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Viewing 91 to 120 of 10318
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1141
Bashar Alzuwayer, Robert Prucka, Imtiaz Haque, Paul Venhovens
Abstract Fuel economy regulations have forced the automotive industry to implement transmissions with an increased number of gears and reduced parasitic losses. The objective of this research is to develop a high fidelity and a computationally efficient model of an automatic transmission, this model should be suitable for controller development purposes. The transmission under investigation features a combination of positive clutches (interlocking dog clutches) and conventional wet clutches. Simulation models for the torque converter, lock-up clutch, transmission gear train, interlocking dog clutches, wet clutches, hydraulic control valves and circuits were developed and integrated with a 1-D vehicle road load model. The integrated powertrain system model was calibrated using measurements from real-world driving conditions. Unknown model parameters, such as clutch pack clearances, compliances, hydraulic orifice diameters and clutch preloads were estimated and calibrated.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1154
Jimmy Kapadia, Daniel Kok, Mark Jennings, Ming Kuang, Brandon Masterson, Richard Isaacs, Alan Dona, Chuck Wagner, Thomas Gee
Abstract The automotive industry is rapidly expanding its Hybrid, Plug-in Hybrid and Battery Electric Vehicle product offerings in response to meet customer wants and regulatory requirements. One way for electrified vehicles to have an increasing impact on fleet-level CO2 emissions is for their sales volumes to go up. This means that electrified vehicles need to deliver a complete set of vehicle level attributes like performance, Fuel Economy and range that is attractive to a wide customer base at an affordable cost of ownership. As part of “democratizing” the Hybrid and plug-In Hybrid technology, automotive manufacturers aim to deliver these vehicle level attributes with a powertrain architecture at lowest cost and complexity, recognizing that customer wants may vary considerably between different classes of vehicles. For example, a medium duty truck application may have to support good trailer tow whereas a C-sized sedan customer may prefer superior city Fuel Economy.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1174
Vincent Freyermuth, Aymeric Rousseau
Today’s value proposition of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and battery electric vehicles (BEV) remain expensive. While the cost of lithium batteries has significantly decreased over the past few years, more improvement is necessary for PHEV and BEV to penetrate the mass market. However, the technology and cost improvements of the primary components used in electrified vehicles such as batteries, electric machines and power electronics have far exceeded the improvements in the main components used in conventional vehicles and this trend is expected to continue for the foreseeable future. Today’s weight and cost structures of electrified vehicles differ substantially from that of conventional vehicles but that difference will shrink over time. This paper highlights how the weight and cost structures, both in absolute terms and in terms of split between glider and powertrain, converge over time.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1012
Sunil Kumar Pathak, Vineet sood, Yograj Singh, Salim Abbasbhai Channiwala
Abstract In developing countries like India, large numbers of portable gensets are used as a power source due to the scarcity of grid power supply. The portable gensets, ranging from 0.5 kW to 5 kW are very popular in the residential areas, for example, small restaurants, and shopping complexes, etc. These gensets are using various fuels like gasoline, diesel, LPG, and kerosene in small internal combustion engines. Such engines are the significant source of air pollution, as these are running in the vicinity of populated areas and higher human exposure to these pollutants.Theses gensets are regulated by exhaust and noise emissions norms, set by statutory bodies like the ministry of environment and forest and central pollution control board of India.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1021
Masashi hakariya, Tadashi Toda, Mitsuto Sakai
Abstract In order to adapt to energy security and the changes of global-scale environment, further improvement of fuel economy and adaptation to each country’s severer exhaust gas emission regulation are required in an automotive engine. To achieve higher power performance with lower fuel consumption, the engine’s basic internal design such as an engine block and cylinder head were changed and the combustion speed was dramatically increased. Consequently, stroke-bore ratio and valve layout were optimized. Also, both flow coefficient and intake tumble ratio port were improved by adopting a laser cladded valve seat. In addition, several new technologies were adopted. The Atkinson cycle using a new Electrical VVT (Variable Valve Timing) and new combustion technology adopting new multi-hole type Direct fuel Injector (DI) improved engine power and fuel economy and reduced exhaust emissions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1022
Kazuhiro Ogino, Yoshinori Yakabe, Keisuke Chujo
