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2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0835
Hitoshi Shibata, Takeshi Mizobuchi, Makoto Iwamuro, Akinori Koda, Hidekazu Omura
Abstract Gasoline direct injection (GDI) systems are a main development focus for global environment issues and energy security. At the same time, it is also important to challenge further development of Multi point injection (MPI) systems for a simple and robust combustion system responding to global fuels ,required for the growing automotive markets in emerging countries, especially in the A, B vehicle segments. This paper focuses on reducing wall wetting in cold conditions and maximizing mixture cooling by fuel vaporization (preventing knocking) in high load conditions as key development points of MPI systems. We propose a dual MPI system enhancing direct flow of spray into the combustion chamber to gain part of the benefit of GDI in addition to the homogeneity advantage of an MPI system. This dual MPI system requires finer atomization with at the same time robustness against intake airflow.
2017-03-14
Journal Article
2016-01-9114
Hoon Lee, Delbert Tesar, Pradeepkumar Ashok
Abstract In order to design the in-wheel motor (IWM) for Electric Vehicles (EV), it is necessary to analyze the desired (expected) duty cycle at a higher performance level in order that the IWM becomes commercially relevant. The duty cycle may be representative of different segments of the customer base. Or, the individual customer may wish to have a set of IWMs that uniquely meet his/her measured “demand” cycle for a balance of drivability and efficiency. Questions then arise: How to measure the demand cycle of an individual? What 2 or 3 standard duty cycles should be offered as customer choices for their vehicle? Should the IWM represent multiple speed domains to enhance efficiency and drivability? Can the vehicle be updated rapidly 2 to 3 years after purchase? Etc. In this paper, we lay the groundwork to answer these types of customer questions for an EV with four independent IWMs.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0179
Murugesan Venkatesan, VE Annamalai
Abstract The Indian Economy is becoming significant in the late years. There will be more middle class individuals in the coming years having higher purchasing power, bringing about sharp increment in the ownership of vehicles. The quantity of End-of-Life Vehicles (ELVs) in 2015 is evaluated at 8.7 million and by 2025, this figure is assessed to ascend to 21.8 million. Car breaking yards' ELV recycling practices result in inadequate resource recovery and various forms of pollution. 75-80% of the ELV constitutes of metal and recycled due to its economic benefits. The rest of the 25-30% comprises of plastics, rubber, glass and operating fluids which are mostly disposed off in land or water. Existing international literature has analyzed ELV recycling and remanufacturing practices in India as separate topics.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0225
Yakov lobachevskii, Zahid Godzhaev, Vladimir Shevtsov, Alexandr Lavrov, Aleksandr Merzlyakov, Oleg Sizov
Abstract The present article addresses issues related to the development of a scientifically-based classification of agricultural tractors with consideration of problems associated with international harmonization of testing requirements and classification parameters; it describes the disadvantages of classification of tractors by maximum towing power achieved on a concrete surface, which is used abroad. The authors state the requirements for towing and power classification of agricultural tractors, which should act as a framework for energy harmonization of sets of tractors with sets of machines independently from developers and manufacturers; and demonstrate the need for harmonization of typical size classification series of towing and power parameters with series of preferred numbers recommended by International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0257
Mandar Bhatkhande, Rahul Mahajan, Amol Joshi
Abstract Front windscreen wiping test is legal requirement for all motor vehicles as per standards like IS15802:2008 [1], IS15804:2008 [2] in India. This test requires windscreen mock-up/actual vehicle to be tested along with all wiping mechanisms such that minimum percentage areas to be wiped should meet the requirements specified in the IS standard. From manufacturer’s perspective this involves investment of lot of time and cost to arrive at the final design solution in order to meet the wiping requirements. The work scope in this paper is limited to bus category of vehicles. The methodology presented in this paper would enable quick design solutions for bus body builders or manufacturers to meet the wiping requirements specified in IS standard. The methodology presented in this paper was developed to carry out windscreen wiping test through commercially available simulation software.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0001
