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2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1434
Salvatore Trapanese, Alessandro Naddeo, Nicola Cappetti
The evaluation of perceived comfort inside a car, in the early stages of design process, is still an open issue. Modern instruments like CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) and DHM (Digital Human Modeling) already offer several tools for a preventive evaluation of ergonomics parameters for car drivers through the use of detailed CAD (Computer Aided Design) models of car-interiors and by the multi-body approach for evaluating movements and interactions. Nevertheless, it is not enough because the subjectivity of comfort perception is due to parameters that are very difficult to be evaluated in the early stage of design and need “hard-prototypes” that, often, are too expensive to be realized. In the latest 30 years, several researchers tried to develop methods to objectivize the comfort performance but most of them are based on questionnaires, marketing researches, physiological and biomechanical analyses, and need devices or interactions that modify the perceived comfort.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0084
Paul Weindorf, James Krier, Carl Evans
Abstract: An optical configuration has been developed which offers a seamless appearance where the display aperture is not visible in the "off" condition and is minimized in the "on" condition. Introduction: As electronic displays such as TFT's are utilized increasingly in automotive instrument clusters, there is a desire from the OEMs to hide the display opening and present a "seamless" appearance to the user such that the user cannot see any apertures or margin gaps to the display. Background: The most relevant prior art is demonstrated by the BMW instrument cluster. In the BMW application, the Bayer LM296 film with a neutral density transmission factor of 25% is placed over a printed applique. Improved Solution Description: The principles behind the improved seamless solution are: 1. Reduce the reflections of the display opening by using a moth-eye film on the rear surface of the neutral density applique and providing a smooth AR surface on the display polarizer. 2.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1448
Rong Chen, Rini Sherony, Hampton C. Gabler
The effectiveness of Forward Collision Warning (FCW) or similar crash warning/mitigation systems is highly dependent on driver acceptance. If a FCW system delivers the warning too early, it may distract the driver or annoy the driver and cause him/her to deactivate the system. In order to design a system activation threshold that matches driver expectations, system designers must understand when drivers would normally apply the brake. One of the most widely used metrics to establish FCW threshold is Time to Collision (TTC). TTC measures the time remaining before two vehicle would collide if they continued at their current speeds. One limitation of TTC is that it assumes constant vehicle velocity. Enhanced Time to Collision (ETTC) is potentially a more accurate metric of perceived collision risk due to its consideration of vehicle acceleration. This paper will compare and contrast the population distribution of ETTC and TTC at brake onset in normal car-following situations.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0014
Shun Yang, Weiwen Deng, Haizhen Liu, Rui He, Lei Qian, Wenlong Sun, Ji Gao
Nowadays, the vehicle market puts forward urgent requirement for new kinds of braking booster because the traditional vacuum booster cannot meet the demands of new energy vehicles anymore. However, one problem that all the new plans should face is how to guarantee an ideal pedal feeling. In this paper, a novel mechatronics braking booster is proposed, and servo motor introduced into the booster makes the assist rate can be adjusted under a great degrees of freedom, so the structural parameters and control parameters of the booster should be determined elaborately to get an optimal pedal feeling. The pedal feeling is always represented by the pedal stoke-force curve which is influenced by different parameters.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0080
Hiroyuki Miyake
This paper explains a performance enhancement of the lane guidance function in car navigation systems.In order to achieve intuitive lane guidance, a function is considered that displays lane guidance on an image of the front scene that matches what drivers actually see outside the vehicle.Therefore, two developed items were lane accurate positioning based on image recognition and augmented reality visualization that renders lane guidance images overlaid on the scenery of the road ahead.The eye glance time to the navigation screen has been reduced in a comparison test with a conventional lane guidance method. It is confirmed that this lane guidance function is more intuitive than the conventional method.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1449
Taylor Johnson, Rong Chen, Rini Sherony, Hampton C. Gabler
Road departure crashes are one of the most dangerous crash modes in the United States. When the vehicle drifts out of lane and departs the roadway, it has a higher potential of impacting less compliant objects, such as trees, poles, as well as oncoming vehicles. In the U.S., road departure crashes account for 10% of all crashes, but is responsible for over 30% of all vehicle occupant fatalities. Lane departure warning (LDW) systems can detect an impending road departure and deliver an alert to allow the driver to steer back to the lane. LDW has great potential to reduce the number of road departure crashes, but the effectiveness is highly dependent upon driver acceptance. However, if the driver perceives there is little danger after receiving an alert, the driver may become annoyed and deactivate the system. Most current LDW systems rely heavily upon distance to lane boundary (DTLB) in the decision to deliver an alert.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0462
Chunlei Wang, Xinjie Zhang, Konghui Guo, Fangwu Ma, Dong Chen
