SUAV: Project Case Study to Integrate a Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System into a Small UAV
SUAV is a 4 year investigation with the aim of designing, manufacturing and integrating a 3kg Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) into an existing 10kg fixed wing UAV which is already in commercial service. The project comprises of a collaboration of 1o partners, each having a commercial or scientific interest in the design. Each partner provides specialist knowledge at system component level. This paper will present an overview of the problem space and present the methods used to generate the system level requirements. A top level overview will then be given of the resultant system design. This paper will also discuss some of the platform performance benefits and drawbacks of fuel cell operation.
The interest in UASs (Unmanned Air Systems) is growing significantly, for D3 missions (Dull Dirty and Dangerous) and for commercial use. It is estimated that over 32 countries are engaged in development programs and improvement of this technology, and already more than 43 countries are actual users of unmanned aircrafts. However, only the 10% of the global production of UAVs is devoted to the civil and commercial sector: the military is in fact the predominant market. The limited application of UAVs in civil missions can be traced back to several factors, mainly of legislative and technological nature. For instance, in USA and Europe, UAV cannot be operated within the controlled airspace (unless transfers organized by military authorities with complex planning). They can only be operated in uncontrolled or segregated airspaces (for operations conducted without direct visual contact of the remote pilot).
Unanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are systems composed by an airframe and a Ground Control Station (GCS) capable of remote/autonomous flying. The UAV airframe dimension spans from 0.1 to 20 meters of wingspan, depending on the mission and class (Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) or Medium/High Altitude Long Endurance (MALE/HALE)). The UAV vehicles can be similar to a scale model weighting grams or to a general aviation airplane with a Max Take Off Weight (MTOW) of tons. In all cases, the available internal airframe volume is filled by a multitude of systems including avionics, payload, fuel, engine, servo actuators, wirings, batteries, electronic boards. In case of small UAVs all these systems are miniaturized and compressed in a small form, while in case of large UAVs it can be difficult to immediately find a component or a system. Moreover, the UAV fuselage is typically made by composite materials, and a small number of hutches or doors is available to guarantee a good structural strength.
Accurate and robust tracking of objects is of growing interest among the computer vision scientific communities. The ability of a vision system to detect and track the objects, and accurately predict their future trajectory is critical in the context of mission- and safety-critical applications. Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) are not currently equipped to routinely access all classes of airspace and thus providing the pathway to coexist seamlessly with manned aircraft. Such capabilities can be achieved by incorporating both cooperative and non-cooperative Detect-And-Avoid (DAA) functions, as well an providing enhanced communications, navigation and surveillance (CNS) services. DAA is highly dependent on the performance of CNS systems, specifically for Tracking, Deciding and Avoidance (TDA) tasks.
In many parts of the world, uncontrolled fires in sparsely populated areas are a major concern. These small fires can quickly grow to large and destructive conflagrations in short time spans. The damage caused by these wildfires are often a function of the time elapsed between detection of the fire and deployment of firefighting resources. Fires detected relatively quickly can be more easily contained than fires that have been allowed to grow before taking corrective action. Detecting these fires has traditionally been a job for trained humans on the ground or in the air. In many cases, these manned solutions are simply not able to survey the amount of area necessary to maintain sufficient vigilance and coverage. This paper investigates the use of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) for automated wildfire detection. The proposed system uses low-cost, consumer-grade electronics and sensors combined with various airframes to create a system suitable for automatic detection of wildfires.
Abstract Shift quality of a gearbox is one of the most important items contributing to the overall subjective impression of driving comfort for a vehicle with a manual transmission. Often the transmission is the only point of attention for shift quality issues with a focus on the synchronizer being the main area of optimization. This is however not always sufficient. What the driver feels at the gear lever is a result of the interaction between the gear lever, the selector system, the transmission internals and the driveline. For most of these subsystems, well established models are available which can be used in early development to get a first idea of the shift quality. However, accurately representing the physical feel of the transmission cable, connecting the gearbox and the shifter, remains a challenge.