Kuldeep Singh, Anoop Chawla, Sudipto Mukherjee, Pradeep Agrawal
Abstract The importance of on-site, in-depth accident research studies has been recognized internationally especially in developed countries. In order to address problems related to road safety, it is important to understand the epidemiology and causation of crashes. For this an in-depth investigation of the crash site, vehicles involved and injury details is required. Detailed crash information helps in analysing the events leading to crash and developing safety measures and/or intervention to reduce crashes. In order to pilot such an activity in India, an in-depth accident data collection activity had been carried out on national highway connecting Delhi to Jaipur (NH-8) for a duration of over a year by a joint team of IIT-Delhi and NATRiP. A total of 1220 road traffic accidents (RTA) notifications were received by the team, of which 186 cases were attended and detailed data was collected in a pre-decided format.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0017
Celine Adalian, Alba Fornells, Núria Parera
Abstract In the 70’s, to reduce vehicle crash fatalities, NHTSA launched a Program, called NCAP, to compare the safety of cars. This Program was copied in Europe and around the world. It has been demonstrated that this kind of public assessment has forced OEM’s to invest in safety and to develop safer vehicles. Nowadays, NCAPs exist for nearly all regions around the world; all of them with the aim of improving vehicle safety. They apply the philosophy of an “overall rating”. In that way the information aims to be clearer and more general and will help to compare cars. Nevertheless, even though in every NCAP the overall assessment is given by a unique star rating, the specifications and requirements in each protocol are different. Each NCAP has been adapted to each region’s conditions, accidentology and traffic and therefore assessment criteria have their own peculiarities.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0036
Ingo Steinberg, Dan Freiholtz, Gereon Hellenbroich
Abstract The reduction of CO2 emissions at vehicle level through the improvement of transmission efficiency represents the essential goal of transmission development engineers. New requirements, such as the recovery of the kinetic energy of the vehicle while coasting, the hybridization of drivetrains and autonomous driving, are challenges that can best be overcome with automatic transmissions. Dual clutch transmissions (DCT) with power-on-demand actuation systems offer a particularly efficient method of meeting the new requirements. However, many markets show vehicle applications with production volumes of less than 100.000 units per year. FEV’s new DCT family is conceived especially for customers in these markets. The re-use of proven subsystems which are already in series production results in a "business case" for applications with lower volumes also. This article introduces this transmission family.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0088
Christoph Danzer, Jens Liebold, Erik Schreiterer, Jörg Mueller
Abstract Currently known hybrid systems are technically complex, cost-intensive and referring to this for many end-customers not available. Under this boundaries IAV has developed a cost-optimal concept of an efficient and modular powertrain platform for electric and hybrid vehicles. The system is based on one unity gear-set for up to three speeds, which enables seamless shifting with only one friction based clutch. With this platform powertrains can be realized by using a maximum number of carry over parts (COP) for electric vehicles as well as for hybrids. The derivable hybrid powertrains of the platform system are designed for 48V electric motors (EM) which enables the maximum cost potential in combination with the realized gear set and transmission technology. The real simple powertrain platform concept is furthermore scalable for different vehicle segments optionally with or without a hybrid option.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0078
Nandagopalan Chidambaram, Sridhar Prasad Chandrasekar, VM Maheshwar, Prabaharan Palanivelu, Aravapalli Sriniwas
Abstract In the past few decades, improvement on fuel efficient technologies have progressed rapidly, whereas little emphasis is being made on how the vehicle should be driven. Driving habits significantly influences fuel consumption and poor driving habits leads to increased fuel consumption. In this paper a new system called “Green Drive” is being presented wherein driving habits are closely monitored, evaluated and details are systematically presented to the user. Green Drive system monitors key driving parameters like speed, gear selection, acceleration, unwanted engine idling periods, aggressive braking and clutch override and presents an ecoscore on the infotainment system which is reflection of users driving behavior. The system also offers guidance on the scope for improving driving habits to achieve better ecoscore and hence reduced fuel consumption.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0079
