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Viewing 31 to 60 of 10346
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0152
Mirko Baratta, Daniela Misul, Jiajie Xu, Alois Fuerhapter, Rene Heindl, Cesare Peletto, Jean Preuhs, Patrick Salemi
Abstract Natural gas is a promising alternative fuel for internal combustion engine application due to its low carbon content and high knock resistance. Performance of natural gas engines is further improved if direct injection, high turbocharger boost level, and variable valve actuation (VVA) are adopted. Also, relevant efficiency benefits can be obtained through downsizing. However, mixture quality resulting from direct gas injection has proven to be problematic. This work aims at developing a mono-fuel small-displacement turbocharged compressed natural gas engine with side-mounted direct injector and advanced VVA system. An injector configuration was designed in order to enhance the overall engine tumble and thus overcome low penetration.
2017-08-29
Journal Article
2017-01-9002
Abdul Hakim Siddique Miah, Stephen Morse, James Goddin, Gary Moore, Kevin M Morris, Jayne Rogers, Isabelle Delay-Saunders, Andrew Clifton, Jacquetta Lee
Abstract Within the aerospace industry there is a growing interest in evaluating and reducing the environmental impacts of products and related risks to business. Consequently, requests from governments, customers, manufacturers, and other interested stakeholders, for environmental information about aerospace products are becoming widespread. Presently, requests are inconsistent and this limits the ability of the aerospace industry to meet the informational needs of various stakeholders and reduce the environmental impacts of their products in a cost-effective manner. Energy consumption is a significant business cost, risk, and a simple proxy value for overall environmental impact. This paper presents the initial research carried out by an academic and industry consortium to develop standardised methods for calculating and reporting the embodied manufacturing energy content of aerospace products.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1930
Anil Kumar Jaswal, Pradeep Chandrasekaran, Surendran Ramadoss
Abstract Indian Automobile Industry has started using Six Sigma for Vehicle Design and process improvement to compete with Global competition. This Paper describes how the Tools of Six Sigma shall be used as an Effective Tool for both redefining the Design and the Process Improvement. This Paper talks on the evolution of DMADV approach in Indian Automobile Industry compared to the related Trends in Other Manufacturing Sectors. The Author describes how the warranty failures in Commercial Segment Vehicle Category which was the selling talk for the Competition was addressed in Leading Indian Automobile OEM. As this Failure was adversely impacting customer satisfaction and no solution seemed forthcoming, top Management indicated to use a radically different approach to solve the problem within a years’ time.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1933
Alberto Boretti
Abstract The paper captures the recent events in relation with the Volkswagen (VW) Emissions Scandal and addresses the impact of this event on the future of power train development. The paper analyses the impact on the perspectives of the internal combustion engine, the battery based electric car and the hydrogen based technology. The operation of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), VW and the United States prosecutor, sparked by the action of the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) is forcing the Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) towards everything but rationale immediate transition to the battery based electric mobility. This transition voids the value of any improvement of the internal combustion engine (ICE), especially in the lean burn, compression ignition (CI) technology, and of a better hybridization of powertrains, both options that have much better short term perspectives than the battery based electric car.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1959
Abhishek Taluja, Simson T. Wilson, Santosh Lalasure, K. Rajakumar
The Ride Comfort has always been an important attribute of a vehicle that gets trade-off with handling characteristics of a vehicle. However, to cater the growing customer requirements for better ride comfort in a vehicle without compromising on other attributes, evaluating and achieving optimal ride comfort has become a significant process in the vehicle development. In the current engineering capability and virtual engineering simulations, creating an accurate and real time model to predict ride comfort of a vehicle is a challenging task. The qualitative evaluation of ride attributes has always been the proven conventional method to finalize the requirements of a vehicle. However, quantitative evaluation of vehicle ride characteristics benefits in terms of target setting during vehicle development process and in robust validation of the final intended product against its specifications.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1869
Glenn Pietila, Gang Yin, Branton Dennis IV
Abstract During the development of an automotive acoustic package, valuable information can be gained by visualizing the acoustic energy flow through the Front-of-Dash (FOD) when a sound source is placed in the engine compartment. Two of the commonly used methods for generating the visual map of the acoustic field include Sound Intensity measurements and array technologies. An alternative method is to use a tracked 3-dimensional acoustic probe to scan and visualize the FOD in real-time when the sound source is injecting noise into the engine compartment. The scan is used to focus the development of the FOD acoustic package on the weakest areas by identifying acoustic leaks and locations with low Transmission Loss. This paper provides a brief discussion of the capabilities of the tracked 3-D acoustic probe, and presents examples of the implementation of the probe during the development of the FOD acoustic package for two mid-sized sedans.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1753
Jack Hall Riddle, Ya-Juan Bemman, Tom Frei, Sihui Wu, Ishang Padalkar
Abstract Demands for engines to operate at low-frequency firing order are increasing in the automotive market. This requirement is driven by consumer and regulatory demand for vehicles which are more efficient in the use of fuel. As a result, engine and transmission technologies have been developed which permit operation of engines with fewer cylinders at increasingly low RPM’s. The resulting low frequency exhaust noise is more difficult to attenuate than in vehicles in years past. At the same time, vehicles often have less packaging space for mufflers, when larger volume would otherwise be needed to attenuate at lower frequencies. A further challenge is the demand for increasingly refined performance sounds from the exhaust systems of premium cars despite the technical obstacles involved in even maintaining sound quality. Finally, legally permissible sound levels are decreasing in some markets. These market and regulatory demands require new solutions.
