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2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1933
Alberto Boretti
The contribution analyses the Volkswagen emission scandal and the impacts on the perspectives of the internal combustion engine, the battery based electric car and the hydrogen based mobility. The operation of the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Volkswagen and the United States prosecutor sparked by the action of the International Council on Clean Transportation is forcing the Original Equipment Manufacturers towards an everything but rationale immediate transition to the battery based electric mobility. This transition voids the value of any improvement of the internal combustion engine (ICE), especially in the lean burn, compression ignition (CI) flavor and of a better hybridization of powertrains, both options that have much better short term perspectives than the battery based electric car.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1753
Jack Hall Riddle, Ya-Juan Bemman, Tom Frei, Sihui Wu, Ishang Padalkar
Abstract Demands for engines to operate at low-frequency firing order are increasing in the automotive market. This requirement is driven by consumer and regulatory demand for vehicles which are more efficient in the use of fuel. As a result, engine and transmission technologies have been developed which permit operation of engines with fewer cylinders at increasingly low RPM’s. The resulting low frequency exhaust noise is more difficult to attenuate than in vehicles in years past. At the same time, vehicles often have less packaging space for mufflers, when larger volume would otherwise be needed to attenuate at lower frequencies. A further challenge is the demand for increasingly refined performance sounds from the exhaust systems of premium cars despite the technical obstacles involved in even maintaining sound quality. Finally, legally permissible sound levels are decreasing in some markets. These market and regulatory demands require new solutions.
2017-06-05
Journal Article
2017-01-1777
Thomas Wellmann, Kiran Govindswamy, Dean Tomazic
Abstract The automotive industry continues to develop new technologies aimed at reducing overall vehicle level fuel consumption. Powertrain and driveline related technologies will play a key role in helping OEM’s meet fleet CO2 reduction targets for 2025 and beyond. Specifically, use of technologies such as downsized engines, idle start-stop systems, aggressive torque converter lock-up schedules, wide-ratio spread transmissions, and electrified propulsion systems are vital towards meeting aggressive fuel economy targets. Judicious combinations of such powertrain and driveline technology packages in conjunction with measures such as the use of low rolling resistance tires and vehicle lightweighting will be required to meet future OEM fleet CO2 targets. Many of the technologies needed for meeting the fuel economy and CO2 targets come with unique NVH challenges. In order to ensure customer acceptance of new vehicles, it is imperative that these NVH challenges be understood and solved.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1869
Glenn Pietila, Gang Yin, Branton Dennis IV
Abstract During the development of an automotive acoustic package, valuable information can be gained by visualizing the acoustic energy flow through the Front-of-Dash (FOD) when a sound source is placed in the engine compartment. Two of the commonly used methods for generating the visual map of the acoustic field include Sound Intensity measurements and array technologies. An alternative method is to use a tracked 3-dimensional acoustic probe to scan and visualize the FOD in real-time when the sound source is injecting noise into the engine compartment. The scan is used to focus the development of the FOD acoustic package on the weakest areas by identifying acoustic leaks and locations with low Transmission Loss. This paper provides a brief discussion of the capabilities of the tracked 3-D acoustic probe, and presents examples of the implementation of the probe during the development of the FOD acoustic package for two mid-sized sedans.
2017-05-18
Journal Article
2017-01-9680
Husain Kanchwala, Pablo Luque Rodriguez, Daniel Alvarez Mantaras, Johan Wideberg, Sagar Bendre
Abstract In recent times, electric vehicles (EV) are gaining a lot of attention as they run clean and are environment friendly. Recent advances in the applications of integrating control systems in automotive vehicles have made it practicable to accomplish improvement in vehicle's longitudinal and lateral dynamics. This paper deals with a brief overview of current state of art vehicle technologies like direct yaw moment control, traction control and side slip control of EV. There are various controller algorithms available in literature with different torque vectoring strategies. As EV can be precisely controlled because of quick in hub wheel motor response times, therefore various torque vectoring strategies can be comfortably used for enhancing vehicle dynamics. Moreover, by using four independent in-wheel motors, several types of motion controls can be performed.
