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Viewing 181 to 210 of 10348
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2224
Miriam Di Russo, Jerry Ku, Juan Briones Idrovo
Abstract This paper details the development of the control algorithms to characterize the behavior of an electrohydraulic actuated dry clutch used in the powertrain of the Wayne State University EcoCAR 3 Pre-Transmission Parallel hybrid vehicle. The paper describes the methodology and processes behind the development of the clutch physical model and electronic control unit to support the calibration of the vehicle’s hybrid supervisory controller. The EcoCAR 3 competition challenges sixteen North American universities to re-engineer the 2016 Chevrolet Camaro to reduce its environmental impact without compromising its performance and consumer acceptability. The team is in final stages of Year Two competition, which focuses on the powertrain components integration into the selected hybrid architecture. The dry clutch used by the team to enable the coupling between the engine and the electric motor is a key component of the Pre-Transmission Parallel configuration.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2243
Chen Yang, Haiyuan Cheng, Zizhu Fan, Jiandong Yin, Yuan Shen, Frank Haubner, Jeroen Slotman, Joerg Seibel, Stephan Baer
Abstract In recent years, more attention has been focused on environment pollution and energy source issues. As a result, increasingly stringent fuel consumption and emission legislations have been implemented all over the world. For automakers, enhancing engine’s efficiency as a must contributes to lower vehicle fuel consumption. To reach this goal, Geely auto started the development of a 3-cylinder 1.0L turbocharged direct injection (TGDI) gasoline engine to achieve a challenging fuel economy target while maintaining fun-to-drive and NVH performance. Demanding development targets for performance (specific torque 205Nm/L and specific power 100kW/L) and excellent part-load BSFC were defined, which lead to a major challenge for the design of the combustion system. Considering air/fuel mixture, fuel wall impingement and even future potential for lean burn combustion, a symmetrical layout and a central position for the injector with 200bar injection pressure was determined.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2236
Jann Koch, Guoqing Xu, Yuri M. Wright, Konstantinos Boulouchos, Michele Schiliro
Abstract Three-dimensional reactive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) plays a crucial role in IC engine development tasks complementing experimental efforts by providing improved understanding of the combustion process. A widely adopted combustion model in the engine community for (partially) premixed combustion is the G-Equation where the flame front is represented by an iso-level of an arbitrary scalar G. A convective-reactive equation for this iso-surface is solved, for which the turbulent flame speed ST must be provided. In this study, the commonly used and well-established Damköhler approach is compared to a novel correlation, derived from an algebraic closure for the scalar dissipation of reaction progress as proposed by Kolla et al. [1].
2016-10-03
Journal Article
2016-01-9044
Eric Gingrich, Daniel Janecek, Jaal Ghandhi
Abstract An experimental investigation was conducted to explore the impact in-cylinder pressure oscillations have on piston heat transfer. Two fast-response surface thermocouples embedded in the piston top measured transient temperature and a commercial wireless telemetry system was used to transmit thermocouple signals from the moving piston. Measurements were made in a light-duty single-cylinder research engine operated under low temperature combustion regimes including Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) and Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) and Conventional Diesel (CDC). The HCCI data showed a correlated trend of higher heat transfer with increased pressure oscillation strength, while the RCCI and CDC data did not. An extensive HCCI data set was acquired. The heat transfer rate - when corrected for differences in cylinder pressure and gas temperature - was found to positively correlate with increased pressure oscillations.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8032
Anatoliy Dubrovskiy, Sergei Aliukov, Andrei Keller, Sergei Dubrovskiy, Alexander Alyukov
Abstract In this paper we consider a new design of adaptive suspension systems of vehicles with better technical characteristics and functional abilities in comparison with existing designs. We have developed the following main suspension components of vehicles: a lockable adaptive shock absorber with a wide range of control performance, implementing "lockout" mode by means of blocking adaptive shock absorber, and an elastic element with progressive non-linear characteristic and automatic optimization of localization of work areas. Advantages of our developments in the vehicle suspensions are the following: 1) when the vehicle is in a wide range of speeds in a so-called "comfort zone", we have managed, by applying the non-linear elastic element, to reduce significantly the stiffness of the elastic suspension elements in compare with the regular structures - at least in two times.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8087
Xia Meng
Abstract The output power of a turbocharged diesel engine will decrease and the maximum torque point in the full load torque map will move backwards when the engine is operating at plateau.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8082
Kaushik Saha, Ahmed Abdul Moiz, Anita Ramirez, Sibendu Som, Munidhar Biruduganti, Michael Bima, Patrick Powell
