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2017-10-31
White Paper
WP-0002
The environmental impact of hydrocarbon-burning aircraft, both from the perspective of gas emissions and that of noise, is one of the main motivations for the move to electric propulsion. The added benefit from this shift to electric propulsion is that it has resulted in lowering the costs of electrical components such as motors, power electronic (PE) circuits, and batteries that are essential to this technology. This white paper seeks to explore the history, architecture, electrical components, and future trends of electric flight technology.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2282
Gen Chen, Wenxin Cai, Jianguang Zhou, Christian Spanner, Heribert Fuchs, Werner Schrei, Karl Weihrauch
Abstract A TGDI (turbocharged gasoline direct injection) engine is developed to realize both excellent fuel economy and high dynamic performance to guarantee fun-to-drive. In order to achieve this target, it is of great importance to develop a superior combustion system for the target engine. In this study, CFD simulation analysis, steady flow test and transparent engine test investigation are extensively conducted to ensure efficient and effective design. One dimensional thermodynamic simulation is firstly conducted to optimize controlling parameters for each representative engine operating condition, and the results serve as the input and boundary condition for the subsequent Three-dimensional CFD simulation. 3D CFD simulation is carried out to guide intake port design, which is then measured and verified on steady flow test bench.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2198
Zhihong Li, Guoxiu Li, Lan Wang, Hongmeng Li, Jie Wang, Haizhou Guo, Shuangyi He
The electromagnetic valve driving mechanism is the significant equipment, which plays a vital role in the unit pump injection system; therefore, the performance of the electromagnetic valve directly influences the function of the control system. Based on the operation conditions of the unit pump injection system, a steady electromagnetic valve model was modified to study the influence factors of electromagnetic force and the best combination to get the maximum electromagnetic force. The validation model was verified by experiment. The effects of some crucial parameters upon the electromagnetic force were investigated in the present paper, (including working airspace, magnetic pole’s cross-sectional area, coil position, coil turn, the armature thickness). The result shows that the electromagnetic force of the solenoid valve enhanced with the increasing driving current and reduced with the decreasing of working condition.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2425
Ramit Verma, Ramdas R Ugale
Abstract On two wheelers, magneto/alternator generates either single/three phase AC power and Regulator Rectifier Unit (RRU) does regulated rectification to charge the battery. In order to face the requirements of 2-wheeler engine with respect to upcoming stringent regulations like electronic fuel injection (EFI), anti-lock braking system (ABS), automatic headlamp on (AHO) in emerging markets like India; vehicles demand more electrical power from batteries. This demands higher power from alternator and consequently from RRU. Requirement of higher output power presents challenges on regulator rectifier unit in terms of size, power dissipation management and reliability. In this paper, improved performance of MOSFET based RRU is discussed in comparison to Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) based RRU. The motivation/benefits of MOSFET based design is described along with the thermal behavior and temperature coefficient performance of RRU with test results.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2413
Peter King
Abstract A four-chamber Otto cycle rotary engine, the Szorenyi Rotary Engine, has been invented and developed by the Rotary Engine Development Agency (REDA) in Melbourne, Australia. The engine concept has been awarded a U.S. Patent (Number 6,718,938 B2). A prototype engine has been constructed and a successful proof-of-concept engine test was achieved in 2008. The stator of the Szorenyi engine is a similar shape to a Wankel engine. However, the geometric shape of the engine rotor is a rhombus, which deforms as it rotates inside the contour of the mathematically defined stator. This geometry translates to a rotary engine with four combustion chambers. Each revolution of the crankshaft produces one revolution of the rotor; a complete engine cycle in each of the four chambers; and therefore four power strokes. In contrast, the Wankel engine produces one power stroke per crankshaft revolution.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2414
Dongsheng Zhang, Qilong Lu, Michael Kocsis, Ian Gilbert, Marc Megel, Xihao Liu, Jiaxin Gu, Qingyan Liu, Yanming He
