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2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0127
Agish George, William Taylor, Jody Nelson
Abstract One of the key premises of the ISO 26262 functional safety standard is the development of an appropriate Technical Safety Concept for the item under development. This is specified in detail in Part 4 of the standard - Product development at the system level. The Technical safety requirements and the technical safety concept form the basis for deriving the hardware and software safety requirements that are then used by engineering teams for developing a safe product. Just like any other form of product development, making multiple revisions of the requirements are highly undesirable. This is primarily due to cost increases, chances of having inconsistencies within work products and its impact on the overall project schedule. Good technical safety requirements are in fact the foundation for an effective functional safety implementation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1020
Yusuke Wada, Koji Nakano, Kei Mochizuki, Ryuichi Hata
Abstract A 1.5 L downsizing turbocharged engine was developed to achieve both driving and environmental performance. The engine is intended to replace 1.8 - 2.4 L class NA engines. In downsizing turbocharged engines, mixture homogeneity is important for suppressing knocking and emission reduction. Particularly under high load, creating rapid combustion and a homogeneous mixture are key technologies. The authors used a long-stroke direct injection engine, which has outstanding rapid combustion and thermal efficiency, as a base engine meeting these requirements. They combined this with a high-tumble port and shallow-dish piston intended to support tumble flow. The combination enhanced flow within the cylinder. The combustion system was built to include a sodium-filled exhaust valve to reduce knocking and a multi-hole injector (six holes) for mixture homogeneity and to reduce the fuel wall wetting.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1169
Brendan Conlon, Mindy Barth, Charles Hua, Clifford Lyons, Dan Nguy, Margaret Palardy
Abstract GM has developed an all-new gasoline-electric hybrid powertrain for the model year 2016 Chevrolet Malibu Hybrid vehicle, which was designed to achieve excellent fuel economy, performance, and drive quality. The powertrain shares the transmission architecture with the 2016 Chevrolet Volt extended range electric vehicle, but includes changes to optimize the system for engine driven charge sustaining operation in the range of conditions represented by the US EPA 5 cycle fuel economy tests. In this paper, we describe the Malibu Hybrid propulsion system features and components, including the battery pack, transaxle, electric motors and power electronics, engine, and thermal system. The modifications between the Volt and Malibu Hybrid propulsion systems are discussed and explained as resulting from the differences between the primarily electric and gasoline powered applications.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0041
Ramsai Ramachandran, Ayan Bhattacharyya, Sukhchain Singh
Abstract Automobile components are usually subjected to complex varying loads. Thus, fatigue failure is a common mode of failure in automobile components. Accurately predicting the fatigue life is the key point for light weight and also reliability design of automobile components. Various life prediction theories are being used in the automotive industry for damage analysis using material S-N curves. However, due to variability in manufacturing, material spec etc. it is difficult to predict the experimental lives using conventional theories. Probability based statistical modeling is prevalent in the industry for life prediction. Probabilistic plots of cycles to failure to constant amplitude loads are plotted and used for prediction purpose. As the component is subjected to varying loads in real world, defining a single parameter i.e. damage would be more relevant compared to loads.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0079
Paramjeet Panwar
Abstract The paper discusses a low fidelity mathematical simulation model using a backward facing modelling approach to vehicle simulation for calculation of energy requirements and flow through a simplified Series-HEV. Mathematical modelling techniques for HEV’s are well established method for purposes such as vehicle system simulations, developing control strategies, energy usage and range estimation with high detail and high degree of accuracy, and have been discussed extensively in literature. The paper discusses a low fidelity mathematical model of a Series-HEV which can be used to introduce undergraduate engineering students to concepts of HEVs. The model will be used as a case study to introduce and inspire students into using mathematical modelling of systems for their engineering coursework.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0058
Ninad Pimpalkhare, Gaurav Kumar, Yuva Kishore Vaddi, Chetan Prakash Jain
Abstract Inside cabin of a passenger car, low frequency booming noise still presents a major hurdle for NVH engineers to fine tune a vehicle. Low frequency booming noise is presently taken care with addition of mass damper and large reinforcements. These conventional countermeasures add weight to the vehicle as well as increase the overall production cost. The study presented in this paper proposes a countermeasure model that not only reduces the booming noise but also avoids any weight and cost addition. It has been focused for low frequency booming noise around 30 ∼ 40 Hz. Within the range mentioned, one of the major reasons for booming noise in hatchback models is the bending resonance of backdoor. By modifying the mode of the backdoor in such a manner that it cancels the effect of bending on the vehicle acoustic cavity, improvement can be achieved in terms of sound pressure level at the driver’s right ear location (DREL).
