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2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0309
Matthew Reed, Sheila Ebert-Hamilton
Abstract This study evaluated the ISO 5353 Seat Index Point Tool (SIPT) as an alternative to the SAE J826 H-point manikin for measuring military seats. A tool was fabricated based on the ISO specification and a custom back-angle measurement probe was designed and fitted to the SIPT. Comparisons between the two tools in a wide range of seating conditions showed that the mean SIP location was 5 mm aft of the H-point, with a standard deviation of 7.8 mm. Vertical location was not significantly different between the two tools (mean - 0.7 mm, sd 4.0 mm). A high correlation (r=0.9) was observed between the back angle measurements from the two tools. The SIPT was slightly more repeatable across installations and installers than the J826 manikin, with most of the discrepancy arising from situations with flat seat cushion angles and either unusually upright or reclined back angles that caused the J826 manikin to be unstable.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0032
Siddartha Khastgir, Gunwant Dhadyalla, Paul Jennings
Abstract The introduction of ISO 26262 concepts has brought important changes in the software development process for automotive software. While making the process more robust by introducing various additional methods of verification and validation, there has been a substantial increase in the development time. Thus, test automation and front loading approaches have become important to meet product timelines and quality. This paper proposes automated testing methods using formal analysis tools like Simulink Design Verifier™ (SLDV) for boundary value testing and interface testing to address the demands of ISO 26262 concepts at unit and component level. In addition, the method of automated boundary value testing proposed differs from the traditional methods and the authors offer an argument as to why the traditional boundary value testing is not required at unit (function) level.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0078
Eric DiBiaso, Bert Bergner, Jens Wuelfing, Robert Wuerker, Carlos Almeida
Abstract Ethernet technology using a single unshielded twisted pair (UTP) is considered to have a promising future in the automotive industry. While 100Mbps transmission speeds can be achieved with standard connector platforms, 1Gbps requires specific design rules in order to ensure error free transmissions. This paper explains the specific challenges for high speed UTP solutions applied in automotive environments. Automotive relevant signal integrity (SI) and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) connector limitations are also discussed in detail. Through simulations and testing, the connector design criteria and rules necessary for meeting all the electrical and mechanical requirements for such automotive applications are evaluated and shown. This is followed by the introduction of a modular and scalable MATEnet Ethernet connection system utilizing an optimized cable termination technology.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0094
Jaya Gaitonde, R B Lohani
Abstract Photodetectors are important components in automotive industry. Sensitivity, speed, responsivity, quantum efficiency, photocurrent gain and power dissipation are the important characteristics of a photodetector. We report a high performance photodetector based on GaAs Metal- Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MESFET), with very high responsivity, excellent quantum efficiency, high sensitivity, moderate speed, tremendous gain and low power dissipation, surpassing their photodiode, phototransistor and other counterparts. A theoretical model of GaAs front illuminated Optical Field Effect transistor is presented. The photovoltaic and photoconductive effects have been taken into account. The gate of the OPFET device has been left open to make a reduction in the number of power supplies. The results are in line with the experiments. The device shows high potential in automotive applications.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1475
Toby Terpstra, Tilo Voitel, Alireza Hashemian
Abstract Video and photo based photogrammetry software has many applications in the accident reconstruction community including documentation of vehicles and scene evidence. Photogrammetry software has developed in its ease of use, cost, and effectiveness in determining three dimensional data points from two dimensional photographs. Contemporary photogrammetry software packages offer an automated solution capable of generating dense point clouds with millions of 3D data points from multiple images. While alternative modern documentation methods exist, including LiDAR technologies such as 3D scanning, which provide the ability to collect millions of highly accurate points in just a few minutes, the appeal of automated photogrammetry software as a tool for collecting dimensional data is the minimal equipment, equipment costs and ease of use.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0137