Soumyo Das, Prashantkumar B. Vora
Abstract The tracking of objects for an autonomous vehicle requires sufficiently reliable data processing and association. In this paper, the signal data processing of sensed LIDAR and the multiple target track management algorithm of a maneuvering vehicle are presented. The algorithm is employed for 2D LIDAR sensor mounted in a moving vehicle and navigating in a high-way. The adaptive segmentation, feature creation from point cloud, data association and prediction modelling are the key features of track management. Initialization of the track has been developed based on constant velocity model hypothesis in order to facilitate target management in a high-way crowded environment. The multiple target tracking are associated with feature identification of the targets and also prediction modelling of moving occluded object. The prediction model of moving vehicles and pedestrians are the focus area of this research.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0137
Marco Schöggl, Ernst-Georg Lorinser
Abstract With the official publication of the “RDE package 1” on 31st March 2016 the long awaited start of RDE testing is now fixed. This event marks a milestone in the emission legislation for passenger cars and is the first of a series of four RDE packages to fade-in real world testing of passenger cars in Europe. During the same time India announced in the Gazette of India on 19th February, 2016 - G.S.R. 187(E). - the draft of introduction of Bharat VI by April 1st 2020 [5] which also should include the Real Driving Emissions (RDE) on-road certification as per procedure laid down in AIS137 and as amended from time to time. As European RDE legislation will be the baseline for Indian RDE legislation rules this paper will highlight the differences and challenges expected between the requirements in Europe compared to India during the first tests done by AVL Technical Center Private Limited located in Gurgaon.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0145
Benjamin Rodriguez Sharpe, Oscar Delgado, Mehul Garg
Abstract This analysis is a comprehensive assessment of the fuel-saving technologies and technology packages for three representative diesel HDV types in India: a 40-tonne Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW) tractor-trailer, 25-tonne rigid truck, and a 16-tonne transit bus. These representative vehicle types are modeled after top-selling models in the Indian market based on sales data from fiscal year 2013-14. To model these vehicle types are accurately as possible, the study team acquired detailed engine maps that match the engine models in the respective vehicles and sought input on other vehicle systems from some of the leading Indian HDV manufacturers and suppliers. Using Autonomie as the vehicle simulation platform, the authors investigate the fuel consumption impacts of both individual technologies and combinations of technologies in the following areas: engine, transmission, driveline, aerodynamics, tires, material substitution (i.e., curb weight reduction), and hybridization.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0144
Dominik Lamotte, Peter Neumann, Klaus Schrewe
Abstract Emissions of diesel engine are considered to be harmful to health especially particulate emissions. Therefore, the introduction of diesel particulate filters (DPF) were successively forced by government due to reducing the emission limits to a level where inner engine measures are not sufficient anymore. To limit additional fuel consumption by increasing backpressure over the DPF, the collected soot has to be regenerated continuously or discrete by active regeneration. Active regeneration is usually realized by injecting additional fuel either due to the engines injection system into the combustion chamber (late post injection) or via an additional fuel injection device in the exhaust line. This enables increasing exhaust temperature and / or an exothermic reaction in the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) of the aftertreatment system.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0267
Durga Prasad Mohapatra, Suhas Kangde, Abhijit Londhe, N N Srikanth, Pravin Singh