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0044
Ashish Rawat, Ashwinder Singh, Hardeep Singh, Deepak Sharma
Abstract India is a country of diversity. From North to South, east to west, one can find altogether different culture, religions, spoken languages, foods, weather conditions, people lifestyles, dressing styles etc. This vast diversity of India poses a great challenge in front of Indian Automobile Manufacturers, so as to assimilate all the requirements (of this big nation) in one single car (design). For example, many people in India wear turban (out of their religious beliefs or cultural heritage). So, is it required to keep enough consideration for Turban wearing population in vehicle design? Turban, unlike caps or hats, is something which is tied on the head (not just only kept). It is something which cannot be removed whenever required. So, it can somehow be considered as an integral part of body (as an added head dimension). So, it becomes all the more important to thoroughly understand this aspect & keep a consideration for the same in vehicle design.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0240
Naveen Sukumar, Sayak Mukherjee, Praneeth Kurisetty, Umashanker Gupta
Abstract The cabin or cab is an enclosed space where the driver and co-driver are seated. Structural parameters such as modal and stiffness characteristics are of key importance for its durability study and driver’s comfort. The desired strength and stiffness value of the cabin have to be met at the development phase itself. In developing new cabin models numerical simulations are used for estimating vehicle performance to reduce the development cycle. But, the conventional method of modeling the cabin using 2-d elements and performing subsequent iteration steps to arrive at the desired stiffness and strength value will be cumbersome and time consuming. Thus, a methodology of FE modeling of the truck cabin using 1-D elements has been proposed in this paper which will reduce the analysis time of successive iterations. For this purpose an existing proven driver’s cabin is modeled using 1-D elements.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0258
Eeshan Bashir, Sanjay A Patil
Abstract In the field of automotive if a vehicle is designed for a particular per person riding capacity considering the aspects of safety, design and power exceeding those limits puts the driver and pillion riders at considerable risk. With a step ahead in this paper we are trying to detect and limit the number of persons sitting on two wheeler. As per the traffic rules in India the maximum number of persons cannot exceed two, apart from the driver only one pillion rider can be carried in behind while driving. Despite of the ban, driver carries more than a single person. Two Pillion riding is also a root of a lot of accidents happening in two wheelers. To make the detection process effective, robust and cost effective a new sensor design was to be put forward. There is no sensor available that could detect the differential load over the larger area at effective cost. To cater to this problem Bubble based tactile based sensors were developed and checked for this application.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0195
Bibin Alias, Eswar Kurukundu, Savitha Nandagudi
Abstract A simplified mathematical model of tandem suspension is presented to study the different parameters of tandem suspension. The equations of motion are compiled considering the system to be 3 degrees of freedom system, taking into accounts both oscillation and deflection of the leaf spring. The response characteristics for vibration isolation for the company test track road profiles at different speeds of the vehicle are calculated. The sensitivity of acceleration to variations in un-sprung masses and axle spacing is illustrated. Further, the usefulness of the model for studying the effect of shock absorber positioning on ride of tandem bogie suspension system is demonstrated.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0194
Srikanta Nahak, Sagar Bhojne
Abstract Earth moving machines are steered using various steering methodology. Articulated steering mechanism is the most popular type of steering methods. It is actuated by hydraulic cylinders connected to the steering linkages. While the machine is deployed with articulated type steering, vehicle stability is proportionate to the steering velocity. Articulated steering provides two important features, shorter turning radius, allows front and back axle to be solid. Directional stability refers to a vehicle’s ability to stabilize its direction of motion against disturbances. Majority of earth moving equipment operates on basic cycle of Load-Haul-Dump. During each cycle, vehicle needs to be steered at least once. To optimize the machine performance for improved productivity it is essential to study the correlation between articulation speed and operational weight of the vehicle.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0178
Santosh Shankara Murthy, Monish M. H. Gowda, Hima Kiran Venna
