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Viewing 271 to 300 of 10366
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1419
Helen S. Loeb, Sam Chamberlain, Yi-Ching Lee
Abstract Motor vehicles crashes are the leading cause of injury and death of US teens. Driving simulators offer a way to safely expose drivers to specific events in a controlled and repeatable manner. They empower researchers by enabling them to compare different groups and driving behaviors and assess the cognitive and attention skills that are essential to safe driving. Classically, assessment of eye glances and gaze duration relies largely on time-consuming data reduction and video coding. In addition, the synchronization of eye tracker and simulator data is essential to a valid analysis of the eye glances patterns in relation to the driving scenario. To better understand and quantify eye glances in relation to a driving scene, Eyesync was developed as a synchronization bridge between an eye tracker and a driving simulator. It allows the real time synchronization and logging of eye tracking and simulator data. The design of the software is presented in this paper.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1434
Salvatore Trapanese, Alessandro Naddeo, Nicola Cappetti
Abstract The evaluation of perceived comfort inside a car during the early stages of the design process is still an open issue. Modern technologies like CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) and DHM (Digital Human Modeling) already offer several tools for a preventive evaluation of ergonomic parameters for car drivers using detailed CAD (Computer Aided Design) models of car interiors and by a MBS (multi-body-system) solver for evaluating movements and interactions. Such evaluations are, nonetheless, not sufficient because the subjectivity of comfort perception is due to factors that are very difficult to evaluate in the early stage of design. Physical prototypes are needed and these are often too expensive to be realized.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1429
Jangwoon Park, Sheila Ebert-Hamilton, K. Han Kim, Monica Jones, Byoung-Keon Park, Matthew Reed
Abstract This paper reports on the development and validation of an automated seat-dimension extraction system that can efficiently and reliably measure SAE J2732 (2008) seat dimensions from 3D seat scan data. The automated dimension-extraction process consists of four phases: (1) import 3D seat scan data along with seat reference information such as H-point location, back and cushion angles, (2) calculate centerline and lateral cross-section lines on the imported 3D seat scan data, (3) identify landmarks on the centerline and cross-section lines based on the SAE J2732 definitions, and (4) measure seat-dimensions using the identified landmarks. To validate the automated seat measurements, manually measured dimensions in a computer-aided-design (CAD) environment and automatically extracted ones in the current system were compared in terms of mean discrepancy and intra- and inter-observer standard deviations (SD).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1441
Jonathan Frank Antin, Justin Owens, James Foley, Kazutoshi Ebe, Brian Wotring
Abstract This study presents a long-term examination of the effects of two types of perceptual-cognitive brain training programs on senior driver behavior and on-road driving performance. Seniors (70+) engaged in either a Toyota-designed in-vehicle training program based on implicit learning principles or a commercially available computer-based training program developed by Posit Science. Another group served as a no-contact control group; total enrollment was 55 participants. Participants completed a series of four experimental sessions: (1) baseline pre-training, (2) immediate post-training, (3) 6-9 months post-training, and (4) 12-16 months post-training. Experimental metrics taken at each session included measures of vehicle control and driver glance behavior on public roads.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0458
Jiawei Li, Gangfeng Tan, Yangjie Ji, Yongchi Zhou, Ziang Liu, Yingxiao Xu
Abstract Vehicle auxiliary braking system is very significant to the brake safety. The eddy current retarder (ECR) has a good braking performance, but the braking torque would fade under high speed domain. In the contrary, the regenerative brake (RGB) could provide a satisfied braking performance in high speed domain. However, the braking torque in low speed domain is insufficient. This paper proposed a novel concept of the integrated energy-recuperation retarder (IEER), which would take advantage of the merits of both the ECR and the RGB to have a steady braking performance in all-speed domain. The IEER integrates the structures of rotary eddy current retarder (RECR) and the RGB, both of which share a stator. Braking torque of the IEER produced by stator core and armature-windings can stack together, and therefore the IEER can provide greater braking torque than the RECR. Besides, the IEER can recover electric energy from armature-windings.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0467
Haizhen Liu, Weiwen Deng, Rui He, Jian Wu, Bing Zhu
Abstract This paper presents a unified novel function-based brake control architecture, which is designed based on a top-down approach with functional abstraction and modularity. The proposed control architecture includes a commands interpreter module, including a driver commands interpreter to interpret driver intention, and a command integration to integrate the driver intention with senor-guided active driving command, state observers for estimation of vehicle sideslip, vehicle speed, tire lateral and longitudinal slips, tire-road friction coefficient, etc., a commands integrated control allocation module which aims to generate braking force and yaw moment commands and provide optimal distribution among four wheels without body instability and wheel lock or slip, a low-level control module includes four wheel pressure control modules, each of which regulates wheel pressure by fast and accurate tracking commanded wheel pressure.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0480
