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2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9076
Ioannis Karakitsios, Evangelos Karfopoulos, Nikolay Madjarov, Aitor Bustillo, Marc Ponsar, Dionisio Del Pozo, Luca Marengo
Abstract The aim of this paper is to introduce a complete fast dynamic inductive charging infrastructure from the back-office system (EV management system) up to the Electric Vehicle (EV) (inductive power transfer module, positioning mechanism, electric vehicle modifications) and the EV user (User interface). Moreover, in order to assess the impact of the additional demand of inductive charging on the grid operation, an estimation of the 24-hour power profile of dynamic inductive charging is presented considering, apart from the road traffic, the probability of the need for fast charging, as well as the specifications of the proposed solution. In addition, an energy management system is presented enabling the management of the operation of the inductive charging infrastructure, the interaction with the EV users and the provision of demand response services to different stakeholders.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0201
Tejas Janardan Sarang, Amar Phatak, Jay Bendkhale
Due to rapidly changing trends in the market, automotive manufacturers are always struggling to release new vehicles with drastically reduced timelines. Therefore, it is very important to constantly optimize the development phases, starting from concept initiation to the final testing of production ready vehicle. The real world tests conducted on vehicles take huge amount of time, since these tests are carried out for large kilometers to periodically analyze tire wear, clutch wear, brake failure etc. Collecting large kilometers of CAN data is also tedious and time consuming due to various unwanted variables which add up during real world tests. In this paper, a technique known as Rescale Range Analysis is adapted to abridge the collection of kilometers data from testing by nearly ten times. This analysis estimates a Hurst coefficient to correlate the entire data with its divided parts. The division factor of the entire data is very crucial for the analysis.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1274
Jason M. Luk, Hyung Chul Kim, Robert De Kleine, Timothy J. Wallington, Heather L. MacLean
This study investigates the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of a set of vehicles using two real-world gliders (vehicles without powertrains or batteries); a steel-intensive 2013 Ford Fusion glider and a multi material lightweight vehicle (MMLV) glider that utilizes significantly more aluminum and carbon fiber. These gliders are used to develop lightweight and conventional models of internal combustion engine vehicles (ICV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), and battery electric vehicles (BEV). Our results show that the MMLV glider can reduce life cycle GHG emissions despite its use of lightweight materials, which can be carbon intensive to produce, because the glider enables a decrease in fuel (production and use) cycle emissions. However, the fuel savings, and thus life cycle GHG emission reductions, differ substantially depending on powertrain type. Compared to ICVs, the high efficiency of HEVs decreases the potential fuel savings.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1263
Dennis Kibalama, Andrew Huster, Arjun Khanna, Aditya Modak, Margaret Yatsko, Gregory Jankord, Shawn Midlam-Mohler
The Ohio State University EcoCAR 3 team is building a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) post-transmission parallel 2016 Chevrolet Camaro. With the end-goal of improving fuel economy and reducing tail pipe emissions, the Ohio State Camaro has been fitted with a 32 kW alternator-starter belt coupled to a 119 kW 2.0L GDI I4 engine that runs on 85% ethanol (E85). The Belted Alternator Starter (BAS), which aids engine start-stop operation, series mode, and torque assist, is powered by an 18.9 kWh Lithium Iron Phosphate energy storage system, and controlled by a DC-AC inverter/controller. This report details the modeling, calibration, testing, and validation work done by the Ohio State team to fast track development of the BAS system in Year 2 of the competition.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0632
Chen Yang, Haiyuan Cheng, Zizhu fan, Jiandong Yin, Yuan Shen
In recent years, more attention has been focused on environment pollution and energy source issues. As a result, increasingly stringent fuel consumption and emission legislations have been implemented all over the world. For automakers, enhancing engine’s efficiency as a must contributes to lower vehicle fuel consumption. To reach this goal, Geely auto started the development of a 3-cylinder 1.0L turbocharged direct injection (TGDI) gasoline engine to achieve a challenging fuel economy target while maintaining fun-to-drive and NVH performance. Demanding development targets for performance (specific torque 205Nm/L and specific power 100kW/L) and excellent part-load BSFC were defined, which lead to a major challenge for the design of engine systems, especially for combustion system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0200
