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Viewing 61 to 90 of 10327
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0065
Bülent Sari, Hans-Christian Reuss
Abstract Safety is becoming more and more important with the ever increasing level of safety related E/E Systems built into the cars. Increasing functionality of vehicle systems through electrification of power train and autonomous driving leads to complexity in designing system, hardware, software and safety architecture. The application of multicore processors in the automotive industry is becoming necessary because of the needs for more processing power, more memory and higher safety requirements. Therefore it is necessary to investigate the safety solutions particularly for Automotive Safety Integrity Level (ASIL-D) Systems. This brings additional challenges because of additional requirements of ISO 26262 for ASIL-D safety concepts. This paper presents an approach for model-based “dependent failure analysis” which is required from ISO 26262 for ASIL-D safety concepts with decomposition approach.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0197
Vasiliki Tsianika, Vasileios Geroulas, Zissimos Mourelatos, Igor Baseski
Abstract Fatigue life estimation, reliability and durability are important in acquisition, maintenance and operation of vehicle systems. Fatigue life is random because of the stochastic load, the inherent variability of material properties, and the uncertainty in the definition of the S-N curve. The commonly used fatigue life estimation methods calculate the mean (not the distribution) of fatigue life under Gaussian loads using the potentially restrictive narrow-band assumption. In this paper, a general methodology is presented to calculate the statistics of fatigue life for a linear vibratory system under stationary, non-Gaussian loads considering the effects of skewness and kurtosis. The input loads are first characterized using their first four moments (mean, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis) and a correlation structure equivalent to a given Power Spectral Density (PSD).
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0204
Gaurav Gosain, Billy Holland, Thomas McKinley
Abstract Understanding customer usage space and its impact on engine, after treatment, and vehicle duty cycles poses challenges in terms of data noise, data variability and complex interrelations. Moreover, humans are only able to concurrently visualize at most 2 to 3 dimensions, limiting the number of engine parameters that can be considered. Previous studies in this field have been limited to understanding trends in data based on single duty cycle, comparatively short application period and time domain segmented clustering analysis. These techniques have been used to determine representative cycles for specific applications. In this paper, K-Means Clustering is used to classify customer usage space based on tens of dimensions, for multiple duty cycles, and over years of operation. The clusters are evaluated based on system, sub-system, and component-based metrics on a day based unsegmented engine parameter values.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0271
Robert Jane, Gordon G. Parker, Wayne Weaver, Ronald Matthews, Denise Rizzo, Michael Cook
Abstract This paper considers optimal power management during the establishment of an expeditionary outpost using battery and vehicle assets for electrical generation. The first step in creating a new outpost is implementing the physical protection and barrier system. Afterwards, facilities that provide communications, fires, meals, and moral boosts are implemented that steadily increase the electrical load while dynamic events, such as patrols, can cause abrupt changes in the electrical load profile. Being able to create a fully functioning outpost within 72 hours is a typical objective where the electrical power generation starts with batteries, transitions to gasoline generators and is eventually replaced by diesel generators as the outpost matures.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0404
Anatoliy Dubrovskiy, Sergei Aliukov, Sergei Dubrovskiy, Alexander Alyukov
Abstract Currently, a group of scientists consisting of six doctors of technical sciences, professors of South Ural State University (Chelyabinsk, Russia) has completed a cycle of scientific research for creation of adaptive suspensions of vehicles. We have developed design solutions of the suspensions. These solutions allow us to adjust the performance of the suspensions directly during movement of a vehicle, depending on road conditions - either in automatic mode or in manual mode. We have developed, researched, designed, manufactured, and tested experimentally the following main components of the adaptive suspensions of vehicles: 1) blocked adaptive dampers and 2) elastic elements with nonlinear characteristic and with improved performance.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0651
Yaodong Hu, Siyuan Feng, Changsheng Yao, Wenbo Shao, Lubing Xu, Xieyuan Zhang, Li Lin, Jinyu Zhang, Fuyuan Yang, Rusheng Yan
