Steering wheel being the most used tactile point in a vehicle, its feel and response is an important factor based on which the vehicle quality is judged. Engineering the right feel and response into the system requires knowledge of the objective parameters that relate to the driver perception. Extensive correlation work has been done in the past pertaining to passenger cars, but the driver requirements for commercial vehicles vary significantly. Often it becomes difficult to match the right parameters to the steering feel experienced by the drivers since most of the standard units used to describe them are of zero or first order parameters. Analyzing the second order parameters gave a better method to reason driver related feel. Also, each subjective attribute was fragmented into sub-attributes to identify the reason for such a rating resulting in the identification of the major subjective parameters affecting driver ratings.
Displacement joystick/ thumb wheel Switch control profile for precision & jerk free Speed Control Application in open loop system
Displacement joystick controls are considered as most suitable for manual controls wherever proportional outputs are required with dynamic applications such as variable speed, sensitivity or position are required. These joysticks are being used widely in both open loop as well as in close loop controls. Operator applies force to either joystick itself or to its proportional linear displacement thumb wheel switches. This movement is then detected by either resistive or Hall Effect sensors placed right inside joystick which is then converted into electrical signal. These joysticks along with proportional linear displacement thumb wheel switches find wide range of applications in off-road vehicles such construction and forestry vehicles, harvester machines etc. for applications like attachment speed controls, boom position control, rotation speed control etc.
Customer perception of brake pedal feel quality, depends on both the customer's subjective judgment of quality and the actual build quality of the brake system. The brake performance stability represents an important aspect of a vehicle performance and its quality of use. This stability is needed especially in brake by wire system and braking system with regenerative braking. In order to provide stable braked pedal feel i.e. consistent the brake performance against the brake pedal travel, the model of the brake performance versus the brake pedal travel needs to be established. In this paper new hybrid neuro-genetic optimization model was developed for dynamic control and optimization of the disc brake performance during a braking cycle versus the brake pedal travel. Based on such model, the brake performance optimization of the passenger car has been provided against the brake pedal travel.
We had developed Electric Servo Brake System, which can control brake pressure accurately with a DC motor according to brake pedal force. Therefore, the system attains quality brake feeling while reflecting intentions of a driver. By the way, "Build-up" is characteristics that brake effectiveness increases in accordance with the deceleration of the vehicle, which is recognized as brake feeling with a sense of security as not to elongate an expected braking distance at a downhill road due to large-capacity brake pad such as sports car and large vehicles. Then, we have applied the optical characteristic control to Hybrid vehicles with Electric Servo Brake System by means of brake pressure control and regeneration brake. Hereby, we confirmed that the control gives a driver the sense of security and the reduction of pedal load on the further stepping-on of the pedal.
Abstract Recent years have seen a rise in the number of air crashes and on board fatalities. Statistics reveal that human error constitutes upto 56% of these incidents. This can be attributed to the ever growing air traffic and technological advancements in the field of aviation, leading to an increase in the electronic and mechanical controls in the cockpit. Accidents occur when pilots misinterpret gauges, weather conditions, fail to spot mechanical faults or carry out inappropriate actions. Currently, pilots rely on flight manuals (hard copies or an electronic tablet) to respond to an emergency. This is prone to human error or misinterpretation. Also, a considerable amount of time is spent in seeking, reading, interpreting and implementing the corrective action. The proposed augmented head mount virtual assist for the pilot eliminates flight manuals, by virtually guiding the pilot in responding to in-flight necessities.
The diffusion of human and robotics in manufacturing system is one of the next steps in robotics. Since the computer power gets more and more powerful there is more and more possible to achieve safer working environment. This could lead to a possibility to work closer and more direct with a robot. In an EU FW7 funded project called LOCOMACHs (Low Cost Manufacturing and Assembly of Composite and Hybrid Structures) there are studies and tests to support a future higher TRL-leveled HMI-cell (Human Machine Interaction). The main object in this paper is to present how different safety system could help the HMI-cell to work properly in an industrial context, this when the operator enters the robot working area and working with a task that needs two hand. Safety defines as when its risk is judged to be acceptable.