Abstract Vehicle dynamics is the study of response of the vehicle to driver’s input. Various parameters like location of center of gravity (CG), suspension spring stiffness, wheel alignment parameters, etc. determine the handling behavior of the vehicle. This is a study to investigate the effects of aforesaid parameters on handling characteristics of an intercity bus using MSC ADAMS software tool. Handling performance is determined by evaluating various parameters such as understeer gradient, roll gradient, etc. Understeer gradient is influenced by various parameters like location of CG, tire cornering stiffness, etc. Roll gradient of a vehicle depend on various parameters like vertical stiffness of tires, anti-roll bars (ARB) diameter, location of CG, etc. As a part of this study, four different configurations of MBD models were built to investigate the effect of location of ARB on handling behavior of bus.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0203
Krishnakanth Pandurangan, Hima Kiran Vithal Venna, Vinod Banthia
Abstract Exposure to high level of vibrations encountered in driver’s cabin of heavy duty truck over extended time causes driver fatigue and leads to serious health disorders. In most of the current heavy duty trucks in India, absence of proper vibration isolation system for driver’s seat results in transmission of high levels of vibration to the driver. A proper seat isolation system, combined with proper cushioning of seat can considerably reduce vibration transmissibility to the driver. The work presented here addresses the problem of vibration levels in a heavy duty truck and proposes solution for reducing vibration transmissibility to driver seat by using isolation and cushioning system. Vibration levels on floor, driver’s seat and seat back of an existing truck were measured using tri-axial accelerometer and 9 channel spectrum analyzer. Measured vibration levels in the vertical direction were found to be exceeding comfortable level.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0149
Hemant Pratap Singh, Pulkit Sagar, Kartikey Singh
Abstract This paper deals with the problems which emanates in front of society in developing electric vehicles. Aim of this paper is to prepare ways through which we can develop electric vehicle with efficiency (more than 60%). So that these electric vehicles can substitute I.C engine vehicles, which are main cause of environment pollution. To achieve that goal, various competitions are arranged in which one sitter kart develop to ease mechanical constraints and easily utilize innovations in kart. To develop kart various type of modelling and simulation were done on INVENTOR and ANSYS 14.0. Different type of test were also taken into account like Brake test, Speed test, Power test, Load test, and efficiency test. This paper also motivates student in developing vehicles so that they can excel their knowledge and assist in research of electric vehicles.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0024
Aditya Rai, Sanchit Vijh, P Baskara Sethupathi
Abstract To increase the range of a Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV), a lot of ideas have been proposed. A prominent one among them is the Battery swapping methodology or Rapid Battery Interchange (RBI), where standardized batteries can easily be removed from the BEV and replaced with recharged batteries quickly. The feasibility of this methodology has been highly debated and contested. This paper studies the feasibility of a very popular distribution and maintenance network currently used for LPG distribution in India, to be applied to battery distribution used across different makes and models of BEVs. In India, 33.6 million households subscribe to LPG Cylinders for domestic cooking usage. These standard sized (14.2Kg) cylinders are refilled and redistributed via multiple public sector and private companies.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0235
Manish Dixit, V Sundaram, S. Sathish Kumar
Abstract The performance of any automotive engine depends not only upon its core engine parts but also on the effectiveness of the sub-systems attached to the engine, like the intake, fuel, engine cooling and exhaust systems. The exhaust system being a critical system of any automotive vehicle plays a responsible role of improving the ride quality of the vehicle and fuel economy. The effective design of exhaust system is critical in order to ensure the required exhaust gas is exited from the engine and at the same time the noise is attenuated. In this paper a novel approach is developed in order to characterize the flow through the cold end exhaust system and reduce the pressure drop to achieve desired performance. The exhaust system attenuates the noise from the engine without deteriorating the engine performance by ensuring an optimum value of exhaust back pressure.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0210
Abhishek Sinha, Kamlesh Yadav, Rajdeep Singh Khurana
