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Viewing 151 to 180 of 10339
2016-11-16
Journal Article
2016-01-9047
Taewon Han, Huajun Zhen, Gediminas Mainelis
Abstract We recently developed a novel diesel emissions control device, Electrostatic Screen Battery for Emissions Control (ESBEC), where diesel exhaust particles are collected onto metal screens using electrostatic principle. This paper focuses on further development of this technology: design and integration of a particle charger and testing of ESBEC with diesel exhaust. Two units - 0.038 and 0.152 m (1.5 and 6 inches) in diameter - were fabricated using 3D printing. Both units feature cylinder-shaped housing integrating the electrical charger and up to seven pairs of metal screens, which collect airborne particles. In the small-scale version, particles are charged by ions emitted from a carbon fiber brush, while in the large-scale version, this is done by using two tungsten wires traversing the cross-section of ESBEC in a crisscross pattern.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0061
Da Wang, Dingchao Qian, Bo Wang
Abstract This paper summarized the development methodology and technical experiences on Formula Student racecar engines acquired by Jilin University from 2011 to 2015. This series of engines are all based on 600cc 4-cylinder motorcycle gasoline engines and were modified to turbocharged engines which met the Formula Student technical regulations, in order to achieve higher power output, wider torque band as well as lower fuel consumption. During the development process, multiple research projects have been conducted surrounding the turbocharging technology. These research projects have covered multiple areas including the matching of the flow rate characteristics of the engine and the turbocharger, the design of intake and exhaust systems, research on the wastegate as well as its actuator, the tuning and control of the boost pressure as well as the design of the lubrication system for the turbocharger, etc.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0046
Stephan Schneider, Marco Chiodi, Horst Friedrich, Michael Bargende
Abstract The proposed paper deals with the development process and initial measurement results of an opposed-piston combustion engine for application in a Free-Piston Linear Generator (FPLG). The FPLG, which is being developed at the German Aerospace Center (DLR), is an innovative internal combustion engine for a fuel based electrical power supply. With its arrangement, the pistons freely oscillate between the compression chamber of the combustion unit and a gas spring with no mechanical coupling like a crank shaft. Linear alternators convert the kinetic energy of the moving pistons into electric energy. The virtual development of the novel combustion system is divided into two stages: On the one hand, the combustion system including e.g. a cylinder liner, pistons, cooling and lubrication concepts has to be developed.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0074
Pradeep Ramachandra, Manohar Halahali, Prashanth Anantha
Abstract Personal mobility is evolving in the emerging markets, where the primary need for transportation is met with two wheelers. This reflects on the annual production volumes, which is forecasted to reach 160 million units by 2021[1]. Around 28% of this volume belong to electric two wheelers from China and the remaining are predominantly Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). With the regulators across the globe planning to enforce stricter emission norms in order to improve the air quality and owing to similar demand from the end customers, there is a need for technology to evolve towards harnessing the best energy efficiency using multiple technologies/architectures. However, considering that the majority of two wheelers are used by a population which is cost sensitive, it is imperative that efficient topologies need to be made available at affordable costs. The authors attempt to decipher this need for personal mobility coupled with the stringent regulations.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0096
Patrick Pertl, Michael Lang, Stephan Schmidt, Roland Kirchberger
Abstract The enhancement of efficiency will play a more and more important role in the development of future (small) internal combustion engines. In recent years, the Atkinson (or Extended Expansion) cycle, realized over the crank drive, attracted increasing attention. Several OEMs have investigated this efficiency-increasing principle in the whole range from small engines up to automotive engines until now. In prior publications, the authors outlined the remarkable efficiency potentials of an Extended Expansion (EE) cycle. However, for an internal combustion engine, a smooth running performance as well as low vibrations and noise emissions are relevant aspects. This is especially true for an Extended Expansion engine realized over the crank drive. Therefore, design measures concerning friction and NVH need to be taken to enable possible series production status. Basically, these measures strongly depend on the reduction of the free mass forces and moments.