Hongwei Zhang, Liangjin Gui, Zijie Fan
Nowadays, road test simulation on test rig is widely used in the car industry to shorten the development circles. However, there is still room for improvement of the time cost of current road simulation test. This paper described a new method of shortening the time of road test simulation on multi-axial test rig. In this paper, road load data of a 4x2 heavy truck axle have been collected from a proving ground road test, which include the forces and torques of wheels, strains on axles, three directions of accelerations on wheels and displacements between the frame and axle. The total channels reached 35 for each axle. Then the fatigue editing technique is applied to cut the small load to reduce the simulation test time initially. The edited road load data is reproduced on multi-axial test rig successfully.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0375
Ligong Pan, Seung Hyun Jung, Sushanth Ramavath, Mohamed El-Essawi, Randall Frank, Jiawei Qin, Ramarajan Ilankamban, Yuan Yao, Homa Torab, Yuzhao Song, Jim Alanoly
Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) has become an integral and essential part of vehicle development process with stringent safety and CAFE (Corporate Average Fuel Economy), performance and reliability requirements as well as reduced vehicle development time. Exponential increasing in CPU speed with advancement in the software technology like parallel computing, CAE process time has come down substantially over the years. However the pre-processing, in particular CAE model preparation has not advanced correspondingly and remains a bottleneck. Most of the time in model preparation is spent on meshing. Any reduction in mesh preparation would have substantial cycle time reduction in the CAE process. While Durability, NVH, and Crashworthiness are governed by same structural engineering principles, prevalent practice is to use different models for each attribute. Since all start with the same CAD data using common mesh for all these three attributes would reduce the resource requirements.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1275
David Hobbs, Charles Ossenkop, Andy Latham
Global sales of electric and hybrid vehicles continue to grow as emission legislation forces vehicle manufacturers to build cleaner vehicles, with some 8 million already in service. Hybrid and Electric vehicles contain some of the most complex systems ever used in the automotive field, sophisticated and unique electric hybrid systems are added to modern motor vehicles which re already quite complex. As these vehicles reach the end of their lives they will be processed by the global vehicle recycling industry and the high voltage components will be reused, recycled or re-purposed. This paper explores safe working practices for businesses involved in a global marketplace who are completing battery disabling, removal, disassembly, storage and shipping; includes the various technologies and safe working practices along with some of the legal restrictions on dismantling, storage and shipping of high voltage batteries around the world.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1029
Mitsuhiro Shibata, Masashi kawamata, Hirotaka Komatsu, Kazuki Maeyama, Masaru Asari, Naoki Hotta, Kazutaka Nakada, Hisashi Daicho
To comply with the environmental demands for CO2 reduction without compromising driving performance, a new 1.0L I3 turbocharged gasoline direct injection engine has been developed. This engine is the smallest product in the new Honda VTEC TURBO engine series, and it is intended to be used in small to medium-sized passenger car category vehicles, enhancing both fuel economy through downsizing, downspeeding and state-of-the-art friction reduction technologies, and also driving performance through turbocharging with an electrically controlled waste gate. This 1.0L I3 engine has many features in common with other VTEC TURBO engines such as the 1.5L I4 engine and 2.0L I4 engine, which have already been introduced on the market. Some of these are the rapid combustion concept realized by high tumble intake port design and the optimized combustion chamber configuration combined with a side mounted multi-holes direct injection system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1209
Zhichao Luo, Xuezhe Wei
Nowadays, wireless power transfer (WPT) gradually prevails and many researchers has devoted themselves to it because it is a safe, convenient and reliable way for recharging electric vehicles comparing to the conventional plug-in contact-based methods . Square coils are one of the most commonly used in WPT systems. However, there is few theoretical analysis of self- and mutual inductance of square coils between two magnetic shielding materials. In this paper, in order to study the spatial magnetic field distribution, the analytical model of n-turn square planar spiral coils between two semi-infinite multilayer media is developed based on the Maxwell equations and the Dual Fourier transformation. And then, by means of surface integrals, the self- and mutual inductance can be carried out, with respect to the main parameters of the WPT systems such as the operating frequency, the geometry feature of the coupling coils and the properties of the multilayer media.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1622