Weiguo Zhang, Mark Likich, Mac Lynch, John White
Abstract The noise radiated from the snorkel of an air induction system (AIS) can be a major noise source to the vehicle interior noise. This noise source is typically quantified as the snorkel volume velocity which is directly related to vehicle interior noise through the vehicle noise transfer function. It is important to predict the snorkel volume velocity robustly at the early design stage for the AIS development. Design For Six Sigma (DFSS) is an engineering approach that supports the new product development process. The IDDOV (Identify-Define-Develop-Optimize-Verify) method is a DFSS approach which can be used for creating innovative, low cost and trouble free products on significant short schedules. In this paper, an IDD project which is one type of DFSS project using IDDOV method is presented on developing a robust simulation process to predict the AIS snorkel volume velocity. First, the IDDOV method is overviewed and the innovative tools in each phase of IDDOV are introduced.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0409
Fatih Unal, Cem Sorusbay
Abstract In an effort to support design and testing activities at product development lifecycle of the engine, proper duty cycle is required. However, to collect data and develop accurate duty cycles, there are not any vehicles equipped with prototype engines at customers. Therefore, in this paper, discrete duty cycle development methodology is studied to generate trailer truck engine usage profile which represents driving conditions in Turkey for engines in development phase. Cycles are generated using several vehicles equipped with prototype engines and professional drivers that can mimic customer usage. Methodology is based on defining real-world customer driving profile, discretizing real-world drives into separate events, collecting vehicle data from each discrete drive, determining the weight of events by conducting customer surveys and creating a representative reference usage profile with data analysis.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0621
James Kapinski, Xiaoqing Jin, Jyotirmoy Deshmukh, Alexandre Donze, Tomoya Yamaguchi, Hisahiro Ito, Tomoyuki Kaga, Shunsuke Kobuna, Sanjit Seshia
Abstract Test and verification procedures are a vital aspect of the development process for embedded control systems in the automotive domain. Formal requirements can be used in automated procedures to check whether simulation or experimental results adhere to design specifications and even to perform automatic test and formal verification of design models; however, developing formal requirements typically requires significant investment of time and effort for control software designers. We propose Signal Template Library (ST-Lib), a uniform modeling language to encapsulate a number of useful signal patterns in a formal requirement language with the goal of facilitating requirement formulation for automotive control applications. ST-Lib consists of basic modules known as signal templates. Informally, these specify a characteristic signal shape and provide numerical parameters to tune the shape.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1475
Toby Terpstra, Tilo Voitel, Alireza Hashemian
Abstract Video and photo based photogrammetry software has many applications in the accident reconstruction community including documentation of vehicles and scene evidence. Photogrammetry software has developed in its ease of use, cost, and effectiveness in determining three dimensional data points from two dimensional photographs. Contemporary photogrammetry software packages offer an automated solution capable of generating dense point clouds with millions of 3D data points from multiple images. While alternative modern documentation methods exist, including LiDAR technologies such as 3D scanning, which provide the ability to collect millions of highly accurate points in just a few minutes, the appeal of automated photogrammetry software as a tool for collecting dimensional data is the minimal equipment, equipment costs and ease of use.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1497
William Bortles, Wayne Biever, Neal Carter, Connor Smith
Abstract This paper presents a comprehensive literature review of original equipment event data recorders (EDR) installed in passenger vehicles, as well as a summary of results from the instrumented validation studies. The authors compiled 187 peer-reviewed studies, textbooks, legal opinions, governmental rulemaking policies, industry publications and presentations pertaining to event data recorders. Of the 187 total references, there were 64 that contained testing data. The authors conducted a validation analysis using data from 27 papers that presented both the EDR and corresponding independent instrumentation values for: Vehicle velocity change (ΔV) Pre-Crash vehicle speed The combined results from these studies highlight unique observations of EDR system testing and demonstrate the observed performance of original equipment event data recorders in passenger vehicles.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1500
Renran Tian, Keyu Ruan, Lingxi Li, Jerry Le, Mike Rao
Abstract Driver state sensing technologies start to be widely used in vehicular systems developed from different manufacturers. To optimize the cost and minimize the intrusiveness towards driving, majority of these systems rely on in-cabin camera(s) and other optical sensors. With their great capabilities of detecting and intervening driver distraction and inattention, these technologies might become key components in future vehicle safety and control systems. However, currently there are no common standards available to compare the performance of these technologies, thus it is necessary to develop one standardized process for the evaluation purpose.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1285
