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Viewing 61 to 90 of 10348
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1141
Bashar Alzuwayer, Robert Prucka, Imtiaz Haque, Paul Venhovens
Abstract Fuel economy regulations have forced the automotive industry to implement transmissions with an increased number of gears and reduced parasitic losses. The objective of this research is to develop a high fidelity and a computationally efficient model of an automatic transmission, this model should be suitable for controller development purposes. The transmission under investigation features a combination of positive clutches (interlocking dog clutches) and conventional wet clutches. Simulation models for the torque converter, lock-up clutch, transmission gear train, interlocking dog clutches, wet clutches, hydraulic control valves and circuits were developed and integrated with a 1-D vehicle road load model. The integrated powertrain system model was calibrated using measurements from real-world driving conditions. Unknown model parameters, such as clutch pack clearances, compliances, hydraulic orifice diameters and clutch preloads were estimated and calibrated.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1012
Sunil Kumar Pathak, Vineet sood, Yograj Singh, Salim Abbasbhai Channiwala
Abstract In developing countries like India, large numbers of portable gensets are used as a power source due to the scarcity of grid power supply. The portable gensets, ranging from 0.5 kW to 5 kW are very popular in the residential areas, for example, small restaurants, and shopping complexes, etc. These gensets are using various fuels like gasoline, diesel, LPG, and kerosene in small internal combustion engines. Such engines are the significant source of air pollution, as these are running in the vicinity of populated areas and higher human exposure to these pollutants.Theses gensets are regulated by exhaust and noise emissions norms, set by statutory bodies like the ministry of environment and forest and central pollution control board of India.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0023
Naoya Tsuchiya, Tomohisa Kishigami, Eiichirou Kawakami
Abstract In-vehicle network communication is evolving faster speeds and higher performance capabilities, connecting the information possessed by ECU and sensors with the in-vehicle electronic systems which are continuing to develop. With the evolution of the complicated networks, it is becoming difficult to develop them without many verification of actual machine. On the other hand, as for the verification means required at the logic level or physical level for a network verification through ECU design, virtual verification in the whole vehicle is difficult due to speed increases and the sheer size of the system. Therefore, it is only applicable for systems which are limited to a domain or an area, and flexible and timely utilization would be difficult due to the changes in specifications.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0005
Yun Liu, Sung-Kwon Hong, Tony Ge
Abstract Powertrain drivability evaluation and calibration is an important part of vehicle development to enhance the customer experience. This step mainly takes place on vehicle testing very late in the product development cycle, and is associated with a considerable amount of prototype, test facility, human resource and time cost. Design change options at this stage are also very limited. To reduce the development cost, a model based computer aided engineering (CAE) method is introduced and combined with hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation technology. The HIL simulation method offers a possibility for drivability prediction and development in early phase of product cycle. This article describes the drivability HIL simulation process under development in Ford. The process consists of real time capable multi-domain CAE model integration, powertrain control module (PCM) and HIL simulator interface development and drivability HIL simulation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0201
Tejas Janardan Sarang, Amar Phatak, Jay Bendkhale
Abstract In the recent years, the timeline of releasing a new vehicle has decreased drastically due to rapidly changing trends in the automotive industry. Therefore, it is very important to constantly optimize the development phases, starting from concept initiation to the final testing of production ready vehicle. The real world tests conducted on vehicles take huge amount of time, since these tests are carried out for large kilometers to periodically analyze tire wear, clutch wear and brake failure. Collecting large kilometers of CAN data is also tedious and time consuming due to various unwanted variables which add up during real world tests. In this paper, a technique known as Rescaled Range Analysis is adapted to abridge the collection of kilometers data from testing by nearly ten times. This analysis estimates a Hurst coefficient to correlate the entire data with its divided parts. The division factor of the entire data is very crucial for the analysis.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0202