Abstract The biggest challenge in vehicle BIW design today is to make a light, cost effective and energy absorbing structure. With the increasing competition as well as increasing customer awareness, today’s vehicle has to satisfy several aesthetic and functional requirements besides the mandatory regulatory requirements. While working on global platform, it is challenging to comply with both pedestrian protection and low speed bumper impact (ECE-R42) and at the same time meeting the styling intent of reducing the front overhang. Pedestrian lower leg compliance demands space between bumper member and bumper, a condition that reduces the space available for energy absorption during low speed impact (ECE-R42). Therefore, reduction in front overhang poses a problem in meeting both the requirements with limited space.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0244
Kumaraswamy Udugu, Viswanatha Reddy Saddala, Sridhar Lingan
Abstract Traffic injuries are an important public health issue. To prevent these injuries, safety systems in a vehicle are recognized as valuable tools. These safety systems are active before and during a crash event. Passive safety is one such safety tool which comprises of occupant restraint systems to prevent fatal injuries during an event of a crash. To improve the real life safety further, active safety systems plays an important role in mitigating the real world accidents. Moreover, effective integration of active and passive safety systems has a potential to further reduce car occupant fatalities. However, in the recent developments in India towards road safety, vehicle safety standards are oriented more towards passive safety. In the present work, road accidents data from India between 2005 and 2014 are studied, to estimate the major mode of accidents and factors influencing the fatal injuries.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0198
Joydeep Chatterjee, Harveen Talwar, Srishti Garg
Abstract In a typical passenger vehicle, there can be different types of noises generated which are broadly categorized as Interior Noise and Exterior Noise. The interior noise sources can be further classified into noises which can be Structure Borne or Air Borne. One of the major sources of both structure borne and airborne noise generation is the powertrain of the vehicle. The structure-borne noise and vibrations generated from the powertrain is usually transferred to the vehicle body through its attachment points to the body and the powertrain driveline. These induced body vibrations can sometimes cause the acoustic cavity of the passenger cabin to go into resonance which results in an annoying and disturbing noise for the passengers, called Booming Noise. Very often, one or more than one vehicle body panels show a dominant contribution in inducing this acoustic cavity resonance.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0219
Ram Narwade, Vijay Patil
Abstract Adulteration of diesel and petrol is a common malpractice observed worldwide. Fuel adulteration affects adversely on engine and its components along with increased emission level of carcinogenic gases leading to growing ecological & Health concerns. This paper proposes a technology which will individually detect the level of fuel adulteration, accuracy of refueled Quantity and Engine performances like Fuel Economy and Emission caused between consecutive refueling Intervals. All such results will be shared among the vehicle users using the technology of IoT and connected cars. This system will also have a smart phone interface for user to analyze the information given by the system. This technology comprises of Global Positioning system(GPS), A GPRS wireless communication, blue-tooth communication protocol for information exchange with the smart phone, and a sensor system for detecting quantity and quality experience of Refueled fuel.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0051
Sandip Sahoo, Abhinav Kuchhal, Sekharan Vineeth, Vikram Chauhan
Abstract Shielding vehicle underbody or engine room components from exhaust heat is becoming a difficult task with increasing packaging constraints, which lead to the proximity of components with high temperatures of the exhaust systems. Heat insulators are provided to protect various components from exhaust system parts. Generally the requirement of heat insulators are fixed on the basis of benchmarked temperatures measured on vehicles with similar layout, during the initial phase of vehicle design. Also various CFD techniques are available to predict the surface temperatures on components in order to determine the necessity of a heat insulator. The aforementioned techniques use radiation and convection heat transfer effects on a complete vehicle model and the overall process generally takes considerable time to provide the results. This paper deals with a theoretical approach to predict the temperatures on nearby components due to exhaust system heat.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0177
Sreedeep Thiyya Kkandiyil, Monish M. H. Gowda, Hima Kiran Venna
