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2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2886
Kebing Tang, Li He, Yao Zhao
The development of a new Dongfeng Heavy truck had very strict targets for fuel consumption. As the aerodynamic drag plays a crucial role for the fuel consumption, a low drag value had to be achieved. It was therefore essential to include evaluation and optimization of the aerodynamics in the development process. Because wind tunnel facilities were not available, the complete aerodynamics development was based on digital simulation. The major portion of the aerodynamic optimization was carried out during the styling phase where mirrors, sun visor, front bumper and aero devices were optimized for drag reduction. For optimizing corner vanes and mud guards, self-soiling from the wheel spray was included in the analysis. The aero results did also show that cooling air flow rates are sufficiently high to ensure proper cooling. During the detailed engineering phase an increase of the drag above the target required further optimization work to finally reach the target.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2844
Majeed Nader, John Liu
The EU emergency call (eCall) system is used as a vehicle emergency telematic system to reduce the fatalities and save more lives in vehicular incidents. We have designed and implemented the CRC module for the in-vehicle system (IVS) of the EU eCall in an FPGA. As the CRC is a crucial part of the system to detect bit errors during the transmission, this paper presents the developed CRC module. The system reads the 1120 serial input bits of the Minimum Set of Data (MSD), calculates the 28-bits of the CRC parity bits, and generates the MSD appended with CRC as the output signal that is consisting of 1148 serial bits. The system is designed in Verilog HDL, compiled, synthesized, and simulated for different MSDs. The results are shown and analyzed for varied applied MSDs. The flowchart of the implemented algorithm is illustrated and discussed. The system is tested and verified for different frequencies to the see range of the applicable frequencies of the design.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2860
Xinyu Ge, Jonathan Jackson
The application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in automotive industry can dramatically reshape the industry. In past decades, many Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) applied neural network and pattern recognition technologies to power train calibration, emission prediction and virtual sensor development. The AI application is mostly focused on reducing product development and validation cost. AI technologies in these applications demonstrate certain cost-saving benefits, but are far from disruptive effect. The disruptive impact can be realized when AI application finally bring cost-saving benefits directly to end users. For example, automation of vehicle or machine operation can dramatically improve the efficiency. However, there is still a gap between the current technologies and the one that can fully enable the vehicle or machine intelligence including reasoning, knowledge, planning and self-learning.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2863
Yogesh Sharma, Rahul Mehendiratta, Rishabh Raj Bhargava, Shubham Garg, Rohit Kumar Garg, Aditya Krishna, Ankit Goila, Aadityeshwar Saran Singh Deo
ABSTRACT
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2864
Xinyu Ge, Jarrett Corcoran, Paul Gamble
With stringent emission regulations, many subsystems that abate engine tailpipe-out emission become necessary part for engines. With the increased levels of complexity, end users also require increased level of quality for modern engines. Among the spectrum of quality control methodologies, one extreme example is focused on very components’ quality to ensure the accumulative deviation is within predetermined limits. These measures tighten the component tolerance during manufacturing process and typically results in increased cost. Another extreme example is on the other side of the methodologies spectrum. The methodology is to tailor the engine calibration solution to offset the manufacturing difference. Although the tailored engine calibration solution reduces manufacturing cost for components, it increases the calibration and validation cost for engines. Given the cost and time constraints, system integration plays an important role in engine development.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2865
Damodar Kulkarni, Pankaj Deore
Cost reduction and cost competitiveness has been emerged as a major strategic tool to an enterprise used to fight for survival as well as maintain sustainable growth. Maximization of value creation through simultaneously enriching the Planet, People and the Economy should be the key drivers for cost reduction strategy in the business. The main objective of this paper is to explain the Process & Principles of Cost Reduction in technology transfer to Low Cost emerging economies to achieve Sustainable cost reduction and creating a culture of cost consciousness throughout the organization. DivgiWarner has designed, developed and been practices the unique process of cost reduction through various tools as, 1. Value Analysis and Value Engineering 2. Cost reduction through productivity improvement 3. Supply Chain Management ( SCM) 4. Lean Manufacturing 5. Total Quality Management (TQM) 6. Control over fixed cost 7. Working capital and funds flow management 8. Inventory management 9.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2878
Peter Subke, Michael Eberl