Xiang Cheng, Han Hao, Zongwei Liu, Fuquan Zhao
Abstract Compared with conventional vehicles, electric vehicles (EVs) offer the benefits of replacing petroleum consumption and reducing air pollutions. However, there have been controversies over greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of EVs from the life-cycle perspective in China’s coal-dominated power generation context. Besides, it is in doubt whether the cost-effectiveness of EVs in China exceeds other fuel-efficient vehicles considering the high prices. In this study, we compared the life-cycle GHG emissions of existing vehicle models in the market. Afterwards, a cost model is established to compare the total costs of vehicles. Finally, the cost-effectiveness of different vehicle types are compared. It is concluded that the GHG emission intensity of EVs is lower than reference and hybrid vehicles currently and is expected to decrease with the improvement of the power grid.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1334
Christopher Flegel, Parth Bhivate, Liang Li, Yash Mathur, Sanket Phalgaonkar, Mark Benton, Prasanth Muralidharan, Johnell Brooks, Srikanth Pilla, Paul Venhovens, David Lewis, Garrett DeBry, Craig Payne
Abstract The Deep Orange framework is an integral part of the graduate automotive engineering education at Clemson University International Center for Automotive Research (CU-ICAR). The initiative was developed to immerse students into the world of an OEM. For the 6th generation of Deep Orange, the goal was to develop an urban utility/activity vehicle for the year 2020. The objective of this paper is to describe the development of a multimaterial lightweight Body-in-White (BiW) structure to support an all-electric powertrain combined with an interior package that maximizes volume to enable a variety of interior configurations and activities for Generation Z users. AutoPacific data were first examined to define personas on the basis of their demographics and psychographics.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1333
Edward C. Fontana
Abstract Individuals in the United States consume twice as much energy as those in any other region. Solitary workday commutes in light vehicles are the leading reason for this difference. An electric vehicle design is proposed to help catalyze more social, higher occupancy, commuting habits - through application of existing technology. Performance criteria are: 1) attract passengers to the suburban front yard at 6:30 AM, 2) match market leading crash test performance, cargo capability, and sense of freedom, and 3) deliver easier parking, better acoustics and better passenger mile efficiency. A vehicle as a rolling event venue determines a large windscreen, side-by-side upright seating arrangements, and acoustic excellence -an experience where there are only good seats. These requirements force a decision to close the wake along a vertical line to form a narrow wake. The chassis is platform batteries with dual motor electric rear drive and undetermined front drive.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1365
Siddharth Bhupendra Unadkat, Suhas Kangde, Mahalingesh Burkul, Mahesh Badireddy
Abstract The overall automotive industry is moving toward first time right test which in turn needs first time right analysis. This is due to the enormous pressure of cost, mass, time to market and availability of prototype vehicles for testing. Use of finite element methods enables to upfront predict the system behavior in operating conditions and evaluation of structural strength. In vehicle product development process, hood slam durability evaluation is one of the important tests for body closure structure. Current work showcases an effort made for developing virtual hood slam test. The virtual model consists of BIW, hood, hinge joint, interface like CRFM (cooling-radiator-fan module) and latch mechanism with spring preload. Analysis performed with LSDyna solver. An impact loading is applied by converting potential energy to kinetic energy, mimicking the hood dropping from a specified height on the hood latch.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1371
Satish Jaju, Pritesh Jain, Gopal Musale
Abstract The unit analysis methodology can be used for designing component or product in a product development process. This method may be used for designing the crush can, bumper beam, crush can long member, B-frame or A-pillar in frontal impact analysis. Unit assembly model technique can be effectively used in many CAE load cases to evaluate CAE simulations such as pedestrian impact analysis (ECE R78 / ENCAP), interior trim related head impact simulations (FMVSS201U), under run protection simulation for commercial vehicles (Front Underrun Protection Device ECE R93, Rear Underrun Protection Device ECE R58, Side Underrun Protection Device ECE R73), airbag deployment optimization etc. These CAE analyses correlate better with actual test. This paper gives idea about how the cost of product design can be reduced by using unit analysis. To reduce time of vehicle development such as cost of prototype, testing cost, optimization cost unit analysis is more economical.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1171
Shota Hirose, Akemi Okawa, Kenji Ishida, Takahiro Misu, Takeshi Tojo
Abstract Electrification of the powertrain to improve vehicle fuel economy is a key technology to achieve strict fuel economy legislation. However, only limited numbers of small class vehicles such as a B segment adopt electric powertrain. This is presumed that cost effectiveness for fuel economy is small and mounting space for additional powertrain is limited. In this paper, the optimum solution of a strong hybrid system suitable for the small vehicles was studied. First, from the viewpoint of maximization of energy efficiency, we compared contributions of engine efficiency and transmission efficiency during mode cycle driving and selected automated manual transmission as a suitable transmission for small vehicles. In comparing the hybrid system function, we determined a motor generator connecting shaft and a necessary motor generator output power for attaining both fuel economy and drivability.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1180