This document is intended to describe technologies available, application needs, and operational requirements relating to the use of fiber optic sensing systems on aerospace platforms: a. To define standard terminology used in describing fiber optic sensing systems and their performance. b. To identify current interfaces used for fiber optic sensing systems. c. To define environmental, reliability, and maintainability capabilities of fiber optic sensing system components. d. To describe the fiber optic sensor and instrumentation technologies that forms the current state of the art. e. To describe current and future unmet needs of the aerospace industry for measurements using fiber optic sensors.
Democratizing hybrid technologies Engineers continue to wring efficiency and mass out of their latest electrified propulsion systems with the aim of mainstreaming the technology. Automakers see possibilities, limits for gesture controls Recent concepts have shown the possibilities of gesture for controlling infotainment functions but the need for industry standards and control simplification complicate development. Ferrari massages 458 to create 488 GTB Ferrari engineers have further refined the 458 Italia model with a new turbocharged and downsized engine and revised aerodynamics to create the 488 GTB.
This collection of technical papers focus on studies of driver behavior modeling, driving simulator techniques, vehicle ride comfort evaluation and enhancement, test/simulation correlation analysis, vehicle elastomeric component modeling (i.e. bushings, rubber mounts, springs, dampers, seat cushions), passive, semi-active and active suspension systems, suspension seat analysis and modeling techniques, the effect and control of beaming, shaking, impact harshness, brake judder and any other phenomena affecting ride comfort of driver, passengers, goods, etc.
Abstract Steering torque feedback, or steering feel, is widely regarded as an important aspect of driver interface to road feel. To generate a steering feel with the appropriate level of fidelity required by a driver-vehicle system or a driving simulator, it is essential to gain a good understanding of various important influencing factors of steering torque feedback. This paper presents a comprehensive study and analysis of internal and external factors that strongly affect steering torque feedback. A steering torque feedback model with sufficient fidelity is established and verified as the base for this study. The individual- and collective-level influences of these factors on steering torque feedback are analyzed in both time domain and frequency domain, with guidelines provided on how to properly use these influencing factors to control their negative effects in modeling steering torque feedback.
Abstract The advent of 3D displays offers Human-Machine Interface (HMI) designers and engineers new opportunities to shape the user's experience of information within the vehicle. However, the application of 3D displays to the in-vehicle environment introduces a number of new parameters that must be carefully considered in order to optimise the user experience. In addition, there is potential for 3D displays to increase driver inattention, either through diverting the driver's attention away from the road or by increasing the time taken to assimilate information. Manufacturers must therefore take great care in establishing the ‘do’s and ‘don’t's of 3D interface design for the automotive context, providing a sound basis upon which HMI designers can innovate. This paper describes the approach and findings of a three-part investigation into the use of 3D displays in the instrument cluster of a road car, the overall aim of which was to define the boundaries of the 3D HMI design space.
Artist-Centric HMI Software Development Tool for Reconfigurable Instrument Clusters: Integration with Model-Based Development Tool
Abstract Instrument clusters that display all information on a TFT-LCD screen, also known as reconfigurable instrument clusters, have become the new trend in automotive interiors. DENSO mass-produced the world's first reconfigurable instrument cluster in 2008. To satisfy customer requirements, large quantities of resources were required. Coupled with an iterative process due to requirement changes, development costs became very high. Reducing development costs was vital in order to expand the reconfigurable instrument cluster product line. A new artist-centric HMI (human machine interface) software development workflow is proposed to reduce the development effort by introducing a data converter and real-time 3D rendering engine in our earlier paper. Our goal is to realize an environment with little programming during development by utilizing a tool chain to automate the majority of the programmer's tasks.