Abstract The medium and heavy duty vehicle industry has fostered an increase in emissions research with the aim of reducing NOx while maintaining power output and thermal efficiency. This research describes a proof-of-concept numerical study conducted on a Caterpillar single-cylinder research engine. The target of the study is to reduce NOx by taking a unique approach to combustion air handling and utilizing enriched nitrogen and oxygen gas streams provided by Air Separation Membranes. A large set of test cases were initially carried out for closed-cycle situations to determine an appropriate set of operating conditions that are conducive for NOx reduction and gas diffusion properties. Several parameters - experimental and numerical, were considered. Experimental aspects, such as engine RPM, fuel injection pressure, start of injection, spray inclusion angle, and valve timings were considered for the parametric study.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8078
He Changming, Xu Sichuan
Currently the downsizing of IC Engine has become the mainstream to meet fuel economy and emission regulations. It is required that higher power output while with lighter weight that is actually a daunting challenge for a common four-stroke IC engine, because it needs lots of new technologies and high manufacturing cost. For recent years the two-stroke opposed piston engine has drawn much attention in many developed countries for fundamental advantages itself. Double firing frequency means the increased power density brings about smaller engine size and lighter weight. However, the low scavenge efficiency has been assumed the main disadvantage for a two-stroke engine for a long period, and adverse to combustion efficiency. The uniflow scavenging process was investigated by the transient CFD simulation for multiple Cases. The influence of port timing and exhaust back pressure on scavenging was analyzed for two different intake port layouts.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8074
Gaurav Kumar, Pavan Sindgikar, Narayan Jadhav, Sandip Gaidhane, Sarfaraj Shaikh
Abstract With the advent of most advanced diesel engines the demand for upgraded engine cooling modules capable of handling more heat rejection in a smaller space is surging. Moreover, the variance in the operating conditions, i.e., the simultaneous cooling demands for peak load as well as partial load in different ambient conditions of the vehicle operation, broadens the scope of development of a cooling system. Also, the cooling system needs to be configured judiciously so as to cater effective cooling at peak loads and efficient cooling at partial loads. This research paper deals with a cooling system developed using modularity approach in order to have a control over tuning of subsystems for varying operating conditions and also to achieve the performance targets with a compact design adhering to packaging constraints. Kuli simulation of different designed configurations were carried out for identification of best concept.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8062
Jham Kunwar Tikoliya, Ram Krishna Kumar Singh, Ramesh Kumar, Suresh Kumar Kandreegula
Abstract The existing head cover is having external oil and blow by separation unit, which is not only costlier but also complex and leads to increase in overall height of engine which was difficult to integrate in new variants of vehicles. A new head cover has been designed with internal baffle type oil and blow by separation system to ensure efficient separation and proper packaging of the system in new variants. The new system has been finalized after 26 DOE’s of different wire mesh sizes and different baffle plate size and positions. The final system has two bowl shaped separation unit with wire mesh, two cup type oil separation passages and one baffle plate for separating blow by. The system works on condensation and gravity method. The blow by is guided through a well-defined passage integrated in aluminum cylinder head cover itself. The passage angle is maintained to ensure minimum oil flow with blow by.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8128
Vladimir G. Shevtsov, Alexandr Lavrov, Zahid A. Godzhaev, Valentin M. Kryazhkov, Gennagy S. Gurulev
Abstract The objective of this study is to identify the most popular agricultural tractor models in Russia by their engine ratings and countries of origin. This review presents an analysis of changes in the composition of engine-ratings and sales volume of agricultural tractors in the Russian market between 2008 and 2014. Including knock-down kits, the countries of origin are Russia, the CIS-countries and non-CIS Countries. The variety of manufacturers, highlight the leading international companies which have supplied up to 200 units is discussed. The papers shows that CIS-manufactured tractors represent the greatest number in the market - up to 57 per cent, tractors from non-CIS countries occupy up to 12 per cent of the market, and the number of Russian models is quite limited - 3.0 per cent in 2012 and 3.4 per cent in 2014.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8007
Chris Mentzer, Ryan D. Lamm, Jerry Towler
Abstract Since the turn of the millennium, automated vehicle technology has matured at an exponential rate, evolving from research largely funded and motivated by military and agricultural needs to a near-production market focused on everyday driving on public roads. Research and development has been conducted by a variety of entities ranging from universities to automotive manufacturers to technology firms demonstrating capabilities in both highway and urban environments. While this technology continues to show promise, corner cases, or situations outside the average driving environment, have emerged highlighting scenarios that impede the realization of full automation anywhere, anytime. This paper will review several of these corner cases and research deficiencies that need to be addressed for automated driving systems to be broadly deployed and trusted.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8118
