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Viewing 151 to 180 of 10348
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0137
Marco Schöggl, Ernst-Georg Lorinser
Abstract With the official publication of the “RDE package 1” on 31st March 2016 the long awaited start of RDE testing is now fixed. This event marks a milestone in the emission legislation for passenger cars and is the first of a series of four RDE packages to fade-in real world testing of passenger cars in Europe. During the same time India announced in the Gazette of India on 19th February, 2016 - G.S.R. 187(E). - the draft of introduction of Bharat VI by April 1st 2020 [5] which also should include the Real Driving Emissions (RDE) on-road certification as per procedure laid down in AIS137 and as amended from time to time. As European RDE legislation will be the baseline for Indian RDE legislation rules this paper will highlight the differences and challenges expected between the requirements in Europe compared to India during the first tests done by AVL Technical Center Private Limited located in Gurgaon.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0144
Dominik Lamotte, Peter Neumann, Klaus Schrewe
Abstract Emissions of diesel engine are considered to be harmful to health especially particulate emissions. Therefore, the introduction of diesel particulate filters (DPF) were successively forced by government due to reducing the emission limits to a level where inner engine measures are not sufficient anymore. To limit additional fuel consumption by increasing backpressure over the DPF, the collected soot has to be regenerated continuously or discrete by active regeneration. Active regeneration is usually realized by injecting additional fuel either due to the engines injection system into the combustion chamber (late post injection) or via an additional fuel injection device in the exhaust line. This enables increasing exhaust temperature and / or an exothermic reaction in the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) of the aftertreatment system.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0145
Benjamin Rodriguez Sharpe, Oscar Delgado, Mehul Garg
Abstract This analysis is a comprehensive assessment of the fuel-saving technologies and technology packages for three representative diesel HDV types in India: a 40-tonne Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW) tractor-trailer, 25-tonne rigid truck, and a 16-tonne transit bus. These representative vehicle types are modeled after top-selling models in the Indian market based on sales data from fiscal year 2013-14. To model these vehicle types are accurately as possible, the study team acquired detailed engine maps that match the engine models in the respective vehicles and sought input on other vehicle systems from some of the leading Indian HDV manufacturers and suppliers. Using Autonomie as the vehicle simulation platform, the authors investigate the fuel consumption impacts of both individual technologies and combinations of technologies in the following areas: engine, transmission, driveline, aerodynamics, tires, material substitution (i.e., curb weight reduction), and hybridization.
2017-01-10
Journal Article
2017-26-0256
Roman Liessner, Ansgar Dietermann, Bernard Bäker, Klaus Lüpkes
Abstract The reduction of fuel consumption as well as the rising demands of customers regarding a vehicle’s driving dynamic and the legislator’s continually rising demands are a current issue in vehicle development. Hybrid vehicles offer a possibility to rise to this challenge. Realistic driving cycles are of utmost importance for the calibration of a hybrid vehicle’s operational strategy. Deriving replacement speed cycles from extensive customer data sets seems to be an approach for solving these problems. The contribution at hand describes the derivation of replacement cycles by using stochastic models, probabilistic (weighted) drawings and a combinatorial optimisation. The novelty value is that the characteristic influences of all drivers are being considered in the generation due to the stochastic modelling.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0036
Ingo Steinberg, Dan Freiholtz, Gereon Hellenbroich
Abstract The reduction of CO2 emissions at vehicle level through the improvement of transmission efficiency represents the essential goal of transmission development engineers. New requirements, such as the recovery of the kinetic energy of the vehicle while coasting, the hybridization of drivetrains and autonomous driving, are challenges that can best be overcome with automatic transmissions. Dual clutch transmissions (DCT) with power-on-demand actuation systems offer a particularly efficient method of meeting the new requirements. However, many markets show vehicle applications with production volumes of less than 100.000 units per year. FEV’s new DCT family is conceived especially for customers in these markets. The re-use of proven subsystems which are already in series production results in a "business case" for applications with lower volumes also. This article introduces this transmission family.
2017-01-10
Journal Article
2017-26-0026
Sameer Inamdar, M Ravisankar, Anupam Panwar, S Sridhar, Viswanatha Hosur, K Chandru
Abstract In the emerging technology trend, there is continuous demand for increase in engine performance in terms of power & torque while providing competitive fuel efficiency. Understanding and fulfillment of complex customer requirements with affordable technology is extremely challenging. In order to meet potential conflicting needs and offer ‘fun to drive’ experience to customers, Tata Motors has developed first in segment turbocharged gasoline MPFI engine. Further in order to create market differentiator, multi drive modes were introduced as segment first feature. The boosted compact 1200 cc engine while developing 90 Ps power, delivers 140 N-m torque over a wide range of 1500-4000 rpm, best suited for Indian drive conditions. This performance boost is nearly 40% over and above performance of comparable NA engine without any compromise on vehicle level fuel efficiency.