2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9076
Ioannis Karakitsios, Evangelos Karfopoulos, Nikolay Madjarov, Aitor Bustillo, Marc Ponsar, Dionisio Del Pozo, Luca Marengo
Abstract The aim of this paper is to introduce a complete fast dynamic inductive charging infrastructure from the back-office system (EV management system) up to the Electric Vehicle (EV) (inductive power transfer module, positioning mechanism, electric vehicle modifications) and the EV user (User interface). Moreover, in order to assess the impact of the additional demand of inductive charging on the grid operation, an estimation of the 24-hour power profile of dynamic inductive charging is presented considering, apart from the road traffic, the probability of the need for fast charging, as well as the specifications of the proposed solution. In addition, an energy management system is presented enabling the management of the operation of the inductive charging infrastructure, the interaction with the EV users and the provision of demand response services to different stakeholders.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1263
Dennis Kibalama, Andrew Huster, Arjun Khanna, Aditya Modak, Margaret Yatsko, Gregory Jankord, Shawn Midlam-Mohler
Abstract The Ohio State University EcoCAR 3 team is building a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) post-transmission parallel 2016 Chevrolet Camaro. With the end-goal of improving fuel economy and reducing tail pipe emissions, the Ohio State Camaro has been fitted with a 32 kW alternator-starter belt coupled to a 119 kW 2.0L GDI I4 engine that runs on 85% ethanol (E85). The belted alternator starter (BAS) which aids engine start-stop operation, series mode and torque assist, is powered by an 18.9 kWh Lithium Iron Phosphate energy storage system, and controlled by a DC-AC inverter/controller. This report details the modeling, calibration, testing and validation work done by the Ohio State team to fast track development of the BAS system in Year 2 of the competition.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1291
Ashraya Gupta, Harshil Kathpalia, Harshit Aggarwal, Naveen Kumar
Abstract The increment in the application of fossil fuels is leading the world into a catastrophic state both environmentally and economically. Current demand for fuels exceeds its imminent supply and rather sooner than later energy demands will have to shift towards non-conventional fuels to cope with the situation. With constant developments in the automotive sector, several solutions have been found but none have been as good as gasoline to substitute it in the commercial market. One such solution being compressed air might solve this global fuel crisis, which serves a glowing advantage of being cheaper and greener as it produces zero tail-pipe emissions, and can help in decreasing automobile’s contribution to global warming. Though the potential energy stored in the compressed air limits its application to light duty vehicles and still there will be a need for other alternative solutions for the heavy duty vehicles in order to relieve the pressure from the fossil fuels.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1141
Bashar Alzuwayer, Robert Prucka, Imtiaz Haque, Paul Venhovens
Abstract Fuel economy regulations have forced the automotive industry to implement transmissions with an increased number of gears and reduced parasitic losses. The objective of this research is to develop a high fidelity and a computationally efficient model of an automatic transmission, this model should be suitable for controller development purposes. The transmission under investigation features a combination of positive clutches (interlocking dog clutches) and conventional wet clutches. Simulation models for the torque converter, lock-up clutch, transmission gear train, interlocking dog clutches, wet clutches, hydraulic control valves and circuits were developed and integrated with a 1-D vehicle road load model. The integrated powertrain system model was calibrated using measurements from real-world driving conditions. Unknown model parameters, such as clutch pack clearances, compliances, hydraulic orifice diameters and clutch preloads were estimated and calibrated.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1383
Satheesh Kumar Chandran, James Forbes, Carrie Bittick, Kathleen Allanson, Fnu Brinda
Abstract There is a strong business case for automotive interfaces to undergo usability testing throughout their product development lifecycle. System Usability Scale (SUS) is a simple and standard measure of usability. To meet the timing needs for product development, usability testing needs to be performed in a quick, cost effective manner. Hence the required sample size of participants for a usability study is one of the critical factors. To determine an acceptable sample size, a Monte Carlo simulation using SUS scores from eleven different in-vehicle automotive interface usability studies was used to create 500,000 subsamples of different sample sizes. The percentage of subsamples with mean scores within the confidence interval of the population mean was calculated. At a subsample size of thirty-five, 95% of the subsamples have a mean SUS score within the 95% confidence interval of the population mean.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1701
