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2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0242
Yakov Fradkin, Michel Cordonnier, Andrew Henry, David Newton
Ford Motor Company’s assembly plants build vehicles in a certain sequence. The planned sequence for the plant’s trim and final assembly area is developed centrally and is sent to the plant several days in advance. In this talk we present the study of two cases where the plant changes the planned sequence to cope with production constraints. In one case, a plant pulls ahead two-tone orders that require two passes through the paint shop. This is further complicated by presence in the body shop area of a unidirectional rotating tool that allows efficient build of a sequence “A-B-C” but heavily penalizes a sequence “C-B-A”. The plant changes the original planned sequence in the body shop area to the one that satisfies both pull-ahead and rotating tool requirements. In the other case, a plant runs on lean inventories. Material consumption is tightly controlled down to the hour to match with planned material deliveries.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0243
Zhenghui Sha, Veronica Saeger, Mingxian Wang, Yan Fu, Wei Chen
For achieving viable mass customization of products, product configuration is often performed that requires deep understanding on the impact of product features and feature combinations on customers’ purchasing behaviors. Existing literature has been traditionally focused on analyzing the impact of common customer demographics and engineering attributes with discrete choice modeling approaches. This paper aims to expand discrete choice modeling through the incorporation of optional product features, such as customers’ positive or negative comments and their satisfaction ratings of their purchased products, beyond those commonly used attributes. The paper utilizes vehicle as an example to highlight the range of optional features currently underutilized in existing models. First, data analysis techniques are used to identify areas of particular consumer interest in regards to vehicle selection. 
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0246
Sentao Miao, Xiuli Chao, Michael Tamor, Yan Fu, Margaret Strumolo
Most of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the United States come from the transportation and electricity generation sectors. In this paper, we analyzed the possibility of cross-sector cooperation to cost-efficiently reduce these emissions. Specifically, we built a bi-level optimization model with renewable energy certificate (REC) purchasing to evaluate the effectiveness of the REC purchasing policy. This policy allows the transportation sector to purchase RECs, which are created by renewable generators built by the electricity generation sector, in order to gain extra emission allowance. We conclude from simulations that REC purchasing policy helps to lower the total cost to society while reducing GHG emissions significantly. Simulation results also show that REC purchasing policy can create electricity capacity beyond demand, which can potentially be used to make clean fuel and further cut emissions from existing fossil fuel powered vehicles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1604
Christina Michael, Badih Jawad, Liping Liu, Vernon Fernandez PhD, Sabah Abro, Craig Zinser, Dave Guidos
The objective of this research is to develop a component based enhanced production process after End of Line (EOL) testing. This process will add more quality validation evaluations, but will not require any disassembling of the parts or damage to them. It will help the suppliers to avoid scrap and rework parts as well as General Motors (GM) to reduce warranty and recalls. An Enhanced Production Process was implemented in March, 2016 at a supplier in Mexico. The Enhanced Audit Station implementation is to ensure that the supplier is satisfying the Production Part Approval Process (PPAP) requirements. The most important four components are: Touch Appearance Lighting and Color (TALC), Appearance Approval Report (AAR), Dimensional Checks, and Function Testing.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1611
Elankathiravan Mathivanan, David Gasior, Liping Liu, Kingman Yee, Yawen Li
In the present work, the effect of nanofluids on convective heat transfer performance in a radiator will be experimentally analyzed. Results of property measurements and numerical predictions suggested that water based nanofluids have the potential to provide enhanced cooling performance compared to pure water being used in the automotive engine cooling system. Based on literature review, there is lack of experimental data in this area, which is of importance for validation and analysis. Therefore the present study aims to fill this gap by experimentally investigating the heat transfer performance of TiO2-, SiO2- and Al2O3-water nanofluids on engine cooling system, at volume concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1%. The experimental setup includes an Aprilia RXV 450 engine and a radiator. Thermocouples and resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) are placed at the inlet and outlet of the radiator in order to monitor the air and coolant temperatures.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0247
N. Khalid Ahmed, Jimmy Kapadia
Electrified vehicles including Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) and Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles (PHEVs) made by Ford Motor Company are fitted with a telematics modem to provide customers with the means to communicate with their vehicles and, at the same time, receive insight on their vehicle usage. These services are provided through the “MyFord Mobile” website and phone applications, simultaneously collecting information from the vehicle for different event triggers. In this work, we study this data by using Big Data Methodologies including a Hadoop Database for storing data and HiveQL and Pig Latin scripts to perform analytics. We present electrified vehicle customer behaviors including geographical distribution, trip distances, daily distances and annual usage factor. We also compare temperature distribution of trips with the EPA-MOVES database. We discuss the process of extracting information from this data that can be used to further refine future design.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1606