Abstract 1 The new V6 3.5L gasoline direct injection engine, VQ35DD, was developed for the midsize premium SUV segment. This engine is the newest descendant of the VQ engine family and incorporates the latest technologies focused on enhanced driving performance, combined with high-level of environmental performance. Additional improvements include torque and power increase as well as improved fuel economy and emission performance. Simultaneous realization of both throttle response and smoothness are also in focus. To achieve these features, direct injection system, high response motor-driven intake Continuously Variable Valve Timing Control (e-Motor VVT), individual spark timing, mirror bore spray coating on the cylinder block, and various friction reduction technologies, such as variable displacement oil pump, are applied. Maximum engine power and torque are increased by 8 to 10%.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1098
Tatsuya Imamura, Atsushi Tabata, Tooru Matsubara, Yuji Iwase, Kenta Kumazaki, Keita Imai
Abstract Lexus developed the Multi Stage Hybrid Transmission for the flagship Lexus LC500h coupe with the aim of achieving an excellent balance between fuel economy and acceleration performance. To gain these benefits, this transmission utilizes a multi-stage approach with the input split mode as an enabler for a concept of multiple high- efficiency points. In order to apply this approach to the transmission, a shift device was located immediately after a power split device. For functioning of the input split mode electrically-controlled continuously variable transmission, the power split device is connected with the motor, generator, and inverters. The optimal gear selection of the shift device to reduce the power loss in accordance with the driving state improves not only fuel economy but also heat management performance compared with the previous hybrid transmission.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1099
Seiji Masunaga, Terufumi Miyazaki, Yohei Habata, Kazuhiko Yamada, Yoshio Hasegawa, Takahiro Kondo, Ichiro Kitaori, Akira Takeichi
Abstract Toyota Motor Corporation has developed an innovative 10-speed longitudinal automatic transmission called the Direct Shift-10AT. The Direct Shift-10AT is a significant contributor to the excellent dynamic performance of the Lexus LC500. A wide gear spread with close gear ratios allows for rhythmical shifting, smooth and powerful acceleration from a standing start, along with quiet and relaxed high- speed driving due to low engine speeds. The lock-up area is expanded to a wider range of vehicle speeds (excluding low-speed regions such as when starting off), by the adoption of a multi-plate lock-up clutch, a newly developed torque converter, and a high-precision controller. As a result, the shift control can match the driver's intended operation more directly because the main cause of the response delay (transient changes in engine speed (flare)) is eliminated. Furthermore, fuel economy is improved due to the adoption of low friction clutches.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1109
Keisuke Ota, Masami Kondo, Shuntaro Shinohara, Norihiro Tsukamoto, Seiji Masunaga, Ayumu Sagawa
Abstract To meet increasing driveability expectation and government stringent fuel economy regulations reducing CO2 emissions of passenger cars; Toyota developed a new 8-speed automatic transmission "Direct Shift-8AT". Direct Shift-8AT is the first stepped automatic transmission model based on “TNGA” philosophy. New models which received Direct Shift-8AT are the new Camry, Highlander and Sienna. Direct Shift-8AT has an innovative control method with gear train and torque converter models, providing enhanced driveability and fuel economy performance through high efficiency transmission technology. This paper describes details of the new technology and vehicle performance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0022
Holger Zeltwanger
Abstract In-vehicle networks (IVN) have been standardized from the beginning. The story of IVN standardization started at the beginning of the 90s. Today, several IVN technologies have been internationally standardized by ISO (International Organization for Standardization) including the related conformance test plans. But as all electronic technologies, IVNs are a matter of improvement and change due to new requirements and gained experiences. This makes it difficult to always keep the standard backwards compatible, in particular if immature approaches are submitted. Furthermore, new communication protocols are knocking on the door of international standardization bodies. The automotive industry itself is conservative and adapts new IVNs slowly. There are also concerns regarding too many different bus systems and networks in one vehicle. This paper discusses the benefits and challenges of the standardization of IVNs.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0023
Naoya Tsuchiya, Tomohisa Kishigami, Eiichirou Kawakami