Ronald Brombach, Anup Gadkari
The Body Control Module (BCM) is a huge integration site for vehicle features and functions.(i.e., Locking, Alarms, interior lighting, exterior lighting, etc…) . Every few years the demands to add more feature/functions and integrate more vehicle content increases. The expectation of the model year 2013 BCM, was to double the feature content and use it globally. The growth in feature/function content grew from 140 to over 300. This posed a major challenge to the current software development team based on the methods and process that were deployed at the time. This paper sites the cultural and technology changes that were overcome. Ford Motor Company partnered with Tata Consulting services to help manage and define this new software engineering development.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1232
Tsubasa YAMAZAKI, Hidekazu UCHIYAMA, Kazuaki NAKAZAWA, Tsubasa ISOMURA, Hisashi OGATA
Solar car races are held worldwide, aiming to promote vehicles that help reduce environmental loads on the roads. In order to gain superiority in solar car racing, it is essential to develop a high efficiency brushless direct drive motor that optimizes the energy use to the fullest and allows high speed driving when needed.To achieve these goals, two development approaches of solar car motors are proposed: the high efficiency motor which improves electrical characteristics and significantly reduces energy loss; and the variable field magnet motor that offers instant speed boost for a temporary period of time for overtaking other opponents.We have developed a high efficiency motor with the application of an amorphous core and laminated magnets. Instead of the standard method of the W-EDM (Wire-Electric Discharge Machining) for amorphous cores, we utilized water jet cutting, through which we succeeded in insulation between laminated cores.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1118
Isamu Hachisuwa, Naoki Kato, Daisuke Kusamoto, Hideki Miyata, Takuya Okada, Hitoshi matsunaga, Takamitsu Kuroyanagi, Makoto nakazuru
Increasingly stringent environmental regulations, such as reducing carbon dioxide emissions and increasing fuel economy targets, have made it essential to develop vehicles with superior fuel efficiency and cleaner emissions. At the same time, the demand for improved vehicle characteristics such as driving performance and NVH are increasing. Toyota Motor Corporation has developed a new eight-speed automatic transaxle (UA80) which has realized these requirements at a high level, and is adopted into the new Sienna and Highlander. UA80 is the first Toyota transaxle which incorporates the TNGA concept. It has high level competitiveness in a wide torque range from L4 engines to V6 engines by using both optimization and standardization of main components. Additionally, UA80 has achieved an increased ease of installation by optimizing the transaxle size and arrangement while still achieving a low gravity center.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0894
Nishant Singh
Improving fuel economy has been a key focus across automotive and truck industry for several years if not decades. In heavy duty commercial vehicles, the benefits from small gains in fuel economy lead to significant savings for fleets as well as owners and operators. Additionally, the regulations require vehicles to meet certain GHG levels which closely translate to vehicle fuel economy. For current state of the art FE technologies, incremental gains are so small that they are hard to measure on an actual vehicle. Engineers are challenged with high level of variability to make informed decisions. In such cases, highly controlled tests on Engine and Powertrain dynos are used, however, there is an associated variability even with these tests due factors such as part to part differences, fuel blends and quality, dyno control capabilities and so on.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0005
Yun Liu, Sung-Kwon Hong, Tony Ge
Powertrain driveability evaluation and calibration is an important part of vehicle development to enhance customer experience. This step mainly takes place on vehicle test very late in the product development cycle, and is associated with considerable amount of prototype, test facility, human resource and time cost. To reduce the development cost, a model based computer aided engineering (CAE) method is introduced and combined with hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation technology. The HIL simulation method offers a possibility to driveability prediction and development in early phase of product cycle. This article describes the drivability HIL simulation process under development in Ford. The process consists of real time capable multi-domain CAE model integration, powertrain control module (PCM) and HIL simulator interface development and drivability HIL simulation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0198