Zhigang Wei, Raghuram Mandapati, Ranjith Nayaki, Jason Hamilton
Life testing or test-to-failure method and binomial testing method are the two most commonly used methods in product validation and reliability demonstration. The two-parameter Weibull distribution function is often used in the life testing and almost exclusively used in the extended time testing, which can be considered as an accelerated testing method by appropriately extending the testing time but with significantly reduced testing samples. However, the fatigue data from a wide variety of sources indicate that the three-parameter Weibull distribution function with a threshold parameter at the left tail is more appropriate for fatigue life data with large sample sizes. The uncertainties introduced from the assumptions about the underlying probabilistic distribution would significantly affect the interpretation of the test data and the assessment of the performance of the accelerated binomial testing methods, therefore, the selection of a probabilistic model is critically important.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0199
Harpreet Grewal, Anthony D'Amato, Kathleen Rossie
Abstract Designing a durability test for an automatic transmission that appropriately reflects customer usage during the lifetime of the vehicle is a formidable task; while the transmission and its components must survive severe usage, overdesigning components leads to unnecessary weight, increased fuel consumption and increased emissions. Damage to transmission components is a function of many parameters including customer driving habits and vehicle and transmission characteristics such as weight, powertrain calibration, and gear ratios. Additionally, in some cases durability tests are required to verify only a subset of the total parameter space, for example, verifying only component modifications. Lastly, the ideal durability test is designed to impose the worst case loading conditions for the maximum number of internal components, be as short as practicable to reduce testing time, with minimal variability between tests in order to optimize test equipment and personnel resources.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0200
Hongwei Zhang, Liangjin Gui, Zijie Fan
Abstract Road test simulation on test rig is widely used in the automobile industry to shorten the development circles. However, there is still room for further improving the time cost of current road simulation test. This paper described a new method considering both the damage error and the runtime of the test on a multi-axial test rig. First, the fatigue editing technique is applied to cut the small load in road data to reduce the runtime initially. The edited road load data could be reproduced on a multi-axial test rig successfully. Second, the rainflow matrices of strains on different proving ground roads are established and transformed into damage matrices based on the S-N curve and Miner rules using a reduction method. A standard simulation test for vehicle reliability procedure is established according to the proving ground schedule as a target to be accelerated.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1109
Keisuke Ota, Masami Kondo, Shuntaro Shinohara, Norihiro Tsukamoto, Seiji Masunaga, Ayumu Sagawa
Abstract To meet increasing driveability expectation and government stringent fuel economy regulations reducing CO2 emissions of passenger cars; Toyota developed a new 8-speed automatic transmission "Direct Shift-8AT". Direct Shift-8AT is the first stepped automatic transmission model based on “TNGA” philosophy. New models which received Direct Shift-8AT are the new Camry, Highlander and Sienna. Direct Shift-8AT has an innovative control method with gear train and torque converter models, providing enhanced driveability and fuel economy performance through high efficiency transmission technology. This paper describes details of the new technology and vehicle performance.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1277
Jakobus Groenewald, Thomas Grandjean, James Marco, Widanalage Widanage
Abstract Increasingly international academic and industrial communities desire to better understand, implement and improve the sustainability of vehicles that contain embedded electrochemical energy storage. Underpinning a number of studies that evaluate different circular economy strategies for the electric vehicle (EV) battery system are implicit assumptions about the retained capacity or State-of-Health (SoH) of the battery. International standards and best-practice guides exist that address the performance evaluation of both EV and HEV battery systems. However, a common theme in performance testing is that the test duration can be excessive and last for a number of hours. The aim of this research is to assess whether energy capacity and internal resistance measurements of Li-ion based modules can be optimized, reducing the test duration to a value that may facilitate further End-of-Life (EoL) options.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1278