Abstract This paper conducts an investigation on the operating cycle of Bus No. 306, which is equipped with wireless charging system, in Changsha, Hunan Province, China. The wireless charging system and electric buses are manufactured by ZTE Corporation (Zhongxing Telecommunication Equipment Corporation) and BYD Company Limited, respectively. In this paper, the operating cycle is quantified and modeled based on experimental data. The real-time bus route and SOC (state of charge) during daytime operation are recorded with the help of GPS (global position system) and BMS (battery management system). The wireless charging process is tested with a power analyzer and its charging efficiency is compared with a plug-in system. Besides, the radiation level while charging is also taken into consideration. Currently, the buses are designed to operate in daytime and get charged at night.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1295
Andres Toledo, Rodrigo Felix
Abstract Political and social trends in the automotive industry production and consumption have changed in the last decade, driving a demand for more efficient, low-fuel consuming, clean vehicles in most markets nowadays. Recently the demand for such vehicles has been increasing and emerging markets are no exception; automakers all around the world have invested heavily in developing new electrification technologies that would comply with the newer and stricter regulations and environmental policies, being Start-Stop systems one of the preferred approaches due to their lower complexity and cost compared to full and mild hybrids. Mexico stands out as a challenge for the implementation of this technology due to its wide range of altitudes, temperatures, traffic jams, and some other contributing factors that can hinder this type of application – especially in its bigger and more populated cities.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1613
Atilla Bulmus, Axel Freiwald, Chris Wunderlich
Abstract Connecting mobile communication channels to vehicles’ networks is currently attracting engineers in a wide range. Herein the desire of vehicle manufacturers to remotely execute software updates over the air (SOTA) within electronic control units (ECU) is probably the field of highest attention at the moment. Today software updates are typically done at vehicle service stations and connection the vehicles electronic network via the onboard diagnosis (OBD) interface to a service computer. Herby the duration of the update is invisible to the user, as this happens during standard service appointments. With introduction of SOTA, these updates become very convenient to the customer and can lead to higher customer satisfaction levels. SOTA can be made transparent to the user however the method of implementation can affect the user experience.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0325
Samer Abbas, John Joyce
Abstract Severity-mitigating mechanisms (typically software-based) detect failures in a system and perform functions in order to reduce the severities of failures. Various approaches to FMEA analysis of severity-mitigating mechanisms exist within the industry. Three are compared and contrasted. Each method is compared against its ability to capture the three fundamental failures of a system that has severity-mitigating mechanisms: 1 a failure occurs and mitigating action is taken,2 a failure occurs and mitigating action is not taken,3 no failure occurs but mitigating action is taken. One method is advocated over the others because it: uses existing FMEA formatting; addresses all three cases; supports consistent linkage between FMEAs in a hierarchy of systems with any number of layers.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0322
Samer Abbas, John Joyce
Abstract When analyzing the failure rate (or occurrence) of a system failure cause, the typical approach is to obtain an occurrence rating from the results of testing. However, in many cases, the occurrence of a system failure cause can be derived from a combination of occurrences of failure causes of the element (sub-system) failure mode coinciding with the system failure cause being assessed. This paper explores a few approaches for deriving occurrences from element FMEAs over a majority of cases before settling on a probabilistic approach that converts occurrences to worst-case failure rates to achieve the most fine-tuned combined occurrence rating. Finally, a “complex analysis” worksheet, where the logical combination of occurrences and failure rates is custom defined by the engineer, is introduced for handling special cases.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0551
Alessandro D'Adamo, Sebastiano Breda, Salvatore Iaccarino, Fabio Berni, Stefano Fontanesi, Barbara Zardin, Massimo Borghi, Adrian Irimescu, Simona Merola