2016-10-28
Technical Paper
Management and Organization
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0368
Eduardo dos Santos Costa, Jony Javorski Eckert, Fabio Mazzariol Santiciolli, Ludmila Corrêa de Alkmin e Silva, Fernanda Cristina Corrêa, Franco Giuseppe Dedini
Abstract The development of hybrid vehicles has reached in recent years a high technical and commercial importance. In general, varied vehicular settings enable a motorization with several alternatives and conventional energies combined in order to increase the performance while reducing consumption and environmental impact. In the context of hybridization, particular attention has been given to vehicles that consider a secondary driving source of electric nature, mainly in countries where its cost is relatively low when compared with the cost of fossil fuels such as gasoline. This paper aims to achieve an economic and energy analysis of a hybridized vehicle. The last one has a conventional traction front-wheel driven by an internal combustion engine (ICE) and an electric traction rear-wheel propelled by electric motors (EMs) in-wheel.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0372
Bahr Rogerio, Weller Tiago
Abstract The product development process in the automotive industry is constantly subject to several studies focused on trying to minimize the costs and reduce the time to product. However, it can be said that there's very little focus on the opportunity that lays in the CAD Automation possibilities through the use of a method called Knowledge Based Engineering (KBE), which consists in its core essence on the reuse of knowledge gained during previous projects, as well as a set of best design practices, applied through automation methods and artificial intelligence in the CAD models. The CAD process automation could represent a significant reduction in the project hours in the automotive product development, mainly because the processes related to it are well defined and structured. Besides that, new automotive products are usually predictable and systemic, allowing room for an efficient CAD automation.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0327
Leandro Terem, Camila Serafim, Ernani Martinez, Marcos Vicentin, Marcelo Massarani
Abstract In the current automotive industry, in an increasingly challenging environment due to strong competition, to develop a product that performs its functions objectively, with quality and mainly with the lowest possible cost, these are the keys to conquer competitive advantage. This paper is intended to explore cost reduction of an automotive system by using the techniques of the methodology EV / AV (Engineering Value / Analysis Value). The analysis are framed as exploratory, in the form of study, with ratings of the components and their functions, followed by the generation of ideas with the completion of an indication of a great potential for a product development with optimized cost.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0211
Thiago Hoeltgebaum, Rodrigo de Souza Vieira, Daniel Martins
Abstract The competitiveness within the automotive sector increases constantly. Research institutes, universities and manufacturers are commonly trying to discover the new trends and to develop novel technologies. Nevertheless, it is important to understand if a certain technology is worth researching. In order to do that, a state of the art survey is necessary which is usually divided in two main groups: Literature Information and Market Analysis. The literature information regards papers, congress proceedings, books, among other types of formal publication. The market analysis is responsible to gather information within the manufacturers press releases, websites and events, for example. Even though, depending on the technology, those two topics are not enough to reveal the importance of a given technology. Therefore, it is necessary to search the patents database, where it is possible to find the development status of a device.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0218
Alexandre Z. Guarato, Epifanio M. Ticona, Sergio L. Braga
Abstract Energy independence and reduction in pollutant emissions are a center of interest for several researchers and car manufacturers. Renewable fuels have gained in popularity because of their sustainability and, in some cases, lower amounts of greenhouse gases. Moreover, energy diversification is also required by all countries. One possible solution is the use of biofuels such as ethanol, methanol, etc. These biofuels have been shown as good candidates as alternative fuels for vehicles because they are liquid and they have several physical and combustion properties similar to gasoline. Alcohols have also a higher octane number and oxygen content than gasoline. This allows the alcohol engines to have much higher compression ratios (CRs), and thus, better BTE (brake thermal efficiency). Brazilian car manufacturing industry has developed flexible-fuel vehicles, introduced in 2003, which became a commercial success.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0230
Guilherme Canuto da Silva, Paulo Carlos Kaminski
Abstract Automotive industries are undergoing a transformation of their manufacturing systems. Called by the German government as Industrie 4.0, this transformation is based on the evolution of traditional Embedded Systems-ES to Cyber-Physical Systems-CPS. In the next years such evolution will have to reach transitory stages, where ES and CPS should coexist for a determined period of time (ES-CPS). Based on this projection, this work compares ES with CPS, identifies the main differences between these systems and thus forms a transitory stage of automotive manufacturing for the next years. The work is structured as follows: Introduction section places the reader on the treated subject and presents the methodology of the work. Later, Industrie 4.0, Embedded Systems (ES) and Cyber-Physical systems (CPS) are defined. Once this is done, the analysis of ES-CPS transition is finished. Analysis results are presented and a representation of ES-CPS transition is proposed.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0125