Heiko Doerr, Ingo Stuermer
Abstract A key component of developing a safety-critical automotive system in compliance with ISO 26262 is developing what is known as the safety case. This delivery justifies that the system is free from unreasonable risk and that the safety requirements are complete and satisfied according to evidence from ISO 26262 work products. However, the standard provides neither practical guidance on how the safety case should be developed, nor how the safety argument should be evaluated in the functional safety assessment process. This paper discusses quality and product readiness of the system under development in the context of safety case generation. We will focus on the software level and ISO 26262-6 requirements that relate to this. We will look at the software lifecycle of the system and how to measure and deliver key data throughout this lifecycle.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0467
Haizhen Liu, Weiwen Deng, Rui He, Jian Wu, Bing Zhu
Abstract This paper presents a unified novel function-based brake control architecture, which is designed based on a top-down approach with functional abstraction and modularity. The proposed control architecture includes a commands interpreter module, including a driver commands interpreter to interpret driver intention, and a command integration to integrate the driver intention with senor-guided active driving command, state observers for estimation of vehicle sideslip, vehicle speed, tire lateral and longitudinal slips, tire-road friction coefficient, etc., a commands integrated control allocation module which aims to generate braking force and yaw moment commands and provide optimal distribution among four wheels without body instability and wheel lock or slip, a low-level control module includes four wheel pressure control modules, each of which regulates wheel pressure by fast and accurate tracking commanded wheel pressure.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1334
Christopher Flegel, Parth Bhivate, Liang Li, Yash Mathur, Sanket Phalgaonkar, Mark Benton, Prasanth Muralidharan, Johnell Brooks, Srikanth Pilla, Paul Venhovens, David Lewis, Garrett DeBry, Craig Payne
Abstract The Deep Orange framework is an integral part of the graduate automotive engineering education at Clemson University International Center for Automotive Research (CU-ICAR). The initiative was developed to immerse students into the world of an OEM. For the 6th generation of Deep Orange, the goal was to develop an urban utility/activity vehicle for the year 2020. The objective of this paper is to describe the development of a multimaterial lightweight Body-in-White (BiW) structure to support an all-electric powertrain combined with an interior package that maximizes volume to enable a variety of interior configurations and activities for Generation Z users. AutoPacific data were first examined to define personas on the basis of their demographics and psychographics.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0090
Patrick Barasa, Ye Tian, Stefan Hardes, Shahaboddin Owlia, Purvi Limaye, Derek Bailey, Tarun Sehgal
Abstract Increasingly advanced engines are having high degrees of flux in design, hardware, and requirement changes throughout the development process from initial design intent to production, all occurring at various points in the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC). Boosting, downsizing, various exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) schemes, variable valve timing/lift (VVT/VVL), and direct injection are part of new engine designs. These are being coupled with 6-10 speed transmission or electric motors for increasing overall efficiency while maintaining performance. Development and calibration of the control systems required to extract the best possible performance of these applied technologies is becoming a complex and resource consuming task when time, budget, and test beds become limited. Therefore, an equally rapid means to thoroughly test new engine designs, new algorithms and optimize calibrations is required.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1017
Mitsutaka Jono, Masayuki Taguchi, Toshimitsu Shonohara, Shigeru Narihiro
Abstract It is important to take action regarding environmental issues on a global scale, and automakers are adding downsized turbocharged engines to their line-ups as a means of reducing CO2 emissions, particularly in Europe. Honda has recently announced a next-generation powertrain series that realizes a good balance between environmental performance and driving pleasure. As part of this series, the company has developed a downsized and turbocharged 2.0L gasoline direct injection engine. This is a high-powered sports car engine positioned in the European “hot hatch” category. The development balanced engine power with good environmental performance.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1159