Keisuke Isomura
Abstract In the automobile industry, interest in the prevention of global warming has always been high. The development of eco cars (HV, EV etc.), aimed at reducing CO2 emissions during operation, has been progressing. In the announcement of its "Toyota Environmental Challenge 2050", Toyota declared its commitment to creating a future in which people, cars, and nature coexist in harmony. In this declaration, Toyota committed to reducing CO2 emissions not only during operation but also over the entire life cycle of vehicles, and to using resources effectively based on a 4 R’s approach (refuse, reduce, reuse, and recycle). Although eco cars decrease CO2 emissions during operation, most of them increase CO2 emissions during manufacturing. For example, the rare-earths (Nd, Dy etc.) used in the magnets of driving motors are extracted through processes that produce a significant amount of CO2 emissions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1118
Isamu Hachisuwa, Naoki Kato, Daisuke Kusamoto, Hideki Miyata, Takuya Okada, Hitoshi matsunaga, Takamitsu Kuroyanagi, Makoto nakazuru
Abstract Increasingly stringent environmental regulations requiring lower CO2 emissions and higher fuel economy have made it essential to develop vehicles with superior fuel efficiency and cleaner emissions. At the same time, there is growing demand for even more powerful and quieter vehicles. To help satisfy these requirements, Toyota Motor Corporation has developed a new 8-speed automatic transmission for front wheel drive vehicles, incorporating its first compact torque converter with a multiple disk lock-up mechanism. This newly developed compact torque converter with a multiple disk lock-up mechanism was designed under the Toyota New Global Architecture (TNGA) development concept to achieve an excellent balance between higher efficiency through the commonization of components and stronger product appeal through installation on a whole family of transmissions. This compact torque converter is compatible with a variety of engines from inline 4-cylinder to V6 configurations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0022
Holger Zeltwanger
Abstract In-vehicle networks (IVN) have been standardized from the beginning. The story of IVN standardization started at the beginning of the 90s. Today, several IVN technologies have been internationally standardized by ISO (International Organization for Standardization) including the related conformance test plans. But as all electronic technologies, IVNs are a matter of improvement and change due to new requirements and gained experiences. This makes it difficult to always keep the standard backwards compatible, in particular if immature approaches are submitted. Furthermore, new communication protocols are knocking on the door of international standardization bodies. The automotive industry itself is conservative and adapts new IVNs slowly. There are also concerns regarding too many different bus systems and networks in one vehicle. This paper discusses the benefits and challenges of the standardization of IVNs.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1274
Jason M. Luk, Hyung Chul Kim, Robert De Kleine, Timothy J. Wallington, Heather L. MacLean
Abstract This study investigates the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of a set of vehicles using two real-world gliders (vehicles without powertrains or batteries); a steel-intensive 2013 Ford Fusion glider and a multi material lightweight vehicle (MMLV) glider that utilizes significantly more aluminum and carbon fiber. These gliders are used to develop lightweight and conventional models of internal combustion engine vehicles (ICV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), and battery electric vehicles (BEV). Our results show that the MMLV glider can reduce life cycle GHG emissions despite its use of lightweight materials, which can be carbon intensive to produce, because the glider enables a decrease in fuel (production and use) cycle emissions. However, the fuel savings, and thus life cycle GHG emission reductions, differ substantially depending on powertrain type. Compared to ICVs, the high efficiency of HEVs decreases the potential fuel savings.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0650
Xinyu Li, Xinyu Ge, Ying Wang
Abstract The automotive industry is dramatically changing. Many automotive Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) proposed new prototype models or concept vehicles to promote a green vehicle image. Non-traditional players bring many latest technologies in the Information Technology (IT) industry to the automotive industry. Typical vehicle’s characteristics became wider compared to those of vehicles a decade ago, and they include not only a driving range, mileage per gallon and acceleration rating, but also many features adopted in the IT industry, such as usability, connectivity, vehicle software upgrade capability and backward compatibility. Consumers expect the latest technology features in vehicles as they enjoy in using digital applications in laptops and mobile phones. These features create a huge challenge for a design of a new vehicle, especially for a human-machine-interface (HMI) system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1263