Sergey P. Gladyshev, Irina Okrainskaya PhD, Pavel Gladyshev
Synchronous motors are used in electric and hybrid cars as power drivers. The most often they are used with excitation by using super strong permanent magnets designed with rare earth elements technology. This permanent magnets are expensive. Excitation with permanent magnets do not allows change value of the motor flux excitation during the motor operation and do not allows the power factor control, which is one of the important property of synchronous motors. It is known, that synchronous motors have very high efficiency. Also, synchronous motors keeps constant rotor speed under external mechanical load. The regular synchronous motors, with electro magnet rotor on silicon steel cores, have rings and brushes for connection rotor coil excitation to direct current (DC) voltage source. This arrangement with rings and brushes decrease motors reliability and demands regular maintenance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0064
Agish George, Jody Nelson
The ISO 26262 standard for functional safety was first released in 2011 and has been widely incorporated by most OEMs and Tier1 suppliers. The design and conformance of the product to functional safety standards is strongly intertwined with the product development cycle and needs to be carefully managed. The consideration for functional safety needs to begin right from the product’s concept phase through engineering and production and finally decommissioning. The application of the standard in a project can bring significant challenges especially to managers who are relatively new to the standard. This paper provides some guidelines on the key tasks involved in managing ISO26262 in projects and some ways to approach them. The paper is expected to help managers manage ISO26262 compliant projects especially organizations that have just started their ISO26262 journey.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0201
Tejas Janardan Sarang, Amar Phatak, Jay Bendkhale
Due to rapidly changing trends in the market, automotive manufacturers are always struggling to release new vehicles with drastically reduced timelines. Therefore, it is very important to constantly optimize the development phases, starting from concept initiation to the final testing of production ready vehicle. The real world tests conducted on vehicles take huge amount of time, since these tests are carried out for large kilometers to periodically analyze tire wear, clutch wear, brake failure etc. Collecting large kilometers of CAN data is also tedious and time consuming due to various unwanted variables which add up during real world tests. In this paper, a technique known as Rescale Range Analysis is adapted to abridge the collection of kilometers data from testing by nearly ten times. This analysis estimates a Hurst coefficient to correlate the entire data with its divided parts. The division factor of the entire data is very crucial for the analysis.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0203
Mahfooz-Ul-Haq Mian
The powertrain system is the most complex part of a vehicle. Each new engine program strives for more efficient powertrain system in terms of fuel economy, emissions and power. However, at the same time more complex diagnostic systems are required to detect a failure. On Board Diagnostic System (OBD) of powertrain records a large number of variables in every microsecond to detect an abnormal condition. Detection of an abnormal condition is sometimes a first clue to start an in-depth root cause analysis. A successful root cause analysis can be done in fairly short period of time if a few number of variables are involved. The degree of difficulty increases exponentially with the number of potential suspect variables. A traditional design of experiment (DOE) can be done to find out significant set of variables, which can lead the team towards a solution. However most of the times DOE requires extra resources and additional time to conduct DOE runs.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1667
Scott Piper, Mark Steffka, Vipul Patel
With the increasing content of electronics in automobiles and faster development times, it is essential that electronics hardware design and vehicle electrical architecture is done early and correctly. Today, the first designs are done in the electronic format with circuit and CAD design tools. Once the initial design is completed, several iterations are typically conducted in a “peer review” methodology to incorporate “best practices” before actual hardware is built. Among the many challenges facing electronics design and integration is electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Success in EMC starts at the design phase with a relevant “lessons learned” data set that encompasses component technology content, schematic and printed circuit board (PCB) layout, and wiring using computer aided engineering (CAE) tools.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1607
Munther Hermez, Badih Jawad, Liping Liu, Eli Oklejas
This paper presents an experimental investigation of flow instabilities in a centrifugal pump impeller at low flow rates. The measurements of pump hydraulic performance and flow field in the impeller passages were made with a hydraulic test rig. Analysis of Q-∆P-η data and flow structures in the impeller passages were performed. In the present work, the effect of various flowrates on centrifugal pump impeller performance was analyzed based on measured parameters. To improve the pump performance the impeller’s geometry was modified with positioning a curved spacer at the impeller suction side. This research aims to investigate the effects of each inlet curved spacer model on pump performance improvement. The hydraulic performance and cavitation in the pump have been tested experimentally. The flow field inside a centrifugal pump is known to be fully turbulent, three dimensional and unsteady with recirculation flows and separation at its inlet and exit.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0236