2017-01-10
Journal Article
2017-26-0119
Ragupathi Soundara Rajan, Vijay Sharma, Ashraf Emran, Devising Rathod, John Henry Kwee, Thorsten Michaelis-Hauswaldt, Thomas Körfer
Abstract The emission legislations are becoming increasingly strict all over the world and India too has taken a big leap in this direction by signaling the migration from Bharat Stage 4 (BS 4) to BS 6 in the year 2020. This decision by the Indian government has provided the Indian automotive industry a new challenge to find the most optimal solution for this migration, with the existing BS 4 engines available in their portfolio. Indian market for the LCV segment is highly competitive and cost sensitive where the overall vehicle operation cost (vehicle cost + fluid consumption cost) is the most critical factor. The engine and after-treatment technology for BS 6 emission levels should consider the factors of minimizing the additional hardware cost as well as improving the fuel efficiency. Often both of which are inversely proportional. The presented study involves the optimization of after treatment component size, layout and various systems for NOx and PM reduction.
2017-01-10
Journal Article
2017-26-0275
Prashant Pawar, Omkar Joshi, Mangesh Saraf
Abstract Design of vehicle for targeted customer usage is one of the key steps during vehicle development process. Due to globalization, most of vehicles, aggregates, components are being designed for global market considering worldwide load spectrum. Generally for doing this the vehicle response is being measured for different markets but this process is very time consuming. Also for getting these vehicle dependent parameters, exercises need to be repeated on each type/class of vehicle. So there is a need to have a robust procedure, tools which will helps OEM’s to predict the loads, vehicle response for different market segments at an early stage of vehicle development program using the inputs which are vehicle independent. The solution for this could be to use vehicle independent input such as digitized road profiles (2D or 3D) of target customer markets in combination with proper MBD simulation tools.
2016-12-21
Journal Article
2016-01-9082
Bradley Michael, Rani Sullivan, Dulip Samaratunga, Ratneshwar Jha
Abstract Polymer matrix composites are increasingly adopted in aerospace and automotive industries due to their many attributes, such as their high strength to weight ratio, tailorability, and high fatigue and durability performance. However, these materials also have complex damage and failure mechanisms, such as delaminations, which can severely degrade their strength and fatigue performance. To effectively and safely use composite materials in primary structures, it is essential to assess composite damage response for development of accurate predictive models. Therefore, this study focuses on determining the response of damaged and undamaged carbon epoxy beams subjected to vibration loadings at elevated temperatures. The Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) technique is used to analyze the beams’ modal response. The HHT shows potential in identifying the nonlinear damaged response of the beams.
2016-11-16
Journal Article
2016-01-9047
Taewon Han, Huajun Zhen, Gediminas Mainelis
Abstract We recently developed a novel diesel emissions control device, Electrostatic Screen Battery for Emissions Control (ESBEC), where diesel exhaust particles are collected onto metal screens using electrostatic principle. This paper focuses on further development of this technology: design and integration of a particle charger and testing of ESBEC with diesel exhaust. Two units - 0.038 and 0.152 m (1.5 and 6 inches) in diameter - were fabricated using 3D printing. Both units feature cylinder-shaped housing integrating the electrical charger and up to seven pairs of metal screens, which collect airborne particles. In the small-scale version, particles are charged by ions emitted from a carbon fiber brush, while in the large-scale version, this is done by using two tungsten wires traversing the cross-section of ESBEC in a crisscross pattern.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0046
Stephan Schneider, Marco Chiodi, Horst Friedrich, Michael Bargende
Abstract The proposed paper deals with the development process and initial measurement results of an opposed-piston combustion engine for application in a Free-Piston Linear Generator (FPLG). The FPLG, which is being developed at the German Aerospace Center (DLR), is an innovative internal combustion engine for a fuel based electrical power supply. With its arrangement, the pistons freely oscillate between the compression chamber of the combustion unit and a gas spring with no mechanical coupling like a crank shaft. Linear alternators convert the kinetic energy of the moving pistons into electric energy. The virtual development of the novel combustion system is divided into two stages: On the one hand, the combustion system including e.g. a cylinder liner, pistons, cooling and lubrication concepts has to be developed.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0061
Da Wang, Dingchao Qian, Bo Wang
Abstract This paper summarized the development methodology and technical experiences on Formula Student racecar engines acquired by Jilin University from 2011 to 2015. This series of engines are all based on 600cc 4-cylinder motorcycle gasoline engines and were modified to turbocharged engines which met the Formula Student technical regulations, in order to achieve higher power output, wider torque band as well as lower fuel consumption. During the development process, multiple research projects have been conducted surrounding the turbocharging technology. These research projects have covered multiple areas including the matching of the flow rate characteristics of the engine and the turbocharger, the design of intake and exhaust systems, research on the wastegate as well as its actuator, the tuning and control of the boost pressure as well as the design of the lubrication system for the turbocharger, etc.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0074