Sagar Mody, Thomas Steffen
Abstract The goal of grid friendly charging is to avoid putting additional load on the electricity grid when it is heavily loaded already, and to reduce the cost of charging to the consumer. In a smart metering system, Day Ahead tariff (DA) prices are announced in advance for the next day. This information can be used for a simple optimization control, to select to charge at cheapest times. However, the balance of supply and demand is not fully known in advance and the Real-Time Prices (RTP) are therefore likely to be different at times. There is always a risk of a sudden price change, hence adding a stochastic element to the optimization in turn requiring dynamic control to achieve optimal time selection. A stochastic dynamic program (SDP) controller which takes this problem into account has been made and proven by simulation in a previous paper.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1602
Garett Scott Patria, James A. Mynderse
Abstract There is evidence to suggest that before military equipment ever experiences sustainment delays the equipment carries state patterns within its logistics and supply chain data history that could be leveraged for risk mitigation. Analysis of these patterns can also identify new research & development (R&D) and technology transition candidates that relate the seemingly disparate activities of R&D project management and Diminishing Manufacturing Sources and Material Shortages (DMSMS) management. Relating eligible R&D activities to the DMSMS risk identification phase helps stage potential sustainment risk mitigations ahead of time on the one hand, while creating additional demand and resources to mature prototypes on the other hand.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1600
James Mansour, Badih Jawad, Liping Liu, Vernon Fernandez, Sabah Abro, Jeff Tibbenham
Abstract A vehicle’s exterior fit and finish, in general, is the first system to attract customers. Automotive exterior engineers were motivated in the past few years to increase their focus on how to optimize the vehicle’s exterior panels split lines quality and how to minimize variation in fit and finish addressing customer and market required quality standards. The design engineering’s focus is to control the deviation from nominal build objective and minimize it. The fitting process follows an optimization model with the exterior panel’s location and orientation factors as independent variables. This research focuses on addressing the source of variation “contributed factors” that will impact the quality of the fit and finish. These critical factors could be resulted from the design process, product process, or an assembly process. An empirical analysis will be used to minimize the fit and finish deviation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1604
Christina Michael, Badih Jawad, Liping Liu, Vernon Fernandez, Sabah Abro, Craig Zinser, Dave Guidos
Abstract The objective of this research is to develop a component based enhanced production process after End of Line (EOL) testing. This process will add more quality validation evaluations, but will not require any disassembling of the parts or damage to them. It will help the suppliers to avoid scrap and rework parts as well as General Motors (GM) to reduce warranty and recalls. An Enhanced Production Process was implemented in March, 2016 at a supplier in Mexico. The Enhanced Audit Station implementation is to ensure that the supplier is satisfying the Production Part Approval Process (PPAP) requirements. The most important four components are: Touch Appearance Lighting and Color (TALC), Appearance Approval Report (AAR), Dimensional Checks, and Function Testing. Through statistics, a pilot study was conducted to correlate the selected variables to reduce warranty.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1610
Mike Kheirallah, Badih Jawad, Liping Liu
Abstract Cooling fans have many applications in industrial and electronic fields that remove heat away from the system. The process of designing a new cooling fan with optimal performance and reduced acoustic sources can be fairly lengthy and expensive. The use of CFD with support of mesh morphing, along with the development of optimization techniques, can improve the acoustic’s performance of the fan model. This paper presents a new promising method which will support the design process of a new cooling fan with improved performance and less acoustic surface power generation. The CFD analysis is focused on reducing the acoustic surface power of a given cooling fan’s blade using the surface dipole acoustic power as the objective function, which leads to an optimized prototype design for a better performance. The Mesh Morpher Optimizer (MMO) in ANSYS Fluent is used in combination with a Simplex model of the broadband acoustic modeling.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1607