The new BAIC engine, an evolution of the 2.3L 4-cylinder turbocharged PFL gasoline from Saab, was designed, built, and tested with close collaboration between BAIC Motor Powertrain Co., Ltd (BMPC) and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). The upgraded engine was intended to achieve low fuel consumption and a good balance with high performance and compliance with Euro 6 emissions regulation. Low fuel consumption was achieved primarily through utilizing cooled low pressure loop exhaust gas recirculation (LP-EGR) and dual independent cam phasers, improving intake and exhaust design, optimizing combustion chamber design, and minimizing mechanical friction losses. Cooled LP-EGR helped suppress engine knock and consequently increase compression ratio and improve thermal efficiency of the new engine. Dual independent cam phasers reduced engine pumping losses and helped elevate low-speed torque.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2434
Srinivasan Paulraj, Saravanan Muthiah
Traditionally driveline ratios are selected based on trial and error method of proto vehicle testing. This consumes lot of time and increases overall vehicle development effort. Over last few decades, simulation-based design approach has been extensively used to alleviate this problem. This paper describes torque converter and final drive ratio (FDR) selection at concept phase for new Automatic Transmission (AT) vehicle development. Most of the critical data required for simulating vehicle performance and fuel economy (FE) targets were not available (e.g. shift map, clutch slip map, pedal map, dynamic torque, coast down, etc.) at an initial stage of the project. Hence, the risk for assuming right inputs and properly selecting FDR/Torque converter was particularly high. Therefore, a validated AVL Cruise simulation model based on an existing AT vehicle was used as a base for new AT vehicle development to mitigate the risk due to non-availability of inputs.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2401
Elana Chapman, Pat Geng, Yaowei Zhao, Susan Zhang, JunJun Ma, Jianqiang Gong
The impact of gasoline compositions to vehicle particular emission response have been widely investigated and documented with recently proposed so called Particulate Matter Index (PMI) and Particulate Evaluation Index (PEI). Vehicle PM/PN data has demonstrated correlations of the indices to vehicle response. In previous paper, global assessment with PEI on fuel sooting tendency was presented. With increasing air pollution concern and ever stringent emission requirements in China, both OEMs and oil industries are facing new challenge. Emission control requires systematic approach on both fuel and vehicle. This paper will focus on China market gasoline on fuel’s sooting tendency. Additional China vehicle response with ranges of PEI fuels are presented. In addition to PEI index, other fuel properties in gums, final boiling, aromatics, and fuel detergency are also reviewed
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2448
Jesse Schneider, Kensuke Kamichi, Daniel Mikat, Robert Sutton, Mohamad Abdul-Hak, Yusuke Minagawa, Hiroyuki Abeta, Eloi Taha, Rich Boyer, Jonathan Sirota, Morris Kesler, Richard Carlson, Mark Klerer, Sebastian Mathar
Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) is to be commercialized in the very near future. There are however many technology challenges. The SAE J2954 Taskforce published a guideline or Technical Information Report in 2016 to help in the harmonization in the first phase of this technology. SAE J2954 is a performance-based approach for WPT by specifying ground and assembly coils to be used in a test stand (per Z-Height) to validate interoperability. However, there were two types of technologies used for the topologies of these coils in SAE J2954. The main goal of this SAE J2954 testing campaign was to prove interoperability and the guideline contained within. The main challenge is that this type of testing had not been done before on such a scale with real automaker and supplier systems. Automakers, suppliers and government employees worked together to create this test plan and resuts.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2352
Gongde Liu, Li Wang, Runxiang Zhang, Chao Yang, Tengfei Shao
Abstract Fuel economy, Emission regulation and extended oil drain intervals (ODI) are the three key driving forces for engine oil development. More and more attentions have been focused on long ODI diesel engine oil both from the domestic OEMs and oil suppliers, and the ODI was being periodically improved from a normal mileage of about 1×104 kilometers to 6/8/10×104 km or even 12×104 km just within several years on China market. Lots and lots of factors may affect the oil life including oil properties, engine technologies, after-treatment devices and engine working conditions and so on. While from the oil side, the main factors contribute to the oil drain intervals may be the oil nitration and oxidation, soot contamination, base number deterioration and sludge accumulation and etc. There are two strategies to extend the oil longevity applied currently.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-2011
Suyash Singh, Ankur Mathur, Sandeep Das, Purnendu Sinha, Vinay Singh