Trevor Crain, Thomas Gorgia, R. Jesse Alley
Abstract EcoCAR is North America's premier collegiate automotive engineering competition, challenging students with systems-level advanced powertrain design and integration. The EcoCAR Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition series is organized by Argonne National Laboratory, headline sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and General Motors, and sponsored by more than 30 industry and government leaders. In the last competition series, EcoCAR 2, fifteen university teams from across North America were challenged to reduce the environmental impact of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu by redesigning the vehicle powertrain without compromising performance, safety, or consumer acceptability. This paper examines the results of the EcoCAR 2 competition’s emissions and energy consumption (E&EC) on-road test results for several prototype plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The official results for each vehicle are presented along with brief descriptions of the hybrid architectures.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1182
Andrej Ivanco, Balan Mariappan Selvaraj, Kawshik Murali, Arjun Narayanan, Avik Sarkar, Aviral Singh, Akshay Soni, Mark Benton, Prasanth Muralidharan, Johnell Brooks, Paul Venhovens, Craig Payne
Abstract The Deep Orange framework is an integral part of the graduate automotive engineering education at Clemson University International Center for Automotive Research (CU-ICAR). The initiative was developed to immerse students into the world of an OEM. For the sixth generation of Deep Orange, the goal was to develop an urban utility/activity vehicle for the year 2020. The objective of this paper is to describe the development and implementation of a dual-purpose powertrain system enabling vehicle propulsion as well as stationary activities of the Deep Orange 6 vehicle concept. AutoPacific data were first examined to define personas on the basis of their demographics and psychographics. The resulting market research, benchmarking, and brand essence studies were then converted to consumer needs and wants, to establish vehicle target and subsystem requirement, which formed the foundation of the Unique Selling Points (USPs) of the concept.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1164
Oguz H. Dagci, Huei Peng
Abstract The goal of this paper is to explore the complete set of single mode hybrid electric powertrain designs that can be generated with one and two planetary gearsets (PGs). Contrary to an automated design exploration approach, an analytically-based manual method is developed to identify all unique design modes for each hybrid electric powertrain architecture (parallel, series, power-split) that can be created with two planetary gearsets, one engine, one vehicle output shaft, two electric machines, and at most two brake clutches. Feasible design modes are generated according to a procedure that provably covers the entire design space.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1169
Brendan Conlon, Mindy Barth, Charles Hua, Clifford Lyons, Dan Nguy, Margaret Palardy
Abstract GM has developed an all-new gasoline-electric hybrid powertrain for the model year 2016 Chevrolet Malibu Hybrid vehicle, which was designed to achieve excellent fuel economy, performance, and drive quality. The powertrain shares the transmission architecture with the 2016 Chevrolet Volt extended range electric vehicle, but includes changes to optimize the system for engine driven charge sustaining operation in the range of conditions represented by the US EPA 5 cycle fuel economy tests. In this paper, we describe the Malibu Hybrid propulsion system features and components, including the battery pack, transaxle, electric motors and power electronics, engine, and thermal system. The modifications between the Volt and Malibu Hybrid propulsion systems are discussed and explained as resulting from the differences between the primarily electric and gasoline powered applications.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1207
Hiroki Nagai, Masahiro Morita, Koichi Satoh
Abstract Toyota introduced the first generation Prius in 1997. The vehicle was conceived, designed and launched as a dedicated, mass-produced global hybrid vehicle platform, the first of its kind. The introduction of the 2nd and 3rd generation Prius (2003, 2009) saw vehicles with significantly improved performance, including fuel efficiency. The Prius Alpha (Japan/EU), launched in 2011, represented Toyota first foray with Li-ion battery in a strong hybrid configuration. For the Prius Alpha, the adoption of a compact Li-ion battery resulted in sufficient cabin space to allow a 3rd row of seats while maintaining high fuel efficiency. Before and after the launch of the Prius Alpha, an extensive list of tests was performed on the Li-ion battery pack, including electrical, electrochemical, mechanical, and safety. The evaluations were performed in the lab, in the field (demonstration fleets) and by acquiring vehicles used by customers.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0040
Ming Meng, Wilson Khoo
The modern vehicle development is highly dependent on software. The software development plays an extremely important role in vehicle safety and security. In order to ensure software high quality and safety standards, we have investigated the secure software development process and analyzed the works in this area. Based on our analysis, we have identified the similarities and differences between the secure software development process and the existing vehicle development process. We then made suggestions on how to adopt the secure software development process in the overall vehicle development process.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0028