2017-06-05
Journal Article
2017-01-1777
Thomas Wellmann, Kiran Govindswamy, Dean Tomazic
Abstract The automotive industry continues to develop new technologies aimed at reducing overall vehicle level fuel consumption. Powertrain and driveline related technologies will play a key role in helping OEM’s meet fleet CO2 reduction targets for 2025 and beyond. Specifically, use of technologies such as downsized engines, idle start-stop systems, aggressive torque converter lock-up schedules, wide-ratio spread transmissions, and electrified propulsion systems are vital towards meeting aggressive fuel economy targets. Judicious combinations of such powertrain and driveline technology packages in conjunction with measures such as the use of low rolling resistance tires and vehicle lightweighting will be required to meet future OEM fleet CO2 targets. Many of the technologies needed for meeting the fuel economy and CO2 targets come with unique NVH challenges. In order to ensure customer acceptance of new vehicles, it is imperative that these NVH challenges be understood and solved.
2017-05-24
Technical Paper
2017-36-0001
Luís Fernando Nuss de Souza, Antônio Carlos de Oliveira, Narã Vieira Vetter
Abstract After the anti-skid brake system (ABS) introduction, mandatory for all vehicles in the Brazilian market, manufacturers have given increasing attention to optimized systems which meet legal and safety requirements. For commercial vehicles, an alternative for the ABS, which presents feasibility, is the configuration 4S/3M (4 wheel-speed sensors and 3 modulator valves) in substitution to the configuration 4S/4M. In other words, application of just one modulator valve to control the brakes of the same axle, front or rear, instead of independent control per each brake of the vehicle. The aim of this paper is to present a performance comparison between a brake system fitted with ABS configuration 4S/3M and an ABS configuration 4S/4M. To this end, both configurations were tested on the same vehicle application in accordance with the Brazilian legislation, CONTRAN 519/15.
2017-05-24
Technical Paper
2017-36-0021
Jean Cory de Souza Silva, Juan Carlos Horta Gutierrez
Abstract This work consists in a study about regulations for brake system in Brazil, which aims to show the current scenario, as well as the evolution of the resolutions and technologies. Within the last few years Brazil had a considerable evolution in terms of safety requirements for brake systems. In 2009 an important step was taken when Brazilian Traffic National Consil (Conselho Nacional de Trânsito - CONTRAN), the agency responsible for traffic regulations in Brazil, emitted the resolution N° 312, which established the mandatory use of Anti-lock Brake System (ABS). This obligatoriness was introduced gradually, beginning by passengers cars in 2010, when 8% of the automobiles manufactured in that year should have the system installed as standard item. This percentage would increase until reaching 100% of vehicle production in 2014.
2017-05-18
Journal Article
2017-01-9680
Husain Kanchwala, Pablo Luque Rodriguez, Daniel Alvarez Mantaras, Johan Wideberg, Sagar Bendre
Abstract In recent times, electric vehicles (EV) are gaining a lot of attention as they run clean and are environment friendly. Recent advances in the applications of integrating control systems in automotive vehicles have made it practicable to accomplish improvement in vehicle's longitudinal and lateral dynamics. This paper deals with a brief overview of current state of art vehicle technologies like direct yaw moment control, traction control and side slip control of EV. There are various controller algorithms available in literature with different torque vectoring strategies. As EV can be precisely controlled because of quick in hub wheel motor response times, therefore various torque vectoring strategies can be comfortably used for enhancing vehicle dynamics. Moreover, by using four independent in-wheel motors, several types of motion controls can be performed.