Abstract Vehicle dynamics is one of the important domains in the automotive field. It is the study of performance, ride and handling of the vehicle. The design of steering system, suspension system and front axle plays an important role in achieving good ride and handling characteristics of the vehicle. The wheel geometry is one of the suspension parameter that affects handling characteristics of the vehicle. Hence proper selection of wheel geometry angles such as caster, camber, toe, steering angle inclination and scrub radius plays an important role in suspension design. In this thesis work study has been conducted to analyze the influence of steering axis inclination and scrub radius on steering effort of passenger car. This study helps in selecting proper steering axis inclination and scrub radius with a goal of achieving lesser steering effort. Multi body dynamic model of selected passenger car has been built using ADAMS Car.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0185
Narayan Venkitachalam, David Neihguk, Gurdeep Singh Pahwa, Parth Lunia, Abhinav Prasad, J Perumal
Abstract The excitation to a vehicle is from two sources, road excitation and powertrain excitation. Vehicle Suspension is designed to isolate the road excitation coming to passenger cabin. Powertrain mounts play a vital role in isolating the engine excitation. The current study focuses on developing an analytical approach using Low-Fidelity computer programs to design the Powertrain Mount layout and stiffness during the initial stage of product development. Three programs have been developed as a part of this study that satisfy the packaging needs, NVH requirements and static load bearing requirements. The applications are capable of providing the Kinetic Energy Distribution and Static Analysis (Powertrain Enveloping and Mount Durability) for 3-point and 4-point mounting systems and the ideal mount positions and stiffness for 3-point mounting systems.
2015-12-02
Journal Article
2015-01-9007
Maher Shehadi, Byron Jones, Mohammad Hosni
Abstract This paper reviews reportable aviation incidents and associated cost losses. Aviation incidents include visible smoke incidents inside aircraft passenger cabins, occurrences of fumes and oily smells, and illness cases reported by flight crew members in 2012, for US based carriers for domestic flights and all international flights that either originated or terminated in the US. Cost losses include direct and indirect costs endured by different airlines due to diversions from the scheduled flight route, returns to departure airport, expedited arrival procedures, and cancellation of flights on ground. Two case study scenarios are presented to illustrate minimum and maximum costs limits. Sources used to collect data for this article include the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Federal Aviation Administration online database, Research and Innovative Technology Administration database (RITA), and official airline websites.
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0838
Tadamasa Fukuoka, Kazuki Fujimoto, Yuya Hongo, Shinji Kajiwara
Kinki University formula project has been participating in the student Formula SAE of Japan (JSAE) every year for the Competition since the second time. The engine uses ZX-6R made by Kawasaki Heavy Industries for the Competition from the eighth time. “Improvement of limited performance” is inserted in the concept through the development of a power train. Supercharger loading, engine dry sump and engine cooling management were improved. 59.6 kW (80.6 PS) /9000 rpm of maximum output and 70.6 Nm (7.2 kgf m)/8000 rpm of maximum torque were achieved by the supercharger loading. We succeeded in getting 90% of torque band (4000∼10000rpm) by 50% of the number of revolutions in regular use (2000∼12000rpm). Using the dry sump system, hydraulic pressure constantly managed hydraulic pressure at the time of engine operations; the system, where the engine stops at the time of hydraulic pressure fall, was also built.
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0763
Misa Milosavljevic, Philippe Degeilh, Stephane Venturi, Fabrice Le Berr, Samy Laabidi, Gianluca Zito, Sebastien Magand, Francois Raymond
As congestion increases and commute times lengthen with the growing urbanization, many customers will look for effective mobility solutions. Two-wheeler are one of the solutions to deal with these issues, in particular if equipped with electrified powertrains for minimized local noise and air pollutant emissions. Scooters powertrain technology is predominantly based on Spark Ignition Engine (ICE) associated with a Continuously Variable Transmissions (CVT) and a Centrifugal Clutch. Nevertheless, even though CVT gives satisfaction in simplicity, fun to drive, cost effectiveness and vehicle dynamics, its efficiency is an undeniable drawback. Indeed, a conventional CVT is wasting more than 50% of ICE effective power in customer driving conditions. Consequently, those vehicles have high fuel consumption relative to their size, and are equipped with overpowered and heavy internal combustion engines, allowing a large area for further improvements.