Abstract In the Smart Cities, main objective is to promote cities that provide core infrastructure and give a decent quality of life to its citizens, a clean and sustainable environment and application of ‘Smart’ Solutions. The process said for utilization of available resources is the best fit for our concept. Our concept is to convert and refurbish the old and scrap vehicles which will increase their longevity and can be used in any smart city in India or abroad. The ultimate aim to provide this technology for the development of any new smart city in India is the utilization of available resources and reduction in the junk materials and environmental pollution. Refurbishing the old and scrap vehicles with replacement of IC engines doesn’t mean that they will be kept as a scrap and be thrown away, our idea is to utilize maximum of all the available resources. The IC engines taken out of these vehicles will be re-used appropriately.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-2009
Kuiyuan Guo, Yan Yan, Juan Shi, Runqing Guo, Yuguang Liu
Abstract In order to speed up the development of vehicle active safety technology in China, C-NCAP plans to add AEB and AEB VRU system as assessment items in 2018. With the purpose of studying the assessment protocol of AEB system, we have carried out 400,000 km road information collection and then we acquired the statistics of the operation conditions of dangerous situations. Combined with the traffic accident data collected by CIDAS, we found that the dangerous situations that we usually met were mainly three types, that was CCRs, CCRm and CCRb. Based on what we mentioned above, we analyzed the three kinds of working conditions and gave the corresponding evaluation method. In addition, combined with the actual situation of China, we added two tests of error function. And then we took the actual road experiment of many models of vehicles.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2127
Joao Pedro Malere
Abstract The cost-benefit analysis is one of the key decision aspects regarding the investment on IVHM systems especially for aerospace applications where the evaluation of the impacts of such systems on costs, safety and weight are critical for the vehicle operation during its lifecycle. This paper presents the application of linear programming to select and to quantify how many components an IVHM system should consider in order to maximize the total value that it delivers. This approach advantage is that it uses an exact algorithm, that guarantees the optimal solution given the inputs provided by the user. The formulation shows how the technical value of an IVHM solution can be evaluated taking into account key aspects for aerospace platforms such as weight, reliability and bus capacity restrictions through a linear integer programming model solved using the branch-and-bound method.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2016
Gareth Williams
Abstract In the year 2000 the Advisory Council for Aeronautics Research in Europe (ACARE) was established in order to provide research and policy guidance to the European Commission. “Flightpath 2050” was published in 2011 to provide a long term frame for collaborative technology research, soon followed by a “Strategic Agenda For Research and Innovation”. This agenda has been successful in providing a common and coherent reference for the 27 member states of the European Union, and others, to guide future actions in private and public research programs in order to meet societal and market needs. In June 2017 an update to the agenda was published at the Paris airshow, to reflect the rapid progress made in aviation technology and to respond multiplicity of changed circumstances which the agenda must address.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2019
Rakshath G Poojary, Mohammed Ali Jouhar, Abubakar K
Abstract Human Powered Helicopter which uses man power to operate. The main aim of this paper is to design commercially available vehicle for an Adventure Sporting under 5-6 lakh Indian Rupees. This structural design is extremely lightweight and strong. The product is designed in such a way that it can be easily assembled and dismantled for transportability and storage. We developed an aero-structural optimization scheme for rotor design, including an aerodynamic model with included ground effect prediction, finite-element analysis and integrated composite failure analysis, and a detailed weight estimation scheme. This was solely build on computer CAD models. This design includes the use of gear box to increase the output. The Aerodynamic analysis was done using CFD and BET (blade element theory-Bhramwell) in MATLAB.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2091
Leo Muijs, Manuela Snijders
Abstract The use of Collaborative Robots (Cobots) is an emerging technology that is developing at a fast pace. Within GKN Aerospace’s Fokker business a project is initiated to accelerate knowledge of application of this technology. Goal of the project is to get familiar with the technology and possibilities of a Cobot. The primary difference between Cobotics and a conventional Robotics approach is that the technology can safely exist in a human operating environment without caging or other hard guarding. Both Fokker Aerostructures and Fokker Landing Gear wanted to gain experience with this technology and worked together in the preparation of 2 projects to be showcased in their companies. Fokker Aerostructures concentrated on the application of handling of an Automatic Drilling Unit (ADU) for the production of the A350 Outboard Flap. Task of the Cobot was to pick-up an ADU from a table and insert the ADU in a drill jig.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2086
