This SAE Recommended Practice applies to all portions of the vehicle, but design efforts should focus on components and systems with the highest contribution to the overall average repair cost (see 3.7). The costs to be minimized include not only insurance premiums, but also out-of-pocket costs incurred by the owner. Damageability, repairability, serviceability and diagnostics are inter-related. Some repairability, serviceability and diagnostics operations may be required for collision or comprehensive loss-related causes only, some operations for non-collision-related causes only (warranty, scheduled maintenance, non-scheduled maintenance, etc.), and some for both causes. The scope of this document deals with only those operations that involve collision and comprehensive insurance loss repairs.
R-1234yf and R744 Design Criteria and Certification for OEM Mobile Air Conditioning Evaporator and Service Replacements
The intent of this standard is to establish a framework to assure that all evaporators for R-744, R-1234yf, and R-445A mobile air conditioning (MAC) systems meet appropriate testing and labeling requirements. SAE J639 requires vehicle manufacturers to perform assessments to minimize reasonable risks in production MAC systems. The evaporator (as designed and manufactured) shall be part of that risk assessment and it is the responsibility of the vehicle manufacturer to assure all relevant aspects of the evaporator are included. It is the responsibility of all vehicle or evaporator manufacturers to comply with the standards of this document at a minimum. (Substitution of specific test procedures by vehicle manufactures that correlate well to field return data is acceptable.) As appropriate, this standard can be used as a guide to support risk assessments.
This specification covers a solvent-based compound in the form of a liquid. This compound has been used typically for removal of carbonaceous soils and paint from aircraft turbine engine parts by immersion in liquid at elevated temperature, but usage is not limited to such applications. This compound should not be used on steel parts having hardness of 40 HRC or over.
This specification covers the procedure for ultrasonic inspection of wrought titanium and titanium alloy products 0.25 inch (6.4 mm) and over in cross-section (thickness) or diameter.
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is applicable to rotorcraft structural health monitoring (SHM) applications, both commercial and military, where end users are seeking guidance on the definition, development, integration, qualification, and certification of SHM technologies to achieve enhanced safety and reduced maintenance burden based on the lessons learned from existing Health and Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS). While guidance on SHM business case analysis would be useful to the community, such guidance is beyond the scope of this AIR. For the purpose of this document, SHM is defined as “the process of acquiring and analyzing data from on-board sensors to evaluate the health of a structure.” The suite of on-board sensors could include any presently installed aircraft sensors as well as new sensors to be defined in the future. Interrogation of the sensors could be done onboard during flight or using ground support equipment.
This document establishes standard graphical symbols and color conventions for use in either still (static) or animated graphics used for communicating service information. This document’s purpose is to communicate conventions for using those symbols and colors to accurately and consistently communicate intended information via graphics-based documentation. These practices are intended for use in service procedures, assembly instructions, training materials, and similar applications when trying to minimize the amount of human natural language text used within the document. The still and animated graphical conventions referenced should support effective communication via paper and “traditional” electronic media. The conventions can also extend to documenting via additional electronic delivery paradigms such as Augmented Reality (AR).
Abstract This study explores the process changes and challenges encountered during the transition from physical to virtual automotive maintenance and service operations. The confirmation process was reworked significantly, while the final evaluation and reporting process was able to be maintained. Problems were encountered with the organization of the digital part data, the increase in workload of virtual simulations over physical checks, and the limitations of current simulation and virtual reality (VR) technologies. Ideas for future enhancements of product lifecycle management (PLM) and simulation systems are explored.
This is a general curriculum that has been developed to identify the minimum knowledge and skill requirements of a composite and/or metal bond repair technician/specialist. This revision changes the document from an all-inclusive curriculum into a modular set of curricula. Teaching levels have been assigned to the curriculum to define the knowledge, skills and abilities graduates will need to make composite repairs. Minimum hours of instruction have been provided to ensure adequate coverage of all subject matter - lecture and laboratory. These minimums may be exceeded, and may include an increase in the total number of training hours and/or increases in the teaching levels.
The purpose of this SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is to provide information that would be useful to potential users/operators and decision makers for evaluating and quantifying the benefits of an Engine Monitoring Systems (EMS) versus its cost of implementation. This document presents excerpts from reports developed to analyze "actual aircraft cost/benefits results". These are presented as follows: a. First, to outline the benefits and cost elements pertaining to EMS that may be used in performing a cost versus benefits analysis. b. Second, to present considerations for use in conducting the analysis. c. Third, to provide examples of analyses and results as they relate to the user/operator and decision-maker community. The document encompasses helicopters and fixed wing aircraft and distinguishes between civilian and military considerations.