Pradeep Ramachandra, Manohar Halahali, Prashanth Anantha
Abstract Personal mobility is evolving in the emerging markets, where the primary need for transportation is met with two wheelers. This reflects on the annual production volumes, which is forecasted to reach 160 million units by 2021[1]. Around 28% of this volume belong to electric two wheelers from China and the remaining are predominantly Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). With the regulators across the globe planning to enforce stricter emission norms in order to improve the air quality and owing to similar demand from the end customers, there is a need for technology to evolve towards harnessing the best energy efficiency using multiple technologies/architectures. However, considering that the majority of two wheelers are used by a population which is cost sensitive, it is imperative that efficient topologies need to be made available at affordable costs. The authors attempt to decipher this need for personal mobility coupled with the stringent regulations.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0096
Patrick Pertl, Michael Lang, Stephan Schmidt, Roland Kirchberger
Abstract The enhancement of efficiency will play a more and more important role in the development of future (small) internal combustion engines. In recent years, the Atkinson (or Extended Expansion) cycle, realized over the crank drive, attracted increasing attention. Several OEMs have investigated this efficiency-increasing principle in the whole range from small engines up to automotive engines until now. In prior publications, the authors outlined the remarkable efficiency potentials of an Extended Expansion (EE) cycle. However, for an internal combustion engine, a smooth running performance as well as low vibrations and noise emissions are relevant aspects. This is especially true for an Extended Expansion engine realized over the crank drive. Therefore, design measures concerning friction and NVH need to be taken to enable possible series production status. Basically, these measures strongly depend on the reduction of the free mass forces and moments.
2016-10-28
Technical Paper
Management and Organization
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0368
Eduardo dos Santos Costa, Jony Javorski Eckert, Fabio Mazzariol Santiciolli, Ludmila Corrêa de Alkmin e Silva, Fernanda Cristina Corrêa, Franco Giuseppe Dedini
Abstract The development of hybrid vehicles has reached in recent years a high technical and commercial importance. In general, varied vehicular settings enable a motorization with several alternatives and conventional energies combined in order to increase the performance while reducing consumption and environmental impact. In the context of hybridization, particular attention has been given to vehicles that consider a secondary driving source of electric nature, mainly in countries where its cost is relatively low when compared with the cost of fossil fuels such as gasoline. This paper aims to achieve an economic and energy analysis of a hybridized vehicle. The last one has a conventional traction front-wheel driven by an internal combustion engine (ICE) and an electric traction rear-wheel propelled by electric motors (EMs) in-wheel.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0372
Bahr Rogerio, Weller Tiago
Abstract The product development process in the automotive industry is constantly subject to several studies focused on trying to minimize the costs and reduce the time to product. However, it can be said that there's very little focus on the opportunity that lays in the CAD Automation possibilities through the use of a method called Knowledge Based Engineering (KBE), which consists in its core essence on the reuse of knowledge gained during previous projects, as well as a set of best design practices, applied through automation methods and artificial intelligence in the CAD models. The CAD process automation could represent a significant reduction in the project hours in the automotive product development, mainly because the processes related to it are well defined and structured. Besides that, new automotive products are usually predictable and systemic, allowing room for an efficient CAD automation.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0327
Leandro Terem, Camila Serafim, Ernani Martinez, Marcos Vicentin, Marcelo Massarani
Abstract In the current automotive industry, in an increasingly challenging environment due to strong competition, to develop a product that performs its functions objectively, with quality and mainly with the lowest possible cost, these are the keys to conquer competitive advantage. This paper is intended to explore cost reduction of an automotive system by using the techniques of the methodology EV / AV (Engineering Value / Analysis Value). The analysis are framed as exploratory, in the form of study, with ratings of the components and their functions, followed by the generation of ideas with the completion of an indication of a great potential for a product development with optimized cost.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0211
Thiago Hoeltgebaum, Rodrigo de Souza Vieira, Daniel Martins