Zhigang Wei
In the Big Data era, the capability in statistical and probabilistic data characterization, data pattern identification, data modeling and analysis is critical to understand the data, to find the trends in the data, and to make better use of the data. In this paper the fundamental probability concepts and several commonly used probabilistic distribution functions, such as the Weibull for spectrum events and the Pareto for extreme/rare events, are described first. An event quadrant is subsequently established based on the commonality/rarity and impact/effect of the probabilistic events. Level of measurement, which is the key for quantitative measurement of the data, is also discussed based on the framework of probability. The damage density function, which is a measure of the relative damage contribution of each constituent is proposed. The new measure demonstrates its capability in distinguishing between the extreme/rare events and the spectrum events.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0325
Samer Abbas, John Joyce
Severity-mitigating mechanisms (typically software-based) detect failures in a system and perform functions in order to reduce the severities of failures. Various approaches to FMEA analysis of severity-mitigating mechanisms exist within the industry. Three are compared and contrasted. Each method is compared against its ability to capture the three fundamental failures of a system that has severity-mitigating mechanisms: 1. a failure occurs and mitigating action is taken, 2. a failure occurs and mitigating action is not taken, 3. no failure occurs but mitigating action is taken. One method is advocated over the others because it: uses existing FMEA formatting; addresses all three cases; supports consistent linkage between FMEAs in a hierarchy of systems with any number of layers.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1619
Charles Loucks
The introduction of floating point math in Embedded Application ECU’s has made the implementation of complex math functions less error prone but not error proof. This paper shall focus on raising awareness of the pitfalls that come from the use of the basic floating point arithmetic operations, that is, Divide, Multiply, Add and Subtract. Due to the known pitfalls inherent in these basic math operations, it is proposed that a standard library with common functions appropriate for Powertrain Embedded applications (but not limited to Powertrain) be identified. This paper shall explore what these common functions will look like for both standard C code as well as the equivalent versions in Matlab™ Simulink™ One lesson the author of this paper has learned in his career is that companies are slow to adopt common standardized approaches to the basic functionality discussed here (as well as other possible common functions not discussed here.)
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1610
Mike Kheirallah, Badih Jawad, Liping Liu
Cooling fans have many applications in industrial and electronic fields that remove heat away from the system. The process of designing a new cooling fan with optimal performance and reduced acoustic sources can be fairly lengthy and expensive. The effect of acoustics sources on the fan blades may induce an unpleasant aspect of noise. Noise reduction approaches are important for achieving a desirable noise level and comfortable environment in a community. Many numerical techniques have been applied as a step in product development using the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Aeroacoustic Optimization approaches to assess the performance and the noise sources of a cooling fan. Reducing the acoustic surface power will contribute to developing a better cooling fan performance. Many experimental and control strategies have been employed to regulate the effect of the noise.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1600
James Mansour, Badih Jawad, Liping Liu, Vernon Fernandez PhD, Sabah Abro, Jeff Tibbenham
A vehicle’s exterior fit and finish, in general, is the first system to attract customers. Automotive exterior engineers were motivated in the past few years to increase their focus on how to optimize the vehicle’s exterior panels split lines quality and how to minimize variation in fit and finish addressing customer and market required quality standards. The design engineering’s focus is to control the deviation from nominal build objective and minimize it. The fitting process follows an optimization model with the exterior panel’s location and orientation factors as independent variables. This research focuses on addressing the source of variation “contributed factors” that will impact the quality of the fit and finish. These critical factors could be resulted from the design process, product process, or an assembly process. An empirical analysis will be used to minimize the fit and finish deviation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0198
Jiliang Zhang, Carolyn Wozniak
Jiliang Zhang, Tesla Motors (JZhang@teslamotors.com) Carolyn Wozniak, Tesla Motors (cwozniak@teslamotors.com) ABSTRACT Electrical Vehicle (EV) super charging stations provide electrical energy to incoming vehicles that need to be charged. Component failures may lead to a complete loss or reduction of power available to the vehicles. The reduced power still enables vehicle charging, but the charging time will be extended, which will require the customers in the queue to wait longer. On the other hand, the incoming vehicle flow demands a specific reliability requirement of the super charge station; therefore, providing the highest possible power at any time with minimum cost possible is in the interest of product design and service. Both system reliability capability and the behavior of the incoming vehicles play critical roles in system reliability modeling and analysis.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1613
Atilla Bulmus, Chris Wunderlich, Axel Freiwald