Minimum Performance Requirements for Non-Refrigerant Tracer Gasses and Electronic Tracer Gas Leak Detectors
This standard provides the testing and functional requirements guidance necessary for a leak detection device that uses any non-A/C refrigerant tracer gas, such as helium or a nitrogen-hydrogen blend, to provide functional performance equivalent to a refrigerant electronic leak detector. It explains how a non- refrigerant leak detector’s calibration can be established to provide levels of detection equal to electronic leak detectors that meet SAE J2791 for R-134a and SAE J2913 for R-1234yf.
A. This certification standard establishes the minimum requirements for training, examining, and certifying composite structure repair personnel. It establishes criteria for the certification of personnel requiring appropriate knowledge of the technical principles underlying the composite structural repairs they perform. Persons certified under this document may be eligible for licensing or certification/ qualification by an appropriate authority, in addition to this industry accepted aircraft composite repair technician certification and qualification. B. Persons who successfully complete the requirements of this certification standard are considered to be able to perform commercial aircraft composite repairs to composite structures in compliance with the manufacturers’ repair documentation or other acceptable repair methods. C. This document provides a method that a maintenance organization can use to qualify repair technicians
The purpose of this document is to specify the functional requirements for a miniature connector to be used for health monitoring purposes on aircrafts (including harsh environment such as the powerplant). It is actually a family of miniature connectors that is specified in this document for various uses (e.g. pin counts) and environments. This specification will be used by the SAE connector committee to work on a dedicated connector standard.
Getting a grip on AWD efficiency The safety and performance benefits of all-wheel drive are undeniable, but so are the penalties of added weight, friction losses, and complexity. Clever axle disconnects and E-axles are driving future AWD developments. E pluribus unum Inputs from many sensors are being combined to give safety systems a true vision of vehicle surroundings, with the resulting sensor fusion becoming a mainstay of autonomous vehicle electronics. Lightweighting poses repair challenges Mass-produced aluminum bodies and mixed-material structures present challenges for assembly and repair, as automakers increasingly pursue these lightweight strategies. Setting the standard Meggitt CTO Emeritus begins term at helm of SAE International, seeks to encourage cross-sector relations, elevate image of SAE as aerospace industry leader.
Abstract Regular service of the vehicle is to be done with high precision service equipment, to ensure the factory performance of the vehicle over the entire life of product usage. However, complex nature of the physical processes involved in the service of the vehicle subsystems makes it costly for optimizing the service equipment performance for entire range of operation. Air-conditioning service (ACS) equipment is one such product in the diagnostics domain which deals with compressible, transient and two phase flow in open loop systems. Development of control system for the service equipment to perform optimally over the entire operational range requires accurate mathematical model of the system under study. Application of mathematical model based approach requires calculation of geometrical details, environment information and fluid properties during the process for estimating the process behavior.
Procedure for Certification that Requirements for Mobile Air Conditioning System Components, Service Equipment, and Service Technician Training Meet SAE J Standards
This SAE Standard provides manufacturers, testing facilities and providers of technician training with a procedure for certifying compliance with the appropriate standards. Manufacturers or seller who advertise their products as Certified to an SAE J standard shall follow this procedure. Certification of a product is voluntary; however, this certification process is mandatory for those advertising meeting SAE Standard(s) requirements. Only certifying to this standard allows those claiming compliance to advertise that their product (unit), component, or service meets all requirements of the specific SAE standard. Certification of compliance to this and the appropriate standard and use of the SAE label on the product shall only be permitted after all the required information has been submitted to SAE International and it has been posted on the SAE web site.
Performance Requirements for R-134a and R-1234yf Refrigerant Diagnostic Identifiers (RDI) for Use with Mobile Air Conditioning Systems
This SAE Standard applies to refrigerant identification equipment to be used for identifying refrigerant HFC-134a (R-134a) and HFO-1234yf (R-1234yf) refrigerant when servicing a mobile A/C system or for identifying refrigerant in a container to be used to charge a mobile A/C system. Identification of other refrigerants is the option of the equipment manufacturer, although it shall not misidentify refrigerants, per 3.2.
This document provides guidance concerning the maintenance and serviceability of oxygen cylinders beginning with the quality of oxygen that is required, supplemental oxygen information, handling and cleaning procedures, transfilling and marking of serviced oxygen assemblies. This document attempts to outline in a logical sequence oxygen quality, serviceability and maintenance of oxygen cylinders.
The ARP shall cover the objectives and activities of Verification & Vallidation Processes required to assure high quality and/or criticality level of an IVHM Systems and Software.