Amanullah Khan, Timothy Grewe, Jinming Liu, Mohammad Anwar, Alan Holmes, Richard Balsley
Abstract This paper describes the capabilities of a new two-motor plug-in hybrid-electric propulsion system developed for rear wheel drive. The PHEV system comprises a 2.0L turbocharged 4-cylinder direct-injected gasoline engine with the new hybrid transmission [1], a new traction power inverter module, a liquid-cooled lithium-ion battery pack, and on-board battery charger and 12V power converter module. The capability and features of the system components are described, and component performance and vehicle data are reported. The resulting propulsion system provides an excellent combination of electric-only driving, acceleration, and fuel economy.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0040
Ming Meng, Wilson Khoo
The modern vehicle development is highly dependent on software. The software development plays an extremely important role in vehicle safety and security. In order to ensure software high quality and safety standards, we have investigated the secure software development process and analyzed the works in this area. Based on our analysis, we have identified the similarities and differences between the secure software development process and the existing vehicle development process. We then made suggestions on how to adopt the secure software development process in the overall vehicle development process.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1537
Anindya Deb, Gunti R. Srinivas, Clifford C. Chou
Abstract The present work is concerned with the objective of developing a process for practical multi-disciplinary design optimization (MDO). The main goal adopted here is to minimize the weight of a vehicle body structure meeting NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness), durability, and crash safety targets. Initially, for simplicity a square tube is taken for the study. The design variables considered in the study are width, thickness and yield strength of the tube. Using the Response Surface Method (RSM) and the Design Of Experiments (DOE) technique, second order polynomial response surfaces are generated for prediction of the structural performance parameters such as lowest modal frequency, fatigue life, and peak deceleration value. The optimum solution is then obtained by using traditional gradient-based search algorithm functionality “fmincon” in commercial Matlab package.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0667
Kookjin Hwang, Iljoong Hwang, Hwangbok Lee, Hyunil Park, Hoyeon Choi, Kwanwoo Lee, Wootae Kim, Heungchul Kim, Bonghoon Han, Jongsub Lee, Bosung Shin, Dongsuk Chae
Abstract Hyundai/Kia Motor Company will introduce new Kappa 1.6L GDI engine dedicated for hybrid vehicles, starting production for Korean market in the early 2016. It has achieved the challenging level of 40% maximum thermal efficiency as a gasoline engine. Even though it has the highest fuel efficiency, it can generate sufficient power to provide vehicle's dynamic driving performance. The new Kappa 1.6L GDI engine has been developed focusing on the fuel efficiency. To maximize fuel efficiency, compact combustion chamber is designed with 1.35 stroke-bore ratio. And other key technologies such as Atkinson cycle with high compression ratio, cooled EGR system with high energy ignition coil and high tumble intake ports are applied. The knock has been suppressed significantly to improve fuel efficiency by split cooling system with two thermostats and block insert, the piston cooling jet and the sodium-filled exhaust valve.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0936
Anoop Reghunathan Nair, Brett Schubring, Kiran Premchand, Andrew Brocker, Peter Croswell, Craig DiMaggio, Homayoun Ahari, Jeffrey Wuttke, Michael Zammit, Michael Andrew Smith
New Particulate Matter (PM) and Particulate Number (PN) regulations throughout the world have created a need for aftertreatment solutions that include particulate control as an option to comply with the legislation. However, limitations in other criteria emissions cannot be sacrificed to accomplish the reduction of PM/PN. For this work, three-way washcoat catalyzed wall-flow Gasoline Particulate Filters (GPF) and similarly catalyzed flow-through catalysts of common defined volume were tested. Their catalytic performance was determined by measuring NOx, CO and HC conversion efficiencies and CO2 levels over the U.S. Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) cycles. Analysis of the impact on CO2 emissions was also evaluated in relation to backpressure from 1-D modeling analysis. All exhaust systems used the same loading and ratio of Platinum Group Metals (PGM), but employed different cell structures in their substrates.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0002
Scott Eisele, Masahiro Yamaura, Nikos Arechiga, Shinichi Shiraishi, Joseph Hite, Jason Scott, Sandeep Neema, Theodore Bapty