Abstract In-vehicle network communication is evolving faster speeds and higher performance capabilities, connecting the information possessed by ECU and sensors with the in-vehicle electronic systems which are continuing to develop. With the evolution of the complicated networks, it is becoming difficult to develop them without many verification of actual machine. On the other hand, as for the verification means required at the logic level or physical level for a network verification through ECU design, virtual verification in the whole vehicle is difficult due to speed increases and the sheer size of the system. Therefore, it is only applicable for systems which are limited to a domain or an area, and flexible and timely utilization would be difficult due to the changes in specifications.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0005
Yun Liu, Sung-Kwon Hong, Tony Ge
Abstract Powertrain drivability evaluation and calibration is an important part of vehicle development to enhance the customer experience. This step mainly takes place on vehicle testing very late in the product development cycle, and is associated with a considerable amount of prototype, test facility, human resource and time cost. Design change options at this stage are also very limited. To reduce the development cost, a model based computer aided engineering (CAE) method is introduced and combined with hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation technology. The HIL simulation method offers a possibility for drivability prediction and development in early phase of product cycle. This article describes the drivability HIL simulation process under development in Ford. The process consists of real time capable multi-domain CAE model integration, powertrain control module (PCM) and HIL simulator interface development and drivability HIL simulation.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0204
Gaurav Gosain, Billy Holland, Thomas McKinley
Abstract Understanding customer usage space and its impact on engine, after treatment, and vehicle duty cycles poses challenges in terms of data noise, data variability and complex interrelations. Moreover, humans are only able to concurrently visualize at most 2 to 3 dimensions, limiting the number of engine parameters that can be considered. Previous studies in this field have been limited to understanding trends in data based on single duty cycle, comparatively short application period and time domain segmented clustering analysis. These techniques have been used to determine representative cycles for specific applications. In this paper, K-Means Clustering is used to classify customer usage space based on tens of dimensions, for multiple duty cycles, and over years of operation. The clusters are evaluated based on system, sub-system, and component-based metrics on a day based unsegmented engine parameter values.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0201
Tejas Janardan Sarang, Amar Phatak, Jay Bendkhale
Abstract In the recent years, the timeline of releasing a new vehicle has decreased drastically due to rapidly changing trends in the automotive industry. Therefore, it is very important to constantly optimize the development phases, starting from concept initiation to the final testing of production ready vehicle. The real world tests conducted on vehicles take huge amount of time, since these tests are carried out for large kilometers to periodically analyze tire wear, clutch wear and brake failure. Collecting large kilometers of CAN data is also tedious and time consuming due to various unwanted variables which add up during real world tests. In this paper, a technique known as Rescaled Range Analysis is adapted to abridge the collection of kilometers data from testing by nearly ten times. This analysis estimates a Hurst coefficient to correlate the entire data with its divided parts. The division factor of the entire data is very crucial for the analysis.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0202
Zhigang Wei, Raghuram Mandapati, Ranjith Nayaki, Jason Hamilton
Life testing or test-to-failure method and binomial testing method are the two most commonly used methods in product validation and reliability demonstration. The two-parameter Weibull distribution function is often used in the life testing and almost exclusively used in the extended time testing, which can be considered as an accelerated testing method by appropriately extending the testing time but with significantly reduced testing samples. However, the fatigue data from a wide variety of sources indicate that the three-parameter Weibull distribution function with a threshold parameter at the left tail is more appropriate for fatigue life data with large sample sizes. The uncertainties introduced from the assumptions about the underlying probabilistic distribution would significantly affect the interpretation of the test data and the assessment of the performance of the accelerated binomial testing methods, therefore, the selection of a probabilistic model is critically important.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0199
Harpreet Grewal, Anthony D'Amato, Kathleen Rossie
Abstract Designing a durability test for an automatic transmission that appropriately reflects customer usage during the lifetime of the vehicle is a formidable task; while the transmission and its components must survive severe usage, overdesigning components leads to unnecessary weight, increased fuel consumption and increased emissions. Damage to transmission components is a function of many parameters including customer driving habits and vehicle and transmission characteristics such as weight, powertrain calibration, and gear ratios. Additionally, in some cases durability tests are required to verify only a subset of the total parameter space, for example, verifying only component modifications. Lastly, the ideal durability test is designed to impose the worst case loading conditions for the maximum number of internal components, be as short as practicable to reduce testing time, with minimal variability between tests in order to optimize test equipment and personnel resources.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0200