Munther Hermez, Badih Jawad, Liping Liu, Eli Oklejas
Abstract This paper presents an experimental investigation of flow field instabilities in a centrifugal pump impeller at low flow rates. The measurements of pump hydraulic performance and flow field in the impeller passages were made with a hydraulic test rig. Analysis of Q-ΔP-η data and flow structures in the impeller passages were performed. In the present work, the effect of various flowrates on centrifugal pump impeller performance was analyzed based on pump measured parameters. The impeller’s geometry was modified, with positioning the curved spacer at the impeller suction side. This research investigates the effect of each inlet curved spacer model on pump performance improvement. The hydraulic performance and cavitation performance of the pump have been tested experimentally. The flow field inside a centrifugal pump is known to be fully turbulent, three dimensional and unsteady with recirculation flows and separation at its inlet and exit.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1611
Elankathiravan Mathivanan, David Gasior, Liping Liu, Kingman Yee, Yawen Li
Abstract In the present work, the effect of various nanofluids on automotive engine cooling was experimentally studied. Al2O3, TiC, SiC, MWNT (multi-walled nanotube), and SiO2 nanoparticles with average diameter ranging between 1 and 100 nm were mixed with distilled water to form nanofluids. An ultrasonic generator was used to generate uniform particle dispersion in the fluid. A compatibility test was carried out on all nanofluids and it was found that TiC, MWNT, and Si3N4 nanoparticles settled and separated from the fluid within 3 hours after preparation. The engine cooling performance testing setup consisted of an Aprilia SXV 450 engine, the nanofluid cooling loop, a radiator, a fan, etc. Thermocouples and resistance temperature detectors (RTD’s) were attached to the inlet and outlet of the radiator hose to monitor the temperature changes taking place in the cooling system. A flowmeter was attached to the inlet hose of the radiator to monitor the coolant flow rate.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0455
Harshad Hatekar, Baskar Anthonysamy, V. Saishanker, Lakshmi Pavuluri, Gurdeep Singh Pahwa
Abstract Structural elastomer components like bushes, engine mounts are required to meet stringent and contrasting requirements of being soft for better NVH and also be durable at different loading conditions and different road conditions. Silent block bushes are such components where the loading in radial direction of bushes are high to ensure the durability of bushes at high loads, but has to be soft on torsion to ensure good NVH. These requirements present with unique challenge to optimize the leaf spring bush design, stiffness and material characteristics of the rubber. Traditionally, bushes with varying degree of stiffness are selected, manufactured and tested on vehicle and the best one is chosen depending on the requirements. However, this approach is costly, time consuming and iterative. In this study, the stiffness targets required for the bush were analysed using static and dynamic load cases using virtual simulation (MSC.ADAMS).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0064
Agish George, Jody Nelson
Abstract The ISO 26262 standard for functional safety was first released in 2011 and has been widely incorporated by most OEMs and Tier1 suppliers. The design and conformance of the product to functional safety standards is strongly intertwined with the product development cycle and needs to be carefully managed. The consideration for functional safety needs to begin right from the product’s concept phase through engineering and production and finally decommissioning. The application of the standard in a project can bring significant challenges especially to managers who are relatively new to the standard. This paper provides some guidelines on the key tasks involved in managing ISO26262 in projects and some ways to approach them. The paper is expected to help managers manage ISO26262 compliant projects. The paper also tries to come up with a metric that can be used for resource estimation for implementing ISO26262 in projects.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0326
Samuel J. Tomlinson, Martin J D Fisher, Thomas Smith, Kevin Pascal
Abstract When sealing an application with a radial O-ring system design there is a balance that must be struck between O-ring function and the ease of assembly. If design parameters are not properly controlled or considered it is possible to design an O-ring seal that would require assembly insertion forces that exceed acceptable ergonomic practices from a manufacturing standpoint. If designs are released into production with these high insertion forces manufacturing operators will struggle to assemble parts, creating opportunity for potential operator injury due to repetitive strain or CTD. In this study several variables impacting O-ring system insertion forces were tested to quantify the effects. Results were analyzed to identify design controls that could be implemented from an early design phase to optimize both functionality and ease of assembly.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0348