Justin Lo
Abstract The fast growth of air traffic and the need for lighter and more fuel efficient aircraft is driving the ramp-up of important new aircraft programs. These increases in production rates are driving manufacturers to seek out robust and reliable installation systems. They must also adapt to the unique requirements of composite materials that now have an increasingly important place in the aerospace industry. Moreover, environmental constraints continue to evolve and drive new regulations, such as REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals) in Europe. As an example, this regulation is leading to the adoption of non-chromate surface treatments and paints for most applications. The legacy generation of fasteners does not comply with all of these new requirements.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2121
Greg Parlier
The US Department of Defense (DoD) operates the most complex global supply chain in the world. However, effectively integrating production planning, maintenance operations, inventory systems, and distribution policies has been a persisting strategic challenge for the logistics enterprise supporting the DoD. Neither DoD nor the Congressional Budget Office has been able to establish a well-defined linkage between Operations and Maintenance resource funding levels and the resulting readiness of military units. For nearly three decades the Government Accountability Office has attributed these inadequacies to poor demand forecasting, ineffective inventory management, and inadequate strategic planning. To address these persisting problems the US Army established the project to Transform Army Supply Chains (TASC) in order to investigate the nature, causes, and consequences of demand uncertainty and supply variability.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2120
David Hawkins
The challenges faced by both industry, government and the armed forces place increasing pressure on availability, budgets and resources necessitating a re-think of PPP and PBL contracting models to create greater integration to enhance performance in support of the war fighter. equally important is the development of increased synergies across international partners. The publication of ISO 44001 the international standard for collaborative business relationships championed and driven by the Institute for collaborative working provide a robust an neutral platform which can sit along side current contracting model and integrate a systemic approach to underpin mission critical relationships and exploit the value of collaborative relationships. AS the architect of the model which is embedded in the new standard the aim of this presentation will be to raise awareness to the benefits of greater focus on the relationships which support performance .
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2046
Pejman Akbari, Ian Agoos
Abstract The Wave Disk Engine (WDE) is a novel engine that has the potential for higher efficiency and power density of power-generation systems. A recent version of wave disk engine architecture known as the two-stage WDE has been studied to address existing challenges of an existing WDE. After describing the engine operation, a cold air-standard thermodynamic model supporting the physical phenomena occurring inside the device is introduced to evaluate performance of the engine. The developed model is general and does not depend on the shape of the wave rotor, it can be applied to radial and axial combustion wave rotors integrated with turbomachinery devices. The analysis starts with predicting internal waves propagating inside the channels of the engine and linking various flow states to each other using thermodynamics relationships. The goal is to find analytical expressions of work output and efficiency in terms of known pressure and temperature ratios.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2064
Parvez Alam M, Dinesh Manoharan, Satheesh Chandramohan, Sabarish Chakkath, Sunil MAURYA
Abstract In the present market, multiple sophisticate and expensive Thrust Test Rigs for Brushless Motors (BLDC Motor) are available making it impossible to conduct such thrust analysis on a regular and cost effective basis. Moreover the present test rigs are incapable to measure high Thrust values. This needs specialized thrust testing rig which is more expensive. This paper aims at Design & Development of the Small Scale Test Rig Setup for measurement of the thrust of any Brushless DC motor and helps in refining the Selection of motor and propeller. This is a set up based on cost efficiency factor to implement such rigs, test and for comparing the static thrust produced by the BLDC motor. The fairly simple construction contains a weighing machine, a Tachometer and a Wattmeter to measure the Thrust, RPM and the Current Drawn respectively, and provide comprehensive, accurate and efficient data coming from the BLDC Motor including the Propeller and Electronic Speed Control (ESC).