QingHui Yuan
Emission, fuel economy and productivity in non-road mobile machinery (NRMM) depend largely on drive cycles. Understanding drive cycles can provide the in-depth information and knowledge that help the system integrator better optimize the vehicle management system. Some non-road engine test cycles already exist nowadays. However, these cycles are mainly for engine emission regulation purpose, and not closely tied to real world applications. Therefore, from both industries and academia, it has been the common practice to instrument and retrofit a vehicle, assign a professional driver operate the retrofitted vehicle for real testing, and compare the results to the baseline vehicle under the similar operating conditions. Obviously this approach is time consuming and resource intensive. In this paper, we attempt to address this issue by introducing a method of constructing standard drive cycles from in-field operation data.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8055
Rohit Saha, Long-Kung Hwang, Mahesh Madurai Kumar, Yunfeng Zhao, Chen Yu, Bob Ransijn
Abstract Wheel loader subsystems are multi-domain in nature, including controls, mechanisms, hydraulics, and thermal. This paper describes the process of developing a multi-domain simulation of a wheel loader. Working hydraulics, kinematics of the working tool, driveline, engine, and cooling system are modeled in LMS Imagine.Lab Amesim. Contacts between boom/bucket and bucket/ground are defined to constrain the movement of the bucket and boom. The wheel loader has four heat exchangers: charge air cooler, radiator, transmission oil cooler, and hydraulic oil cooler. Heat rejection from engine, energy losses from driveline, and hydraulic subsystem are inputs to the heat exchangers. 3D CFD modeling was done to calibrate airflows through heat exchangers in LMS Amesim. CFD modeling was done in ANSYS FLUENT® using a standard k - ε model with detailed fan and underhood geometry.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2091
Raul Cano, Oscar Ibanez de Garayo, Miguel Angel Castillo, Ricardo Marin, Hector Ascorbe, Jose Ramon de los Santos
Abstract The aim of this paper is to present a robust and low-cost automatic system for drilling aluminum stacks, as well as an integral methodology for the design of tool trajectories and the control of the drilling process itself. The proposed system employs a high accuracy robotic arm, a commercial spindle head and a specially developed SCADA, which enables it to load tool trajectories designed by using any software application. Furthermore, this SCADA is useful to monitor the main parameters of the drilling process for anticipating problems related to the unexpected tool wear or for a quick response in case of tool collision. A special jig for positioning the stack to be drilled is designed to increase the robot accessibility. In this work, tests are performed for optimizing the cutting parameters of the robotic system in order to maximize the accuracy and the surface finishing of the holes.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2107
Rainer Mueller, Matthias Vette, Matthias Scholer, Jan Ball
Abstract The global competition challenges aircraft manufactures in high wage countries. The assembly of large components is very difficult and distinguished by fixed position assembly. Many complex assembly processes such as aircraft assembly are manually done by highly skilled workers. The aircraft manufactures deal with a varying number of items, increasing number of product variants and strict product requirements. During the assembly process hundreds of clips, ties and stringers as well as thousands of rivets must be assembled. To remain competitive in global competition, companies in high wage countries like Germany must insure a continuously high productivity and quality level. To achieve a reduction of cycle times with a simultaneous increase in quality, supportive assistance systems for visual support, documentation and organization within the assembly are required. One example for visual assistance systems are laser projection systems.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8106
Sameer Kolte, Ananth Kumar Srinivasan, Akilla Srikrishna
Abstract As we move towards the world of autonomous vehicles it becomes increasingly important to integrate several chassis control systems to provide the desired vehicle stability without mutual interference. The principles for integration proposed in existing technical literature are majorly centralized which are not only computationally expensive but does not fit the current supplier based OEM business model. An Automotive OEM brings multiple suppliers on-board for developing the Active Safety systems considering several factors such as cost, quality, time, ease of business etc. When these systems are put together in the vehicle they may interfere with each other’s function. Decoupling their function results in a need of heavy calibration causing performance trade-offs and loss in development time.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2069
Zied Aloui, Nawfal Ahamada, Julien Denoulet, Martin Rayrole, Francine Pierre, Marc Gatti
Abstract Avionics is one kind of domain where prevention prevails. Nonetheless failures occur, sometimes due to pilot misreacting, flooded in information. Sometimes information itself would be better verified than trusted. To avoid some kind of failure, it has been thought to add,in midst of the ARINC664 aircraft data network, a new kind of monitoring.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2052