Abstract As touch screens are everywhere in the consumer market Thales has launched in depth evaluations on their introduction in the cockpit. One of the challenges is to verify its compatibility with in flight use under turbulence conditions, including light, moderate and severe. In flight accelerometer collections were performed to provide us with a baseline for choosing between possible simulation solutions. Thales recognized early on the need for such a tool as it would enable us to define recommendations for our HMI designs. The objectives were first to validate specific complex touch/gestures using all the potential of touch interactions for novel cockpit Human Machine Interfaces and second to look into the various physical anchoring solutions capable of facilitating touch screens interactions in aeronautical turbulent environments.
This interface document SAE J2286 revises the requirements for file formats as were originally described in SAE J1924. This document describes Interface 1 (I/F 1) in SAE J2461. This document does not imply the use of a specific hardware interface, but may be used with other hardware interfaces such as SAE J1939, ISO 15765 or ISO 14229. The requirements of SAE J2286 supersede the requirements defined by SAE J1924. SAE J2461 establishes the requirements for Interface 1 (I/F 1), as a replacement of the file-based interface described by SAE J1924, as shown by Figure 1. Interface 1 (I/F) is a bi-directional link between the OEM Shop Floor Program (CSCI 1) and the Vendor Component Program (CSCI 2). Using I/F 1, the OEM Shop Floor Program communicates the desired parameters and programming limits for an assembly job to the Vendor Component Program (VCP). In response, the VCP returns programming results to the OEM Shop Floor Program (CSCI 1).
Abstract Shift quality of a gearbox is one of the most important items contributing to the overall subjective impression of driving comfort for a vehicle with a manual transmission. Often the transmission is the only point of attention for shift quality issues with a focus on the synchronizer being the main area of optimization. This is however not always sufficient. What the driver feels at the gear lever is a result of the interaction between the gear lever, the selector system, the transmission internals and the driveline. For most of these subsystems, well established models are available which can be used in early development to get a first idea of the shift quality. However, accurately representing the physical feel of the transmission cable, connecting the gearbox and the shifter, remains a challenge.
This document is intended to describe technologies available, application needs, and operational requirements relating to the use of fiber optic sensing systems on aerospace platforms: a. To define standard terminology used in describing fiber optic sensing systems and their performance. b. To identify current interfaces used for fiber optic sensing systems. c. To define environmental, reliability, and maintainability capabilities of fiber optic sensing system components. d. To describe the fiber optic sensor and instrumentation technologies that forms the current state of the art. e. To describe current and future unmet needs of the aerospace industry for measurements using fiber optic sensors.
Democratizing hybrid technologies Engineers continue to wring efficiency and mass out of their latest electrified propulsion systems with the aim of mainstreaming the technology. Automakers see possibilities, limits for gesture controls Recent concepts have shown the possibilities of gesture for controlling infotainment functions but the need for industry standards and control simplification complicate development. Ferrari massages 458 to create 488 GTB Ferrari engineers have further refined the 458 Italia model with a new turbocharged and downsized engine and revised aerodynamics to create the 488 GTB.
This collection of technical papers focus on studies of driver behavior modeling, driving simulator techniques, vehicle ride comfort evaluation and enhancement, test/simulation correlation analysis, vehicle elastomeric component modeling (i.e. bushings, rubber mounts, springs, dampers, seat cushions), passive, semi-active and active suspension systems, suspension seat analysis and modeling techniques, the effect and control of beaming, shaking, impact harshness, brake judder and any other phenomena affecting ride comfort of driver, passengers, goods, etc.