SAE J1939 is the synonym for a CAN-based in-vehicle network for heavy-duty road-vehicles (trucks and buses) and non-road mobile machinery (NRMM). The SAE J1939 standards collection consists of 18 parts and 2 digital annexes. SAE J1939-21 (Data Link Layer) describes the data link layer using the CAN protocol with 29-bit identifiers, SAE J1939-73 (Application Layer – Diagnostics) includes the specification of diagnostic messages (DMs). The software components of external test equipment can be described by software interfaces (APIs). ISO 22900 (Modular Vehicle Communication Interface) contains the description of the D-Server that comes with the D-Server API for the diagnostic application and the D-PDU API for the connection to the in-vehicle network (e.g. CAN). ISO 22901-2 (D-PDU API) references SAE J1939-73 and SAE J1939-21 as “Truck and Bus CAN”. D-Server based external test equipment is powered by data which is described in ODX.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2580
David Lednicer
During the 1930s and 1940s, aircraft designers worked on developing novel design features. Some of these features worked and are commonplace today. Other features fell by the wayside and are forgotten. Examples include laminar flow wings, low-drag cooling systems, buried propulsion systems, turbocharging, jet engines, break-away wing tips, pressure cabins and swept wings. This paper will discuss how these features were included in the design of such aircraft as the P-51 Mustang, P-39 Airacobra, Messerschmitt Me 262 and Grumman F8F Bearcat. The development and applications of these features will be examined. Specific technical details of these applications will be included in this examination. For the design features that fell by the wayside, the reasons for this outcome will be discussed. In addition to the discussion of “lessons learned”, there will be discussion of “lessons forgotten”.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2445
Hartmut Hintze, Ralf God
The increasing functionality associated with the rising complexity of aircraft cabin systems which are used by cabin crew, passengers, maintenance staff and other stakeholders, requires a reconsideration of the methods for the development of aircraft cabin systems. This paper deals with a model-based security engineering approach based on the so called three-V-model [1] as an appropriate process model, which represents the governing system engineering process (SEP) associated with the safety engineering process (SafEP) and the security engineering process (SecEP). All three processes are pursued concurrently and are interacting reciprocally by working within the same system model on each development level. We describe in detail the involved model-based security engineering activities of the SecEP and the integration of the CORAS risk analysis method [2] in a consistent System Modeling Language (SysML) approach.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2469
Reece Clothier, Brendan Williams, Achim Washington
One on the primary hazards associated with the operation of Unmanned Aircraft (UA) is the controlled or uncontrolled impact of the UA with terrain or objects on the terrain (e.g., people or structures). National Aviation Authorities (NAAs) have the responsibility of ensuring that the risks associated with this hazard are managed to an acceptable level. The NAA can mandate a range of technical (e.g., design standards) and operational (e.g., restrictions on flight) regulatory requirements. However, work to develop these regulations for UA is ongoing. Underpinning this rule-making process is a safety case showing how the regulatory requirements put in place ensure that the UA operation is acceptably safe for the given application and environment.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2443
Nivedita Chanda
Aircrafts use Transponder for transmitting data to Air Traffic Control. Transponders automatically transmit a unique four-digit code when they receive a radio signal sent by radar. Code gives the plane's identity and radar stations establish speed and direction by monitoring successive transmissions. This data is then relayed to air traffic controllers. However, the aircraft mishaps have risen alarmingly in the past few decades resulting in unpredictable losses of human lives, nature, economically along with commotion of systems. This has necessitated active research work to fundamentally design better and effective systems. At present, there is no evident redundant system to transponder unlike in case of Power-Plants, three-fold reliable, safety cum redundant power supply system are present.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2581
Scott Eberhardt
In 1915 Anthony Fokker, using a 1913 patent of Franz Schneider, designed an interrupter gear for his Eindeckers (monoplanes), after the Germans captured Roland Garros and his bullet-deflector-equipped airplane. The otherwise inferior Eindecker E.III gained dominance in the skies for a period lasting from August 1915 to June 1916, a period known as the “Fokker Scourge.” A lasting consequence of this period was the rapid technological innovations that one sees throughout the war. This paper will focus on four areas where WWI aircraft innovations set the stage for the next quarter century of airplane development. Specifically, it will look at drag reduction, control surface design and handling, airfoil technology and the use of metal in aircraft construction. The discussion of drag reduction will illustrate the innovations of the British on external wire bracing drag, the French on cowl design and the Germans on cantilevered wings and induced drag.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2447
John Low
The development of the Electrical Wire Interconnection System, or EWIS, for today’s advanced aircraft is one of the most complicated engineering activities around. In addition to having to respond to very high rates of change during development, the aircraft are continually evolving in electronic and electrical content along the entire lifecycle. Relatively new mandates such as the CFR Part 25 Subpart H EWIS have put additional demands on aircraft OEMs and their key suppliers, forcing companies to reassess their design practices and methodologies. This paper will investigate how a systems engineering approach to the development of the electrical wiring systems can enable and facilitate a more efficient EWIS methodology.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2448
