Criteria

Display:

Results

Viewing 91 to 120 of 10348
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1607
Munther Hermez, Badih Jawad, Liping Liu, Eli Oklejas
Abstract This paper presents an experimental investigation of flow field instabilities in a centrifugal pump impeller at low flow rates. The measurements of pump hydraulic performance and flow field in the impeller passages were made with a hydraulic test rig. Analysis of Q-ΔP-η data and flow structures in the impeller passages were performed. In the present work, the effect of various flowrates on centrifugal pump impeller performance was analyzed based on pump measured parameters. The impeller’s geometry was modified, with positioning the curved spacer at the impeller suction side. This research investigates the effect of each inlet curved spacer model on pump performance improvement. The hydraulic performance and cavitation performance of the pump have been tested experimentally. The flow field inside a centrifugal pump is known to be fully turbulent, three dimensional and unsteady with recirculation flows and separation at its inlet and exit.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0375
Ligong Pan, Seung Hyun Jung, Sushanth Ramavath, Mohamed El-Essawi, Randall Frank, Jiawei Qin, Ramarajan Ilankamban, Yuan Yao, Homa Torab, Yuzhao Song, Jim Alanoly
Abstract Over the past decades, Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) based assessment of vehicle durability, NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness) and crash performance has become very essential in vehicle development and verification process. CAE activity is often organized as different groups based on the specific attributes (durability, NVH and crash). Main reasons for this are the expertise required and the difference in the finite element software technologies (explicit vs implicit) used to perform and interpret various CAE analyses in each of the attributes. This leads to individual attribute team creating its own model of the vehicle and there is not much exchange of the CAE models between the attribute teams. Different model requirements for each attribute make model sharing challenging. However, CAE analyses for all attributes start with common CAD and follow the same sub-process in vehicle development cycle.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0064
Agish George, Jody Nelson
Abstract The ISO 26262 standard for functional safety was first released in 2011 and has been widely incorporated by most OEMs and Tier1 suppliers. The design and conformance of the product to functional safety standards is strongly intertwined with the product development cycle and needs to be carefully managed. The consideration for functional safety needs to begin right from the product’s concept phase through engineering and production and finally decommissioning. The application of the standard in a project can bring significant challenges especially to managers who are relatively new to the standard. This paper provides some guidelines on the key tasks involved in managing ISO26262 in projects and some ways to approach them. The paper is expected to help managers manage ISO26262 compliant projects. The paper also tries to come up with a metric that can be used for resource estimation for implementing ISO26262 in projects.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0245
Kanna Akella, N. Venkatachalam, K. Gokul, Keunho Choi, Ramachandraprabhu Tyakal
Abstract Voice of customer is typically captured through multiple connect points like surveys, warranty claims, social media, and so on. Customer verbatim is collected through these connect points to encourage free expression of opinion by customers. Such verbatim data is generally of high value and is typically analyzed using Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques for translating into influencing actions in manufacturing, customer service, marketing, and product development departments. One of the challenges in analyzing unstructured verbatim data is to map that data onto appropriate concern codes (CCCs), which are typically used in automotive firms for tracking quality and satisfaction metrics. These concern codes map to a hierarchy of function areas in the organization aimed at improving product, service and hence the customer’s overall experience.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0235
Qiuming Gong, Jimmy Kapadia
Abstract Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) have an EV mode driving range which can cover a portion of customer daily driving. This EV mode range affects the refuel frequency substantially compared with conventional vehicle. For a conventional vehicle, daily driving pattern, tank size and fuel economy are the factors affecting the refuel frequency. While for a PHEV, EV range is another factor would affect the results substantially. Traditional method of label range can’t represent real world driving range between fill-ups for PHEV well. How to accurately predict the PHEV refuel distance taking into account real world customer driving patterns and PHEV parameters become critical for PHEV system design and optimization. This paper presents real world big customer data based PHEV refuel distance estimation modeling. The target is to estimate PHEV refuel distance given several specific parameters such as EV range, hybrid mode fuel economy, tank size etc.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0243