Jiliang Zhang, Carolyn Wozniak
Jiliang Zhang, Tesla Motors (JZhang@teslamotors.com) Carolyn Wozniak, Tesla Motors (cwozniak@teslamotors.com) ABSTRACT Electrical Vehicle (EV) super charging stations provide electrical energy to incoming vehicles that need to be charged. Component failures may lead to a complete loss or reduction of power available to the vehicles. The reduced power still enables vehicle charging, but the charging time will be extended, which will require the customers in the queue to wait longer. On the other hand, the incoming vehicle flow demands a specific reliability requirement of the super charge station; therefore, providing the highest possible power at any time with minimum cost possible is in the interest of product design and service. Both system reliability capability and the behavior of the incoming vehicles play critical roles in system reliability modeling and analysis.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0064
Agish George, Jody Nelson
The ISO 26262 standard for functional safety was first released in 2011 and has been widely incorporated by most OEMs and Tier1 suppliers. The design and conformance of the product to functional safety standards is strongly intertwined with the product development cycle and needs to be carefully managed. The consideration for functional safety needs to begin right from the product’s concept phase through engineering and production and finally decommissioning. The application of the standard in a project can bring significant challenges especially to managers who are relatively new to the standard. This paper provides some guidelines on the key tasks involved in managing ISO26262 in projects and some ways to approach them. The paper is expected to help managers manage ISO26262 compliant projects especially organizations that have just started their ISO26262 journey.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1262
David Baker, Zachary Asher, Thomas Bradley
The EcoCAR3 competition challenges student teams to redesign a 2016 Chevrolet Camaro to reduce environmental impacts and increase energy efficiency while maintaining performance and safety that consumers expect of a Camaro. Energy management of the new hybrid powertrain is an integral component of the overall efficiency of the car and is a prime focus of Colorado State University’s (CSU) Vehicle Innovation Team. Previous research has shown that error-less predictions about future driving characteristics can be used to more efficiently manage hybrid powertrains. In this study, a novel real world implementable energy management strategy is investigated for use in the EcoCAR3 Hybrid Camaro. This strategy uses a Nonlinear Autoregressive Neural Network with Exogenous inputs (NARX Net) trained with real world driving data from a selected drive cycle to predict future vehicle speeds along that desired drive cycle.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0278
John Kelly Villota Pismag, Hisham Alawneh, Cristian Adam, Samir A. Rawashdeh, Pramita Mitra, Yifan Chen, Gary Strumolo
Potential for Augmented Reality (AR) spans many domains. Among other applications, AR can improve the discovery and learning experience for users inspecting a particular item. This paper discusses the use of AR in the automotive context, in particular in improving the user experience in a dealership show room. Visual augmentation, through a tablet computer or worn glasses, allows users to take part in a self-guided tour in learning about the various features, details, and options associated with a vehicle. The same approach can be applied to other learning scenarios, such as design, training and maintenance assistance. We evaluated a set of AR Glasses and a general purpose tablet. A table-top showroom was developed demonstrating what the actual user experience would be like for a self-guided dealership tour using natural markers and three dimensional content spatially registered to physical objects in the user’s field of view.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1012
Sunil Kumar Pathak, Vineet sood, Yograj Singh, Salim Abbasbhai Channiwala
In developing countries like India, large numbers of portable gesnets are used as power source due to scarcity of grid power supply. The portable gensets, ranging fron 0.5 kW to 5 kw are very popular in the residential, small restaurants and shopping complexes. These gensets are using various fuels like gasoline, diesel, LPG and kerosene for small spark ignited and compression ignition engines and significant source of air pollution as these are running close to populated areas. Theses gensets are regulated by exhaust and noise emissions norms set by statutory bodies like central pollution control board of India. The gaseous emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbon (THC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) are regulated and emission testing is performed as per three mode cycle as per standard test proecdure. The production gesnets are normally undergo a break in running to stabilize engine performance parameters mainly engine power output.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0022