Abstract The competitiveness within the automotive sector increases constantly. Research institutes, universities and manufacturers are commonly trying to discover the new trends and to develop novel technologies. Nevertheless, it is important to understand if a certain technology is worth researching. In order to do that, a state of the art survey is necessary which is usually divided in two main groups: Literature Information and Market Analysis. The literature information regards papers, congress proceedings, books, among other types of formal publication. The market analysis is responsible to gather information within the manufacturers press releases, websites and events, for example. Even though, depending on the technology, those two topics are not enough to reveal the importance of a given technology. Therefore, it is necessary to search the patents database, where it is possible to find the development status of a device.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0218
Alexandre Z. Guarato, Epifanio M. Ticona, Sergio L. Braga
Abstract Energy independence and reduction in pollutant emissions are a center of interest for several researchers and car manufacturers. Renewable fuels have gained in popularity because of their sustainability and, in some cases, lower amounts of greenhouse gases. Moreover, energy diversification is also required by all countries. One possible solution is the use of biofuels such as ethanol, methanol, etc. These biofuels have been shown as good candidates as alternative fuels for vehicles because they are liquid and they have several physical and combustion properties similar to gasoline. Alcohols have also a higher octane number and oxygen content than gasoline. This allows the alcohol engines to have much higher compression ratios (CRs), and thus, better BTE (brake thermal efficiency). Brazilian car manufacturing industry has developed flexible-fuel vehicles, introduced in 2003, which became a commercial success.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0230
Guilherme Canuto da Silva, Paulo Carlos Kaminski
Abstract Automotive industries are undergoing a transformation of their manufacturing systems. Called by the German government as Industrie 4.0, this transformation is based on the evolution of traditional Embedded Systems-ES to Cyber-Physical Systems-CPS. In the next years such evolution will have to reach transitory stages, where ES and CPS should coexist for a determined period of time (ES-CPS). Based on this projection, this work compares ES with CPS, identifies the main differences between these systems and thus forms a transitory stage of automotive manufacturing for the next years. The work is structured as follows: Introduction section places the reader on the treated subject and presents the methodology of the work. Later, Industrie 4.0, Embedded Systems (ES) and Cyber-Physical systems (CPS) are defined. Once this is done, the analysis of ES-CPS transition is finished. Analysis results are presented and a representation of ES-CPS transition is proposed.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0125
Luiz Bellatini, Leandro Alencar, Ricardo Malerman, Rogério Fernandes
Abstract The purpose of this paper is to share with the Product Engineering community relevant learnings on Internal Shift System for Manual Transmissions in order to promote transmission performance and eliminate potential concerns on shift quality and system durability for passenger cars. The subsystems in focus are the Manual Transmission Sliding Sleeve, Gear Fork, Rods and Synch Rings. One important shift ability response that directly affects customer satisfaction is the Gear Clashing. This is a noise and vibration phenomena resultant of parallel synch activation while gear is intended to be engaged. This phenomenon was determinate by lack of Gear Fork design characteristics, which allowed two forks displacement at same time during cross-shifting maneuvers. Through simulation analysis, which consists a detailed select and shift 3D stack-limit motion, an abnormal displacement of non-intended flyer fork displacement has been captured in a specific hardware under development.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0127
Gustavo Siebert, Amilton Sinatora
Abstract The growing use of tribotest has been helping the researches to understand the actuation mechanisms of additives on the friction and wear control of engine parts. But, it is common to observe differences between the tribofilms formed in real situation from that obtained using tribotests. Furthermore, the automakers have difficulty to correlate the results obtained using tribotests with that performed using engines in dynamometers. For the piston ring/cylinder bore tribosystem is almost impossible to reproduce its real tribosystem using tribotests. Therefore simplifications are necessary and they affect the tribochemical behavior of the tribosystem. To understand how these simplifications and the test parameters affect the tribochemical behavior of the simplified tribosystem is critical to design a tribotest that correlate well with the real situation.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0167
Fábio Coelho Barbosa
Abstract Emissions from motor vehicles have been a subject of concern in urban areas, as great amounts of population have been permanently exposed to large amounts of pollutants, with intrinsic adverse health effects. In this context, in the last two decades, stringent emissions standards have been developed to control the maximum emission limits of the so called regulated pollutants. This continuous reduction of emission targets has imposed a great effort to engine and vehicle manufacturer in the development of technological solutions for emission limits compliance, which can be done by reducing engine-out emissions through improvements in combustion process and fuel management system, as well as by using aftertreatment devices in the exhaust system.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0169
Emilio C. Baraldi, Paulo Carlos Kaminski