Connecting mobile communication channels to vehicles’ networks is currently attracting engineers in a wide range. Herein the desire of vehicle manufacturers to remotely execute software updates over the air (SOTA) within electronic control units (ECU) is probably the field of highest attention at the moment. Today software updates are typically done at vehicle service stations and connection the vehicles electronic network via the onboard diagnosis (OBD) interface to a service computer. Herby the duration of the update is invisible to the user, as this happens during standard service appointments. With introduction of SOTA, these updates become very convenient to the customer and can lead to higher customer satisfaction levels. SOTA can be made transparent to the user however the method of implementation can affect the user experience. Currently the range of solutions for data storage to address SOTA ranges from: 1.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1599
Joshua Wheeler, Brigitte richardson, Scott Amman, An Ji, John Huber, Ranjani Rangarajan
Voice Recognition (VR) and Hands Free Calling (HFC) capabilities have become prominent in the automotive industry, with over 50% of new vehicles sales equipped with some level of Voice Recognition system. With the common use of mobile personal assistants and smartphones with Bluetooth capability, customer expectations for built-in Voice Recognition and Hands Free Calling systems have increased significantly. The main systems that impact a customer's satisfaction with their system can be broken into two halves, the "usability & functionality" portion of the system, and the "core automatic speech recognition (ASR) performance". The success of the latter can be quantified by the Word Error Rate (WER) and Sentence Error Rate (SER) performance. Several parts of the voice recognition hardware/software and vehicle design need to be engineered in concert to ensure satisfactory performance of the core ASR system to meet the customer's expectations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0232
Fazal Syed, Joseph Supina, Hao Ying, Nizar Khemri
Realistic vehicle fuel economy studies require real-world vehicle driving behavior data along with various factors affecting the fuel consumption. Such studies require data with various vehicles usages for prolonged periods of time. A project dedicated to collecting such data is an enormous and costly undertaking. Alternatively, we propose to utilize two publicly available vehicle travel survey data sets. One is Puget Sound Travel Survey collected using GPS devices in 484 vehicles between 2004 and 2006. Over 750,000 trips were recorded with a 10-second time resolution. The data were obtained to study travel behavior changes in response to time-and-location-variable road tolling. The other is Atlanta Regional Commission Travel Survey conducted for a comprehensive study of the demographic and travel behavior characteristics of residents within the study area.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0237
Jonas Biteus, Tony Lindgren
Maintenance planning of trucks at Scania have previously been done using static cyclic plans with fixed sets of maintenance points, determined by mileage, calendar time, and some data driven physical models. Flexible or condition based maintenance have improved the maintenance program with the addition of general data driven expert rules and the ability to move sub-sets of maintenance points between maintenance occasions. Meanwhile, successful modelling with machine learning on big data and automatic planning using constraint programming are hinting on the ability to achieve even higher fleet utilization by further improvements of the flexible maintenance. The maintenance program have therefore been partitioned into its smallest parts and formulated as individual constraint rules. One maintenance point for a component have been selected and operational data have been collected showing how each truck have been used over its lifetime and if it have had a repair of the component or not.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0233
Weihong Guo, Shenghan Guo, Hui Wang, Xiao Yu, Annette Januszczak, Saumuy Suriano
The wide applications of automatic sensing devices and data acquisition systems in automotive manufacturing have resulted in a data-rich environment, which demands new data mining methodologies for effective data fusion and information integration to support decision-making. This paper presents a new methodology for developing a diagnostic system using manufacturing system data for high-value assets in automotive manufacturing. The key issues studied in this paper include optimal feature extraction using descriptive analysis, optimal feature subset selection using statistical hypothesis testing, machine fault prediction using multivariate process control chart, and diagnostic performance assessment using process trend detection. The performance of the developed diagnostic system can be continuously improved as the knowledge of machine faults is automatically accumulated during production.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0249
Jia Mi
With the development of the Internet for vehicles, the Car-sharing has been developed rapidly in recent years. This paper focuses on the network programming and distribution for Car-sharing, which helps to clarify the characteristics and basic law of Car-sharing network development, as well as the main approaches to construct it. Firstly, by analyzing the expanding ways of Car-sharing network, characteristics of the development of Car-sharing industry and its network, as well as main Car-sharing users and services, the influence factors of Car-sharing demand and the main demand points in a city are summarized. Secondly, in order to better evaluate the network programming and distribution for Car-sharing, this paper proposes an optimization decision method of the car-sharing network planning by evaluating the possible alternatives in a same scale. The assessment index of Car-sharing network planning is constructed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0240
Yanli Zhao, Hao Zhou, Yimin Liu