Steve Trythall
Meeting aerospace configuration control mandates involves a host of issues such as data access control, configuration context including effectivity and release management, just to name a few factors. Design tools must assist organizations and individual designers with this myriad of challenges instead of relying on the PLM environment to identify and sort out issues during data release. The recent advancements of the model-based development (MBD) process puts much more emphasis on the actual data instead of simply drawings. This paper explores how many leading aerospace OEMs are adopting new capabilities for the designers during the development process in an effort to mitigate errors related to data inconsistencies.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2439
Martin Hunter
It is generally accepted that the development of hardware and software for safety critical systems follow their own lifecycles as defined by standards such as RTCA DO254 and RTCA DO178C. What is less clear, is what should be done to ensure the system safety objectives are met when the software is installed in the electronic hardware. This paper seeks to discuss the activities that may be undertaken do demonstrate not only that the integration of the software and hardware "work" together, but they do so in a manner that meets the safety objectives in line with the guidance in SAE ARP4754A. According to ARP 4754A, hardware and software are different “items” developed according to their own requirements and standards, when two or more items are brought together, they are a system, which may be part of a larger system. Therefore system level considerations need to be applied from the beginning of the development program addressing the system safety and certification activities.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2401
Michael Schmidt, Philipp Nguyen, Mirko Hornung
The projected uptick in world passenger traffic challenges the involved stakeholder to optimise the current aviation system and to find new solutions being able to cope with this trend, since especially large hub airports are congested and operate at their capacity limit. Delays due to late arrival of aircraft or unreliable and inefficient ground operation processes would disrupt the airport operations tremendously. Various concepts improving the current turnaround processes have been presented thus far, whereby radical aircraft design changes have little chances for realization. Based on a clustering of aircraft interfaces, such as doors and services panels, for state-of-the-art passenger aircraft, concepts targeting to reduce the required resources and time are presented. By maintaining the established overall aircraft configuration, the concepts promote higher probability to become commercially available for aircraft manufactures and operators.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2438
Robert E. Voros
Aerospace Recommended Practice 4754 Revision A (ARP4754A), “Guidelines for Development of Civil Aircraft and Systems,” and ARP4761, “Guidelines and Methods for Conducting the Safety Assessment Process on Civil Airborne Systems and Equipment,” together describe a complex set of intertwining processes which comprehensively prioritize development activities for a product’s systems based on their safety criticality. These processes work at specific levels of detail (aircraft and system) and interact with a set of processes at lower levels of detail (item) defined by Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA) standards. The aircraft and system development process (ARP4754A) supplies functions, requirements, and architectural definitions to the system safety process (ARP4761), which in turn supplies Development Assurance Levels back to the development process and on to the RTCA processes.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2431
Robert E. Voros
Aerospace Recommended Practice 4754 Revision A (ARP4754A), “Guidelines for Development of Civil Aircraft and Systems,” is recognized through Advisory Circular 20-174 (AC 20-174) as a way (but not the only way) to provide development assurance for aircraft and systems to minimize the possibility of development errors. ARP4754A and its companion, Aerospace Information Report (AIR) 6110, “Contiguous Aircraft/System Development Process Example,” primarily describe development processes for an all new, complex and highly integrated aircraft without strong consideration for reused systems or simple systems. While ARP4754A section 5 mention reuse, similarity, and complexity, and section 6 is intended to cover modification programs, the descriptions in these sections can be unclear and inconsistent. The majority of aircraft projects are normally not completely new products nor are they entirely comprised of complex and highly-integrated systems.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2452
Vicki S. Johnson
The Systems Engineering (SE) “Vee” is generally recognized as one of the primary identifying features of systems engineering processes. While there are many specifications which include SE in their titles and show a version of the “Vee” in their process descriptions, there are other specifications which make no claim to be an SE standard but show a “Vee” describing the processes in the specification. There are also specifications which appear at first glance to be completely unrelated to SE but, perhaps, accidently, describe processes which are very much SE. This wide variety of documents leads to a question of the possibility of identifying the common core which composes SE (the soul of systems engineering)? And how would using that core make for more robust processes which could better meet the needs of systems today and into the future (e.g., Unmanned Aerial Vehicles or Multi-vehicle Space Transport Systems).