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2504
Scott Lambert
Abstract As the brake industry moves completely into globalization, a standardized method to define and validate the dimensions of backing plates, in a way that is both clear and feasible, is of critical importance for manufacturers at all tiers. The plate drawing not only defines the component as it fits into a brake assembly; it is also what the plate supplier relies on to define the plate for manufacture. If a drawing does not define every dimensional aspect of the product with perfect clarity, in ways that are easily measured, loss of time and resources will result from questions and/or mistakes. This paper proposes an SAE standard for defining the dimensional requirements of backing plates on the drawings themselves, and defining the measuring procedures used to validate those dimensions.
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2534
Silvia Faria Iombriller, Wesley Bolognesi Prado
Summary Considering that the most part of commercial vehicles are equipped with air brakes it is very important assure specific technical requirements for air brake system and its components. In addition, the effects of brake system failure are more critical for commercial vehicles which require more attention on their requirements details. Historically, the development of air brakes technology started on North America and Europe and consequently two strong and distinct resolutions were structured: FMVSS 121 and ECE R.13, respectively. For passenger cars were developed the ECER.13H to harmonize North American and European resolutions. However, for commercial vehicles regional applications, culture and implementation time must be considered. These commercial vehicles peculiarities must be understood and their specific requirements harmonized to attend the global marketing growth.
2017-09-17
Journal Article
2017-01-2498
David B. Antanaitis, E Lloyd
Abstract This paper describes the development work that went into the creation of the SAE J3052 “Brake Hydraulic Component Flow Rate Measurement at High Delta Pressure”, and also shows some example applications. The SAE J3052 recommended practice is intended to measure flow characteristics through brake hydraulic components and subsystems driven by pressure differentials above 1 bar, and was anticipated by the task force to be invoked for components and subsystems for which pressure response characteristics are critical for the operation of the system (such as service brake pressure response and stopping distance, or pressure rise rate of a single hydraulic circuit in response to an Electronic Stability Control command). Data generated by this procedure may be used as a direct assessment of the flow performance of a brake hydraulic component, or they may be used to build subsystem or system-level models.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0174
Laura Tribioli, Paolo Iora, Raffaello Cozzolino, Daniele Chiappini
Abstract This paper describes the energy management controller design of a mid-sized vehicle driven by a fuel cell/battery plug-in hybrid powertrain, where an experimentally validated high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell model is used. The power management strategy results from the application of the Pontryagin's Minimum Principle, where the optimal control parameter is derived in order to minimize fuel consumption under certain constraints. In particular, the vehicle is also equipped by an autothermal reformer and, in order to minimize the hydrogen buffer size, the control algorithm is subject to constraints on the maximum hydrogen buffer level. The effectiveness of the system is analyzed when feeding the autothermal reformer with different hydrocarbon fuels and over different driving conditions. The obtained solutions are compared in terms of hydrogen consumption, fossil fuel consumption, system efficiency, money saving and equivalent CO2 emissions.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0135
Shuxia Miao, Lin Luo, Yan Liu, Zhangsong Zhan
New emissions regulations of light-duty vehicles (China 6) will be implemented in China from July 1, 2020. This standard includes two stages, China 6a and China 6(b), in which the PM limits of 4.5 mg/km and 3.0 mg/km are introduced respectively; the PN limit is set to be 6×1011 #/km for both stages. The WLTC testing cycle will be implemented in China 6 regulation as well. In this study a light-duty vehicle satisfying China 6(b) emission standards was developed by improving the engine raw emissions, optimizing the calibration and adding a coated GPF to the after-treatment system. The impacts of ash content and consumption of engine oil and the fast ash accumulation to vehicle emissions and backpressure were analyzed through dynamometer testing. The vehicle after-treatment system was then designed and developed to meet China 6(b) emission standards. The characteristics of soot accumulated through mimicking routine driving under cold environments were tested.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0120