Abstract Objective tools that can assess the demands associated with in-vehicle human machine interfaces (HMIs) could assist automotive engineers designing safer interaction. This paper presents empirical evidence supporting one objective assessment approach, which compares the demand associated with in-vehicle tasks to the demand associated with “benchmarking” or “comparison tasks”. In the presented study, there were two types of benchmarking tasks-a modified surrogate reference task (SuRT) and a delayed digit recall task (n-back task) - representing different levels of visual demand and cognitive demand respectively. Twenty-four participants performed these two types of benchmarking tasks as well as two radio tasks while driving a vehicle on a closed-loop test track. Response measures included physiological (heart rate), glance metrics, driving performance (steering entropy) and subjective workload ratings.
Abstract This study proposes a method for presenting maneuver request information of accelerator pedal to a driver via the accelerator pedal itself. By applying periodic force like vibration on an accelerator pedal, information is transferred to the driver without displacing the accelerator pedal. In this study, the authors focus on a saw-tooth wave as the periodic force. When the saw-tooth-waved force is applied on the accelerator pedal, a human driver feels as if the accelerator pedal is knocked by someone periodically. In addition, information about the quantity of requested maneuver can be transferred by the amplitude of the saw-tooth wave. Based on these facts, the saw-tooth wave is modified and optimized empirically with ten human drivers so that the information of direction is transferred most reliably. In addition, the relationship between the amplitude of the saw-tooth wave and requested quantity of the pedal maneuver that the drivers feel is formulated.
Adaptive cruise control (ACC) is an enhancement of conventional cruise control systems that allows the ACC-equipped vehicle to follow a forward vehicle at a pre-selected time gap, up to a driver selected speed, by controlling the engine, power train, and/or service brakes. This SAE Standard focuses on specifying the minimum requirements for ACC system operating characteristics and elements of the user interface. This document applies to original equipment and aftermarket ACC systems for passenger vehicles (including motorcycles). This document does not apply to heavy vehicles (GVWR > 10,000 lbs. or 4,536 kg). Furthermore, this document does not address other variations on ACC, such as "stop & go" ACC, that can bring the equipped vehicle to a stop and reaccelerate. Future revisions of this document should consider enhanced versions of ACC, as well as the integration of ACC with Forward Vehicle Collision Warning Systems (FVCWS).
Putting lightweighting to the test Material laws and orientation information are coupled in a single finite element analysis to predict the performance of the hybrid composite beam under a dynamic three point bending load. Screens, cameras provide new look in cabs Video inputs are another option showing up on displays that increasingly offer touch control. Big performance in small packages By regulating light-duty engine variable speed fans based on heat rejection demands and ambient temperature, consistent power savings over the entire operating spectrum can be achieved.
SMACing the automotive industry: from concept to consumer Technology is making a more significant impact on today's auto industry. Perhaps one of the most notable examples is the development of connected technologies coupled with social, mobile, analytics, and cloud (SMAC) technologies. The 3i paradigm: India's story The concept of ideation, incubation, and implementation is enhancing the growth of the Indian automotive industry. Virtualization for automotive IVI systems As the demand for modern in-vehicle infotainment systems grows, automakers are increasingly looking toward virtualization as a solution to bridge the gap between consumer and automotive electronics. Command Center: Securing connected cars of the future automotive An architectural approach to minimize connectivity interfaces acts as a secure, intelligent gateway between the car and external devices/networks to better guard against malicious or sensitive data from being compromised.
This 2014 edition of the Automotive Cockpits and Dashboards Report is the latest in the series of reports by Supplier Business looking at trends and developments in the vehicle cockpit space. Over time we have seen many changes in terms of the design and structure of the main modules and components that go to make up the dashboard and cockpit element of the vehicle’s interior. In particular the increasing level of in-vehicle connectivity has caused interior designers to rethink the layout and content of the dashboard and center console. In this report the main trends and developments are highlighted, with particular reference to examples of the way in which the industry has responded to the challenge. The strongest influence on the vehicle’s cockpit and dashboard continues to be the requirement for in-vehicle connectivity. Consumer demand for seamless connectivity between home, office and vehicle dominates the cockpit’s interior design and structure.