With the development of the advanced driver assistance system and autonomous vehicle techniques, a precise description of the driver’s steering behavior with mathematical models has attracted a great attention. However, the driver’s steering maneuver demonstrates the stochastic characteristic due to a series of complex and uncertain factors, such as the weather, road, and driver’s physiological and psychological limits, generating negative effects on the performance of the vehicle or the driver assistance system. Hence, this paper explores the stochastic characteristic of driver’s steering behavior and a novel steering controller considering this stochastic characteristic is proposed based on stochastic model predictive control (SMPC). Firstly, a search algorithm is derived to describe the driver’s road preview behavior.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0461
Wenfei Li, Haiping Du, Weihua Li
this paper proposes a new braking torque distribution strategy for electric vehicles equipped with a hybrid hydraulic braking and regenerative braking system. The braking torque distribution strategy is proposed based on the required braking torque and the regenerative braking system’s status. To get the required braking torque, a new strategy is designed based on the road conditions and driver's braking intentions. Through the estimated road surface, a robust wheel slip controller is designed to calculate the overall maximum braking torque required for the anti-lock braking system (ABS) under this road condition. Driver's braking intentions are classified as the emergency brake and the normal brake. In the case of emergency braking, the required braking torque is to be equal to the maximum braking torque. In the case of normal braking, the normal brake torque is proportional to pedal stroke.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0466
Daan Roethof, Tarik Sezer, Mustafa Ali Arat, Barys Shyrokau
The wheel-camber geometry holds considerable potential to improve vehicle safety and performance, which has led to the development of numerous unique camber mechanisms with active or self-regulating features over the last decade. An extended overview of these prototypes, as included in this report, reveals that most of the investigations employ so-called open-loop manoeuvres to evaluate the vehicle response excluding driver response. However, driver’s perception and his/her reaction is a crucial if not the most critical factor during vehicle operation. Therefore, the research goal of the presented study is to assess the influence of active camber control on steering feel and driving performance using a driving simulator. In the proposed investigation, the vehicle body dynamics are based on dSPACE ASM software and have been extended by comprehensive models of the steering and active camber regulation systems.
2016-02-05
Magazine
Off-highway hybrids: Opportunities and challenges With oil prices declining and emissions regulations in North America 'stabilized,' is there a place for hybrid powertrains in this new world of cheap oil? Looking for a better image Display advances are helping to reduce operator fatigue. Charging up electrified powertrains Control technologies race forward while batteries improve and adopt standard sizes. Measuring and accounting for suspension TARDEC teamed with SEA Ltd. to develop a system to measure the suspension parameters, center of gravity, and moments of inertia of wheeled vehicles in the never ending quest to model and predict vehicle dynamic behavior. Looking at mobility in 2050 Cuneyt L. Oge begins his term as 2016 SAE International President with a vision about the future of auto- and aero-mobility.
2016-02-03
WIP Standard
ARP6377
Develop and propagate recommended practices for the design, development, testing and implementation of head worn displays in piloted airborne platforms
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0223
Aneesh Paul, Rohan Chauhan, Rituraj Srivastava, Mriganka Baruah
This paper provides a detailed study of the recent developments in the field of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems and researches in ADASs since last decade. The paper provides a survey on Cognitive cars and driver oriented intelligent vehicles and their motion, stimuli, reflex and response. The main objectives of the paper re the future advancements in ADASs, the response duration, user-compatibility and stimuli decision-action on driver as well as on the system side. "THE SOUL PURPOSE OF ADASs IS TO SUPPORT THE DRIVERS RATHER THAN TO REPLACE THEM". Keeping this into consideration, this paper addresses the major achievements and major difficulties in making Advanced Driver Assistance System to be incorporated in today’s automation. The paper describes the pros and cons on the modern day cognitive cars, its areas of improvement and further modifications. The paper also describes briefly about the driver safety when the ADASs is not implemented and modern day driving skills.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0233
Sindhu Ls, Vishwas Vaidya
Abstract The OEM's aim is to reduce development time and testing cost, hence the objective behind this work is to achieve a flexible stateflow model so that changes in the application during supply chain or development, on adding/deleting any switches, varying timer cycle, changing the logic for future advancements or else using the logic in different application, would end in minimal changes in the chart or in its states which would reflect least changes in the code. This research is about designing state machine architecture for chime/buzzer warning system and wiper/washer motor control system. The chime/buzzer stateflow chart includes various input switches like ignition, parking, seat belt buckle, driver door and speed accompanied with warning in the form of LED, lamp and buzzer. The logic is differentiated according to gentle and strong warning. Various conditions and scenarios of the vehicle and driver are considered for driver door and seat belt which is resolved in the chart.