Dennis Kibalama, Andrew Huster, Arjun Khanna, Aditya Modak, Margaret Yatsko, Gregory Jankord, Shawn Midlam-Mohler
Abstract The Ohio State University EcoCAR 3 team is building a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) post-transmission parallel 2016 Chevrolet Camaro. With the end-goal of improving fuel economy and reducing tail pipe emissions, the Ohio State Camaro has been fitted with a 32 kW alternator-starter belt coupled to a 119 kW 2.0L GDI I4 engine that runs on 85% ethanol (E85). The belted alternator starter (BAS) which aids engine start-stop operation, series mode and torque assist, is powered by an 18.9 kWh Lithium Iron Phosphate energy storage system, and controlled by a DC-AC inverter/controller. This report details the modeling, calibration, testing and validation work done by the Ohio State team to fast track development of the BAS system in Year 2 of the competition.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1098
Tatsuya Imamura, Atsushi Tabata, Tooru Matsubara, Yuji Iwase, Kenta Kumazaki, Keita Imai
Abstract Lexus developed the Multi Stage Hybrid Transmission for the flagship Lexus LC500h coupe with the aim of achieving an excellent balance between fuel economy and acceleration performance. To gain these benefits, this transmission utilizes a multi-stage approach with the input split mode as an enabler for a concept of multiple high- efficiency points. In order to apply this approach to the transmission, a shift device was located immediately after a power split device. For functioning of the input split mode electrically-controlled continuously variable transmission, the power split device is connected with the motor, generator, and inverters. The optimal gear selection of the shift device to reduce the power loss in accordance with the driving state improves not only fuel economy but also heat management performance compared with the previous hybrid transmission.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1276
Aditi Moorthy, Robert De Kleine, Gregory Keoleian, Jeremy Good, Geoff Lewis
Abstract The problem of accessibility to public transit is well-documented in transportation theory and network literature, and is known as the last mile problem. A lack of first and last mile transit services impairs access to public transit causing commuters to opt for private modes of transit over public modes. This paper analyzes the implications of a shared autonomous vehicle (AV) taxi system providing last mile transit services in terms of environmental, cost, and performance metrics. Conventional public transit options and a hypothetical last-mile shared autonomous vehicle (SAV) system are analyzed for transit between Ann Arbor and Detroit Wayne County Airport for life cycle energy, emissions, total travel time, and travel costs. In the case study, energy savings from using public transit options with AV last mile service were as high as 37% when compared to a personal vehicle option.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1621
Andre Kohn, Karsten Schmidt, Jochen Decker, Maurice Sebastian, Alexander Züpke, Andreas Herkersdorf
Abstract The increasing complexity of automotive functions which are necessary for improved driving assistance systems and automated driving require a change of common vehicle architectures. This includes new concepts for E/E architectures such as a domain-oriented vehicle network based on powerful Domain Control Units (DCUs). These highly integrated controllers consolidate several applications on different safety levels on the same ECU. Hence, the functions depend on a strictly separated and isolated implementation to guarantee a correct behavior. This requires middleware layers which guarantee task isolation and Quality of Service (QoS) communication have to provide several new features, depending on the domain the corresponding control unit is used for. In a first step we identify requirements for a middleware in automotive DCUs. Our goal is to reuse legacy AUTOSAR based code in a multicore domain controller.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1669
Keiichiro Numakura, Kenta Emori, Akinori Okubo, Taku Shimomura, Tetsuya Hayashi
Abstract This paper presents the technologies incorporated in an electric vehicle (EV)/hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) inverter built with power semiconductors of silicon carbide (SiC) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) instead of conventional silicon (Si) insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs). A SiC inverter prototype of 2.9 L in size for driving an 80-kW motor was fabricated and evaluated on a motor test bench. The SiC inverter prototype attained average efficiency of 98.5% in the Worldwide harmonized Light-duty Test Cycle (WLTC) driving mode. The two main technologies achieved with this SiC inverter prototype are described. The first one is a new direct-cooled power module with a thick copper (Cu) heat spreader located under the semiconductors that improves thermal resistance by 34% compared with a conventional direct-cooled power module.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1273