Abstract Exhaust system is one of the complex automotive systems in terms of performance and strength prediction due to combination of transient mechanical and thermal loads acting on it simultaneously. Traditionally, most of automotive vehicles have exhaust systems with hot end mounted on engine and cold end mounted on chassis or BIW through hangers. A new powertrain mounted exhaust system was developed in-house. This exhaust system underwent validation and evaluation during development phase. Durability concerns were observed on exhaust system in Track test and gear shift durability test. This paper focuses on identifying the root cause of these concerns based on the failures observed during evaluation in Accelerated Durability (ADT) and gear shift durability (GSD) tests. Based on the architecture and packaging space challenges in vehicle, engine is mounted on two mounts and a roll restrictor.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0268
Ashit Kumar, Amarjeet Singh, Dinesh S Dhankhar, Felix Regin
Abstract Recent automotive trend shows that customer demand is moving towards bigger size vehicle with more comfort, space, safety, feature and technology. Global market of SUV is projected to surpass 21 million units by 2020. Despite economic slowdown and weak new car sales worldwide, India and China will continue to be primary market for SUV due to sheer size of population, urban expanding middle class and larger untapped rural market. However, stricter emission norms push for clean and green technology and unfavorable policy towards use of diesel vehicle has made the SUV design very challenging due to conflicting needs. Due to bigger size of vehicle, aerodynamic design plays an important role in achieving emission targets and higher fuel efficiency. This paper highlights the aerodynamic development of Maruti Suzuki Vitara Brezza, which is an entry level SUV vehicle with high ground clearance of 198 mm and best in class fuel economy of 24.3 kmpl.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0018
Douglas Eddy, Shreyas Patil, Sundar Krishnamurty, Ian Grosse, Chandrashekhar Thorbole
Abstract Prevention of passenger ejection from motor coach seats in the case of rollover and frontal crashes is critical for minimizing fatalities and injuries. This paper proposes a novel concept of affordably retrofitting 3-point seatbelts to protect passengers during these significant crash scenarios. Currently, the available options involve replacement of either the entire fleet, which takes time to avoid extremely high costs, or all seats with new seats that have seatbelts which is still expensive. Alternatively, this paper presents the development of an innovative product that can be installed in seat belt-ready bus structures at a fraction of the cost. The efficacy of the design is studied using finite element analysis (FEA) to meet Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) 210 standards for conditions involved in frontal and side impacts.
2017-01-10
Journal Article
2017-26-0026
Sameer Inamdar, M Ravisankar, Anupam Panwar, S Sridhar, Viswanatha Hosur, K Chandru
Abstract In the emerging technology trend, there is continuous demand for increase in engine performance in terms of power & torque while providing competitive fuel efficiency. Understanding and fulfillment of complex customer requirements with affordable technology is extremely challenging. In order to meet potential conflicting needs and offer ‘fun to drive’ experience to customers, Tata Motors has developed first in segment turbocharged gasoline MPFI engine. Further in order to create market differentiator, multi drive modes were introduced as segment first feature. The boosted compact 1200 cc engine while developing 90 Ps power, delivers 140 N-m torque over a wide range of 1500-4000 rpm, best suited for Indian drive conditions. This performance boost is nearly 40% over and above performance of comparable NA engine without any compromise on vehicle level fuel efficiency.
2017-01-10
Journal Article
2017-26-0119
Ragupathi Soundara Rajan, Vijay Sharma, Ashraf Emran, Devising Rathod, John Henry Kwee, Thorsten Michaelis-Hauswaldt, Thomas Körfer
Abstract The emission legislations are becoming increasingly strict all over the world and India too has taken a big leap in this direction by signaling the migration from Bharat Stage 4 (BS 4) to BS 6 in the year 2020. This decision by the Indian government has provided the Indian automotive industry a new challenge to find the most optimal solution for this migration, with the existing BS 4 engines available in their portfolio. Indian market for the LCV segment is highly competitive and cost sensitive where the overall vehicle operation cost (vehicle cost + fluid consumption cost) is the most critical factor. The engine and after-treatment technology for BS 6 emission levels should consider the factors of minimizing the additional hardware cost as well as improving the fuel efficiency. Often both of which are inversely proportional. The presented study involves the optimization of after treatment component size, layout and various systems for NOx and PM reduction.