Luiz Bellatini, Leandro Alencar, Ricardo Malerman, Rogério Fernandes
Abstract The purpose of this paper is to share with the Product Engineering community relevant learnings on Internal Shift System for Manual Transmissions in order to promote transmission performance and eliminate potential concerns on shift quality and system durability for passenger cars. The subsystems in focus are the Manual Transmission Sliding Sleeve, Gear Fork, Rods and Synch Rings. One important shift ability response that directly affects customer satisfaction is the Gear Clashing. This is a noise and vibration phenomena resultant of parallel synch activation while gear is intended to be engaged. This phenomenon was determinate by lack of Gear Fork design characteristics, which allowed two forks displacement at same time during cross-shifting maneuvers. Through simulation analysis, which consists a detailed select and shift 3D stack-limit motion, an abnormal displacement of non-intended flyer fork displacement has been captured in a specific hardware under development.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0127
Gustavo Siebert, Amilton Sinatora
Abstract The growing use of tribotest has been helping the researches to understand the actuation mechanisms of additives on the friction and wear control of engine parts. But, it is common to observe differences between the tribofilms formed in real situation from that obtained using tribotests. Furthermore, the automakers have difficulty to correlate the results obtained using tribotests with that performed using engines in dynamometers. For the piston ring/cylinder bore tribosystem is almost impossible to reproduce its real tribosystem using tribotests. Therefore simplifications are necessary and they affect the tribochemical behavior of the tribosystem. To understand how these simplifications and the test parameters affect the tribochemical behavior of the simplified tribosystem is critical to design a tribotest that correlate well with the real situation.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0167
Fábio Coelho Barbosa
Abstract Emissions from motor vehicles have been a subject of concern in urban areas, as great amounts of population have been permanently exposed to large amounts of pollutants, with intrinsic adverse health effects. In this context, in the last two decades, stringent emissions standards have been developed to control the maximum emission limits of the so called regulated pollutants. This continuous reduction of emission targets has imposed a great effort to engine and vehicle manufacturer in the development of technological solutions for emission limits compliance, which can be done by reducing engine-out emissions through improvements in combustion process and fuel management system, as well as by using aftertreatment devices in the exhaust system.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0169
Emilio C. Baraldi, Paulo Carlos Kaminski
Abstract The competition among automotive industries increases each year worldwide. Among their diverse needs, what can be highlighted are: market expansion, model diversification, competitive prices, customer-recognized quality, new products release in shorter time periods, among others. The occurrence of flaws that might compromise the health or safety of the product’s user is admittedly one of the largest issues for any manufacturer, especially if these flaws are identified after its commercialization (recall). In this work, a study on recall in the automotive industry in the Brazilian market will be presented, comprising the years of 2013 and 2014. Reasons and causes of recall are addressed, based on the sample of the aforementioned research, with special emphasis on flaws derived from the production process. The conclusion at the end of the work is that the final assembly in the automotive manufacturing process is what requires more attention from engineering area.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0196
Francisco Ganzarolli, Samuel Lopes Souza, Jose Maria Campos Dos Santos
Abstract The purpose of the theme developed in this work is to increase the volume of information related to vehicle evaluation and how human perception can be translated into numbers, thus facilitating the process of definitions, refinement and analysis of its performance. Based on the discipline of psychophysics, where it is possible to study the relationship between stimulus and sensation and the use of post processing tool known as PSD (Power Spectral Density), post process the acceleration data of inputs perceived by the occupants of the vehicle, when driving in routes considered ergodic. By this, in a summarized way, get to human subjective perception of comfort. This material shows in a conceptual way a sequence of studies that were conducted to make it possible, to generate a performance classification of the subjective vehicle attribute of Smoothness, by processing values of acceleration measured the driver's seat.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0171
Leandro Brasil Araujo, Juliano Tessaro, Renan Sardim
Abstract Due to financial global crisis started in 2008 and intensified in the past years in Brazil, the maintenance of a good company’s financial situation is a big challenge and it is more relevant in actual moment. Because of expected turbulent scenario for the next years, it is necessary to adopt strategies to mitigate risks that involve Supply Chain impacting industrial production. In this way, it is crucial adopt strategies and actions that assist to evaluate the performance of suppliers and its associate potential financial risk, what can be considered a companies’ success differential factor during crisis period as well. In this scenario, MWM Motores Diesel adopts an internal process of monitoring the risk of suppliers based on internally developed tools and others available at market.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0177
Fábio Coelho Barbosa