Zhenghui Sha, Veronica Saeger, Mingxian Wang, Yan Fu, Wei Chen
Abstract For achieving viable mass customization of products, product configuration is often performed that requires deep understanding on the impact of product features and feature combinations on customers’ purchasing behaviors. Existing literature has been traditionally focused on analyzing the impact of common customer demographics and engineering attributes with discrete choice modeling approaches. This paper aims to expand discrete choice modeling through the incorporation of optional product features, such as customers’ positive or negative comments and their satisfaction ratings of their purchased products, beyond those commonly used attributes. The paper utilizes vehicle as an example to highlight the range of optional features currently underutilized in existing models. First, data analysis techniques are used to identify areas of particular consumer interest in regards to vehicle selection.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0241
Thiago B. Murari, Paulo Ungaretti, Marcelo A. Moret
Abstract Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing is used to describe the allowed feature variations regarding the product design. Tolerance specification is important in many stages of all phases on product development. The product development engineering need to define the symbols to use on the Feature Control Frame of every component. Since the component function has an increment on its complexity year over year, it is not trivial to define those symbols anymore. The determination of dimensional tolerance shall be preceded by careful specification of the types of tolerance and symbols that will be applied in controlled features. Poor tolerance specifications can increase the production cost, require late product changes or lead to legal issues.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0237
Jonas Biteus, Tony Lindgren
Abstract Maintenance planning of trucks at Scania have previously been done using static cyclic plans with fixed sets of maintenance tasks, determined by mileage, calendar time, and some data driven physical models. Flexible maintenance have improved the maintenance program with the addition of general data driven expert rules and the ability to move sub-sets of maintenance tasks between maintenance occasions. Meanwhile, successful modelling with machine learning on big data, automatic planning using constraint programming, and route optimization are hinting on the ability to achieve even higher fleet utilization by further improvements of the flexible maintenance. The maintenance program have therefore been partitioned into its smallest parts and formulated as individual constraint rules. The overall goal is to maximize the utilization of a fleet, i.e. maximize the ability to perform transport assignments, with respect to maintenance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0173
Stephen Andersen, Sourav Chowdhury, Timothy Craig, Sangeet Kapoor, Jagvendra Meena, Prasanna Nagarhalli, Melinda Soffer, Lindsey Leitzel, James Baker
Abstract This paper quantifies and compares the cooling performance and refrigerant and fuel cost savings to automobile manufacturers and owners of secondary-loop mobile air conditioners (SL-MACs) using refrigerants hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)-134a and the available alternatives HFC-152a and HFO-1234yf. HFC-152a and HFO-1234yf are approved for use by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and satisfy the requirements of the European Union (EU) F-Gas Regulations. HFC-152a is inherently more energy efficient than HFC-134a and HFO-1234yf and in SL-MAC systems can generate cooling during deceleration, prolong comfort during idle stop (stop/start), and allow powered cooling at times when the engine can supply additional power with the lowest incremental fuel use. SL-MAC systems can also reduce the refrigerant charge, emissions, and service costs of HFO-1234yf.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1484
Giampiero Mastinu, Mario Pennati, Massimiliano Gobbi, Giorgio Previati, Federico Ballo
Abstract The ride comfort of three Alfa Romeo cars, namely Giulietta (1955), Alfetta (1972) and 159 (2005) has been assessed both objectively and subjectively. The three cars belong to the same market segment. The aim is to let young engineers or graduate students understand how technology has evolved and eventually learn a lesson from the assessed trend. A number of cleats have been fixed at the ground and the three cars have traversed such uneven surface. The objective assessment of the ride comfort has been performed by means of accelerometers fixed at the seat rails, additionally a special dummy developed at Politecnico di Milano has been employed. The subjective assessment has been performed by a panel of passengers. The match between objective and subjective ratings is very good. Simple mathematical models have been employed to establish a (successful) comparison between experimental and computational results. The ride comfort differs substantially among the cars.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1531