2017-01-10
Journal Article
2017-26-0256
Roman Liessner, Ansgar Dietermann, Bernard Bäker, Klaus Lüpkes
Abstract The reduction of fuel consumption as well as the rising demands of customers regarding a vehicle’s driving dynamic and the legislator’s continually rising demands are a current issue in vehicle development. Hybrid vehicles offer a possibility to rise to this challenge. Realistic driving cycles are of utmost importance for the calibration of a hybrid vehicle’s operational strategy. Deriving replacement speed cycles from extensive customer data sets seems to be an approach for solving these problems. The contribution at hand describes the derivation of replacement cycles by using stochastic models, probabilistic (weighted) drawings and a combinatorial optimisation. The novelty value is that the characteristic influences of all drivers are being considered in the generation due to the stochastic modelling.
2017-01-10
Journal Article
2017-26-0275
Prashant Pawar, Omkar Joshi, Mangesh Saraf
Abstract Design of vehicle for targeted customer usage is one of the key steps during vehicle development process. Due to globalization, most of vehicles, aggregates, components are being designed for global market considering worldwide load spectrum. Generally for doing this the vehicle response is being measured for different markets but this process is very time consuming. Also for getting these vehicle dependent parameters, exercises need to be repeated on each type/class of vehicle. So there is a need to have a robust procedure, tools which will helps OEM’s to predict the loads, vehicle response for different market segments at an early stage of vehicle development program using the inputs which are vehicle independent. The solution for this could be to use vehicle independent input such as digitized road profiles (2D or 3D) of target customer markets in combination with proper MBD simulation tools.
2016-12-21
Journal Article
2016-01-9082
Bradley Michael, Rani Sullivan, Dulip Samaratunga, Ratneshwar Jha
Abstract Polymer matrix composites are increasingly adopted in aerospace and automotive industries due to their many attributes, such as their high strength to weight ratio, tailorability, and high fatigue and durability performance. However, these materials also have complex damage and failure mechanisms, such as delaminations, which can severely degrade their strength and fatigue performance. To effectively and safely use composite materials in primary structures, it is essential to assess composite damage response for development of accurate predictive models. Therefore, this study focuses on determining the response of damaged and undamaged carbon epoxy beams subjected to vibration loadings at elevated temperatures. The Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) technique is used to analyze the beams’ modal response. The HHT shows potential in identifying the nonlinear damaged response of the beams.
2016-11-16
Journal Article
2016-01-9047
Taewon Han, Huajun Zhen, Gediminas Mainelis
Abstract We recently developed a novel diesel emissions control device, Electrostatic Screen Battery for Emissions Control (ESBEC), where diesel exhaust particles are collected onto metal screens using electrostatic principle. This paper focuses on further development of this technology: design and integration of a particle charger and testing of ESBEC with diesel exhaust. Two units - 0.038 and 0.152 m (1.5 and 6 inches) in diameter - were fabricated using 3D printing. Both units feature cylinder-shaped housing integrating the electrical charger and up to seven pairs of metal screens, which collect airborne particles. In the small-scale version, particles are charged by ions emitted from a carbon fiber brush, while in the large-scale version, this is done by using two tungsten wires traversing the cross-section of ESBEC in a crisscross pattern.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0061
Da Wang, Dingchao Qian, Bo Wang
Abstract This paper summarized the development methodology and technical experiences on Formula Student racecar engines acquired by Jilin University from 2011 to 2015. This series of engines are all based on 600cc 4-cylinder motorcycle gasoline engines and were modified to turbocharged engines which met the Formula Student technical regulations, in order to achieve higher power output, wider torque band as well as lower fuel consumption. During the development process, multiple research projects have been conducted surrounding the turbocharging technology. These research projects have covered multiple areas including the matching of the flow rate characteristics of the engine and the turbocharger, the design of intake and exhaust systems, research on the wastegate as well as its actuator, the tuning and control of the boost pressure as well as the design of the lubrication system for the turbocharger, etc.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0046
Stephan Schneider, Marco Chiodi, Horst Friedrich, Michael Bargende