2017-05-10
Technical Paper
2017-01-1926
Tobias Winter, Simon Thierfelder
Hatz is a medium sized engine manufacturer with a production volume of currently ~58000 engines per year and a rather diversified product portfolio. To be cost and time efficient in new and further developments of our engines a deep system knowledge is indispensable. In order to achieve this we use a strongly simulation based developing approach in combination with component and specially suited engine testing. This combines to a state-of-the art R&D process which helps us to overcome an increasingly cost challenging competition.
2017-05-10
Technical Paper
2017-01-1922
Wolfgang Burget
Highly diversified market needs, non-harmonized regulations and new technological trends in future construction machinery industry will challenge OEMs in defining their appropriate development strategies. Main trends like “efficiency”, “safety/security” as well as “connectivity” are considered as important driving forces in future product - and customer service - developments. Some examples are given for the above mentioned trends. Chances and related risks of such development trends are considered as well.
2017-05-10
Technical Paper
2017-01-1927
Andreas Graef
China’s construction equipment (CE) market has been shrinking since 2011 with only few machinery segments gaining sales in last few years. Most of China’s CE machinery segments are already highly concentrated with few major Chinese CE OEMs contributing the majority of sales volume in each machinery segment. Machinery segments with more advanced technology such as crawler excavators see the rise of Chinese CE OEM competing with their international peers on market shares. Chinese full-liner OEMs are expected to shift their global M&A strategies in light of China’s enforced governmental control of capital outflows and increased scrutiny over the authenticity and compliance of overseas investments. With this market and competitor dynamics in China, the key question for international CE powertrain system and component supplier is how Chinese CE OEM and engine supplier develop and source their key powertrain components in future.
2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9076
Ioannis Karakitsios, Evangelos Karfopoulos, Nikolay Madjarov, Aitor Bustillo, Marc Ponsar, Dionisio Del Pozo, Luca Marengo
Abstract The aim of this paper is to introduce a complete fast dynamic inductive charging infrastructure from the back-office system (EV management system) up to the Electric Vehicle (EV) (inductive power transfer module, positioning mechanism, electric vehicle modifications) and the EV user (User interface). Moreover, in order to assess the impact of the additional demand of inductive charging on the grid operation, an estimation of the 24-hour power profile of dynamic inductive charging is presented considering, apart from the road traffic, the probability of the need for fast charging, as well as the specifications of the proposed solution. In addition, an energy management system is presented enabling the management of the operation of the inductive charging infrastructure, the interaction with the EV users and the provision of demand response services to different stakeholders.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1701
Sagar Mody, Thomas Steffen
Abstract The goal of grid friendly charging is to avoid putting additional load on the electricity grid when it is heavily loaded already, and to reduce the cost of charging to the consumer. In a smart metering system, Day Ahead tariff (DA) prices are announced in advance for the next day. This information can be used for a simple optimization control, to select to charge at cheapest times. However, the balance of supply and demand is not fully known in advance and the Real-Time Prices (RTP) are therefore likely to be different at times. There is always a risk of a sudden price change, hence adding a stochastic element to the optimization in turn requiring dynamic control to achieve optimal time selection. A stochastic dynamic program (SDP) controller which takes this problem into account has been made and proven by simulation in a previous paper.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1732
Payodh Dwivedi
Abstract The conventional hybrid engine faces one major problem i.e. high cost of production. Although hybrid engines, in many sense proved to be highly efficient and environmental friendly, but high cost of production makes them less feasible and limits their applications. This problem is overcome by a new design in which instead of having Internal Combustion(IC) engine and electric motor separately, these two are incorporated under same housing. This involves a different working mechanism of electric motor which is as described below- This mechanism is applied to a normal engine which has two or more than two cylinders in any configuration or orientation. Taking example of In-line four cylinder engines as it is most widely used. In this the two cylinders work on conventional internal combustion mechanism, but the other two cylinders are electric cylinder and works on electricity.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1383
Satheesh Kumar Chandran, James Forbes, Carrie Bittick, Kathleen Allanson, Fnu Brinda
Abstract There is a strong business case for automotive interfaces to undergo usability testing throughout their product development lifecycle. System Usability Scale (SUS) is a simple and standard measure of usability. To meet the timing needs for product development, usability testing needs to be performed in a quick, cost effective manner. Hence the required sample size of participants for a usability study is one of the critical factors. To determine an acceptable sample size, a Monte Carlo simulation using SUS scores from eleven different in-vehicle automotive interface usability studies was used to create 500,000 subsamples of different sample sizes. The percentage of subsamples with mean scores within the confidence interval of the population mean was calculated. At a subsample size of thirty-five, 95% of the subsamples have a mean SUS score within the 95% confidence interval of the population mean.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0278