Virgilio Valdivia-Guerrero, Ray Foley, Stefano Riverso, Parithi Govindaraju, Atiyah Elsheikh, Leonardo Mangeruca, Gilberto Burgio, Alberto Ferrari, Marcel Gottschall, Torsten Blochwitz, Serge Bloch, Danielle Taylor, Declan Hayes-McCoy, Andreas Himmler
Abstract This paper presents an overview of a project called “Modelling and Simulation Tools for Systems Integration on Aircraft (MISSION)”. This is a collaborative project being developed under the European Union Clean Sky 2 Program, a public-private partnership bringing together aeronautics industrial leaders and public research organizations based in Europe. The provision of integrated modeling, simulation, and optimization tools to effectively support all stages of aircraft design remains a critical challenge in the Aerospace industry. In particular the high level of system integration that is characteristic of new aircraft designs is dramatically increasing the complexity of both design and verification. Simultaneously, the multi-physics interactions between structural, electrical, thermal, and hydraulic components have become more significant as the systems become increasingly interconnected.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2027
Brett Robbins, Kevin J. Yost, Jon Zumberge
Abstract Detailed machine models are, and will continue to be, a critical component of both the design and validation processes for engineering future aircraft, which will undoubtedly continue to push the boundaries for the demand of electric power. This paper presents a survey of experimental testing procedures for typical synchronous machines that are applied to brushless synchronous machines with rotating rectifiers to characterize their operational impedances. The relevance and limitations of these procedures are discussed, which include steady-state drive stand tests, sudden short-circuit transient (SSC) tests, and standstill frequency response (SSFR) tests. Then, results captured in laboratory of the aforementioned tests are presented.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2039
Prashant S. Vadgaonkar, Ullas Janardhan
Avionics industry is moving towards fly-by wire aircrafts with less reliance on mechanical systems leading to increase in the complexity of in-flight hardware elements. RTCA/DO-254 and EUROCAE ED-80 plays a vital role in the design assurance of airborne electronic hardware. RTCA/ DO-254 and EUROCAE ED-80 are the industry standards for Design Assurance Guidance for Airborne Electronic Hardware. The two different agencies FAA and EU regulate and apply this design assurance guidance to the regulatory law in CFR and EASA CS respectively. This paper discusses the need for DO-254 /ED-80 certification in Aerospace industry, the advantages and benefits to the avionics manufacturers. The paper presents the study made on similarities and differences between DO-254/ED-80.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2018
Syed J. Khalid
Abstract The key commercial aircraft propulsion requirements toward ensuring flight safety, operational efficiency, reduced CO2 footprint, and community acceptability include high installed thrust, low specific fuel consumption, and reduced noise. The objective of this paper is to highlight the various ways turbofan performance can be enhanced. First the advantage of high bypass ratio (BPR) configurations will be explained with the help of clean sheet cycle designs with the corresponding off-design performance. The achievement of hot day performance and improved durability with high BPR designs, and the benefit from core supercharging has been presented. Next, the use of on-line control effector modulations, including variable bypass exhaust nozzle, for further improvement in cruise SFC (up to an indicated 2.6%) is shown. This is followed by a discussion of medium BPR mixed exhaust designs which have a performance advantage compared to the same BPR separate exhaust configurations.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2055
Koji Muraoka, Daisuke Hirabayashi, Masayuki Sato, Yoshihisa Aoki
Abstract JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) has been conducting a research on a future commercial tilt wing VTOL (Vertical TakeOff and Landing) transport under JAXA's "Sky Frontier" Program aiming to develop technologies for aircraft innovation. The research focuses on QTW (Quad Tilt Wing) civil VTOL transport, which features tandem tilt wings with propellers mounted at the mid-span of each wing. The goals of the research in the present phase are to propose a concept of a QTW business VTOL transport system and to pursue the essential technologies development such as OEI (One-Engine-Inoperative) safe recovery, transition flight control and cruise efficient aerodynamic design. Nine passengers business QTW concept was designed and trade-off analysis of the propulsion system architecture for OEI safety was conducted.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-1984
Michael Krenz
Abstract This paper proposes a method of optimizing aircraft system architectures by considering the efficiencies of each energy conversion step necessary to fulfill the intended function. In addition, these conversion efficiencies need to be evaluated at all critical operating points for the systems involved (e.g. engine, generator, loads, etc.). The methodology starts with examining the energy sources on the aircraft, the energy loads and the energy transfer efficiencies between the sources and the loads. Modern aircraft architecture trends are broadly addressed along with a framework for applying this methodology, but specific aircraft are not analyzed due to the proprietary nature of some of the conversion efficiency data.