Touch Interactive Display Systems: Human Factors Considerations, System Design and Performance Guidelines
This ARP covers the system design, human interface considerations, and hardware performance recommendations and requirements for touch interactive electronic display systems installed in the cockpit/flight deck for use by pilots. System design and human interface considerations include: identification of functions that could use and benefit from touch interactions, the pilot and cockpit/flight deck environment characteristics that impact usability, and specific pilot interface characteristics such as touch mode, single and multi touch applications, feedback, latency, potential human error, and basic usability. Also addressed are workload, fatigue, and transition from hard to soft control considerations. Hardware issues cover performance aspects of touch screens installed on cockpit/flight deck displays. This ARP is intended to cover Part 23 and 25 category airplanes as well as Part 27 and 29 rotorcraft.
The Applicability of the Objective Speech Intelligibility Metrics for Vehicle Interior Speech Intelligibility Evaluation, Considering Different Listening Configurations and Background Noise Spectra
Values of the speech intelligibility index (SII) were found to be different for the same speech intelligibility performance measured in an acoustic perception jury test with 35 human subjects and different background noise spectra. Using a novel method for in-vehicle speech intelligibility evaluation, the human subjects were tested using the hearing-in-noise-test (HINT) in a simulated driving environment. A variety of driving and listening conditions were used to obtain 50% speech intelligibility score at the sentence Speech Reception Threshold (sSRT). In previous studies, the band importance function for ‘average speech’ was used for SII calculations since the band importance function for the HINT is unavailable in the SII ANSI S3.5-1997 standard.
Abstract Human Machine Interface technologies in automotive systems are taking a giant leap forward with integrated multi-modal, multi-touch and multi-zone systems. This evolution enables the HMI system to provide state-of-the-art graphics effects, speech assistance, touch and gesture enabled interfaces, augmented reality, web and mobile integration alongside other advanced concepts, providing excellent user experience, least driver distraction and ease of use. Modern premium car manufacturers are introducing such user experience in their in-vehicle infotainment (IVI) systems to make their IVI on par with the trend setting mobile smart phone user experience. Apart from the technologies involved in multimodal behaviour, the HMI system includes frameworks, standards and sub systems that enable appreciable amount of autonomy while interfacing with the underlying IVI sub system layers.
Abstract The framework for the connected HMI with respect to the configuration and computation of personalization data is presented. The connectivity medium of the future car would be based on either an embedded internet connection through the mobile data services, Bluetooth based data connection based on the user smartphone, Wi-Fi based connection using a wireless network connection or an optimized hybrid approach based on the availability of the connectivity medium or the preference of the user. It is assumed that the car cannot remain directly-connected at all times and the computational requirements of the advanced personalization application cannot be optimized using the inbuilt HMI hardware in the vehicle alone. Our algorithm is based on the concept of Constant Data Availability (CODA) distributed file system and the Distributed Application Processing framework (DAPF).
Technical Approach in Reducing GUI Development Cycle Time for Adopting the Connectivity Solutions in Automotive Infotainment Systems
With ongoing integration of various systems in the Vehicle, the usage of display unit is increasing day-by day. The necessity to access data, stored on a remote system, via a human machine interface (HMI) is growing and also the need for developing a Graphical User Interface (GUI) in an efficient manner. The customer/user request to view or browse the system via display is becoming more complex and it is very annoying for the customer/user to wait for a system reaction on his input to the local system for a longer time. With the above limitations we would need to develop the GUI for quick turnaround with high quality. In this paper we are about to discuss on the Model View Controller (MVC) architecture, platform based approach, modular approach based on Core - Server for GUI development, auto code generation, behavioral model simulation, reusable packages and various tools that are used in development of GUI.