Keiichi Taniguchi, Akiyoshi Shibata, Mikako Murakami, Munehiko Oshima
Abstract This paper describes a study of drag reduction devices for production pick-up trucks with a body-on-frame structure using full-scale wind tunnel testing and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. First, the flow structure around a pick-up truck was investigated and studied, focusing in particular on the flow structure between the cabin and tailgate. It was found that the flow structure around the tailgate was closely related to aerodynamic drag. A low drag flow structure was found by flow analysis, and the separation angle at the roof end was identified as being important to achieve the flow structure. While proceeding with the development of a new production model, a technical issue of the flow structure involving sensitivity to the vehicle velocity was identified in connection with optimization of the roof end shape. (1)A tailgate spoiler was examined for solving this issue.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1610
Mike Kheirallah, Badih Jawad, Liping Liu
Abstract Cooling fans have many applications in industrial and electronic fields that remove heat away from the system. The process of designing a new cooling fan with optimal performance and reduced acoustic sources can be fairly lengthy and expensive. The use of CFD with support of mesh morphing, along with the development of optimization techniques, can improve the acoustic’s performance of the fan model. This paper presents a new promising method which will support the design process of a new cooling fan with improved performance and less acoustic surface power generation. The CFD analysis is focused on reducing the acoustic surface power of a given cooling fan’s blade using the surface dipole acoustic power as the objective function, which leads to an optimized prototype design for a better performance. The Mesh Morpher Optimizer (MMO) in ANSYS Fluent is used in combination with a Simplex model of the broadband acoustic modeling.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1598
Koichi Go, Takahiro Hirano, Tatsuya Miyoshi, Daisuke Sato
Abstract Fuel consumption and CO2 emission regulations for vehicles, such as the Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Regulation, motivate renewable energy technologies in the automotive industry. Therefore, the automotive industry is focused on adopting solar charging systems. Some vehicles have adopted solar energy to power the ventilation system, but these vehicles do not use solar energy to power the drivetrain. One important issue facing the design of solar charging systems is the low power generated by solar panels. Compared to solar panels for residential use, solar panels for vehicles can’t generate as much power because of size and weight limitations. Also, the power generated by solar panels can be extremely affected depending on differences in solar radiation among the cells. Therefore, Toyota has developed a solar charging system that can use solar energy for driving the Prius PHV.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1602
Garett Scott Patria, James A. Mynderse
Abstract There is evidence to suggest that before military equipment ever experiences sustainment delays the equipment carries state patterns within its logistics and supply chain data history that could be leveraged for risk mitigation. Analysis of these patterns can also identify new research & development (R&D) and technology transition candidates that relate the seemingly disparate activities of R&D project management and Diminishing Manufacturing Sources and Material Shortages (DMSMS) management. Relating eligible R&D activities to the DMSMS risk identification phase helps stage potential sustainment risk mitigations ahead of time on the one hand, while creating additional demand and resources to mature prototypes on the other hand.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1600
James Mansour, Badih Jawad, Liping Liu, Vernon Fernandez, Sabah Abro, Jeff Tibbenham
Abstract A vehicle’s exterior fit and finish, in general, is the first system to attract customers. Automotive exterior engineers were motivated in the past few years to increase their focus on how to optimize the vehicle’s exterior panels split lines quality and how to minimize variation in fit and finish addressing customer and market required quality standards. The design engineering’s focus is to control the deviation from nominal build objective and minimize it. The fitting process follows an optimization model with the exterior panel’s location and orientation factors as independent variables. This research focuses on addressing the source of variation “contributed factors” that will impact the quality of the fit and finish. These critical factors could be resulted from the design process, product process, or an assembly process. An empirical analysis will be used to minimize the fit and finish deviation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1604