Abstract Public transport has been considered the preferred strategy to reduce congestion and pollution from urban road traffic. For low to medium capacity, bus systems are considered the most affordable and flexible mode. Currently, diesel based systems still dominate transit bus market, due to their high productivity, low deployment costs, technological maturity, operational reliability and flexibility (high daily ranges, fast refuelling and no infrastructure requirement along the routes). However, although some important improvements in engine technology and aftertreatment devices, enforced by emission standards improvements (Euro VI, US 2010 and those related), have been achieved, it is well known that there is a limit to cleaning exhaust diesel buses exhaust. In this context, transit authorities and operators have been under pressure to shift for more environmental friendly technologies.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2222
Eduardo D. Marquez, Douglas Nelson
Abstract The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team of Virginia Tech (HEVT) is currently developing a control strategy for a parallel plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). The hybrid powertrain is being implemented in a 2016 Chevrolet Camaro for the EcoCAR 3 competition. Fuzzy rule sets determine the torque split between the motor and the engine using the accelerator pedal position, vehicle speed and state of charge (SOC) as the input variables. The torque producing components are a 280 kW V8 L83 engine with active fuel management (AFM) and a post-transmission (P3) 100 kW custom motor. The vehicle operates in charge depleting (CD) and charge sustaining (CS) modes. In CD mode, the model drives as an electric vehicle (EV) and depletes the battery pack till a lower state of charge threshold is reached. Then CS operation begins, and driver demand is supplied by the engine operating in V8 or AFM modes with supplemental or loading torque from the P3 motor.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2243
Chen Yang, Haiyuan Cheng, Zizhu Fan, Jiandong Yin, Yuan Shen, Frank Haubner, Jeroen Slotman, Joerg Seibel, Stephan Baer
Abstract In recent years, more attention has been focused on environment pollution and energy source issues. As a result, increasingly stringent fuel consumption and emission legislations have been implemented all over the world. For automakers, enhancing engine’s efficiency as a must contributes to lower vehicle fuel consumption. To reach this goal, Geely auto started the development of a 3-cylinder 1.0L turbocharged direct injection (TGDI) gasoline engine to achieve a challenging fuel economy target while maintaining fun-to-drive and NVH performance. Demanding development targets for performance (specific torque 205Nm/L and specific power 100kW/L) and excellent part-load BSFC were defined, which lead to a major challenge for the design of the combustion system. Considering air/fuel mixture, fuel wall impingement and even future potential for lean burn combustion, a symmetrical layout and a central position for the injector with 200bar injection pressure was determined.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2224
Miriam Di Russo, Jerry Ku, Juan Briones Idrovo
Abstract This paper details the development of the control algorithms to characterize the behavior of an electrohydraulic actuated dry clutch used in the powertrain of the Wayne State University EcoCAR 3 Pre-Transmission Parallel hybrid vehicle. The paper describes the methodology and processes behind the development of the clutch physical model and electronic control unit to support the calibration of the vehicle’s hybrid supervisory controller. The EcoCAR 3 competition challenges sixteen North American universities to re-engineer the 2016 Chevrolet Camaro to reduce its environmental impact without compromising its performance and consumer acceptability. The team is in final stages of Year Two competition, which focuses on the powertrain components integration into the selected hybrid architecture. The dry clutch used by the team to enable the coupling between the engine and the electric motor is a key component of the Pre-Transmission Parallel configuration.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2225
Juan Sebastian Briones Idrovo, Jerry Ku
Abstract This paper details the development of a test-bench simulation to characterize the behavior of an electro-hydraulic actuated dry clutch used in a pre-transmission parallel hybrid powertrain architecture of Wayne State University EcoCAR 3. Engage and disengage systems play a crucial role in a pre-transmission parallel hybrid architecture. The most common device used to meet the purpose of physically connecting internal combustion engine and electric powertrains is a dry clutch. Its own characteristics and capabilities allow its usage for this application. The transition between the pure electric and hybrid modes is dictated by the main control strategy. Therefore, the engaging system will be widely used when switching from charge depleting to charge sustaining mode, and vice versa. In addition, when torque is required from both sources for higher performance, the clutch will be responsible for mechanically connecting both torque sources.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2236
Jann Koch, Guoqing Xu, Yuri M. Wright, Konstantinos Boulouchos, Michele Schiliro
Abstract Three-dimensional reactive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) plays a crucial role in IC engine development tasks complementing experimental efforts by providing improved understanding of the combustion process. A widely adopted combustion model in the engine community for (partially) premixed combustion is the G-Equation where the flame front is represented by an iso-level of an arbitrary scalar G. A convective-reactive equation for this iso-surface is solved, for which the turbulent flame speed ST must be provided. In this study, the commonly used and well-established Damköhler approach is compared to a novel correlation, derived from an algebraic closure for the scalar dissipation of reaction progress as proposed by Kolla et al. [1].