2016-01-25
WIP Standard
AIR6373
pilots, air traffic controllers, dispatchers, aviation meteorologists
2016-01-18
WIP Standard
ARP4102/10B
This document presents criteria for flight deck controls and displays for airborne collision avoidance systems providing vertical-only guidance, and provides design guidance for operational, functional, and installation characteristics and requirements for airborne collision avoidance systems in existing and future aircraft.
2016-01-18
WIP Standard
ARP4101/8A
This document recommends criteria for standardization of flight deck interior doors and their operation which will provide optimum use under normal and emergency conditions.
2016-01-06
Magazine
Time to get personal Industry engineers are combining apps, voice, the cloud, and other technologies such as artificial intelligence to enable drivers to customize their vehicles and anticipate their needs. Technology report GM and TARDEC co-developing fuel cell powered Chevrolet Colorado for military evaluation vehicles and anticipate their needs. Global vehicles Sports cars take center stage in Tokyo
2016-01-02
Standard
AS6030A
This Common Interface Control Plan (CICP) establishes the methodology for developing, controlling, and managing the technical interfaces between and within systems. An interface defines the interaction at a defined point between entities to achieve a combined system capability. A common interface defines the shared interaction between multiple systems on either side of the interface. The document is not intended to directly control any other aspects of program management, such as matters of contractual, financial, or those of an intellectual property rights nature. Members in the interface control process include: procurement authorities, design authorities, and other related agencies as defined in the specific System Interface Control Plan (SICP). For the purposes of this plan, only the terms Procuring Organization and Producing Organization will be used. This plan is predicated upon formal agreements between participating organizations that provide: 1.
2015-12-19
Standard
AS5725B
This standard defines implementation requirements for the electrical interface between: a. aircraft carried miniature store carriage systems and miniature stores b. aircraft parent carriage and miniature stores c. surface based launch systems and miniature stores The interface provides a common interfacing capability for the initialization and employment of smart miniature munitions and other miniature stores from the host systems. Physical, electrical, and logical (functional) aspects of the interface are addressed.
2015-12-03
Standard
J3077_201512
This document provides a summary of the activities to-date of Task Force #1 - Research Foundations – of the SAE’s Driver Vehicle Interface (DVI) committee. More specifically, it establishes working definitions of key DVI concepts, as well as an extensive list of data sources relevant to DVI design and the larger topic of driver distraction.
2015-12-01
Magazine
Uncertainty quantification The technique is a must for next-generation simulation tools. Oil-pump sizing Researchers from Hinduja Tech investigate options for low friction and power consumption. The future of Indian commercial aviation The growth in traffic that airport modernization has supported has also made a significant contribution to the local and national economies, while the improved infrastructure has been positive for the perception of India in the global market. Driving EVs toward lower cost The race ison to reduce battery and electric-drive systems cost while improving efficiency. Powering on Rolls-Royce's Chief Engineer discusses new technologies that inspire current R&D design and evaluation work as part of its strategic roadmap for future big commercial programs. HMIs extend beyond the cab Telematic functions are being integrated into multi-function user interfaces.
2015-12-01
Magazine
Hot-stamping process Hot-stamping process from Schuler employs flexible 'pressure controlled hardening' Fuel cell futures no longer a dream Fuel cell technology is catching up with the hype as fuel cell vehicles become reality. Hot Technologies 2016 Our annual review of significant, innovative, and just plain cool technology applications for the new model year.