2016-09-20
Journal Article
2016-01-1976
Kiran Thupakula, Adishesha Sivaramasastry, Srikanth Gampa
Abstract Aviation safety is one of the key focus areas of the aerospace industry as it involves safety of passengers, crew, assets etc. Due to advancements in technology, aviation safety has reached to safest levels compared to last few decades. In spite of declining trends in in-air accident rate, ground accidents are increasing due to ever increasing air traffic and human factors in the airport. Majority of the accidents occur during initial and final phases of the flight. Rapid increase in air traffic would pose challenge in ensuring safety and best utilization of Airports, Airspace and assets. In current scenario multiple systems like Runway Debris Monitoring System, Runway Incursion Detection System, Obstacle avoidance system and Traffic Collision Avoidance System are used for collision prediction and alerting in airport environment. However these approaches are standalone in nature and have limitations in coverage, performance and are dependent on onboard equipment.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2020
Constanza Ahumada Sanhueza, Andrea Bristot, Shubham Kumar, Nicolas Schneider, Seamus Garvey, Herve Morvan
Abstract This paper proposes an integrated system’s approach towards design of aero-engine subsystems - seals, bearing chamber, generator and power system. In a conventional design approach, the design of the overall system is typically broken-down into subsystems. Therefore, the focus is not on the mutual interaction between different components or subsystems, resulting in a lack of characterization of the overall system performance at the design phase. A systems design approach adopts a much broader outlook, focusing on the overall optimization of the system performance. This paper is divided into two parts. The first part presents an integrated approach for modelling the electrical, mechanical and hydraulic subsystems of aero engines, in order to analyze the fluid dynamics interactions and reduce the transversal shaft vibrations. For this, an in-line starter/generator and an air-riding seal are studied.
2016-09-20
Journal Article
2016-01-2024
Allan J. Volponi, Liang Tang
Abstract Engine module performance trending and engine system anomaly detection and identification are core capabilities for any engine Condition Based Maintenance system. The genesis of on-condition monitoring can be traced back nearly 4 decades, and a methodology known as Gas Path Analysis (GPA) has played a pivotal role in its evolution. GPA is a general method that assesses and quantifies changes in the underlying performance of the major modules of the engine (compressors and turbines) which directly affect performance changes of interest such as fuel consumption, power availability, compressor surge margins, and the like. This approach has the added benefit in that it enables anomaly detection and identification of many engine system accessory faults (e.g., variable stator vanes, handling and customer bleeds, sensor biases and drift).
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2017
Devesh Kumar, Konrad Juethner, Yves Fournier
Abstract In modern complex engine design, it is a common challenge to keep simulation in step with changes to component geometry, environmental conditions, and mission data - and this applies to both actual designs and those that belong to the hypothetical design space as explored in design of experiments (DOE). In this paper, an effective simulation process and data management (SPDM) approach is presented that hinges on a focus on components, their generalized connections and programmatic templating. This simulation approach improves the fidelity of engine analysis, engineering productivity, quality, scalability across the gas turbine engine organization, and HPC utilization. In addition to this new analysis machinery, gas turbine engine modeling fidelity is elevated by surpassing commonly used one-dimensional (1D) models of rotors.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2047
K. Suresh, Rajkumar Dhande, Udupi Ananthakrishna Acharya
Abstract Reducing the amount of physical testing is of importance in the aeronautical industry, where each physical test represents a significant cost. Apart from the cost aspect, it may also be difficult or hazardous to carry out physical testing. Specific to the aeronautic industry are also the relatively long development cycles, implying long periods of uncertainty during product development. In any industry a common viewpoint is that of verification, validation, and uncertainty quantification using simulation models are critical activities for a successful development of a product. In Aeronautical application, the design of store's structural equipments needs to be certified in accordance with MIL-T-7743F [1]. This paper focuses on a case study for shock analysis, whereby an attempt has been made to reduce the cost of certification by way of replacing the actual physical testing by a reliable high fidelity FE simulation.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-1979
William D. Bertelsen
Abstract Technology to create a VTOL for general aviation that is fast, efficient, easy to fly, and affordable, has proven elusive. Bertelsen Design LLC has built a large research model to investigate the potential of the arc wing VTOL to fulfill these attributes. The aircraft that is the subject of this paper weighs approximately 145 kg (320 lbs) and features coaxial, dual-rotating propellers, diameter 1.91 m (75 inches). Power is from an MZ 202 two-cycle, two-cylinder engine. Wingspan is 1.82 m (72 inches). The arc wing differentiates this aircraft from previous deflected-slipstream prototypes, which suffered from pitch-trim issues during transition. This paper will present configuration details of the Bertelsen model, showing how it is possible to generate high lift from a short-span wing system. The Bertelsen model can hover out of ground effect using just two arc-wing elements: a main wing and a “slat”.
Viewing 181 to 210 of 10348