A Study of Cultural Influence in Automotive HMI: Measuring Correlation between Culture and HMI Usability
This paper describes a comparative study aimed at identifying cultural differences in automotive-HMI usability. This was part of a larger research to investigate in depth the problems users experience with vehicle-HMI in emerging-regions and help in the development of HMI design guidelines to include cultural consideration. Culture is recognised as a significant influence on user behaviour, as it correlates with certain preferences and abilities. A system may be fully usable for one group of users and environmental conditions but totally unsuitable for another. Even if a conscientious engineer designs a proper human-machine-interface for use in a given environment, the designer is often unable to foresee effects of a different culture on vehicle's HMI usability. Culture has different patterns of social behaviour and interaction which have led many researchers to develop cultural-models to describe these differences.
Touch-less control coming to cars Use of proximity and gesture-recognition systems in auto cockpits could rise fifty-fold within a decade. Forming a strong bond Multi-material vehicles are becoming more prevalent as automakers attempt to reduce vehicle weight and boost fuel efficiency. Selecting the proper adhesive is critical when bonding dissimilar materials. SAE 2014 World Congress preview special section: 'Creating New Possibilities' Host company Hyundai and Tier 1 Strategic Partner, Delphi, established "Creating New Possibilities" as the theme for this year's premier engineering event taking place April 8-10 in Detroit's Cobo Center. This special Congress preview section uncovers some of those possibilities, featuring insights from the event's executive leadership; details of a Delphi/Hyundai advanced engine program; highlights from the technical program in the areas of powertrain, materials, testing and simulation, electronics, interiors, and body/chassis; and more.
This Engineering Bulletin and its annexes provide guidance on the application of Human Engineering principles and practices to the analysis, design, development, testing, fielding, support, accident investigation, and training for military and commercial products throughout their intended life cycles.
This document describes operational scenarios and examples of system operation based on the experience of different developers of airborne wake vortex safety systems. This information is intended to supplement the recommendations and guidance given in ARP 6267 “Airborne Wake Vortex Safety Systems” as well as facilitate the application of other wake vortex standards and guidance documents generated by SAE and RTCA.
Recently, there have been many reports about developing control systems that actuate engines and brakes based on friction circle. We are researching the control system for motorcycles, which adds the return torque of throttle grip based on it for informing the limit of tire grip on the driving wheel. This throttle grip is a haptic display, offers haptic signals by controlling the motor connected to the throttle grip as a HMI. From the results of riding tests, the system was found helpful for riders to control the throttle grip as well as feeling easy about knowing the limit of tire grip. But it is known that the friction circle of a driving wheel depends on the normal force which changes by the gradient of road, acceleration and so on. The compensated control for changing the normal force by gradient was made to improve the throttle grip control system.
By using telecommunications, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) improve traffic safety and efficiency, facilitating an integral transport of people and goods. Even with the benefits obtained through ITS Systems nowadays, significant innovations will take place in the following years such as the ubiquitous and integral use of computer vision, or the development and future implementation of Cooperative ITS (C-ITS) that will allow a direct communication between vehicles (Vehicle-to-Vehicle, V2V) and with the roadside elements (Vehicle-to-Infrastructure, V2I) by means of mobile and wireless communication. In this context, the INTELVIA project was implemented, with the clear objective of developing ITS technologies and Intelligent Human-Machine Interfaces (HMI) to obtain the advantages of using information and communication technologies in the field of road transport and traffic management.
The interaction between human operator and equipment in general can be made easier or harder depending on the effectiveness of the interface used for this interaction. The present work focuses on this interface - the so called ‘Human-Machine-Interface’ (HMI) for a specific set of equipments: the vehicles (passenger cars and commercial road vehicles). Vehicles need to be driven by professional and amateur drivers. The HMI of the vehicle needs, thus, to be adequate to a wide variety of drivers, allowing for a safe and enjoyable ride. The design of such an HMI must then consider several aspects that are human centered (physiological, psychological, sociological…) and machine centered (technological). The present work discusses briefly these aspects, their dynamics. The analysis of both vehicles and some other technology products are analyzed, and the trend of vehicle HMI's is drawn on a broad sense.