Abstract The advent of 3D displays offers Human-Machine Interface (HMI) designers and engineers new opportunities to shape the user's experience of information within the vehicle. However, the application of 3D displays to the in-vehicle environment introduces a number of new parameters that must be carefully considered in order to optimise the user experience. In addition, there is potential for 3D displays to increase driver inattention, either through diverting the driver's attention away from the road or by increasing the time taken to assimilate information. Manufacturers must therefore take great care in establishing the ‘do’s and ‘don’t's of 3D interface design for the automotive context, providing a sound basis upon which HMI designers can innovate. This paper describes the approach and findings of a three-part investigation into the use of 3D displays in the instrument cluster of a road car, the overall aim of which was to define the boundaries of the 3D HMI design space.
Artist-Centric HMI Software Development Tool for Reconfigurable Instrument Clusters: Integration with Model-Based Development Tool
Abstract Instrument clusters that display all information on a TFT-LCD screen, also known as reconfigurable instrument clusters, have become the new trend in automotive interiors. DENSO mass-produced the world's first reconfigurable instrument cluster in 2008. To satisfy customer requirements, large quantities of resources were required. Coupled with an iterative process due to requirement changes, development costs became very high. Reducing development costs was vital in order to expand the reconfigurable instrument cluster product line. A new artist-centric HMI (human machine interface) software development workflow is proposed to reduce the development effort by introducing a data converter and real-time 3D rendering engine in our earlier paper. Our goal is to realize an environment with little programming during development by utilizing a tool chain to automate the majority of the programmer's tasks.
Abstract Steering torque feedback, or steering feel, is widely regarded as an important aspect of driver interface to road feel. To generate a steering feel with the appropriate level of fidelity required by a driver-vehicle system or a driving simulator, it is essential to gain a good understanding of various important influencing factors of steering torque feedback. This paper presents a comprehensive study and analysis of internal and external factors that strongly affect steering torque feedback. A steering torque feedback model with sufficient fidelity is established and verified as the base for this study. The individual- and collective-level influences of these factors on steering torque feedback are analyzed in both time domain and frequency domain, with guidelines provided on how to properly use these influencing factors to control their negative effects in modeling steering torque feedback.
Abstract Objective tools that can assess the demands associated with in-vehicle human machine interfaces (HMIs) could assist automotive engineers designing safer interaction. This paper presents empirical evidence supporting one objective assessment approach, which compares the demand associated with in-vehicle tasks to the demand associated with “benchmarking” or “comparison tasks”. In the presented study, there were two types of benchmarking tasks-a modified surrogate reference task (SuRT) and a delayed digit recall task (n-back task) - representing different levels of visual demand and cognitive demand respectively. Twenty-four participants performed these two types of benchmarking tasks as well as two radio tasks while driving a vehicle on a closed-loop test track. Response measures included physiological (heart rate), glance metrics, driving performance (steering entropy) and subjective workload ratings.
Abstract This study proposes a method for presenting maneuver request information of accelerator pedal to a driver via the accelerator pedal itself. By applying periodic force like vibration on an accelerator pedal, information is transferred to the driver without displacing the accelerator pedal. In this study, the authors focus on a saw-tooth wave as the periodic force. When the saw-tooth-waved force is applied on the accelerator pedal, a human driver feels as if the accelerator pedal is knocked by someone periodically. In addition, information about the quantity of requested maneuver can be transferred by the amplitude of the saw-tooth wave. Based on these facts, the saw-tooth wave is modified and optimized empirically with ten human drivers so that the information of direction is transferred most reliably. In addition, the relationship between the amplitude of the saw-tooth wave and requested quantity of the pedal maneuver that the drivers feel is formulated.
Adaptive cruise control (ACC) is an enhancement of conventional cruise control systems that allows the ACC-equipped vehicle to follow a forward vehicle at a pre-selected time gap, up to a driver selected speed, by controlling the engine, power train, and/or service brakes. This SAE Standard focuses on specifying the minimum requirements for ACC system operating characteristics and elements of the user interface. This document applies to original equipment and aftermarket ACC systems for passenger vehicles (including motorcycles). This document does not apply to heavy vehicles (GVWR > 10,000 lbs. or 4,536 kg). Furthermore, this document does not address other variations on ACC, such as "stop & go" ACC, that can bring the equipped vehicle to a stop and reaccelerate. Future revisions of this document should consider enhanced versions of ACC, as well as the integration of ACC with Forward Vehicle Collision Warning Systems (FVCWS).