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2550
Kiran Thupakula
Methodologies for maximizing utilization of Test Lab Kiran Thupakula, Sensors and Integrated Systems UTC Aerospace Systems, Bangalore kiran.thupakula@utas.utc.com ABSTRACT In Aerospace Industry, the major challenge is to meet the safety and quality of subsystem / system elements to comply with the standards defined by regulatory authorities for product certification. Engineering test labs are created to provide such precision oriented test platforms ranging from component level to fully integrated test labs/test systems, standalone or distributed network. Even after massive initial capital investment and with the evolution of technologies followed by principles of practice in establishing test facilities, industry is facing open challenges in meeting the performance parameters like productivity, optimum usage, accessibility, monitoring and ease of maintenance to list a few. It’s very important to standardize the test facilities to optimize time to market and reduce the product cost.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2535
Steven Donald Ellersick, Bill Reisenauer, Mickey Jacobson, Newel Stephens
The past twenty years have seen tremendous change in the Avionics display and flight deck lighting due to the application of solid-state LED (light emitting diode) light sources and LCDs (liquid crystal displays). These advances significantly benefit the customer and pilot user when integrated correctly. This paper discusses recommended practice and guidance given in SAE ARP 4103 for modern Avionics flight deck lighting systems to satisfy the end user and obtain certification. SAE ARP 4103 Flight Deck Lighting for Commercial Transport Aircraft has recently been revised to keep up with the state of the art and add clarification where needed. ARP 4103 contains recommended Avionics flight deck lighting design and performance criteria to ensure prompt and accurate readability and visibility, color identification and discrimination of needed information under all expected ambient lighting and electrical power conditions.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2464
Anna Suñol Jiménez, Tao Yang, Dean Vucinic
Thrust vectoring is of significant interest in the aeronautical field due to a higher manoeuvrability if compared to classical control surfaces, as well as improving aircraft’s performance for take-off, landing and flight, and avoiding the drag increase due to extending the aircraft’s control surfaces. Moreover, it enables Short/Vertical Take-Off and Landing (S/VTOL). In this context, an attempt to design a radically new concept of thrust vectoring nozzle based on fluidic elements is in current development. This novel nozzle, called ACHEON (Aerial Coanda High Efficiency Orienting-jet Nozzle), is designed to provide directional control without the movement of mechanical parts, taking advantage of the geometry of the nozzle to divert the jet to the desired direction due to the Coanda effect. Its simple mechanism bases the jet deviation control on the interaction of two primarily jets of different velocities, where the one with higher velocity entrains the one with lower velocity.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2434
Tian Lirong, Mu Ming
Abstract: Chinese aviation industry is now making great efforts in developing civil aircraft, as a result, more opportunities for Chinese companies to be involved in these programs, but Chinese companies are lack of experience in this area, certification is one of the challenges for them,so they are expected to be more competitive in design and certification. ACTRI (Aeronautical Computing Technique Research Institute) is a airborne computer supplier in China, to be able to develop electronic equipment for civil aircraft, the company has being working on processes improvement including the system process based on ARP4754 since 2008. This paper describes the customized system process in Chinese context.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2444
Myron Hecht, Elisabeth Nguyen, Aaron Chuidian, Julia Pinchak, Emily Dimpfl
This paper describes a method for automated generation of Functional Hazard Assessments (FHAs) or Failure Modes and Effects Analyses from SysML models. Such analyses are identified in SAE ARP 4754A (“Guidelines for Development of Civil Aircraft and Systems “) and 4761 (“Guidelines and Methods for Conducting the Safety Assessment Process on Civil Airborne Systems and Equipment”). Ideally, they should be performed iteratively throughout the design process. However, because they are labor intensive and costly, they are generally performed only after the functional or detailed designs have been completed. If they could be integrated into a Model Based Systems Engineering process, significant safety and cost saving benefits could be achieved. The general approach is to create a system model that includes the following: 1. A block definition diagram (BDD) defining all of the system blocks used in the system 2.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2428
Richard Ambroise, Gabriel Godfrey
The smartphone in your pocket, the tablet you use to browse the web, the safety systems in your automobile: they’re all the beneficiaries of fast-evolving computer and electronic component technology. These components are lighter, hold more data, and can perform increasingly complex tasks. This electronic evolution has had an impact in the aviation industry as well. The electronic components used in today’s engines can do more than ever before, but the need to replace older components has introduced some added complexity. Until now. The problem is obsolescence. Driven by an ever-demanding consumer market, electrical components – including those used for aircraft engines – are evolving faster than ever. Engine components installed just a few years ago are no longer being made. This means engine manufacturers need to install new models when replacing those older models or when building new engines.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2446