Abstract Complex systems, such as modern advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), consist of many interacting components. The number of options promises considerable flexibility for configuring systems with many cost-performance-value tradeoffs; however the potential unique configurations are exponentially many prohibiting a build-test-fix approach. Instead, engineering analysis tools for rapid design-space navigation and analysis can be applied to find feasible options and evaluate their potential for correct system behavior and performance subject to functional requirements. The OpenMETA toolchain is a component-based, design space creation and analysis tool for rapidly defining and analyzing systems with large variability and cross-domain requirements. The tool supports the creation of compositional, multi-domain components, based on a user-defined ontology, which captures the behavior and structure of components and the allowable interfaces.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1598
Frank Meinert, Kristian Johannessen, Fernando Saito, Bongha Song, Jewel Barlow, David Burton, Taehwan Cho, Luis Fernando Gouveia de Moraes
Abstract Wind tunnel testing of reduced-scale models is a valuable tool for aerodynamic development during the early stages of a new vehicle program, when basic design themes are being evaluated. Both full-and reduced-scale testing have been conducted for many years at the General Motors Aerodynamics Laboratory (GMAL), but with increased emphasis on aerodynamic drag reduction, it was necessary to identify additional facilities to provide increased test capacity. With vehicle development distributed among engineering teams around the world, it was also necessary to identify facilities local to those teams, to support their work. This paper describes a cooperative effort to determine the correlation among five wind tunnels: GMAL, the Glenn L.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1164
Oguz H. Dagci, Huei Peng
Abstract The goal of this paper is to explore the complete set of single mode hybrid electric powertrain designs that can be generated with one and two planetary gearsets (PGs). Contrary to an automated design exploration approach, an analytically-based manual method is developed to identify all unique design modes for each hybrid electric powertrain architecture (parallel, series, power-split) that can be created with two planetary gearsets, one engine, one vehicle output shaft, two electric machines, and at most two brake clutches. Feasible design modes are generated according to a procedure that provably covers the entire design space.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0961
Satish Narayanan Ramachandran, Gillis Hommen, Paul Mentink, Xander Seykens, Frank Willems, Frank Kupper
Abstract Heavy-duty diesel engines are used in a wide range of applications. For varying operating environments, the engine and aftertreatment system must comply with the real-world emission legislation limits. Simultaneously, minimal fuel consumption and good drivability are crucial for economic competitiveness and usability. Meeting these requirements takes substantial development and calibration effort, and complying with regulations results in a trade-off between emissions and fuel consumption. TNO's Integrated Emission Management (IEM) strategy finds online, the cost-optimal point in this trade-off and is able to deal with variations in operating conditions, while complying with legislation limits. Based on the actual state of the engine and aftertreatment system, an optimal engine operating point is computed using a model-based optimal-control algorithm.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0982
Philip Lawson, John Houldcroft, Andrew Neil, Andrea Balcombe, Richard Osborne, Antonio Ciriello, Wilhelm Graupner
Abstract A recent trend in powertrain development organisations has been to apply processes historically associated with manufacturing. The aim is to capitalise on the resulting productivity gains to contain the increasing test demand necessary to develop current and future product. Significant obstacles to the implementation of manufacturing derived methods include the lack of clarity of the engineering test requirements and existing working practices in the product development environment. The System Optimisation Approach has been presented in previous work as a potential solution [1]. As an extension, this paper introduces a new concept closely related to the established manufacturing principle of Process Capability (Cp). Application of the resulting method quantifies the test facility’s capability to provide a test result subject to a specified statistical confidence within a certain number of test repeats.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1083
Kenji Sato, Takeru Hamakawa, Takeyuki Yamasaki, Yoshimichi Ishihara, Hisashi Hashimoto, Chao Shi, Hiroaki Haneda, Shinichi Takahashi, Yoshiyuki Iida