Abstract The proposed paper deals with the development process and initial measurement results of an opposed-piston combustion engine for application in a Free-Piston Linear Generator (FPLG). The FPLG, which is being developed at the German Aerospace Center (DLR), is an innovative internal combustion engine for a fuel based electrical power supply. With its arrangement, the pistons freely oscillate between the compression chamber of the combustion unit and a gas spring with no mechanical coupling like a crank shaft. Linear alternators convert the kinetic energy of the moving pistons into electric energy. The virtual development of the novel combustion system is divided into two stages: On the one hand, the combustion system including e.g. a cylinder liner, pistons, cooling and lubrication concepts has to be developed.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0074
Pradeep Ramachandra, Manohar Halahali, Prashanth Anantha
Abstract Personal mobility is evolving in the emerging markets, where the primary need for transportation is met with two wheelers. This reflects on the annual production volumes, which is forecasted to reach 160 million units by 2021[1]. Around 28% of this volume belong to electric two wheelers from China and the remaining are predominantly Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). With the regulators across the globe planning to enforce stricter emission norms in order to improve the air quality and owing to similar demand from the end customers, there is a need for technology to evolve towards harnessing the best energy efficiency using multiple technologies/architectures. However, considering that the majority of two wheelers are used by a population which is cost sensitive, it is imperative that efficient topologies need to be made available at affordable costs. The authors attempt to decipher this need for personal mobility coupled with the stringent regulations.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0096
Patrick Pertl, Michael Lang, Stephan Schmidt, Roland Kirchberger
Abstract The enhancement of efficiency will play a more and more important role in the development of future (small) internal combustion engines. In recent years, the Atkinson (or Extended Expansion) cycle, realized over the crank drive, attracted increasing attention. Several OEMs have investigated this efficiency-increasing principle in the whole range from small engines up to automotive engines until now. In prior publications, the authors outlined the remarkable efficiency potentials of an Extended Expansion (EE) cycle. However, for an internal combustion engine, a smooth running performance as well as low vibrations and noise emissions are relevant aspects. This is especially true for an Extended Expansion engine realized over the crank drive. Therefore, design measures concerning friction and NVH need to be taken to enable possible series production status. Basically, these measures strongly depend on the reduction of the free mass forces and moments.
2016-10-28
Technical Paper
Management and Organization
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0230
Guilherme Canuto da Silva, Paulo Carlos Kaminski
Abstract Automotive industries are undergoing a transformation of their manufacturing systems. Called by the German government as Industrie 4.0, this transformation is based on the evolution of traditional Embedded Systems-ES to Cyber-Physical Systems-CPS. In the next years such evolution will have to reach transitory stages, where ES and CPS should coexist for a determined period of time (ES-CPS). Based on this projection, this work compares ES with CPS, identifies the main differences between these systems and thus forms a transitory stage of automotive manufacturing for the next years. The work is structured as follows: Introduction section places the reader on the treated subject and presents the methodology of the work. Later, Industrie 4.0, Embedded Systems (ES) and Cyber-Physical systems (CPS) are defined. Once this is done, the analysis of ES-CPS transition is finished. Analysis results are presented and a representation of ES-CPS transition is proposed.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0368
Eduardo dos Santos Costa, Jony Javorski Eckert, Fabio Mazzariol Santiciolli, Ludmila Corrêa de Alkmin e Silva, Fernanda Cristina Corrêa, Franco Giuseppe Dedini
Abstract The development of hybrid vehicles has reached in recent years a high technical and commercial importance. In general, varied vehicular settings enable a motorization with several alternatives and conventional energies combined in order to increase the performance while reducing consumption and environmental impact. In the context of hybridization, particular attention has been given to vehicles that consider a secondary driving source of electric nature, mainly in countries where its cost is relatively low when compared with the cost of fossil fuels such as gasoline. This paper aims to achieve an economic and energy analysis of a hybridized vehicle. The last one has a conventional traction front-wheel driven by an internal combustion engine (ICE) and an electric traction rear-wheel propelled by electric motors (EMs) in-wheel.
Viewing 91 to 120 of 10324