This guide clearly defines the purpose, goals, and objectives of an IBR. It also describes the attributes of an effective IBR and discusses a baseline review process that will lead to a better understanding of program risks. It provides a common definition and framework for the IBR Process. This process harmonizes, and to the extent possible, unifies the management objectives for all PMs. The IBR Process enables managers to effectively utilize the project Performance Measurement Baseline (PMB) to assess performance, and to better understand inherent risks. The IBR Process should continue throughout the life of a project.
Abstract Alongside with the increasing vehicle complexity, the functionalities related to the safety, diagnosis and maintainability have become critical. The operators of special machines such as agricultural, mining, construction vehicles might be overwhelmed by this increased complexity and, as a result, operations for the recovery or maintenance of their vehicles become difficult. The Augmented Reality (AR) seems to be a very promising technology both if applied to traditional smart-phones or to the upcoming glasses, that has been just presented to the market by several manufacturers. This paper reviews some use cases of applications created in Institute for Agricultural and Earthmoving Machines (IMAMOTER) of the National research Council of Italy (CNR) engineers laboratories, which propose a novel approach for assisted maintenance, recovery or training.
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) examines the need for and the application of a power train usage metric that can be used to more accurately determine the TBO for helicopter transmissions. It provides a formula for the translation of the recorded torque history into mechanical usage. It provides examples of this process and recommends a way forward. This document of the SAE HM-1 IVHM Committee is not intended as a legal document and does not provide detailed implementation steps, but does address general implementation concerns and potential benefits.
Abstract This paper describes the strategy of lubricant oil service interval for commercial truck based on new engine technology (PROCONVE P7), the fleet owner's needs, vehicle typical application route, operational costs related to oil change, design of oil pan to adequate the oil volume and lubricant oil available technology. In result, this analysis shows the best annual operational cost for customer in terms of oil change.
Abstract The compression springs of the valves of automotive engines are key elements in the dynamic behavior of the engine. Its wear is slow, gradual and progressive; so the driver of the vehicle eventually get used to the decrease in the engine performance. The compressive force losses cause the valves to close slower than expected and, consequently, the engines lose their efficiency. Professionals in the area of automotive maintenance apply empirical tests with varying criteria to evaluate and to determine the life cycle end at which the springs must be replaced. This article describes the development of a workbench for compression springs based on existing models on the market and the main premise is the low cost. Correspondent loads involved were determined and the components were modeled in CAD, allowing to develop a robust device able to handle the loads generated by the compression spring.
Abstract Normally the automaker uses a specific Engineering criteria for serviceability with minimum clearance specification. Due to Front Over Hang reduction (Figure 1) regarding to Emerging Markets countries and technology inside in the hood compartment, the H4 bulb serviceability is affected. This paper shows a solution that provides an easy service procedure reducing package and complete sealed connector system for an H4 head lamp bulb. Figure 1 Front over Hang Reduction.
The purpose of this military standard is to provide uniform methods for the ultrasonic inspection of wrought metals and wrought metal products.
Ultraviolet Leak Detection: Stability and Compatibility Criteria of Fluorescent Refrigerant Leak Detection Dyes for Mobile R-134a and R-1234yf (HFO-1234yf) Air-Conditioning Systems
This SAE Standard applies to dyes intended to be introduced into a mobile air-conditioning system refrigerant circuit for the purpose of allowing the application of ultraviolet leak detection. In order to label any product(s) they shall meet SAE J2297, and the certification process as described in SAE J2911 must be followed and the documentation described in the appendix shall be submitted to SAE.
This SAE Recommended Practice applies to the use of generally available leak detection methods to service motor vehicle passenger compartment air conditioning systems.
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is intended to be used as a process verification guide for evaluating implementation of key factors in repair of metal bond parts or assemblies in a repair shop environment. This guide is to be used in conjunction with a regulatory approved and substantiated repair, and is intended to promote consistency and reliability.
This ARP provides insights on how to perform a cost benefit analysis (CBA) to determine the return on investment that would result from implementing an integrated Health Management (HM) system on an air vehicle. The word “integrated” refers to the combination or “roll up” of sub-systems health management tools to create a platform centric system. The document describes the complexity of features that can be considered in the analysis, the different tools and approaches for conducting a CBA and differentiates between military and commercial applications. This document is intended to help those who might not necessarily have a deep technical understanding or familiarity with HM systems but want to either quantify or understand the economic benefits (i.e., the value proposition) that a HM system could provide.
This SAE Recommended Practice defines, for vehicle manufacturers and collision information and equipment providers, the types of vehicle dimensional data needed by the collision repair industry and aftermarket equipment modifiers to properly perform high-quality repairs to damaged vehicles. Both bodyframe and unitized vehicles, including passenger cars and light trucks, are addressed.