Abstract The independent bearing cap is a cylinder block bearing structure that has high mass reduction effects. In general, this structure has low fastening stiffness compared to the rudder block structure. Furthermore, when using combination of different materials small sliding occurs at the mating surface, and fretting fatigue sometimes occurs at lower area than the material strength limit. Fretting fatigue was previously predicted using CAE, but there were issues with establishing a correlation with the actual engine under complex conditions, and the judgment criteria were not clear, so accurate prediction was a challenge. This paper reports on a new CAE-based prediction method to predict the fretting damage occurring on the bearing cap mating surface in an aluminum material cylinder block. First of all, condition a fretting fatigue test was performed with test pieces, and identification of CAE was performed for the strain and sliding amount.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0177
Edward G. Groff
During the late 1980’s and early 1990’s the two-stroke-cycle engine was an extremely popular and highly publicized automotive powertrain technology globally. Active development programs existed at many OEMs during that period, including GM, where the author was involved, and production seemed eminent. Autoweek stated on the cover of its March 12, 1990 issue, “Revolution for the millennium or Wankel of the ‘90s?” This paper covers the new technologies that led to the generation of so much excitement in the industry and press, the advantages and disadvantages of the engine concept, R&D tools developed at that time that are still in use today, and various engine concepts pursued in the industry. The story is not only interesting from engineering and technology perspectives but illustrates how innovations in certain subsystems become enablers to revive a system technology by eliminating issues that prevented it from making it to production in the past.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0687
Weiyong Tang, Bob Chen, Kevin Hallstrom, Ansgar Wille
Nowadays the Chinese legislative development and the implementation of advanced technologies to curb HDD emissions have been a subject of worldwide attention. Currently China is warping its efforts to deploy and enforce the launch of nationwide Stage IV and is also preparing for the setup and implementation of future regulation standards. Focus discussion here is on the aftertreatment pathways to meet China current and future emissions standards, based on market uniqueness. This paper seeks to provide retrospectives of the adoption of V-SCR on China stage IV HDD vehicles, through presenting findings from two separate postmortem analyses of field returned catalyst parts and also through comparative study with local catalyst products. The paper also discusses the challenges and possible solutions meeting the WHTC requirement for Stage IV and V city vehicles.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0693
Daishi Takahashi, Koichi Nakata, Yasushi Yoshihara, Tetsuo Omura
Abstract Improving vehicle fuel economy is a central part of efforts toward achieving a sustainable society, and an effective way of accomplishing this aim is to enhance the engine thermal efficiency. Measures to mitigate knocking and reduce engine cooling heat loss are important aspects of enhancing the engine thermal efficiency. Cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is regarded as a key technology because it is capable of achieving both of these objectives. For this reason, it has been adopted in a wide range of both hybrid vehicles and conventional vehicles in recent years. Cooled EGR has the potential to achieve further lower fuel consumption if the EGR ratio can be increased. Fast combustion is an important and effective way for expanding the EGR ratio. The engine combustion enhancement can be categorized into measures to improve ignition characteristics and methods to promote flame propagation.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1153
Jinming Liu, Mohammad Anwar, Peter Chiang, Shawn Hawkins, Youngsoo Jeong, Faizul Momen, Stephen Poulos, Seunghan Song
Abstract Building on the experience of the Chevrolet Spark EV battery electric vehicle, General Motors (GM) has developed a propulsion system with increased capability for its next generation Chevrolet Bolt EV. It propels a new larger electric vehicle with significantly greater electric driving range. Through extensive analysis the primary propulsion system components, which include the drive unit, traction electric motor, power electronics, energy storage, and on-board charging module, were optimized individually and as an integrated system to deliver improvements in propulsion system energy, power, torque and efficiency. The results deliver outstanding EV range and fun-to-drive acceleration performance.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0571
Guillaume Bernard, Mark Scaife, Amit Bhave, David Ooi, Julian Dizy