Hongwei Zhang, Liangjin Gui, Zijie Fan
Abstract Road test simulation on test rig is widely used in the automobile industry to shorten the development circles. However, there is still room for further improving the time cost of current road simulation test. This paper described a new method considering both the damage error and the runtime of the test on a multi-axial test rig. First, the fatigue editing technique is applied to cut the small load in road data to reduce the runtime initially. The edited road load data could be reproduced on a multi-axial test rig successfully. Second, the rainflow matrices of strains on different proving ground roads are established and transformed into damage matrices based on the S-N curve and Miner rules using a reduction method. A standard simulation test for vehicle reliability procedure is established according to the proving ground schedule as a target to be accelerated.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0197
Vasiliki Tsianika, Vasileios Geroulas, Zissimos Mourelatos, Igor Baseski
Abstract Fatigue life estimation, reliability and durability are important in acquisition, maintenance and operation of vehicle systems. Fatigue life is random because of the stochastic load, the inherent variability of material properties, and the uncertainty in the definition of the S-N curve. The commonly used fatigue life estimation methods calculate the mean (not the distribution) of fatigue life under Gaussian loads using the potentially restrictive narrow-band assumption. In this paper, a general methodology is presented to calculate the statistics of fatigue life for a linear vibratory system under stationary, non-Gaussian loads considering the effects of skewness and kurtosis. The input loads are first characterized using their first four moments (mean, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis) and a correlation structure equivalent to a given Power Spectral Density (PSD).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0198
Jiliang Zhang, Carolyn Wozniak
Component failures in electrical vehicle (EV) charge stations may lead to a complete loss or reduction of charging power available to the vehicles. The multistate coherent structure is employed to model the system reliability and availability of the charging cabinet and station. The number of vehicles and the customer behavior in choosing charge port is considered in the analysis. The methodology is illustrated with a simplified charging cabinet example. The usefulness of the methodology presented in this paper to EV charge station design and service is further discussed. In summary, the framework of a multistate system reliability modeling is developed for EV charge station, which can be used for further studies. The authors believe it can find many engineering applications in EV charge station and beyond.
2017-03-14
Journal Article
2016-01-9114
Hoon Lee, Delbert Tesar, Pradeepkumar Ashok
Abstract In order to design the in-wheel motor (IWM) for Electric Vehicles (EV), it is necessary to analyze the desired (expected) duty cycle at a higher performance level in order that the IWM becomes commercially relevant. The duty cycle may be representative of different segments of the customer base. Or, the individual customer may wish to have a set of IWMs that uniquely meet his/her measured “demand” cycle for a balance of drivability and efficiency. Questions then arise: How to measure the demand cycle of an individual? What 2 or 3 standard duty cycles should be offered as customer choices for their vehicle? Should the IWM represent multiple speed domains to enhance efficiency and drivability? Can the vehicle be updated rapidly 2 to 3 years after purchase? Etc. In this paper, we lay the groundwork to answer these types of customer questions for an EV with four independent IWMs.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0257
Mandar Bhatkhande, Rahul Mahajan, Amol Joshi
Abstract Front windscreen wiping test is legal requirement for all motor vehicles as per standards like IS15802:2008 [1], IS15804:2008 [2] in India. This test requires windscreen mock-up/actual vehicle to be tested along with all wiping mechanisms such that minimum percentage areas to be wiped should meet the requirements specified in the IS standard. From manufacturer’s perspective this involves investment of lot of time and cost to arrive at the final design solution in order to meet the wiping requirements. The work scope in this paper is limited to bus category of vehicles. The methodology presented in this paper would enable quick design solutions for bus body builders or manufacturers to meet the wiping requirements specified in IS standard. The methodology presented in this paper was developed to carry out windscreen wiping test through commercially available simulation software.