Abstract Engine knock is one of the most limiting factors for modern Spark-Ignition (SI) engines to achieve high efficiency targets. The stochastic nature of knock in SI units hinders the predictive capability of RANS knock models, which are based on ensemble averaged quantities. To this aim, a knock model grounded in statistics was recently developed in the RANS formalism. The model is able to infer a presumed log-normal distribution of knocking cycles from a single RANS simulation by means of transport equations for variances and turbulence-derived probability density functions (PDFs) for physical quantities. As a main advantage, the model is able to estimate the earliest knock severity experienced when moving the operating condition into the knocking regime.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0622
Sury Janarthanam, Sarav Paramasivam, Patrick Maguire, James Gebbie, Douglas Hughes
Abstract Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) utilize a High Voltage (HV) battery pack to improve fuel economy by maximizing the capture of vehicle kinetic energy for reuse. Consequently, these HV battery packs experience frequent and rapid charge-discharge cycles. The heat generated during these cycles must be managed effectively to maintain battery cell performance and cell life. The HV battery pack cooling system must keep the HV battery pack temperature below a design target value and maintain a uniform temperature across all of the cells in the HV battery pack. Herein, the authors discuss some of the design points of the air cooled HV battery packs in Ford Motor Company’s current model C-Max and Fusion HEVs. In these vehicles, the flow of battery cooling air was required to not only provide effective cooling of the battery cells, but to simultaneously cool a direct current high voltage to low voltage (DC-DC) converter module.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0642
Richard Osborne, Trevor Downes, Simon O'Brien, Ken Pendlebury, Mark Christie
Abstract The Magma engine concept is characterised by a high compression ratio, central injector combustion system employed in a downsized direct-injection gasoline engine. An advanced boosting system and Miller cycle intake-valve closing strategies are used to control combustion knock while maintaining specific performance. A key feature of the Magma concept is the use of high CR without compromise to mainstream full-load performance levels. This paper focuses on development of the Magma combustion system using a single-cylinder engine, including valve event, air motion and injection strategies. Key findings are that Early Intake Valve Closing (EIVC) is effective both in mitigating knock and improving fuel consumption. A Net Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (NIMEP) equivalent to 23.6 bar Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP) on a multi-cylinder engine has been achieved with a geometric compression ratio of 13:1.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1099
Seiji Masunaga, Terufumi Miyazaki, Yohei Habata, Kazuhiko Yamada, Yoshio Hasegawa, Takahiro Kondo, Ichiro Kitaori, Akira Takeichi
Abstract Toyota Motor Corporation has developed an innovative 10-speed longitudinal automatic transmission called the Direct Shift-10AT. The Direct Shift-10AT is a significant contributor to the excellent dynamic performance of the Lexus LC500. A wide gear spread with close gear ratios allows for rhythmical shifting, smooth and powerful acceleration from a standing start, along with quiet and relaxed high- speed driving due to low engine speeds. The lock-up area is expanded to a wider range of vehicle speeds (excluding low-speed regions such as when starting off), by the adoption of a multi-plate lock-up clutch, a newly developed torque converter, and a high-precision controller. As a result, the shift control can match the driver's intended operation more directly because the main cause of the response delay (transient changes in engine speed (flare)) is eliminated. Furthermore, fuel economy is improved due to the adoption of low friction clutches.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1154
Jimmy Kapadia, Daniel Kok, Mark Jennings, Ming Kuang, Brandon Masterson, Richard Isaacs, Alan Dona, Chuck Wagner, Thomas Gee
Abstract The automotive industry is rapidly expanding its Hybrid, Plug-in Hybrid and Battery Electric Vehicle product offerings in response to meet customer wants and regulatory requirements. One way for electrified vehicles to have an increasing impact on fleet-level CO2 emissions is for their sales volumes to go up. This means that electrified vehicles need to deliver a complete set of vehicle level attributes like performance, Fuel Economy and range that is attractive to a wide customer base at an affordable cost of ownership. As part of “democratizing” the Hybrid and plug-In Hybrid technology, automotive manufacturers aim to deliver these vehicle level attributes with a powertrain architecture at lowest cost and complexity, recognizing that customer wants may vary considerably between different classes of vehicles. For example, a medium duty truck application may have to support good trailer tow whereas a C-sized sedan customer may prefer superior city Fuel Economy.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1221