Abstract Internal combustion (IC) engines that meet Tier 4 Final emissions standards comprise of multiple engine operation and control parameters that are essential to achieve the low levels of NOx and soot emissions. Given the numerous degrees of freedom and the tight cost/time constraints related to the test bench, application of virtual engineering to IC engine development and emissions reduction programmes is increasingly gaining interest. In particular, system level simulations that account for multiple cycle simulations, incylinder turbulence, and chemical kinetics enable the analysis of combustion characteristics and emissions, i.e. beyond the conventional scope of focusing on engine performance only. Such a physico-chemical model can then be used to develop Electronic Control Unit in order to optimise the powertrain control strategy and/or the engine design parameters.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1012
Seiji Furumata, Takashi Kakinuma, Hirokazu Tochiki
Abstract This paper introduces the newly developed super sports car engine mounted in the new model NSX. A super sports car engine was newly developed to satisfy the high power performance required by the body package. Higher power and compactness were simultaneously achieved by selecting an engine displacement of 3.5 L and by using a V6 layout and a turbocharger. This enabled to mount a power train that combines a hybrid motor with a newly developed transmission in the rear of the body. The lubrication system uses a dry sump system capable of maintaining reliable lubrication in all possible super sports car driving scenarios. The combustion system uses high tumble-flow ports, a direct injection and a port injection system that increase power performance and thermal efficiency, emission reduction. To support the increased heat load due to higher power, a 3-piece water jacket is used around the combustion chamber and the exhaust ports.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1584
Kenichi Ando, Naoshi Kuratani, Hideo Fukuda
Abstract An aerodynamic styling evaluation system employed at an early automotive development stage was constructed. The system based on CFD consists of exterior model morphing, computational mesh generation, flow calculation and result analysis, and the process is automatically and successively executed by process automation software. Response surfaces and a parallel coordinates chart output by the system allow users to find a well-balanced exterior form, in terms of aerodynamics and exterior styling, in a wide design space which are often arduous to be obtained by a conventional CAE manner and scale model wind tunnel testing. The system was designed so that 5-parameter study is completed within approximately two days, and consequently, has been widely applied to actual exterior styling development. An application for a hatchback vehicle is also introduced as an actual example.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0692
Yasushi Yoshihara, Koichi Nakata, Daishi Takahashi, Tetsuo Omura, Atsuharu Ota
Abstract Improving vehicle fuel economy is a central part of efforts toward achieving a sustainable society. An effective way of accomplishing this is to enhance the engine thermal efficiency. Mitigating knock and reducing engine heat loss are important aspects of enhancing the thermal efficiency. Cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is regarded as a key technology because it is capable of achieving both of these objectives. For this reason, it has been adopted in a wide range of both hybrid vehicles and conventional vehicles in recent years. In EGR equipped engines, fast combustion is regarded as one of the most important technologies, since it realizes higher EGR ratio. To create fast combustion, generation of strong in-cylinder turbulence is necessary. Strong in-cylinder turbulence is achieved through swirl, squish, and tumble flows. Specifically high tumble flow has been adopted on a number of new engines because of the intense effect of promoting in-cylinder turbulence.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1497
William Bortles, Wayne Biever, Neal Carter, Connor Smith
Abstract This paper presents a comprehensive literature review of original equipment event data recorders (EDR) installed in passenger vehicles, as well as a summary of results from the instrumented validation studies. The authors compiled 187 peer-reviewed studies, textbooks, legal opinions, governmental rulemaking policies, industry publications and presentations pertaining to event data recorders. Of the 187 total references, there were 64 that contained testing data. The authors conducted a validation analysis using data from 27 papers that presented both the EDR and corresponding independent instrumentation values for: Vehicle velocity change (ΔV) Pre-Crash vehicle speed The combined results from these studies highlight unique observations of EDR system testing and demonstrate the observed performance of original equipment event data recorders in passenger vehicles.
Viewing 241 to 270 of 10324