2017-01-10
Journal Article
2017-26-0275
Prashant Pawar, Omkar Joshi, Mangesh Saraf
Abstract Design of vehicle for targeted customer usage is one of the key steps during vehicle development process. Due to globalization, most of vehicles, aggregates, components are being designed for global market considering worldwide load spectrum. Generally for doing this the vehicle response is being measured for different markets but this process is very time consuming. Also for getting these vehicle dependent parameters, exercises need to be repeated on each type/class of vehicle. So there is a need to have a robust procedure, tools which will helps OEM’s to predict the loads, vehicle response for different market segments at an early stage of vehicle development program using the inputs which are vehicle independent. The solution for this could be to use vehicle independent input such as digitized road profiles (2D or 3D) of target customer markets in combination with proper MBD simulation tools.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0268
Ashit Kumar, Amarjeet Singh, Dinesh S Dhankhar, Felix Regin
Abstract Recent automotive trend shows that customer demand is moving towards bigger size vehicle with more comfort, space, safety, feature and technology. Global market of SUV is projected to surpass 21 million units by 2020. Despite economic slowdown and weak new car sales worldwide, India and China will continue to be primary market for SUV due to sheer size of population, urban expanding middle class and larger untapped rural market. However, stricter emission norms push for clean and green technology and unfavorable policy towards use of diesel vehicle has made the SUV design very challenging due to conflicting needs. Due to bigger size of vehicle, aerodynamic design plays an important role in achieving emission targets and higher fuel efficiency. This paper highlights the aerodynamic development of Maruti Suzuki Vitara Brezza, which is an entry level SUV vehicle with high ground clearance of 198 mm and best in class fuel economy of 24.3 kmpl.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0267
Durga Prasad Mohapatra, Suhas Kangde, Abhijit Londhe, N N Srikanth, Pravin Singh
Abstract Exhaust system is one of the complex automotive systems in terms of performance and strength prediction due to combination of transient mechanical and thermal loads acting on it simultaneously. Traditionally, most of automotive vehicles have exhaust systems with hot end mounted on engine and cold end mounted on chassis or BIW through hangers. A new powertrain mounted exhaust system was developed in-house. This exhaust system underwent validation and evaluation during development phase. Durability concerns were observed on exhaust system in Track test and gear shift durability test. This paper focuses on identifying the root cause of these concerns based on the failures observed during evaluation in Accelerated Durability (ADT) and gear shift durability (GSD) tests. Based on the architecture and packaging space challenges in vehicle, engine is mounted on two mounts and a roll restrictor.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0179
Murugesan Venkatesan, VE Annamalai
Abstract The Indian Economy is becoming significant in the late years. There will be more middle class individuals in the coming years having higher purchasing power, bringing about sharp increment in the ownership of vehicles. The quantity of End-of-Life Vehicles (ELVs) in 2015 is evaluated at 8.7 million and by 2025, this figure is assessed to ascend to 21.8 million. Car breaking yards' ELV recycling practices result in inadequate resource recovery and various forms of pollution. 75-80% of the ELV constitutes of metal and recycled due to its economic benefits. The rest of the 25-30% comprises of plastics, rubber, glass and operating fluids which are mostly disposed off in land or water. Existing international literature has analyzed ELV recycling and remanufacturing practices in India as separate topics.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0225
Yakov lobachevskii, Zahid Godzhaev, Vladimir Shevtsov, Alexandr Lavrov, Aleksandr Merzlyakov, Oleg Sizov