Matthew Keenan
Abstract The earliest public domain reference regarding full engine testing of an automotive catalyst was from January 1959, written by GM and presented at the annual SAE meeting in Detroit. This current publication will review the first public domain paper referencing different aftertreatment technologies (such as TWC, LNT, DPF and SCR, but not limited to these technologies) and compare the technologies to the current state of the art in aftertreatment technology. This historical review using a range of databases, will show how exhaust aftertreatment technologies have significantly enhanced emissions control over the last 60 years for both gasoline and diesel applications. A timeline will be given showing when various technologies were first presented into the public domain. This will indicate how long it has taken certain emissions control technologies to enter the market.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0044
Jeremy Rochussen, Jeff Son, Jeff Yeo, Mahdiar Khosravi, Patrick Kirchen, Gordon McTaggart-Cowan
Abstract Alternative fuel injection systems and advanced in-cylinder diagnostics are two important tools for engine development; however, the rapid and simultaneous achievement of these goals is often limited by the space available in the cylinder head. Here, a research-oriented cylinder head is developed for use on a single cylinder 2-litre engine, and permits three simultaneous in-cylinder combustion diagnostic tools (cylinder pressure measurement, infrared absorption, and 2-color pyrometry). In addition, a modular injector mounting system enables the use of a variety of direct fuel injectors for both gaseous and liquid fuels. The purpose of this research-oriented cylinder head is to improve the connection between thermodynamic and optical engine studies for a wide variety of combustion strategies by facilitating the application of multiple in-cylinder diagnostics.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0147
Marco Chiodi, Andreas Kaechele, Michael Bargende, Donatus Wichelhaus, Christian Poetsch
Abstract In the competition for the powertrain of the future the internal combustion engine faces tough challenges. Reduced environmental impact, higher mileage, lower cost and new technologies are required in order to maintain its global position both in public and private mobility. For a long time, researchers have been investigating the so called Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) that promises a higher efficiency due to a rapid combustion - i.e. closer to the ideal thermodynamic Otto cycle - and therefore more work and lower exhaust gas temperatures. Consequently, a rich mixture to cool down the turbocharger under high load may no longer be needed. As the combustion does not have a distinguished flame front it is able to burn very lean mixtures, with the potential of reducing HC and CO emissions. However, until recently, HCCI was considered to be reasonably applicable only at part load operating conditions.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0151
Matteo De Cesare, Nicolo Cavina, Luigi Paiano
Abstract New gasoline engine design is highly influenced by CO2 and emission limits defined by legislations, the demand for real conditions fuel economy, higher torque, higher specific power and lower cost. To reach the requirements coming from the end-users and legislations, especially for SI engines, several technologies are available, such as downsizing, including turbocharging in combination with direct injection. These technologies allow to solve the main issues of gasoline engines in terms of efficiency and performance which are knocking, part-load losses, and thermal stress at high power conditions. Moreover, other possibilities are under evaluation to allow further steps of enhancement for the even more challenging requirements. However, the benefits and costs given by the mix of these technologies must be accurately evaluated by means of objective tools and procedures in order to choose among the best alternatives.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 10347