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0829
Toshiki Yamashita, Tomoaki Kodama, Yasuhiro Honda, Toshio Otaka, Yuji Mizutani
The main purpose of Formula SAE Competition (hereafter called “FSAE”, “Formula Society of Automotive Engineering”) is to let students learn the basic ability necessary for engineers through design, fabrication and test projects. Higher running performance of a manufactured vehicle is one of the most important themes that should be studied in Student Formula Japan Competition (hereafter called SFJ Competition). Also, SFJ Competition is the series of the FSAE. the purpose of this study, the chassis must be required light weighting and high stiffness. The former can reduce the centrifugal force and the inertial force in the turning and the latter can contribute to demonstrate the suspension performance according to design [1], [2], [3], [4]. The SFJ Competition has Skid Pad event to compete for steerage responsiveness and high suspension performance on turning.
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0723
Hiroshi Ishii, Daisuke Saeki, Tomo Yamamoto, Manabu Morikawa, Eiji Sakurada, Kazuhiro Ichikawa, Seiichi Sonoda, Taku Nagata, Toshiyuki Kimura
In motorcycles, the size and output performance of the engine itself has a major effect on the maneuverability of the motorcycle. In particular for cases where a high output engine is mounted on a lightweight frame, these effects are even more of a concern. In the case of developing a racing motorcycle with a high power engine, the behavior of the motorcycle differs depending on the output range used and there are a lot of cases where changes to the basic dimensions of the motorcycle as well as the main components are required. Here, there are a lot of cases where the rider and drive-able courses are limited to compatibility with distinct specifications and when considering use as a general mass production motorcycle by riders with varying levels of skills and in various environments, it difficult to determine how to provide support.
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0740
Christian Hubmann, Hubert Friedl, Stefan Gruber, Nigel Foxhall
The automotive trend towards increased levels of electrification is showing a clear direction for hybrid technologies. Nowadays Mild- and plug-in-hybrids open a very wide area of future developments whereas battery electric vehicles (BEV) are still evident but still perceived as niche products with limited production volumes. Nevertheless, major OEMs are working on these kinds of vehicles and have also brought such EV concepts into series production. All of these designs show a clear trend that, beside the topic of electric traction motor and energy storage systems, the internal combustion engine (ICE) is also coming into focus again. In many of these vehicles the range extender (RE) unit is foreseen as an emergency unit to recharge the batteries if the state of charge (SOC) is too low. One of the major advantages of a BEV over other designs is the very good acoustic behavior, so the NVH performance becomes the most challenging topic for RE development.
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0832
Franz Winkler, Roland Oswald, Oliver Schögl, Andrea Abis, Stefan Krimplstatter, Roland Kirchberger
In consideration of the fact that in extreme Enduro competitions two-stroke motorcycles are still dominating, the Institute of Internal Combustion Engines and Thermodynamics, Graz University of Technology, with a long tradition in two-stroke technology, has developed a new 300 cm3 two-stroke motorcycle engine. The 2-stroke LPDI (Low Pressure Direct Injection) technology was originally developed for the 50 cm3 Scooter and moped market in Europe. In 50 cm3 applications the LPDI technology fulfils the EURO 4 emission standard (2017) [1]. In a next step the LPDI technology was applied to a 250 cm3 Enduro engine demonstrator vehicle. Based on the results of the demonstrator, a complete new high performance 300 cm3 engine was developed. The development of this new engine will be described in this publication. Some interesting aspects of the layout with 3D-CFD methods and also 1D-CFD simulation to optimize the exhaust system by DoE methods are discussed in the paper.
Viewing 271 to 300 of 10324