Shingo Soma, Haruhiko shimizu, Eiji Shirado, Satoshi Fujishiro
Abstract As heavy rare earth elements are become less prevalent, because one-tenth as often in ore deposits as light rare earth elements. Future usage of need to be reduces heavy rare earth, because of resource risks and costs. As such, a method was developed to recover reductions in coercive force and prevent demagnetization temperature from reducing without adding any heavy rare earth elements. First, a heavy rare-earth-free magnet was developed by hot deformation, which limits growth of crystal grain size, and relationships were clarified between coercive force and optimal deforming temperatures, speed, and total rare earth amounts for heavy rare-earth-free magnets. Second, it was made clear that the permeance coefficient can be increased by reshaping the flux barriers, and that the developed hot deformed magnet can be adopted.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1021
Masashi hakariya, Tadashi Toda, Mitsuto Sakai
Abstract In order to adapt to energy security and the changes of global-scale environment, further improvement of fuel economy and adaptation to each country’s severer exhaust gas emission regulation are required in an automotive engine. To achieve higher power performance with lower fuel consumption, the engine’s basic internal design such as an engine block and cylinder head were changed and the combustion speed was dramatically increased. Consequently, stroke-bore ratio and valve layout were optimized. Also, both flow coefficient and intake tumble ratio port were improved by adopting a laser cladded valve seat. In addition, several new technologies were adopted. The Atkinson cycle using a new Electrical VVT (Variable Valve Timing) and new combustion technology adopting new multi-hole type Direct fuel Injector (DI) improved engine power and fuel economy and reduced exhaust emissions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1022
Kazuhiro Ogino, Yoshinori Yakabe, Keisuke Chujo
Abstract 1 The new V6 3.5L gasoline direct injection engine, VQ35DD, was developed for the midsize premium SUV segment. This engine is the newest descendant of the VQ engine family and incorporates the latest technologies focused on enhanced driving performance, combined with high-level of environmental performance. Additional improvements include torque and power increase as well as improved fuel economy and emission performance. Simultaneous realization of both throttle response and smoothness are also in focus. To achieve these features, direct injection system, high response motor-driven intake Continuously Variable Valve Timing Control (e-Motor VVT), individual spark timing, mirror bore spray coating on the cylinder block, and various friction reduction technologies, such as variable displacement oil pump, are applied. Maximum engine power and torque are increased by 8 to 10%.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1029
Mitsuhiro Shibata, Masashi kawamata, Hirotaka Komatsu, Kazuki Maeyama, Masaru Asari, Naoki Hotta, Kazutaka Nakada, Hisashi Daicho
Abstract To comply with the environmental demands for CO2 reduction without compromising driving performance, a new 1.0 liter I3 turbocharged gasoline direct injection engine has been developed. This engine is the smallest product in the new Honda VTEC TURBO engine series (1), and it is intended to be used in small to medium-sized passenger car category vehicles, enhancing both fuel economy through downsizing, state-of-the-art friction reduction technologies such as electrically controlled variable displacement oil pump and timing belt in oil system, and also driving performance through turbocharging with an electrically controlled waste gate. This developed engine has many features in common with other VTEC TURBO engines such as the 1.5 liter I4 turbocharged engine (2) (3), which has been introduced already into the market.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0237
Jonas Biteus, Tony Lindgren
Abstract Maintenance planning of trucks at Scania have previously been done using static cyclic plans with fixed sets of maintenance tasks, determined by mileage, calendar time, and some data driven physical models. Flexible maintenance have improved the maintenance program with the addition of general data driven expert rules and the ability to move sub-sets of maintenance tasks between maintenance occasions. Meanwhile, successful modelling with machine learning on big data, automatic planning using constraint programming, and route optimization are hinting on the ability to achieve even higher fleet utilization by further improvements of the flexible maintenance. The maintenance program have therefore been partitioned into its smallest parts and formulated as individual constraint rules. The overall goal is to maximize the utilization of a fleet, i.e. maximize the ability to perform transport assignments, with respect to maintenance.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0236