Qiang Dai, Jarod C. Kelly, Amgad Elgowainy
Abstract Vehicle lightweighting has been a focus of the automotive industry, as car manufacturers seek to comply with corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards for model year (MY) 2017-2025 vehicles. However, when developing a lightweight vehicle design, the automotive industry typically targets maximum vehicle weight reduction at minimal cost increase. In this paper, we consider the environmental impacts of the lightweighting technology options. The materials used for vehicle lightweighting include high-strength steel (HSS), aluminum, magnesium and carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP). Except for HSS, the production of these light materials is more GHG-intensive (on a kg-to-kg basis) compared with the conventional automotive materials they substitute. Lightweighting with these materials, therefore, may partially offset the GHG emission reductions achieved through improved fuel economy.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0348
Mani Shankar, I V N Sri Harsha, K V Sunil, Ramsai Ramachandran
Abstract In an automobile, road loads due to tire-road interaction are transferred to vehicle body through suspension. This makes suspension a critical component from the body durability perspective. During vehicle design and development, optimization of suspension parameters to suit ride and handling performance is a continuous and iterative process. These changes on suspension can affect vehicle body durability performance. This paper tries to establish a process to evaluate the effect of changes in suspension parameters on body durability, thus helping in understanding the impact of these changes. The process starts with virtual model building in Multi Body Dynamics software. The base line model is correlated with testing using fatigue at some critical locations on Body in White (BIW).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0065
Bülent Sari, Hans-Christian Reuss
Abstract Safety is becoming more and more important with the ever increasing level of safety related E/E Systems built into the cars. Increasing functionality of vehicle systems through electrification of power train and autonomous driving leads to complexity in designing system, hardware, software and safety architecture. The application of multicore processors in the automotive industry is becoming necessary because of the needs for more processing power, more memory and higher safety requirements. Therefore it is necessary to investigate the safety solutions particularly for Automotive Safety Integrity Level (ASIL-D) Systems. This brings additional challenges because of additional requirements of ISO 26262 for ASIL-D safety concepts. This paper presents an approach for model-based “dependent failure analysis” which is required from ISO 26262 for ASIL-D safety concepts with decomposition approach.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0236
Zhigang Wei, Kamran Nikbin
In the Big Data era, the capability in statistical and probabilistic data characterization, data pattern identification, data modeling and analysis is critical to understand the data, to find the trends in the data, and to make better use of the data. In this paper the fundamental probability concepts and several commonly used probabilistic distribution functions, such as the Weibull for spectrum events and the Pareto for extreme/rare events, are described first. An event quadrant is subsequently established based on the commonality/rarity and impact/effect of the probabilistic events. Level of measurement, which is the key for quantitative measurement of the data, is also discussed based on the framework of probability. The damage density function, which is a measure of the relative damage contribution of each constituent is proposed. The new measure demonstrates its capability in distinguishing between the extreme/rare events and the spectrum events.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0238
Velappan Shalini, Sridharan Krishnamurthy, Srinivasan Narasimhan
Abstract This study compares the model efficacy of Neural Network and Vector Auto Regression. Further it also analyses the impact of predictors controlling for total industry volume. Understanding both the methodologies has their distinctive advantages and disadvantages. Our empirical findings indicate that based on the characteristics of data such as non-stationary, non-linearity and non-normality paves the way for use of machine learning algorithm relative to econometrics technique. Our results suggest that data type and its characteristics are more important in determining the methodology than the methodology itself. In industry, econometrics methodologies are widely used due to their usage simplicity and its ability to explain the relationships in simple terms.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1232