2016-10-03
Journal Article
2016-01-9044
Eric Gingrich, Daniel Janecek, Jaal Ghandhi
Abstract An experimental investigation was conducted to explore the impact in-cylinder pressure oscillations have on piston heat transfer. Two fast-response surface thermocouples embedded in the piston top measured transient temperature and a commercial wireless telemetry system was used to transmit thermocouple signals from the moving piston. Measurements were made in a light-duty single-cylinder research engine operated under low temperature combustion regimes including Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) and Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) and Conventional Diesel (CDC). The HCCI data showed a correlated trend of higher heat transfer with increased pressure oscillation strength, while the RCCI and CDC data did not. An extensive HCCI data set was acquired. The heat transfer rate - when corrected for differences in cylinder pressure and gas temperature - was found to positively correlate with increased pressure oscillations.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2107
Rainer Mueller, Matthias Vette, Matthias Scholer, Jan Ball
Abstract The global competition challenges aircraft manufactures in high wage countries. The assembly of large components is very difficult and distinguished by fixed position assembly. Many complex assembly processes such as aircraft assembly are manually done by highly skilled workers. The aircraft manufactures deal with a varying number of items, increasing number of product variants and strict product requirements. During the assembly process hundreds of clips, ties and stringers as well as thousands of rivets must be assembled. To remain competitive in global competition, companies in high wage countries like Germany must insure a continuously high productivity and quality level. To achieve a reduction of cycle times with a simultaneous increase in quality, supportive assistance systems for visual support, documentation and organization within the assembly are required. One example for visual assistance systems are laser projection systems.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2091
Raul Cano, Oscar Ibanez de Garayo, Miguel Angel Castillo, Ricardo Marin, Hector Ascorbe, Jose Ramon de los Santos
Abstract The aim of this paper is to present a robust and low-cost automatic system for drilling aluminum stacks, as well as an integral methodology for the design of tool trajectories and the control of the drilling process itself. The proposed system employs a high accuracy robotic arm, a commercial spindle head and a specially developed SCADA, which enables it to load tool trajectories designed by using any software application. Furthermore, this SCADA is useful to monitor the main parameters of the drilling process for anticipating problems related to the unexpected tool wear or for a quick response in case of tool collision. A special jig for positioning the stack to be drilled is designed to increase the robot accessibility. In this work, tests are performed for optimizing the cutting parameters of the robotic system in order to maximize the accuracy and the surface finishing of the holes.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8032
Anatoliy Dubrovskiy, Sergei Aliukov, Andrei Keller, Sergei Dubrovskiy, Alexander Alyukov
Abstract In this paper we consider a new design of adaptive suspension systems of vehicles with better technical characteristics and functional abilities in comparison with existing designs. We have developed the following main suspension components of vehicles: a lockable adaptive shock absorber with a wide range of control performance, implementing "lockout" mode by means of blocking adaptive shock absorber, and an elastic element with progressive non-linear characteristic and automatic optimization of localization of work areas. Advantages of our developments in the vehicle suspensions are the following: 1) when the vehicle is in a wide range of speeds in a so-called "comfort zone", we have managed, by applying the non-linear elastic element, to reduce significantly the stiffness of the elastic suspension elements in compare with the regular structures - at least in two times.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8087
Xia Meng
Abstract The output power of a turbocharged diesel engine will decrease and the maximum torque point in the full load torque map will move backwards when the engine is operating at plateau.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8082
Kaushik Saha, Ahmed Abdul Moiz, Anita Ramirez, Sibendu Som, Munidhar Biruduganti, Michael Bima, Patrick Powell
Abstract The medium and heavy duty vehicle industry has fostered an increase in emissions research with the aim of reducing NOx while maintaining power output and thermal efficiency. This research describes a proof-of-concept numerical study conducted on a Caterpillar single-cylinder research engine. The target of the study is to reduce NOx by taking a unique approach to combustion air handling and utilizing enriched nitrogen and oxygen gas streams provided by Air Separation Membranes. A large set of test cases were initially carried out for closed-cycle situations to determine an appropriate set of operating conditions that are conducive for NOx reduction and gas diffusion properties. Several parameters - experimental and numerical, were considered. Experimental aspects, such as engine RPM, fuel injection pressure, start of injection, spray inclusion angle, and valve timings were considered for the parametric study.
Viewing 151 to 180 of 10339