Abstract The competition among automotive industries increases each year worldwide. Among their diverse needs, what can be highlighted are: market expansion, model diversification, competitive prices, customer-recognized quality, new products release in shorter time periods, among others. The occurrence of flaws that might compromise the health or safety of the product’s user is admittedly one of the largest issues for any manufacturer, especially if these flaws are identified after its commercialization (recall). In this work, a study on recall in the automotive industry in the Brazilian market will be presented, comprising the years of 2013 and 2014. Reasons and causes of recall are addressed, based on the sample of the aforementioned research, with special emphasis on flaws derived from the production process. The conclusion at the end of the work is that the final assembly in the automotive manufacturing process is what requires more attention from engineering area.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0196
Francisco Ganzarolli, Samuel Lopes Souza, Jose Maria Campos Dos Santos
Abstract The purpose of the theme developed in this work is to increase the volume of information related to vehicle evaluation and how human perception can be translated into numbers, thus facilitating the process of definitions, refinement and analysis of its performance. Based on the discipline of psychophysics, where it is possible to study the relationship between stimulus and sensation and the use of post processing tool known as PSD (Power Spectral Density), post process the acceleration data of inputs perceived by the occupants of the vehicle, when driving in routes considered ergodic. By this, in a summarized way, get to human subjective perception of comfort. This material shows in a conceptual way a sequence of studies that were conducted to make it possible, to generate a performance classification of the subjective vehicle attribute of Smoothness, by processing values of acceleration measured the driver's seat.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0171
Leandro Brasil Araujo, Juliano Tessaro, Renan Sardim
Abstract Due to financial global crisis started in 2008 and intensified in the past years in Brazil, the maintenance of a good company’s financial situation is a big challenge and it is more relevant in actual moment. Because of expected turbulent scenario for the next years, it is necessary to adopt strategies to mitigate risks that involve Supply Chain impacting industrial production. In this way, it is crucial adopt strategies and actions that assist to evaluate the performance of suppliers and its associate potential financial risk, what can be considered a companies’ success differential factor during crisis period as well. In this scenario, MWM Motores Diesel adopts an internal process of monitoring the risk of suppliers based on internally developed tools and others available at market.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0177
Fábio Coelho Barbosa
Abstract Public transport has been considered the preferred strategy to reduce congestion and pollution from urban road traffic. For low to medium capacity, bus systems are considered the most affordable and flexible mode. Currently, diesel based systems still dominate transit bus market, due to their high productivity, low deployment costs, technological maturity, operational reliability and flexibility (high daily ranges, fast refuelling and no infrastructure requirement along the routes). However, although some important improvements in engine technology and aftertreatment devices, enforced by emission standards improvements (Euro VI, US 2010 and those related), have been achieved, it is well known that there is a limit to cleaning exhaust diesel buses exhaust. In this context, transit authorities and operators have been under pressure to shift for more environmental friendly technologies.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2225
Juan Sebastian Briones Idrovo, Jerry Ku
Abstract This paper details the development of a test-bench simulation to characterize the behavior of an electro-hydraulic actuated dry clutch used in a pre-transmission parallel hybrid powertrain architecture of Wayne State University EcoCAR 3. Engage and disengage systems play a crucial role in a pre-transmission parallel hybrid architecture. The most common device used to meet the purpose of physically connecting internal combustion engine and electric powertrains is a dry clutch. Its own characteristics and capabilities allow its usage for this application. The transition between the pure electric and hybrid modes is dictated by the main control strategy. Therefore, the engaging system will be widely used when switching from charge depleting to charge sustaining mode, and vice versa. In addition, when torque is required from both sources for higher performance, the clutch will be responsible for mechanically connecting both torque sources.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2222
Eduardo D. Marquez, Douglas Nelson
Abstract The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team of Virginia Tech (HEVT) is currently developing a control strategy for a parallel plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). The hybrid powertrain is being implemented in a 2016 Chevrolet Camaro for the EcoCAR 3 competition. Fuzzy rule sets determine the torque split between the motor and the engine using the accelerator pedal position, vehicle speed and state of charge (SOC) as the input variables. The torque producing components are a 280 kW V8 L83 engine with active fuel management (AFM) and a post-transmission (P3) 100 kW custom motor. The vehicle operates in charge depleting (CD) and charge sustaining (CS) modes. In CD mode, the model drives as an electric vehicle (EV) and depletes the battery pack till a lower state of charge threshold is reached. Then CS operation begins, and driver demand is supplied by the engine operating in V8 or AFM modes with supplemental or loading torque from the P3 motor.
Viewing 151 to 180 of 10348