Holger Zeltwanger
The automotive industry requests different communication technologies for in-vehicle networking. It is a challenge to integrate different bus systems and networks from different implementors. Conformance and interoperability testing is only successful, if the tests are standardized. The paper describes the actual status of automotive-oriented communication technologies submitted for international standardization. It discusses the challenges and the pros and cons of standardized solutions ("frozen" technology). Another topic are the gaps still exisiting in standardization, e.g. gateways, middleware, etc. The presentation will also address the administrational and bureaucratic hurdles in the standardization bodies. Of course, there is a survey provided on the currently networks under standardization and those which under submission. This includes an attemp to classify in-vehicle networks and to evelaute the overlapping.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0202
Zhigang Wei, Raghuram Mandapati, Ranjith Nayaki, Jason Hamilton
Life testing or test-to-failure method and binomial testing method are the two most commonly used methods in product validation and reliability demonstration. The two-parameter Weibull distribution function is often used in the life testing and almost exclusively used in the extended time testing, which can be considered as an accelerated testing method by appropriately extending the testing time but with significantly reduced testing samples. However, the fatigue data from a wide variety of sources indicate that the three-parameter Weibull distribution function with a threshold parameter at the left tail is more appropriate for fatigue life data with large sample sizes. The uncertainties introduced from the assumptions about the underlying probabilistic distribution would significantly affect the interpretation of the test data and the assessment of the performance of the accelerated binomial testing methods, therefore, the selection of a probabilistic model is critically important.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1383
Satheesh Kumar Chandran, James Forbes, Carrie Bittick, Kathleen Allanson, Fnu Brinda
There is a strong business case for automotive interfaces to undergo usability testing throughout their product development life cycle. System Usability Scale (SUS) is a simple and standard measure of usability. To meet the timing needs for product development, usability testing needs to be performed in a quick, cost effective manner. Hence the required sample size of participants for a usability study is one of the critical factors. To determine an acceptable sample size, a Monte Carlo simulation using SUS scores from eleven different in-vehicle automotive interface usability studies was used to create 500,000 sub-samples of different sample sizes. The percentage of sub-samples with mean scores within the confidence interval of the population mean was calculated. At a sub-sample size of thirty five, 95% of the sub-samples have a mean SUS score within the 95% confidence interval of the population mean.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0348
Mani Shankar, I V N Sri Harsha, K V Sunil, Ramsai Ramachandran
In an automobile, road loads due to tire-road interaction are transferred to vehicle body through suspension. This makes suspension a critical component from the body durability perspective. During vehicle design and development, optimization of suspension parameters to suit ride and handling performance is a continuous and iterative process. These changes on suspension can affect vehicle body durability performance. This paper tries to establish a process to evaluate the effect of changes in suspension parameters on body durability, thus helping in understanding the impact of these changes. The process starts with virtual model building in Multi Body Dynamics software. The base line model is co-related with testing using responses like spring displacement at suspension, acceleration and strain data at the vehicle body.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0326
Samuel J. Tomlinson, Martin J D Fisher, Thomas Smith, Kevin Pascal
When sealing an application with a radial O-ring system design there is a balance between O-ring function and ease of assembly. Often times the assembly insertion force rises to the point of unacceptable manufacturing ergonomic practice. Designs are released into production with these high insertion forces while manufacturing operators struggle to assemble parts leaving opportunity for potential operator injury. Several variables impacting O-ring system insertion forces were tested to quantify the effects. Results were analyzed to identify design controls that could be implemented from an early design phase optimizing functionality and ease of assembly.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1671