Zhigang Wei, Kamran Nikbin
In the Big Data era, the capability in statistical and probabilistic data characterization, data pattern identification, data modeling and analysis is critical to understand the data, to find the trends in the data, and to make better use of the data. In this paper the fundamental probability concepts and several commonly used probabilistic distribution functions, such as the Weibull for spectrum events and the Pareto for extreme/rare events, are described first. An event quadrant is subsequently established based on the commonality/rarity and impact/effect of the probabilistic events. Level of measurement, which is the key for quantitative measurement of the data, is also discussed based on the framework of probability. The damage density function, which is a measure of the relative damage contribution of each constituent is proposed. The new measure demonstrates its capability in distinguishing between the extreme/rare events and the spectrum events.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0245
Kanna Akella, N. Venkatachalam, K. Gokul, Keunho Choi, Ramachandraprabhu Tyakal
Abstract Voice of customer is typically captured through multiple connect points like surveys, warranty claims, social media, and so on. Customer verbatim is collected through these connect points to encourage free expression of opinion by customers. Such verbatim data is generally of high value and is typically analyzed using Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques for translating into influencing actions in manufacturing, customer service, marketing, and product development departments. One of the challenges in analyzing unstructured verbatim data is to map that data onto appropriate concern codes (CCCs), which are typically used in automotive firms for tracking quality and satisfaction metrics. These concern codes map to a hierarchy of function areas in the organization aimed at improving product, service and hence the customer’s overall experience.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0243
Zhenghui Sha, Veronica Saeger, Mingxian Wang, Yan Fu, Wei Chen
Abstract For achieving viable mass customization of products, product configuration is often performed that requires deep understanding on the impact of product features and feature combinations on customers’ purchasing behaviors. Existing literature has been traditionally focused on analyzing the impact of common customer demographics and engineering attributes with discrete choice modeling approaches. This paper aims to expand discrete choice modeling through the incorporation of optional product features, such as customers’ positive or negative comments and their satisfaction ratings of their purchased products, beyond those commonly used attributes. The paper utilizes vehicle as an example to highlight the range of optional features currently underutilized in existing models. First, data analysis techniques are used to identify areas of particular consumer interest in regards to vehicle selection.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0241
Thiago B. Murari, Paulo Ungaretti, Marcelo A. Moret
Abstract Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing is used to describe the allowed feature variations regarding the product design. Tolerance specification is important in many stages of all phases on product development. The product development engineering need to define the symbols to use on the Feature Control Frame of every component. Since the component function has an increment on its complexity year over year, it is not trivial to define those symbols anymore. The determination of dimensional tolerance shall be preceded by careful specification of the types of tolerance and symbols that will be applied in controlled features. Poor tolerance specifications can increase the production cost, require late product changes or lead to legal issues.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0247
N. Khalid Ahmed, Jimmy Kapadia
Abstract Electrified vehicles including Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) and Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles (PHEVs) made by Ford Motor Company are fitted with a telematics modem to provide customers with the means to communicate with their vehicles and, at the same time, receive insight on their vehicle usage. These services are provided through the “MyFordMobile” website and phone applications, simultaneously collecting information from the vehicle for different event triggers. In this work, we study this data by using Big Data Methodologies including a Hadoop Database for storing data and HiveQL, Pig Latin and Python scripts to perform analytics. We present electrified vehicle customer behaviors including geographical distribution, trip distances, and daily distances and compare these to the Atlanta Regional Survey data. We discuss customer behaviors pertinent to electrified vehicles including charger types used, charging occurrence, charger plug-in times etc.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1278