Christina Michael, Badih Jawad, Liping Liu, Vernon Fernandez, Sabah Abro, Craig Zinser, Dave Guidos
Abstract The objective of this research is to develop a component based enhanced production process after End of Line (EOL) testing. This process will add more quality validation evaluations, but will not require any disassembling of the parts or damage to them. It will help the suppliers to avoid scrap and rework parts as well as General Motors (GM) to reduce warranty and recalls. An Enhanced Production Process was implemented in March, 2016 at a supplier in Mexico. The Enhanced Audit Station implementation is to ensure that the supplier is satisfying the Production Part Approval Process (PPAP) requirements. The most important four components are: Touch Appearance Lighting and Color (TALC), Appearance Approval Report (AAR), Dimensional Checks, and Function Testing. Through statistics, a pilot study was conducted to correlate the selected variables to reduce warranty.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1209
Zhichao Luo, Xuezhe Wei
Abstract Nowadays, wireless power transfer (WPT) gradually prevails and many researchers have devoted themselves to it because it is a safe, convenient and reliable way for recharging electric vehicles comparing to the conventional plug-in contact-based methods. Square coils are commonly used in WPT systems. However, there is few theoretical analysis of self- and mutual inductance of square coils between two magnetic shielding materials. In this paper, in order to study the spatial magnetic field distribution, the analytical model of n-turn square planar spiral coils between two semi-infinite multilayer media is developed based on the Maxwell equations and the Dual Fourier transformation. And then, by means of surface integrals, the self- and mutual inductance can be carried out, with respect to the main parameters of the WPT systems such as the operating frequency, the geometry feature of the coupling coils and the properties of the multilayer media.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1154
Jimmy Kapadia, Daniel Kok, Mark Jennings, Ming Kuang, Brandon Masterson, Richard Isaacs, Alan Dona, Chuck Wagner, Thomas Gee
Abstract The automotive industry is rapidly expanding its Hybrid, Plug-in Hybrid and Battery Electric Vehicle product offerings in response to meet customer wants and regulatory requirements. One way for electrified vehicles to have an increasing impact on fleet-level CO2 emissions is for their sales volumes to go up. This means that electrified vehicles need to deliver a complete set of vehicle level attributes like performance, Fuel Economy and range that is attractive to a wide customer base at an affordable cost of ownership. As part of “democratizing” the Hybrid and plug-In Hybrid technology, automotive manufacturers aim to deliver these vehicle level attributes with a powertrain architecture at lowest cost and complexity, recognizing that customer wants may vary considerably between different classes of vehicles. For example, a medium duty truck application may have to support good trailer tow whereas a C-sized sedan customer may prefer superior city Fuel Economy.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1174
Vincent Freyermuth, Aymeric Rousseau
Today’s value proposition of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and battery electric vehicles (BEV) remain expensive. While the cost of lithium batteries has significantly decreased over the past few years, more improvement is necessary for PHEV and BEV to penetrate the mass market. However, the technology and cost improvements of the primary components used in electrified vehicles such as batteries, electric machines and power electronics have far exceeded the improvements in the main components used in conventional vehicles and this trend is expected to continue for the foreseeable future. Today’s weight and cost structures of electrified vehicles differ substantially from that of conventional vehicles but that difference will shrink over time. This paper highlights how the weight and cost structures, both in absolute terms and in terms of split between glider and powertrain, converge over time.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0247
N. Khalid Ahmed, Jimmy Kapadia
Abstract Electrified vehicles including Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) and Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles (PHEVs) made by Ford Motor Company are fitted with a telematics modem to provide customers with the means to communicate with their vehicles and, at the same time, receive insight on their vehicle usage. These services are provided through the “MyFordMobile” website and phone applications, simultaneously collecting information from the vehicle for different event triggers. In this work, we study this data by using Big Data Methodologies including a Hadoop Database for storing data and HiveQL, Pig Latin and Python scripts to perform analytics. We present electrified vehicle customer behaviors including geographical distribution, trip distances, and daily distances and compare these to the Atlanta Regional Survey data. We discuss customer behaviors pertinent to electrified vehicles including charger types used, charging occurrence, charger plug-in times etc.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1029