Anwar ul Haque, Waqar Asrar, Erwin Sulaeman, Ashraf Omar, Jaffar Syed Mohamed Ali
The configuration design phase of a hybrid buoyant aircraft is quite complex due to the augmentation of aerostatic and aerodynamic lift. The first step in assessing the optimal configuration for such aircrafts is to approach the design in a number of different ways with different shapes of hull and diversed empennage arrangements. Concept selection methods like Pugh concept selection charts can assist to rank the population of different concepts of such aircrafts. In the present work, an effort was done to explore the potential usage of Pugh’s method in a comprehensive manner and to establish a basis for choosing a particular design concept. Driving factors of such design concepts were reviewed alongwith the selection of figure of merits, which were further evaluated by taking Megalifter as a reference with which all other configurations under consideration were compared.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2449
Solange Baena, Joseph K-W Lam, Craig Lawson
This paper focuses on the investigation of the nature, process and effects of ice accretion on different feed pump strainers upstream of the aircraft engine feed system. A suitable test rig was designed to circulate Jet A-1 containing water/ice contaminants at cold temperatures through the strainers. Following an extensive literature review, a number of screening tests were performed. These provided a strong base for an exhaustive study of fuel icing in the dynamic environment offered by the test rig. The effects of the rate of fuel cooling on the nature of ice were examined. The effects of temperature in the adhesion and cohesion properties of ice in a dynamic system, and the effects of contaminants in the yield, nature and porosity of ice generated in the fuel are also now better described. As expected, it was observed that the yield of ice generated on the mesh screen increased with the water concentration in the fuel.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2422
Michele Trancossi, Antonio Dumas, Mauro Madonia, Maharshi Subhash, Jose Pascoa, Shyam Das, Francesco Grimaccia, Chris Bingham, Tim Smith, Dean Vucinic, Anna Sunol
One of the best airplanes ever realized by the European Aircraft in-dustry was the Dornier Do 28D Skyservant, an extraordinary STOL light utility aircraft with the capability to carry up to 13 passengers. It has been a simple and rugged aircraft capable also of operating under arduous conditions and very easy and simple maintenance. The architecture of this airplane, which has operated actively for more than 20 years, is very interesting analyzing the implementation of a new propulsion system because of the unusual incorporation of two engines, as well as the two main landing gear shock struts of the faired main landing gear attached to short pylons on either side of the forward fuselage. This unconventional design allows an easy imple-mentation of different propulsion units, such as the history of differ-ent experimental versions allowed.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2511
Theodoros Grigoratos, Georgios Fontaras, Giorgio Martini, Cesare Pelleto
Gas operated Heavy Duty Vehicles (HDV) powered by Natural Gas (NG) are seen as a possible option for curbing CO2 emissions, fuel consumption and operating costs of goods transport. Initiatives have been adopted by various organizations worldwide in order to introduce NG fueled HDVs in their fleets. In this study, an advanced newly designed CNG prototype engine, which was developed in the framework of the FP7 research project “CO2 Reduction for long distance transport” (CO2RE), is benchmarked against its parent Euro V compliant CNG engine (reference) in terms of emissions and fuel consumption. The main technological innovation includes a new cylinder head equipped with a Variable Valve Actuation system designed to provide on the intake side a continuous fully flexible variation of the valve lift and timing. The newly developed engine was optimized for urban emission profiles and operation such as garbage collection purposes.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2343
Jian Pan, Yuksel Gur
Abstract OEMs are racing to develop lightweight vehicles as government regulations now mandate automakers to nearly double the average fuel economy of new cars and trucks by 2025. Lightweight materials such as aluminum, magnesium and carbon fiber composites are being used as structural members in vehicle body and suspension components. The reduction in weight in structural panels increases noise transmission into the passenger compartment. This poses a great challenge in vehicle sound package development since simply increasing weight in sound package components to reduce interior noise is no longer an option [1]. This paper discusses weight saving approaches to reduce noise level at the sources, noise transmission paths, and transmitted noise into the passenger compartment. Lightweight sound package materials are introduced to treat and reduce airborne noise transmission into multi-material lightweight body structure.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 10873