Ride Hailing service and Dynamic Shuttle is one of key smart mobility practices, which provide on-demand door-to-door ride-sharing service to customers through smart phone apps. On the other hand, some big companies spend millions of dollars yearly in third party vendors to offer employee shuttle services to pick up and drop off employees from designated locations and provide daily commutes for employees to and from work. Efficient routing algorithms and analytics are the key ingredients for operation efficiency behind these commercial services. They can significantly reduce operation costs by shortening bus routes and reducing bus number, while maintaining given the same quality of service. The study will develop an off-line optimization routing methods for employee shuttle services in some regions. First, based on the historical demand data collected from a factory in Thailand, we develop a constraint programming model to compute the optimal routes and number of shuttles needed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1273
Qiang Dai, Jarod C. Kelly, Amgad Elgowainy
Vehicle lightweighting has been a focus of the automotive industry, as car manufacturers seek to comply with the corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) and the greenhouse gas (GHG) standards for MY 2017-2025 vehicles. However, when developing a lightweight vehicle design, the automotive industry typically targets maximum vehicle weight reduction at minimal capital cost. In this paper we consider the environmental impacts incurred by some of the lightweighting technology options. The materials generally used for vehicle lightweighting include high-strength steel (HSS), aluminum, magnesium and carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP). Except for HSS, the production of these light materials is more GHG-intensive (on a kg-to-kg basis) compared with the conventional automotive materials they substitute. Lightweighting with these materials, therefore, may partially offset the GHG emission reductions achieved through improved fuel economy.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1276
Aditi Moorthy, Robert De Kleine, Gregory Keoleian, Jeremy Good, Geoff Lewis
The problem of accessibility to public transit is a well-documented problem in transportation theory and network literature known as the “Last Mile” problem. A lack of first and last mile specific transit services impairs access to public transit causing commuters to opt for private modes of transit over public modes of transit. This paper analyzes the implications of a shared autonomous vehicle (AV) taxi system providing last mile specific transit services in terms of environmental, cost, and performance metrics. Conventional public transit options along with a hypothetical last-mile shared autonomous vehicle (SAV) system are analyzed for transit between Ann Arbor and Detroit Wayne County Airport for life cycle energy, emissions, total travel time, and travel costs. In the case study, energy savings from using public transit options with AV last mile service were as high as 39% when compared to a personal vehicle (parking) option.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0016
Don Zaremba, Emily linehan, Carlos Ramirez Ramos
For over thirty years, the silicon power MOSFET’s role has expanded from a few key components in electronic engine control to a key component in nearly every automotive electronics system. New and emerging automotive applications such as 48 V micro hybrids and autonomous vehicle operation require improved power MOSFET performance. This paper reviews mature and state of the art power MOSFET technologies, from planar to shield gate trench, with emphasis on applicability to automotive electronic systems. The automotive application environment presents unique challenges for electronic systems and associated components such as potential for direct short to high capacity battery, high voltage battery transients, high ambient temperature, EMI limitations, and large delta temperature power cycling. Moreover, high reliability performance of semiconductor components is mandatory; sub 1 ppm overall failure rate is now a fundamental requirement.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0202
Zhigang Wei, Raghuram Mandapati, Ranjith Nayaki, Jason Hamilton
Life testing or test-to-failure method and binomial testing method are the two most commonly used methods in product validation and reliability demonstration. The two-parameter Weibull distribution function is often used in the life testing and almost exclusively used in the extended time testing, which can be considered as an accelerated testing method by appropriately extending the testing time but with significantly reduced testing samples. However, the fatigue data from a wide variety of sources indicate that the three-parameter Weibull distribution function with a threshold parameter at the left tail is more appropriate for fatigue life data with large sample sizes. The uncertainties introduced from the assumptions about the underlying probabilistic distribution would significantly affect the interpretation of the test data and the assessment of the performance of the accelerated binomial testing methods, therefore, the selection of a probabilistic model is critically important.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0238
Velappan Shalini, Sridharan Krishnamurthy, Srinivasan Narasimhan
Automobile industry has been undergoing key transformations recently. There are very many complexities arise with respect to these transformations. The automobile data and its exponential growth along with its high dimensionality issues, distributional patterns apart from the normal distribution and its sparse attributes added to its complexities. These complexities possess a great challenge when it comes to dealing with flood of personalized automobile data available about the customer preferences, as well as general business and economic data in making informed decisions. On one hand, the science of machine learning comprises of a family of models has been known to have very many applications such as detection, classification and prediction amongst many. The application of the advanced machine learning techniques helps to leverage the existing automobile data in informed decision making.
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