Tsubasa Yamazakii, Hidekazu Uchiyama, Kazuaki Nakazawa, Tsubasa Isomura, Hisashi Ogata
Abstract Solar car races are held worldwide, aiming to promote vehicles that help reduce environmental loads on the roads. In order to gain superiority in solar car racing, it is essential to develop a high efficiency brushless direct drive motor that optimizes the energy use to the fullest and allows high speed driving when needed. To achieve these goals, two development approaches of solar car motors are proposed: the high efficiency motor which improves electrical characteristics and significantly reduces energy loss; and the variable field magnet motor that offers instant speed boost for a temporary period of time for overtaking opponents. We have developed a high efficiency motor through the application of an amorphous core and laminated magnets. Instead of the standard method of the W-EDM (Wire-Electric Discharge Machining) for amorphous cores, we utilized water jet cutting, through which we succeeded in achieving insulation between laminated cores.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1245
Takamitsu Tajima, Hideki Tanaka, Takeo Fukuda, Yoshimi Nakasato, Wataru Noguchi, Yoshikazu Katsumasa, Tomohisa Aruga
Abstract The use of electric vehicles (EV) is becoming more widespread as a response to global warming. The major issues associated with EV are the annoyance represented by charging the vehicles and their limited cruising range. In an attempt to remove the restrictions on the cruising range of EV, the research discussed in this paper developed a dynamic charging EV and low-cost infrastructure that would make it possible for the vehicles to charge by receiving power directly from infrastructure while in motion. Based on considerations of the effect of electromagnetic waves, charging power, and the amount of power able to be supplied by the system, this development focused on a contact-type charging system. The use of a wireless charging system would produce concerns over danger due to the infiltration of foreign matter into the primary and secondary coils and the health effects of leakage flux.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1611
Elankathiravan Mathivanan, David Gasior, Liping Liu, Kingman Yee, Yawen Li
Abstract In the present work, the effect of various nanofluids on automotive engine cooling was experimentally studied. Al2O3, TiC, SiC, MWNT (multi-walled nanotube), and SiO2 nanoparticles with average diameter ranging between 1 and 100 nm were mixed with distilled water to form nanofluids. An ultrasonic generator was used to generate uniform particle dispersion in the fluid. A compatibility test was carried out on all nanofluids and it was found that TiC, MWNT, and Si3N4 nanoparticles settled and separated from the fluid within 3 hours after preparation. The engine cooling performance testing setup consisted of an Aprilia SXV 450 engine, the nanofluid cooling loop, a radiator, a fan, etc. Thermocouples and resistance temperature detectors (RTD’s) were attached to the inlet and outlet of the radiator hose to monitor the temperature changes taking place in the cooling system. A flowmeter was attached to the inlet hose of the radiator to monitor the coolant flow rate.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1613
Atilla Bulmus, Axel Freiwald, Chris Wunderlich
Abstract Connecting mobile communication channels to vehicles’ networks is currently attracting engineers in a wide range. Herein the desire of vehicle manufacturers to remotely execute software updates over the air (SOTA) within electronic control units (ECU) is probably the field of highest attention at the moment. Today software updates are typically done at vehicle service stations and connection the vehicles electronic network via the onboard diagnosis (OBD) interface to a service computer. Herby the duration of the update is invisible to the user, as this happens during standard service appointments. With introduction of SOTA, these updates become very convenient to the customer and can lead to higher customer satisfaction levels. SOTA can be made transparent to the user however the method of implementation can affect the user experience.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1599
Joshua Wheeler, Brigitte Richardson, Scott Amman, An Ji, John Huber, Ranjani Rangarajan
Abstract In this paper, a systems engineering approach is explored to evaluate the effect of design parameters that contribute to the performance of the embedded Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) engine in a vehicle. This includes vehicle designs that influence the presence of environmental and HVAC noise, microphone placement strategy, seat position, and cabin material and geometry. Interactions can be analyzed between these factors and dominant influencers identified. Relationships can then be established between ASR engine performance and attribute performance metrics that quantify the link between the two. This helps aid proper target setting and hardware selection to meet the customer satisfaction goals for both teams.
Viewing 61 to 90 of 10348