John Kelly Villota Pismag, Hisham Alawneh, Cristian Adam, Samir A. Rawashdeh, Pramita Mitra, Yifan Chen, Gary Strumolo
Abstract The potential for Augmented Reality (AR) spans many domains. Among other applications, AR can improve the discovery and learning experience for users inspecting a particular item. This paper discusses the use of AR in the automotive context; particularly, on improving the user experience in a dealership show room. Visual augmentation, through a tablet computer or glasses allows users to take part in a self-guided tour in learning about the various features, details, and options associated with a vehicle. The same approach can be applied to other learning scenarios, such as training and maintenance assistance. We evaluated a set of AR Glasses and a general purpose tablet. A table-top showroom was developed demonstrating what the actual user experience would be like for a self-guided dealership tour using natural markers and three-dimensional content spatially registered to physical objects in the user’s field of view.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1678
Joseph Antony John Selvaraj, Sivapalan Balanayagam
Modern Instrument Panel Clusters (IPC) are equipped with thin film transistor (TFT) based displays. Contrary to conventional IPCs with hard gauges and liquid crystal diode (LCD) displays, TFT displays offer versatile usage of display area with soft gauges, reconfigurable menus, tell tales, graphics and warning messages etc., At the same time, the number of possible screen combinations, multicolor images validation and different screen arbitration become significantly complex. Thereby display validation turns out to be a complex and time consuming task in IPC validation. The task becomes even more complex when change requests are to be incorporated during final phases of development stage. This paper provides a novel solution that helps to validate any graphical and behavioral changes with minimum effort and maximum accuracy.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1674
Wenxu NIU, Ke Song, Tong Zhang
Abstract X-in-the-loop (XiL) framework is a validation concept for vehicle product development, which integrates different virtual and physical components to improve the development efficiency. In order to develop and validate an extended validation method based on XiL, Tongji University in Shanghai, China and the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) in Karlsruhe, Germany co- performed a feasibility study about an X-in-the-distance-loop demonstration platform. The X-in-the-distance-loop demonstration platform includes a MATLAB/Simulink software platform and geographically distributed equipment (driver simulator, driving electric motor and dynamometer test stand), which are used to conduct bidirectional experiments to test communication of powertrain data between China and Germany.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1651
Douglas Thornburg, John Schmotzer, MJ Throop
Abstract Onboard, embedded cellular modems are enabling a range of new connectivity features in vehicles and rich, real-time data set transmissions from a vehicle’s internal network up to a cloud database are of particular interest. However, there is far too much information in a vehicle’s electrical state for every vehicle to upload all of its data in real-time. We are thus concerned with which data is uploaded and how that data is processed, structured, stored, and reported. Existing onboard data processing algorithms (e.g. for DTC detection) are hardcoded into critical vehicle firmware, limited in scope and cannot be reconfigured on the fly. Since many use cases for vehicle data analytics are still unknown, we require a system which is capable of efficiently processing and reporting vehicle deep data in real-time, such that data reporting can be switched on/off during normal vehicle operation, and that processing/reporting can be reconfigured remotely.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1625
Rajeev Kalamdani, Chandra Jalluri, Stephen Hermiller, Robert Clifton
Abstract Use of sensors to monitor dynamic performance of machine tools at Ford’s powertrain machining plants has proven to be effective. The traditional approach to convert sensor data to actionable intelligence consists of identifying single features from cycle based signatures and setting thresholds above acceptable performance limits based on trials. The thresholds are used to discriminate between acceptable and unacceptable performance during each cycle and raise alarms if necessary. This approach requires a significant amount of resource & time intensive set up work up-front and considerable trial and error adjustments. The current state does not leverage patterns that might be discernible using multiple features simultaneously. This paper describes enhanced methods for processing the data using supervised and unsupervised machine learning methods. The objective of using these methods is to improve the prediction accuracy and reduce up-front set up.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0894
Nishant Singh
Abstract Improving fuel economy has been a key focus across the automotive industry for several years if not decades. For heavy duty commercial vehicles, the benefits from minor gains in fuel economy can lead to significant savings for fleets as well as owners and operators. Additionally, the regulations require vehicles to meet certain GHG standards which closely translate to vehicle fuel economy. For current state of the art fuel economy technologies, incremental gains are so miniscule that measurements on the vehicle are inadequate to quantify the benefits. Engineers are challenged with high level of variability to make informed decisions. In such cases, highly controlled tests on Engine and Powertrain dynamometers are used, however, there is an associated variability even with these tests due to factors such as part to part differences, deterioration, fuel blends and quality, dyno control capabilities and so on.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1262