Johannes Bach, Marc Holzäpfel, Stefan Otten, Eric Sax
Enhanced technological capabilities render the application of various, increasingly complex, functional concepts for automated driving possible. In the process, the significance of automotive software for a satisfactory driving experience is growing. To benefit from these new opportunities thorough assessment in early development stages is highly important. It enables manufacturers to focus resources on the most promising concepts. For early assessment, a common approach is to set up vehicles with additional prototyping hardware and perform real world testing. While this approach is essential to assess the look-and-feel of newly developed concepts, its drawbacks are reduced reproducibility and high expenses to achieve a sufficient and balanced sample. To overcome these drawbacks, new flexible, realistic and preferably automated virtual test methods to complement real world verification and validation are especially required during early development phases.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0650
Xinyu Li, Xinyu Ge, Ying Wang
The automotive industry is dramatically changing. Stringent emission regulations and rising cost of energy push Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) to adopt aftertreatment equipment and make a vehicle powertrain system more efficient to save consumers’ operation cost. Many OEMs proposed new prototype models or concept designs to promote green vehicle image. However, it is still challenging for an OEM to check whether consumers really accept new designs without sales data. Non-traditional player in the automotive industry bring many latest technology in the Information Technology (IT) industry to the automotive industry. Typical vehicle’s characteristics became wider compared to those of a decade ago including not only a drive range, mileage per gallon and acceleration rating, but also many features adopted in the IT industry, such as easy usability, connectivity, vehicle software upgrade capability and backward compatibility.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1602
Garett Scott Patria, James A. Mynderse
There is evidence to suggest that before military equipment ever experiences sustainment delays it carries state patterns within its logistics and supply chain data history that could be leveraged for risk mitigation. Analysis of these patterns can also identify new research & development (R&D) and technology transition candidates that relate the seemingly disparate activities of R&D project management and Diminishing Manufacturing Sources and Material Shortages (DMSMS) management. Relating eligible R&D activities to the DMSMS risk identification phase helps stage potential sustainment risk mitigations ahead of time on the one hand, while creating additional demand and resources to mature prototypes on the other hand.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1604
Christina Michael, Badih Jawad, Liping Liu, Vernon Fernandez, Sabah Abro, Craig Zinser, Dave Guidos
The objective of this research is to develop a component based enhanced production process after End of Line (EOL) testing. This process will add more quality validation evaluations, but will not require any disassembling of the parts or damage to them. It will help the suppliers to avoid scrap and rework parts as well as General Motors (GM) to reduce warranty and recalls. An Enhanced Production Process was implemented in March, 2016 at a supplier in Mexico. The Enhanced Audit Station implementation is to ensure that the supplier is satisfying the Production Part Approval Process (PPAP) requirements. The most important four components are: Touch Appearance Lighting and Color (TALC), Appearance Approval Report (AAR), Dimensional Checks, and Function Testing.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1607
Munther Hermez, Badih Jawad, Liping Liu, Eli Oklejas
This paper presents an experimental investigation of flow instabilities in a centrifugal pump impeller at low flow rates. The measurements of pump hydraulic performance and flow field in the impeller passages were made with a hydraulic test rig. Analysis of Q-∆P-η data and flow structures in the impeller passages were performed. In the present work, the effect of various flowrates on centrifugal pump impeller performance was analyzed based on measured parameters. To improve the pump performance the impeller’s geometry was modified with positioning a curved spacer at the impeller suction side. This research aims to investigate the effects of each inlet curved spacer model on pump performance improvement. The hydraulic performance and cavitation in the pump have been tested experimentally. The flow field inside a centrifugal pump is known to be fully turbulent, three dimensional and unsteady with recirculation flows and separation at its inlet and exit.
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