Keisuke Isomura
Abstract In the automobile industry, interest in the prevention of global warming has always been high. The development of eco cars (HV, EV etc.), aimed at reducing CO2 emissions during operation, has been progressing. In the announcement of its "Toyota Environmental Challenge 2050", Toyota declared its commitment to creating a future in which people, cars, and nature coexist in harmony. In this declaration, Toyota committed to reducing CO2 emissions not only during operation but also over the entire life cycle of vehicles, and to using resources effectively based on a 4 R’s approach (refuse, reduce, reuse, and recycle). Although eco cars decrease CO2 emissions during operation, most of them increase CO2 emissions during manufacturing. For example, the rare-earths (Nd, Dy etc.) used in the magnets of driving motors are extracted through processes that produce a significant amount of CO2 emissions.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1277
Jakobus Groenewald, Thomas Grandjean, James Marco, Widanalage Widanage
Abstract Increasingly international academic and industrial communities desire to better understand, implement and improve the sustainability of vehicles that contain embedded electrochemical energy storage. Underpinning a number of studies that evaluate different circular economy strategies for the electric vehicle (EV) battery system are implicit assumptions about the retained capacity or State-of-Health (SoH) of the battery. International standards and best-practice guides exist that address the performance evaluation of both EV and HEV battery systems. However, a common theme in performance testing is that the test duration can be excessive and last for a number of hours. The aim of this research is to assess whether energy capacity and internal resistance measurements of Li-ion based modules can be optimized, reducing the test duration to a value that may facilitate further End-of-Life (EoL) options.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1273
Qiang Dai, Jarod C. Kelly, Amgad Elgowainy
Abstract Vehicle lightweighting has been a focus of the automotive industry, as car manufacturers seek to comply with corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards for model year (MY) 2017-2025 vehicles. However, when developing a lightweight vehicle design, the automotive industry typically targets maximum vehicle weight reduction at minimal cost increase. In this paper, we consider the environmental impacts of the lightweighting technology options. The materials used for vehicle lightweighting include high-strength steel (HSS), aluminum, magnesium and carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP). Except for HSS, the production of these light materials is more GHG-intensive (on a kg-to-kg basis) compared with the conventional automotive materials they substitute. Lightweighting with these materials, therefore, may partially offset the GHG emission reductions achieved through improved fuel economy.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0238
Velappan Shalini, Sridharan Krishnamurthy, Srinivasan Narasimhan
Abstract This study compares the model efficacy of Neural Network and Vector Auto Regression. Further it also analyses the impact of predictors controlling for total industry volume. Understanding both the methodologies has their distinctive advantages and disadvantages. Our empirical findings indicate that based on the characteristics of data such as non-stationary, non-linearity and non-normality paves the way for use of machine learning algorithm relative to econometrics technique. Our results suggest that data type and its characteristics are more important in determining the methodology than the methodology itself. In industry, econometrics methodologies are widely used due to their usage simplicity and its ability to explain the relationships in simple terms.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1297
Robert Peckham, Sumit Basu, Marcelo Ribeiro, Sandra Walker
Abstract This study emphasizes the fact that there lies value and potential savings in harmonizing some of the inherent differences between the USA, EU, and China regulations with respect to the role of vehicle mass and lightweighting within Fuel Economy (FE) and Green House Gas (GHG) regulations. The definition and intricacies of FE and mass regulations for the three regions (USA, EU, and China) have been discussed and compared. In particular, the nuances of footprint-based, curb-mass-based, and stepped-mass-based regulations that lead to the differences have been discussed. Lightweighting is a customer benefit for fuel consumption, but in this work, we highlight cases where lightweighting, as a CO2 enabler, has incentives that do not align with rational customer values. A typical vehicle’s FE performance sensitivity to a change in mass on the standard regional certification drive cycles is simulated and compared across the three regions.
Viewing 61 to 90 of 10327