2015-10-07
Magazine
HMIs extend beyond the cab Telematics functions are being integrated into multi-function user interfaces. Standards step forward in design of off-highway electronics Functional safety standards are starting to impact many development projects, while the auto industry's AUTOSAR standard is being deployed to help enable software reuse and simplify designs. Leveraging automotive lightweighting techniques to improve off-highway emissions Where systems engineers can gain efficiencies in off-highway equipment is agnostic, they'll take it anywhere, and so they should, but one of the ways, often underestimated, is through the use of strong and lightweight advanced materials. Waste heat recovery for the long haul A WHR system based on an organic Rankine cycle has been developed for a long-haul Iveco Stralis truck.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2766
Sai Venkatesh Muravaneni, Egalaivan Srinivasan, Jagankumar Mari
Abstract Steering wheel being the most used tactile point in a vehicle, its feel and response is an important factor based on which the vehicle quality is judged. Engineering the right feel and response into the system requires knowledge of the objective parameters that relate to the driver perception. Extensive correlation work has been done in the past pertaining to passenger cars, but the driver requirements for commercial vehicles vary significantly. Often it becomes difficult to match the right parameters to the steering feel experienced by the drivers, since most of the standard ISO weave test units used to describe them are of zero or first order parameters. Analyzing the second order parameters gave a better method to reason driver related feel. Also, each subjective attribute was fragmented into sub-attributes to identify the reason for such a rating resulting in the identification of the major subjective parameters affecting driver ratings.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2870
Sanket Pawar
Abstract Displacement joystick controls are considered as most suitable for manual controls wherever proportional outputs are required for dynamic applications such as when variable speed sensitivity or position are required. These joysticks are being used widely in both open loop as well as in close loop controls. The operator applies force to either the joystick itself or to its proportional linear displacement thumb wheel switches. This movement is then detected by either resistive or Hall Effect sensors, placed right inside joystick, and converted into an electrical signal. These joysticks, along with proportional linear displacement thumb wheel switches, find a wide range of applications in off-road vehicles such construction and forestry vehicles, harvester machines, and etc. for applications like attachment speed controls, boom position control, rotation speed control, and etc.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-01-2674
Dragan Aleksendric, Velimir Cirovic, Dusan Smiljanic
Abstract Customer perception of brake pedal feel quality, depends on both the customer's subjective judgment of quality and the actual build quality of the brake system. The brake performance stability represents an important aspect of a vehicle performance and its quality of use. This stability is needed especially in brake by wire system and braking system with regenerative braking. In order to provide stable braked pedal feel i.e. consistent the brake performance against the brake pedal travel, the model of the brake performance versus the brake pedal travel needs to be established. In this paper new hybrid neuro-genetic optimization model was developed for dynamic control and optimization of the disc brake performance during a braking cycle versus the brake pedal travel. Based on such model, the brake performance optimization of the passenger car has been provided against the brake pedal travel.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-01-2696
Shuichi Okada
We had developed Electric Servo Brake System, which can control brake pressure accurately with a DC motor according to brake pedal force. Therefore, the system attains quality brake feeling while reflecting intentions of a driver. By the way, “Build-up” is characteristics that brake effectiveness increases in accordance with the deceleration of the vehicle, which is recognized as brake feeling with a sense of relief as not to elongate an expected braking distance at a downhill road due to large-capacity brake pad such as sports car and large vehicles. Then, we have applied the optical characteristic control to every car with Electric Servo Brake System by means of brake pressure control but not brake pad. Hereby, we confirmed that the control gives a driver the sense of relief and the reduction of pedal load on the further stepping-on of the pedal. In this paper, we describe the development of brake feel based on the control overview.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2429
Rickard Olsen, Kerstin Johansen, Magnus Engstrom
Abstract The increased diffusion of cooperation between humans and robotics in manufacturing systems is one of the next things to implement within robotics. Since the computer power gets more and more powerful, the possibilities increase to achieve safer working environment, due to that all safety signals demands fast management of data. This could lead to a possibility to work closer and more direct with a robot, using the robot as a third hand. Within an EU FW7 funded project called LOCOMACHs (Low Cost Manufacturing and Assembly of Composite and Hybrid Structures) there are one study focusing on how to support a future higher TRL-leveled HMI cell (Human Machine Interaction) in an assembly task. The main objective in this paper is to present how different external safety systems could support the whole HMI assembly cell to work properly in an industrial context.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2536
Rinky Babul Prasad, Vinukonda Siddartha
Abstract Recent years have seen a rise in the number of air crashes and on board fatalities. Statistics reveal that human error constitutes upto 56% of these incidents. This can be attributed to the ever growing air traffic and technological advancements in the field of aviation, leading to an increase in the electronic and mechanical controls in the cockpit. Accidents occur when pilots misinterpret gauges, weather conditions, fail to spot mechanical faults or carry out inappropriate actions. Currently, pilots rely on flight manuals (hard copies or an electronic tablet) to respond to an emergency. This is prone to human error or misinterpretation. Also, a considerable amount of time is spent in seeking, reading, interpreting and implementing the corrective action. The proposed augmented head mount virtual assist for the pilot eliminates flight manuals, by virtually guiding the pilot in responding to in-flight necessities.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2532
Sylvain Hourlier, Sandra Guérard, Jean Luc BAROU, Xavier Servantie
Abstract As touch screens are everywhere in the consumer market Thales has launched in depth evaluations on their introduction in the cockpit. One of the challenges is to verify its compatibility with in flight use under turbulence conditions, including light, moderate and severe. In flight accelerometer collections were performed to provide us with a baseline for choosing between possible simulation solutions. Thales recognized early on the need for such a tool as it would enable us to define recommendations for our HMI designs. The objectives were first to validate specific complex touch/gestures using all the potential of touch interactions for novel cockpit Human Machine Interfaces and second to look into the various physical anchoring solutions capable of facilitating touch screens interactions in aeronautical turbulent environments.
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