order polynomial response surfaces are generated for prediction of the structural performance parameters such as lowest modal frequency, fatigue life, and peak deceleration value. The optimum solution is then obtained by using traditional gradient-based search algorithm functionality “fmincon” in commercial Matlab package.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1573
Ken Archibald, Kyle Archibald, Donald Neubauer
Abstract This paper will document a rationale for wheel straightening based on the rise of declining roads, increased consumer preference for lower profile tires, unintended consequences of wheel customization and the reduction in energy consumption. A recommended patented procedure detailing how A356-T6 wheels can be straightened will be presented. To validate the recommended procedure a sample of wheels was uniformly deformed and straightened and subsequently tested per SAE J328 and SAE J175. Test results are provided that indicate straightened wheels should be fully serviceable in their intended service. A laboratory protocol to replicate the wheel flange cracks is described. The protocol is used to demonstrate that wheels without deformations do not result in flange cracks. Conversely wheels with deformations in excess of 1.5mm do result in cracks at less than 750,000 cycles.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1584
Kenichi Ando, Naoshi Kuratani, Hideo Fukuda
Abstract An aerodynamic styling evaluation system employed at an early automotive development stage was constructed. The system based on CFD consists of exterior model morphing, computational mesh generation, flow calculation and result analysis, and the process is automatically and successively executed by process automation software. Response surfaces and a parallel coordinates chart output by the system allow users to find a well-balanced exterior form, in terms of aerodynamics and exterior styling, in a wide design space which are often arduous to be obtained by a conventional CAE manner and scale model wind tunnel testing. The system was designed so that 5-parameter study is completed within approximately two days, and consequently, has been widely applied to actual exterior styling development. An application for a hatchback vehicle is also introduced as an actual example.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0005
Nick Smith
Abstract Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) [1, 2] has emerged as a solution to the extreme design challenges caused by automotive Electrical/Electronic (EE) complexity [3]. This paper explores how coherency in early design can be applied across the entire EE design cycle. Starting from a functional abstraction, we introduce a new lightweight solution to evaluate and guide optimized implementations integrating software, networks, devices, and connectivity. The pattern used for this and the data created can be directly driven into downstream, domain-specific design flows delivering vehicle lower costs, better design quality, and faster innovation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0003
Alberto Taraborrelli, Francesco Braghin
Abstract This paper reports the studies, design and developments of an electronic electro-actuated gearshifter installed on the DP7, which is Politecnico di Milano car that took part at Formula SAE 2015 competitions in Hockenheim and Varano dè Melegari. The original idea was born to replace the hydraulic gearshift system used until 2011 because of its high weight and cost. After many evaluations about the kind of technology to use, made by previous team members in the electronic department, the final project was a fully electric shifter. This system has proven its qualities among which are lightness and low cost.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0007
Gopal Athani, Kapil Dongare, Rajesh Balusu, Subhabrata Gupta, Srinivasa Raju Gavarraju
Abstract Micro Hybrid Systems are essentially first step towards the electrification of the powertrains. They are aimed at improving the fuel efficiency of the conventional gasoline and diesel power trains with conventional 12 V electrical system, and thus reduce the CO2 emissions as well. Various technologies like Engine Stop-Start, Intelligent Alternator Control, and Electrical Energy Management Systems are included in the bracket of micro hybrid systems. These system functions demand a totally different approach for managing the SLI battery, which is a total departure from the conventional approach. Particularly, the Alternator Shutdown function of Intelligent Alternator Control maintains a calibrated average level of State of Charge, which is typically around 80%, to ensure that the battery can accept more current, during the energy recuperation, which indirectly improves fuel economy.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0016
Jörg Schäuffele
Abstract The functions provided by the E/E system of modern vehicles can be assigned to the classical domains of powertrain, chassis, body and multimedia. Upcoming functions are forming new domains for advanced driver assistance and cloud integration. Therefore networking of functions is not limited to the vehicle but includes also the cloud. These trends imply major changes like the introduction of Ethernet as onboard networking technology or increasing safety and security needs. To design the best E/E architecture three groups of optimization targets are most relevant: Global vehicle targets, E/E targets derived from the implemented vehicle functions and product line targets for an E/E architecture. The PREEvision approach for E/E architecture design and optimization is a model based approach - inspired by the relevant and widely accepted automotive standards. Import and export filters allow the easy integration with PREEvision and complementation of existing tool chains.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0028
Ali Shahrokni, Peter Gergely, Jan Söderberg, Patrizio Pelliccione
Abstract In areas such as Active Safety, new technologies, designs (e.g. AUTOSAR) and methods are introduced at a rapid pace. To address the new demands, and also requirements on Functional Safety imposed by ISO 26262, the support for engineering methods, including tools and data management, needs to evolve as well. Generic and file-based data management tools, like spreadsheet tools, are popular in the industry due to their flexibility and legacy in the industry but provide poor control and traceability, while rigid and special-purpose tools provide structure and control of data but with limited evolvability. As organizations become agile, the need for flexible data management increases. Since products become more complex and developed in larger and distributed teams, the need for more unified, controlled, and consistent data increases.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0046
Markus Ernst, Mario Hirz, Jurgen Fabian
Abstract A steady increasing share and complexity of automotive software is a huge challenge for quality management during software development and in-use phases. In cases of faults occurring in customer’s use, warranty leads to product recalls which are typically associated with high costs. To avoid software faults efficiently, quality management and enhanced development processes have to be realized by the introduction of specific analysis methods and Key Process/Performance Indicators (KPIs) to enable objective quality evaluations as soon as possible during product development process. The paper introduces an application of specific analysis methods by using KPIs and discusses their potential for automotive software quality improvement. Target is to support quality evaluation and risk-analysis for the release process of automotive software.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 11008