Ali Shahrokni, Peter Gergely, Jan Söderberg, Patrizio Pelliccione
Abstract In areas such as Active Safety, new technologies, designs (e.g. AUTOSAR) and methods are introduced at a rapid pace. To address the new demands, and also requirements on Functional Safety imposed by ISO 26262, the support for engineering methods, including tools and data management, needs to evolve as well. Generic and file-based data management tools, like spreadsheet tools, are popular in the industry due to their flexibility and legacy in the industry but provide poor control and traceability, while rigid and special-purpose tools provide structure and control of data but with limited evolvability. As organizations become agile, the need for flexible data management increases. Since products become more complex and developed in larger and distributed teams, the need for more unified, controlled, and consistent data increases.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0032
Siddartha Khastgir, Gunwant Dhadyalla, Paul Jennings
Abstract The introduction of ISO 26262 concepts has brought important changes in the software development process for automotive software. While making the process more robust by introducing various additional methods of verification and validation, there has been a substantial increase in the development time. Thus, test automation and front loading approaches have become important to meet product timelines and quality. This paper proposes automated testing methods using formal analysis tools like Simulink Design Verifier™ (SLDV) for boundary value testing and interface testing to address the demands of ISO 26262 concepts at unit and component level. In addition, the method of automated boundary value testing proposed differs from the traditional methods and the authors offer an argument as to why the traditional boundary value testing is not required at unit (function) level.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0046
Markus Ernst, Mario Hirz, Jurgen Fabian
Abstract A steady increasing share and complexity of automotive software is a huge challenge for quality management during software development and in-use phases. In cases of faults occurring in customer’s use, warranty leads to product recalls which are typically associated with high costs. To avoid software faults efficiently, quality management and enhanced development processes have to be realized by the introduction of specific analysis methods and Key Process/Performance Indicators (KPIs) to enable objective quality evaluations as soon as possible during product development process. The paper introduces an application of specific analysis methods by using KPIs and discusses their potential for automotive software quality improvement. Target is to support quality evaluation and risk-analysis for the release process of automotive software.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0051
Hongyu Zheng, Mingxin Zhao
Abstract Electric power steering (EPS), active front wheel steering (AFS) and steer by wire systems (SBW) can enhance the handling stability and safety of the vehicle, even in dangerous working conditions. Now, the development of the electric control steering system (ECS) is mainly based on the way that combines the test of the electric steering hardware-in-loop (HIL) test bench with real vehicle tests. However, the real vehicle tests with higher cost, long cycle and vulnerable to space weather have the potential safety problems at early development. On contrast, electronic control steering HIL test bench can replace real vehicle tests under various working conditions and make previous preparations for real vehicle road tests, so as to reduce the number of real vehicle test, shorten the development cycle, lower development costs, which has gradually become the important link of research and development of electronic steering system.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0052
Jihas Khan
Abstract HILS is a proven and essential part of the embedded product development life cycle which strives to reduce effort, time and cost spent on automotive validation activities. An efficient HILS system allows to create a precise simulation environment for the ECU which is made to believe that it is sitting inside a real vehicle and there by the intended functionalities implemented in the same could be tested even before the vehicle prototypes or other ECUs or sensors and actuators are available. An inefficient and faulty HILS system provides erroneous test results which could lead to wrong inferences. This paper is proposing a standardized process flow aided by specific documentation and design concepts which validates that the test system designed is robust and caters to the actual requirement. The Design stage starts by a requirement gathering phase where the analysis of the device under test is executed in detail.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0053
Abhishek Sharma
Abstract Today open source software is widely used in different domains like Desktop systems, Consumer electronics (smart phones, TV, washing machines, camera, printers, smart watches), Automotive, Automation etc. With the increased involvement of the open source software in the different domains including the safety critical ones, there has been a requirement of the well-defined test strategy to test and verify such systems. Currently there are multiple open source tools and frameworks to choose from. The paper describes the various open source test strategies and tools available to qualify such systems, their features, maintenance, community support, advantages and disadvantages. Target audience would be the software engineers, program managers, using an open source stack for the product development.
Viewing 271 to 300 of 10366