Mitsuhiro Shibata, Masashi kawamata, Hirotaka Komatsu, Kazuki Maeyama, Masaru Asari, Naoki Hotta, Kazutaka Nakada, Hisashi Daicho
Abstract To comply with the environmental demands for CO2 reduction without compromising driving performance, a new 1.0 liter I3 turbocharged gasoline direct injection engine has been developed. This engine is the smallest product in the new Honda VTEC TURBO engine series (1), and it is intended to be used in small to medium-sized passenger car category vehicles, enhancing both fuel economy through downsizing, state-of-the-art friction reduction technologies such as electrically controlled variable displacement oil pump and timing belt in oil system, and also driving performance through turbocharging with an electrically controlled waste gate. This developed engine has many features in common with other VTEC TURBO engines such as the 1.5 liter I4 turbocharged engine (2) (3), which has been introduced already into the market.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1671
Johannes Bach, Marc Holzäpfel, Stefan Otten, Eric Sax
Abstract Enhanced technological capabilities render the application of various, increasingly complex, functional concepts for automated driving possible. In the process, the significance of automotive software for a satisfactory driving experience is growing. To benefit from these new opportunities, thorough assessment in early development stages is highly important. It enables manufacturers to focus resources on the most promising concepts. For early assessment, a common approach is to set up vehicles with additional prototyping hardware and perform real world testing. While this approach is essential to assess the look-and-feel of newly developed concepts, its drawbacks are reduced reproducibility and high expenses to achieve a sufficient and balanced sample. To overcome these drawbacks, new flexible, realistic and preferably automated virtual test methods to complement real world verification and validation are especially required during early development phases.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1609
Saleh Morjan, Badih Jawad, Liping Liu
Abstract In this experimental work, a flow field test system embedded with different vortex generators was installed to investigate the impact of vortex generation on heat transfer of air flow in a horizontal channel, and the flow structure was evaluated using a particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. Three different configurations of vortex generators were fitted vertically on a flat plate, at attack angles of 15o, 30o, and 45o, and tested at four different incoming air velocities. An axial fan was used to supply the flow of air through the test section. The effects of Reynolds number, attack angle, and the shape of vortex generators were examined in this work. The experimental results showed that, the presence of vortex generators had considerable effect on temperature distribution, pressure drop, and heat transfer augmentation in the channel flow.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0632
Chen Yang, Haiyuan Cheng, Zizhu fan, Jiandong Yin, Yuan Shen
Abstract In recent years, more attention has been focused on environment pollution and energy source issues. As a result, increasingly stringent fuel consumption and emission legislations have been implemented all over the world. For automakers, enhancing engine’s efficiency as a must contributes to lower vehicle fuel consumption. To reach this goal, Geely auto started the development of a 3-cylinder 1.0L turbocharged direct injection (TGDI) gasoline engine to achieve a challenging fuel economy target while maintaining fun-to-drive and NVH performance. Demanding development targets for performance (specific torque 205Nm/L and specific power 100kW/L) and excellent part-load BSFC were defined, which lead to a major challenge for the design of engine systems, especially for combustion system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0835
Hitoshi Shibata, Takeshi Mizobuchi, Makoto Iwamuro, Akinori Koda, Hidekazu Omura
Abstract Gasoline direct injection (GDI) systems are a main development focus for global environment issues and energy security. At the same time, it is also important to challenge further development of Multi point injection (MPI) systems for a simple and robust combustion system responding to global fuels ,required for the growing automotive markets in emerging countries, especially in the A, B vehicle segments. This paper focuses on reducing wall wetting in cold conditions and maximizing mixture cooling by fuel vaporization (preventing knocking) in high load conditions as key development points of MPI systems. We propose a dual MPI system enhancing direct flow of spray into the combustion chamber to gain part of the benefit of GDI in addition to the homogeneity advantage of an MPI system. This dual MPI system requires finer atomization with at the same time robustness against intake airflow.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1297