Putting lightweighting to the test Material laws and orientation information are coupled in a single finite element analysis to predict the performance of the hybrid composite beam under a dynamic three point bending load. Screens, cameras provide new look in cabs Video inputs are another option showing up on displays that increasingly offer touch control. Big performance in small packages By regulating light-duty engine variable speed fans based on heat rejection demands and ambient temperature, consistent power savings over the entire operating spectrum can be achieved.
SMACing the automotive industry: from concept to consumer Technology is making a more significant impact on today's auto industry. Perhaps one of the most notable examples is the development of connected technologies coupled with social, mobile, analytics, and cloud (SMAC) technologies. The 3i paradigm: India's story The concept of ideation, incubation, and implementation is enhancing the growth of the Indian automotive industry. Virtualization for automotive IVI systems As the demand for modern in-vehicle infotainment systems grows, automakers are increasingly looking toward virtualization as a solution to bridge the gap between consumer and automotive electronics. Command Center: Securing connected cars of the future automotive An architectural approach to minimize connectivity interfaces acts as a secure, intelligent gateway between the car and external devices/networks to better guard against malicious or sensitive data from being compromised.
This 2014 edition of the Automotive Cockpits and Dashboards Report is the latest in the series of reports by Supplier Business looking at trends and developments in the vehicle cockpit space. Over time we have seen many changes in terms of the design and structure of the main modules and components that go to make up the dashboard and cockpit element of the vehicle’s interior. In particular the increasing level of in-vehicle connectivity has caused interior designers to rethink the layout and content of the dashboard and center console. In this report the main trends and developments are highlighted, with particular reference to examples of the way in which the industry has responded to the challenge. The strongest influence on the vehicle’s cockpit and dashboard continues to be the requirement for in-vehicle connectivity. Consumer demand for seamless connectivity between home, office and vehicle dominates the cockpit’s interior design and structure.
Touch Interactive Display Systems: Human Factors Considerations, System Design and Performance Guidelines
This ARP covers the system design, human interface considerations, and hardware performance recommendations and requirements for touch interactive electronic display systems installed in the cockpit/flight deck for use by pilots. System design and human interface considerations include: identification of functions that could use and benefit from touch interactions, the pilot and cockpit/flight deck environment characteristics that impact usability, and specific pilot interface characteristics such as touch mode, single and multi touch applications, feedback, latency, potential human error, and basic usability. Also addressed are workload, fatigue, and transition from hard to soft control considerations. Hardware issues cover performance aspects of touch screens installed on cockpit/flight deck displays. This ARP is intended to cover Part 23 and 25 category airplanes as well as Part 27 and 29 rotorcraft.
The Applicability of the Objective Speech Intelligibility Metrics for Vehicle Interior Speech Intelligibility Evaluation, Considering Different Listening Configurations and Background Noise Spectra
Values of the speech intelligibility index (SII) were found to be different for the same speech intelligibility performance measured in an acoustic perception jury test with 35 human subjects and different background noise spectra. Using a novel method for in-vehicle speech intelligibility evaluation, the human subjects were tested using the hearing-in-noise-test (HINT) in a simulated driving environment. A variety of driving and listening conditions were used to obtain 50% speech intelligibility score at the sentence Speech Reception Threshold (sSRT). In previous studies, the band importance function for ‘average speech’ was used for SII calculations since the band importance function for the HINT is unavailable in the SII ANSI S3.5-1997 standard.