David Baker, Zachary Asher, Thomas Bradley
Abstract The EcoCAR3 competition challenges student teams to redesign a 2016 Chevrolet Camaro to reduce environmental impacts and increase energy efficiency while maintaining performance and safety that consumers expect from a Camaro. Energy management of the new hybrid powertrain is an integral component of the overall efficiency of the car and is a prime focus of Colorado State University’s (CSU) Vehicle Innovation Team. Previous research has shown that error-less predictions about future driving characteristics can be used to more efficiently manage hybrid powertrains. In this study, a novel, real-world implementable energy management strategy is investigated for use in the EcoCAR3 Hybrid Camaro. This strategy uses a Nonlinear Autoregressive Artificial Neural Network with Exogenous inputs (NARX Artificial Neural Network) trained with real-world driving data from a selected drive cycle to predict future vehicle speeds along that drive cycle.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1275
David Hobbs, Charles Ossenkop, Andy Latham
Abstract Global sales of electric and hybrid vehicles continue to grow as emission legislation forces vehicle manufacturers to build cleaner vehicles, with some 8 million already in service. Hybrid and Electric vehicles contain some of the most complex systems ever used in the automotive field, sophisticated and unique electric hybrid systems are added to modern motor vehicles which are already quite complex. As these vehicles reach the end of their lives they will be processed by the global vehicle recycling industry and the high voltage components will be reused, recycled or re-purposed. This paper explores safe working practices for businesses involved in a global marketplace who are completing battery disabling, removal, disassembly, storage and shipping; includes the various technologies and safe working practices along with some of the legal restrictions on dismantling, storage and shipping of high voltage batteries around the world.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0455
Harshad Hatekar, Baskar Anthonysamy, V. Saishanker, Lakshmi Pavuluri, Gurdeep Singh Pahwa
Abstract Structural elastomer components like bushes, engine mounts are required to meet stringent and contrasting requirements of being soft for better NVH and also be durable at different loading conditions and different road conditions. Silent block bushes are such components where the loading in radial direction of bushes are high to ensure the durability of bushes at high loads, but has to be soft on torsion to ensure good NVH. These requirements present with unique challenge to optimize the leaf spring bush design, stiffness and material characteristics of the rubber. Traditionally, bushes with varying degree of stiffness are selected, manufactured and tested on vehicle and the best one is chosen depending on the requirements. However, this approach is costly, time consuming and iterative. In this study, the stiffness targets required for the bush were analysed using static and dynamic load cases using virtual simulation (MSC.ADAMS).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1141
Bashar Alzuwayer, Robert Prucka, Imtiaz Haque, Paul Venhovens
Abstract Fuel economy regulations have forced the automotive industry to implement transmissions with an increased number of gears and reduced parasitic losses. The objective of this research is to develop a high fidelity and a computationally efficient model of an automatic transmission, this model should be suitable for controller development purposes. The transmission under investigation features a combination of positive clutches (interlocking dog clutches) and conventional wet clutches. Simulation models for the torque converter, lock-up clutch, transmission gear train, interlocking dog clutches, wet clutches, hydraulic control valves and circuits were developed and integrated with a 1-D vehicle road load model. The integrated powertrain system model was calibrated using measurements from real-world driving conditions. Unknown model parameters, such as clutch pack clearances, compliances, hydraulic orifice diameters and clutch preloads were estimated and calibrated.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1012
Sunil Kumar Pathak, Vineet sood, Yograj Singh, Salim Abbasbhai Channiwala
Abstract In developing countries like India, large numbers of portable gensets are used as a power source due to the scarcity of grid power supply. The portable gensets, ranging from 0.5 kW to 5 kW are very popular in the residential areas, for example, small restaurants, and shopping complexes, etc. These gensets are using various fuels like gasoline, diesel, LPG, and kerosene in small internal combustion engines. Such engines are the significant source of air pollution, as these are running in the vicinity of populated areas and higher human exposure to these pollutants.Theses gensets are regulated by exhaust and noise emissions norms, set by statutory bodies like the ministry of environment and forest and central pollution control board of India.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0023
Naoya Tsuchiya, Tomohisa Kishigami, Eiichirou Kawakami
Abstract In-vehicle network communication is evolving faster speeds and higher performance capabilities, connecting the information possessed by ECU and sensors with the in-vehicle electronic systems which are continuing to develop. With the evolution of the complicated networks, it is becoming difficult to develop them without many verification of actual machine. On the other hand, as for the verification means required at the logic level or physical level for a network verification through ECU design, virtual verification in the whole vehicle is difficult due to speed increases and the sheer size of the system. Therefore, it is only applicable for systems which are limited to a domain or an area, and flexible and timely utilization would be difficult due to the changes in specifications.
Viewing 31 to 60 of 10346