Robert Peckham, Sumit Basu, Marcelo Ribeiro, Sandra Walker
Abstract This study emphasizes the fact that there lies value and potential savings in harmonizing some of the inherent differences between the USA, EU, and China regulations with respect to the role of vehicle mass and lightweighting within Fuel Economy (FE) and Green House Gas (GHG) regulations. The definition and intricacies of FE and mass regulations for the three regions (USA, EU, and China) have been discussed and compared. In particular, the nuances of footprint-based, curb-mass-based, and stepped-mass-based regulations that lead to the differences have been discussed. Lightweighting is a customer benefit for fuel consumption, but in this work, we highlight cases where lightweighting, as a CO2 enabler, has incentives that do not align with rational customer values. A typical vehicle’s FE performance sensitivity to a change in mass on the standard regional certification drive cycles is simulated and compared across the three regions.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1522
Thomas Blacha, Moni Islam
Abstract The aerodynamic development of the new Audi Q5 (released in 2017) is described. In the course of the optimization process a number of different tools has been applied depending on the chronological progress in the project. During the early design phase, wind tunnel experiments at 1:4 scale were performed accompanied by transient DES and stationary adjoint simulations. At this stage the model contained a detailed underbody but no detailed engine bay for underhood flow. Later, a full scale Q5 model was built up for the aerodynamic optimization in the 1:1 wind tunnel at Audi AG. The model featured a detailed underbody and engine bay including original parts for radiators, engine, axles and brakes from similar vehicles. Also the 1:1 experiments were accompanied by transient DES and stationary adjoint simulations in order to predict optimization potential and to better understand the governing flow.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1021
Masashi hakariya, Tadashi Toda, Mitsuto Sakai
Abstract In order to adapt to energy security and the changes of global-scale environment, further improvement of fuel economy and adaptation to each country’s severer exhaust gas emission regulation are required in an automotive engine. To achieve higher power performance with lower fuel consumption, the engine’s basic internal design such as an engine block and cylinder head were changed and the combustion speed was dramatically increased. Consequently, stroke-bore ratio and valve layout were optimized. Also, both flow coefficient and intake tumble ratio port were improved by adopting a laser cladded valve seat. In addition, several new technologies were adopted. The Atkinson cycle using a new Electrical VVT (Variable Valve Timing) and new combustion technology adopting new multi-hole type Direct fuel Injector (DI) improved engine power and fuel economy and reduced exhaust emissions.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0271
Robert Jane, Gordon G. Parker, Wayne Weaver, Ronald Matthews, Denise Rizzo, Michael Cook
Abstract This paper considers optimal power management during the establishment of an expeditionary outpost using battery and vehicle assets for electrical generation. The first step in creating a new outpost is implementing the physical protection and barrier system. Afterwards, facilities that provide communications, fires, meals, and moral boosts are implemented that steadily increase the electrical load while dynamic events, such as patrols, can cause abrupt changes in the electrical load profile. Being able to create a fully functioning outpost within 72 hours is a typical objective where the electrical power generation starts with batteries, transitions to gasoline generators and is eventually replaced by diesel generators as the outpost matures.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0404
Anatoliy Dubrovskiy, Sergei Aliukov, Sergei Dubrovskiy, Alexander Alyukov
Abstract Currently, a group of scientists consisting of six doctors of technical sciences, professors of South Ural State University (Chelyabinsk, Russia) has completed a cycle of scientific research for creation of adaptive suspensions of vehicles. We have developed design solutions of the suspensions. These solutions allow us to adjust the performance of the suspensions directly during movement of a vehicle, depending on road conditions - either in automatic mode or in manual mode. We have developed, researched, designed, manufactured, and tested experimentally the following main components of the adaptive suspensions of vehicles: 1) blocked adaptive dampers and 2) elastic elements with nonlinear characteristic and with improved performance.
Viewing 91 to 120 of 10348