Mani Shankar, I V N Sri Harsha, K V Sunil, Ramsai Ramachandran
Abstract In an automobile, road loads due to tire-road interaction are transferred to vehicle body through suspension. This makes suspension a critical component from the body durability perspective. During vehicle design and development, optimization of suspension parameters to suit ride and handling performance is a continuous and iterative process. These changes on suspension can affect vehicle body durability performance. This paper tries to establish a process to evaluate the effect of changes in suspension parameters on body durability, thus helping in understanding the impact of these changes. The process starts with virtual model building in Multi Body Dynamics software. The base line model is correlated with testing using fatigue at some critical locations on Body in White (BIW).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0201
Tejas Janardan Sarang, Amar Phatak, Jay Bendkhale
Abstract In the recent years, the timeline of releasing a new vehicle has decreased drastically due to rapidly changing trends in the automotive industry. Therefore, it is very important to constantly optimize the development phases, starting from concept initiation to the final testing of production ready vehicle. The real world tests conducted on vehicles take huge amount of time, since these tests are carried out for large kilometers to periodically analyze tire wear, clutch wear and brake failure. Collecting large kilometers of CAN data is also tedious and time consuming due to various unwanted variables which add up during real world tests. In this paper, a technique known as Rescaled Range Analysis is adapted to abridge the collection of kilometers data from testing by nearly ten times. This analysis estimates a Hurst coefficient to correlate the entire data with its divided parts. The division factor of the entire data is very crucial for the analysis.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0200
Hongwei Zhang, Liangjin Gui, Zijie Fan
Abstract Road test simulation on test rig is widely used in the automobile industry to shorten the development circles. However, there is still room for further improving the time cost of current road simulation test. This paper described a new method considering both the damage error and the runtime of the test on a multi-axial test rig. First, the fatigue editing technique is applied to cut the small load in road data to reduce the runtime initially. The edited road load data could be reproduced on a multi-axial test rig successfully. Second, the rainflow matrices of strains on different proving ground roads are established and transformed into damage matrices based on the S-N curve and Miner rules using a reduction method. A standard simulation test for vehicle reliability procedure is established according to the proving ground schedule as a target to be accelerated.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0235
Qiuming Gong, Jimmy Kapadia
Abstract Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) have an EV mode driving range which can cover a portion of customer daily driving. This EV mode range affects the refuel frequency substantially compared with conventional vehicle. For a conventional vehicle, daily driving pattern, tank size and fuel economy are the factors affecting the refuel frequency. While for a PHEV, EV range is another factor would affect the results substantially. Traditional method of label range can’t represent real world driving range between fill-ups for PHEV well. How to accurately predict the PHEV refuel distance taking into account real world customer driving patterns and PHEV parameters become critical for PHEV system design and optimization. This paper presents real world big customer data based PHEV refuel distance estimation modeling. The target is to estimate PHEV refuel distance given several specific parameters such as EV range, hybrid mode fuel economy, tank size etc.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0005
Yun Liu, Sung-Kwon Hong, Tony Ge
Abstract Powertrain drivability evaluation and calibration is an important part of vehicle development to enhance the customer experience. This step mainly takes place on vehicle testing very late in the product development cycle, and is associated with a considerable amount of prototype, test facility, human resource and time cost. Design change options at this stage are also very limited. To reduce the development cost, a model based computer aided engineering (CAE) method is introduced and combined with hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation technology. The HIL simulation method offers a possibility for drivability prediction and development in early phase of product cycle. This article describes the drivability HIL simulation process under development in Ford. The process consists of real time capable multi-domain CAE model integration, powertrain control module (PCM) and HIL simulator interface development and drivability HIL simulation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0650