Abstract Human Machine Interface technologies in automotive systems are taking a giant leap forward with integrated multi-modal, multi-touch and multi-zone systems. This evolution enables the HMI system to provide state-of-the-art graphics effects, speech assistance, touch and gesture enabled interfaces, augmented reality, web and mobile integration alongside other advanced concepts, providing excellent user experience, least driver distraction and ease of use. Modern premium car manufacturers are introducing such user experience in their in-vehicle infotainment (IVI) systems to make their IVI on par with the trend setting mobile smart phone user experience. Apart from the technologies involved in multimodal behaviour, the HMI system includes frameworks, standards and sub systems that enable appreciable amount of autonomy while interfacing with the underlying IVI sub system layers.
Abstract The framework for the connected HMI with respect to the configuration and computation of personalization data is presented. The connectivity medium of the future car would be based on either an embedded internet connection through the mobile data services, Bluetooth based data connection based on the user smartphone, Wi-Fi based connection using a wireless network connection or an optimized hybrid approach based on the availability of the connectivity medium or the preference of the user. It is assumed that the car cannot remain directly-connected at all times and the computational requirements of the advanced personalization application cannot be optimized using the inbuilt HMI hardware in the vehicle alone. Our algorithm is based on the concept of Constant Data Availability (CODA) distributed file system and the Distributed Application Processing framework (DAPF).
Technical Approach in Reducing GUI Development Cycle Time for Adopting the Connectivity Solutions in Automotive Infotainment Systems
With ongoing integration of various systems in the Vehicle, the usage of display unit is increasing day-by day. The necessity to access data, stored on a remote system, via a human machine interface (HMI) is growing and also the need for developing a Graphical User Interface (GUI) in an efficient manner. The customer/user request to view or browse the system via display is becoming more complex and it is very annoying for the customer/user to wait for a system reaction on his input to the local system for a longer time. With the above limitations we would need to develop the GUI for quick turnaround with high quality. In this paper we are about to discuss on the Model View Controller (MVC) architecture, platform based approach, modular approach based on Core - Server for GUI development, auto code generation, behavioral model simulation, reusable packages and various tools that are used in development of GUI.
A Study of Cultural Influence in Automotive HMI: Measuring Correlation between Culture and HMI Usability
This paper describes a comparative study aimed at identifying cultural differences in automotive-HMI usability. This was part of a larger research to investigate in depth the problems users experience with vehicle-HMI in emerging-regions and help in the development of HMI design guidelines to include cultural consideration. Culture is recognised as a significant influence on user behaviour, as it correlates with certain preferences and abilities. A system may be fully usable for one group of users and environmental conditions but totally unsuitable for another. Even if a conscientious engineer designs a proper human-machine-interface for use in a given environment, the designer is often unable to foresee effects of a different culture on vehicle's HMI usability. Culture has different patterns of social behaviour and interaction which have led many researchers to develop cultural-models to describe these differences.
Touch-less control coming to cars Use of proximity and gesture-recognition systems in auto cockpits could rise fifty-fold within a decade. Forming a strong bond Multi-material vehicles are becoming more prevalent as automakers attempt to reduce vehicle weight and boost fuel efficiency. Selecting the proper adhesive is critical when bonding dissimilar materials. SAE 2014 World Congress preview special section: 'Creating New Possibilities' Host company Hyundai and Tier 1 Strategic Partner, Delphi, established "Creating New Possibilities" as the theme for this year's premier engineering event taking place April 8-10 in Detroit's Cobo Center. This special Congress preview section uncovers some of those possibilities, featuring insights from the event's executive leadership; details of a Delphi/Hyundai advanced engine program; highlights from the technical program in the areas of powertrain, materials, testing and simulation, electronics, interiors, and body/chassis; and more.
This Engineering Bulletin and its annexes provide guidance on the application of Human Engineering principles and practices to the analysis, design, development, testing, fielding, support, accident investigation, and training for military and commercial products throughout their intended life cycles.
This document describes operational scenarios and examples of system operation based on the experience of different developers of airborne wake vortex safety systems. This information is intended to supplement the recommendations and guidance given in ARP 6267 “Airborne Wake Vortex Safety Systems” as well as facilitate the application of other wake vortex standards and guidance documents generated by SAE and RTCA.