Abstract The present article addresses issues related to the development of a scientifically-based classification of agricultural tractors with consideration of problems associated with international harmonization of testing requirements and classification parameters; it describes the disadvantages of classification of tractors by maximum towing power achieved on a concrete surface, which is used abroad. The authors state the requirements for towing and power classification of agricultural tractors, which should act as a framework for energy harmonization of sets of tractors with sets of machines independently from developers and manufacturers; and demonstrate the need for harmonization of typical size classification series of towing and power parameters with series of preferred numbers recommended by International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
2017-01-10
Journal Article
2017-26-0256
Roman Liessner, Ansgar Dietermann, Bernard Bäker, Klaus Lüpkes
Abstract The reduction of fuel consumption as well as the rising demands of customers regarding a vehicle’s driving dynamic and the legislator’s continually rising demands are a current issue in vehicle development. Hybrid vehicles offer a possibility to rise to this challenge. Realistic driving cycles are of utmost importance for the calibration of a hybrid vehicle’s operational strategy. Deriving replacement speed cycles from extensive customer data sets seems to be an approach for solving these problems. The contribution at hand describes the derivation of replacement cycles by using stochastic models, probabilistic (weighted) drawings and a combinatorial optimisation. The novelty value is that the characteristic influences of all drivers are being considered in the generation due to the stochastic modelling.
2017-01-10
Journal Article
2017-26-0119
Ragupathi Soundara Rajan, Vijay Sharma, Ashraf Emran, Devising Rathod, John Henry Kwee, Thorsten Michaelis-Hauswaldt, Thomas Körfer
Abstract The emission legislations are becoming increasingly strict all over the world and India too has taken a big leap in this direction by signaling the migration from Bharat Stage 4 (BS 4) to BS 6 in the year 2020. This decision by the Indian government has provided the Indian automotive industry a new challenge to find the most optimal solution for this migration, with the existing BS 4 engines available in their portfolio. Indian market for the LCV segment is highly competitive and cost sensitive where the overall vehicle operation cost (vehicle cost + fluid consumption cost) is the most critical factor. The engine and after-treatment technology for BS 6 emission levels should consider the factors of minimizing the additional hardware cost as well as improving the fuel efficiency. Often both of which are inversely proportional. The presented study involves the optimization of after treatment component size, layout and various systems for NOx and PM reduction.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0088
Christoph Danzer, Jens Liebold, Erik Schreiterer, Jörg Mueller
Abstract Currently known hybrid systems are technically complex, cost-intensive and referring to this for many end-customers not available. Under this boundaries IAV has developed a cost-optimal concept of an efficient and modular powertrain platform for electric and hybrid vehicles. The system is based on one unity gear-set for up to three speeds, which enables seamless shifting with only one friction based clutch. With this platform powertrains can be realized by using a maximum number of carry over parts (COP) for electric vehicles as well as for hybrids. The derivable hybrid powertrains of the platform system are designed for 48V electric motors (EM) which enables the maximum cost potential in combination with the realized gear set and transmission technology. The real simple powertrain platform concept is furthermore scalable for different vehicle segments optionally with or without a hybrid option.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0078
Nandagopalan Chidambaram, Sridhar Prasad Chandrasekar, VM Maheshwar, Prabaharan Palanivelu, Aravapalli Sriniwas
Abstract In the past few decades, improvement on fuel efficient technologies have progressed rapidly, whereas little emphasis is being made on how the vehicle should be driven. Driving habits significantly influences fuel consumption and poor driving habits leads to increased fuel consumption. In this paper a new system called “Green Drive” is being presented wherein driving habits are closely monitored, evaluated and details are systematically presented to the user. Green Drive system monitors key driving parameters like speed, gear selection, acceleration, unwanted engine idling periods, aggressive braking and clutch override and presents an ecoscore on the infotainment system which is reflection of users driving behavior. The system also offers guidance on the scope for improving driving habits to achieve better ecoscore and hence reduced fuel consumption.
Viewing 91 to 120 of 10318