Xinyu Li, Xinyu Ge, Ying Wang
Abstract The automotive industry is dramatically changing. Many automotive Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) proposed new prototype models or concept vehicles to promote a green vehicle image. Non-traditional players bring many latest technologies in the Information Technology (IT) industry to the automotive industry. Typical vehicle’s characteristics became wider compared to those of vehicles a decade ago, and they include not only a driving range, mileage per gallon and acceleration rating, but also many features adopted in the IT industry, such as usability, connectivity, vehicle software upgrade capability and backward compatibility. Consumers expect the latest technology features in vehicles as they enjoy in using digital applications in laptops and mobile phones. These features create a huge challenge for a design of a new vehicle, especially for a human-machine-interface (HMI) system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1012
Sunil Kumar Pathak, Vineet sood, Yograj Singh, Salim Abbasbhai Channiwala
Abstract In developing countries like India, large numbers of portable gensets are used as a power source due to the scarcity of grid power supply. The portable gensets, ranging from 0.5 kW to 5 kW are very popular in the residential areas, for example, small restaurants, and shopping complexes, etc. These gensets are using various fuels like gasoline, diesel, LPG, and kerosene in small internal combustion engines. Such engines are the significant source of air pollution, as these are running in the vicinity of populated areas and higher human exposure to these pollutants.Theses gensets are regulated by exhaust and noise emissions norms, set by statutory bodies like the ministry of environment and forest and central pollution control board of India.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1484
Giampiero Mastinu, Mario Pennati, Massimiliano Gobbi, Giorgio Previati, Federico Ballo
Abstract The ride comfort of three Alfa Romeo cars, namely Giulietta (1955), Alfetta (1972) and 159 (2005) has been assessed both objectively and subjectively. The three cars belong to the same market segment. The aim is to let young engineers or graduate students understand how technology has evolved and eventually learn a lesson from the assessed trend. A number of cleats have been fixed at the ground and the three cars have traversed such uneven surface. The objective assessment of the ride comfort has been performed by means of accelerometers fixed at the seat rails, additionally a special dummy developed at Politecnico di Milano has been employed. The subjective assessment has been performed by a panel of passengers. The match between objective and subjective ratings is very good. Simple mathematical models have been employed to establish a (successful) comparison between experimental and computational results. The ride comfort differs substantially among the cars.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0232
Nizar Khemri, Hao Ying, Joseph Supina, Fazal Syed
Abstract Realistic vehicle fuel economy studies require real-world vehicle driving behavior data along with various factors affecting the fuel consumption. Such studies require data with various vehicles usages for prolonged periods of time. A project dedicated to collecting such data is an enormous and costly undertaking. Alternatively, we propose to utilize two publicly available vehicle travel survey data sets. One is Puget Sound Travel Survey collected using GPS devices in 484 vehicles between 2004 and 2006. Over 750,000 trips were recorded with a 10-second time resolution. The data were obtained to study travel behavior changes in response to time-and-location-variable road tolling. The other is Atlanta Regional Commission Travel Survey conducted for a comprehensive study of the demographic and travel behavior characteristics of residents within the study area.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0894
Nishant Singh
Abstract Improving fuel economy has been a key focus across the automotive industry for several years if not decades. For heavy duty commercial vehicles, the benefits from minor gains in fuel economy can lead to significant savings for fleets as well as owners and operators. Additionally, the regulations require vehicles to meet certain GHG standards which closely translate to vehicle fuel economy. For current state of the art fuel economy technologies, incremental gains are so miniscule that measurements on the vehicle are inadequate to quantify the benefits. Engineers are challenged with high level of variability to make informed decisions. In such cases, highly controlled tests on Engine and Powertrain dynamometers are used, however, there is an associated variability even with these tests due to factors such as part to part differences, deterioration, fuel blends and quality, dyno control capabilities and so on.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 10305