Performance and Emission Analysis of CNG Dual Fuel High Capacity Truck Engine Employing Water Injection
The major emissions of diesel engines are oxides of nitrogen (NOx), particulate matter (PM), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO). Among these emissions, oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and the particulate matter are the reasons of serious concern. The usage of CNG in Dual fuel engine along with pilot diesel injection; the emissions have been decreased drastically. Homogeneous mixing of fuel and air leads to cleaner combustion and lower emissions. As peak temperatures are significantly lower than in typical CI engines, NOx levels are supposed to reduce significantly. The premixed lean mixture reduces soot particles. Dual fuel provides up to a 30% fuel saving, while meeting current emission standards along with higher efficiency and lower NVH levels compared to conventional CI engines within certain range of loads. A methodology using a small pilot quantity of diesel fuel injected during the compression stroke to improve the power density and operation control is carried out for an Dual fuel engine based on a stationary, water cooled truck engine.
Augmented Reality Vehicle-Connected Apps for Diagnosis, Fault Recovery and Vehicle Maintenance
Vehicle complexity is growing due to various factors: new functionalities, functional safety, hybridization, task management, etc. On the other hand both service centers need to up to date their competences and knowledge in newer vehicles, in order to efficiently repair and maintain new vehicles. Finally users of special machines, like military, agricultural, mining vehicles etc, need to be able to recover by faults or even repair the vehicles in critical conditions, in order to maintain the vehicle functionality, even in case of failure occurrence. Complex manuals don't provide the most efficient solution, while Augmented Reality represents a very promising technology both if applied to traditional smart-phones, and if applied to the newly glasses presented to the market. By now, this technology has been adopted mainly for games, and marketing purposes, such as tourist information. Instead, the paper deals with other ways in which AR can be extremely useful: AR has been used for two new topics, fast learning of simple procedures by low-skilled personnel and fault recovery or maintenance in hazardous environments or work places.
With growing concern about emissions of GHG (greenhouse gases) the use of natural gas as fuel has been seen as a very interesting alternative. Natural gas, whose main constituent is methane, due to its higher ratio of hydrogen / carbon and their higher content of energy generates about 22% less carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions compared to diesel considering the same combustion efficiency. To make use of this advantage in commercial vehicles there are many barriers to overcome: efficiency, drivability and legislation are some of them. According to tests conducted so far, the use of natural gas compression ignition (diesel cycle) allows the equivalent efficiency of a diesel engine maintaining the same torque and power curve. Controlling the torque in the dual fuel engine with diesel and CNG is an absolute necessity. This allows not only converting a required driver demand torque into actuator signal but also calculating if a change in operating point of any of the torque controlling factors is needed so that the driver demand can be immediately realized.
Technician Procedures for Refrigerant Leak Detection in Service of Mobile Air Conditioning Systems
This SAE Recommended Practice applies to the use of generally available leak detection methods to service motor vehicle passenger compartment air conditioning systems.
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is intended to be used as a process verification guide for evaluating implementation of key factors in repair of metal bond parts or assemblies in a repair shop environment. This guide is to be used in conjunction with a regulatory approved and substantiated repair, and is intended to promote consistency and reliability.
Determination of Cost Benefits from Implementing an Integrated Vehicle Health Management System
This ARP provides insights on how to perform a cost benefit analysis (CBA) to determine the return on investment that would result from implementing an integrated Health Management (HM) system on an air vehicle. The word “integrated” refers to the combination or “roll up” of sub-systems health management tools to create a platform centric system. The document describes the complexity of features that can be considered in the analysis, the different tools and approaches for conducting a CBA and differentiates between military and commercial applications. This document is intended to help those who might not necessarily have a deep technical understanding or familiarity with HM systems but want to either quantify or understand the economic benefits (i.e., the value proposition) that a HM system could provide. Prognostics is a capability within some HM systems that provides an estimation of remaining useful life (RUL) or time to failure and so Prognostic Health Management (PHM) is used where this predictive element exists.
This SAE Recommended Practice defines, for vehicle manufacturers and collision information and equipment providers, the types of vehicle dimensional data needed by the collision repair industry and aftermarket equipment modifiers to properly perform high-quality repairs to damaged vehicles. Both bodyframe and unitized vehicles, including passenger cars and light trucks, are addressed.
This document establishes standard graphical symbols and color conventions for use in either still (static) or animated graphics used for communicating service information. This document’s purpose is to communicate conventions for using those symbols and colors to accurately and consistently communicate intended information via graphics-based documentation. These practices are intended for use in service procedures, assembly instructions, training materials, and similar applications when trying to minimize the amount of human natural language text used within the document. The still and animated graphical conventions referenced should support effective communication via paper and “traditional” electronic media. The conventions can also extend to documenting via additional electronic delivery paradigms such as Augmented Reality (AR). This document is intended for organizations interested in using graphics-based documentation to record and communicate assembly, adjustment, maintenance, and other service procedures.
This specification covers two types of refined hydrocarbon compounds in the form of liquids. This product has been used typically as a vehicle for the suspension of magnetic particles used in magnetic particle inspection procedures, but usage is not limited to such applications.
This specification covers one type of fluorescent magnetic particles in the form of a mixed, ready to use suspension in an odorless, inspection oil vehicle and packaged in aerosol cans. This product has been used typically as the inspection medium in a wet, fluorescent magnetic particle inspection system as defined in AMS2640 or ASTM E 1444, but usage is not limited to such applications.
The purpose of this SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is to provide management, designers, and operators with information to assist them to decide what type of power train monitoring they desire. This document is to provide assistance in optimizing system complexity, performance and cost effectiveness. This document covers all power train elements from the point at which the gas generator energy is transferred to mechanical energy for propulsion purposes. The document covers engine power train components, their interfaces, transmissions, gearboxes, hanger bearings, shafting and associated rotating accessories, propellers and rotor systems as shown in Figure 1. This document addresses application for rotorcraft, turboprop, and propfan drive trains for both commercial and military aircraft. Information is provided to assist in; a. Defining technology maturity and application risk b. Cost benefit analysis (Value analysis) c. Selection of system components d. Selection of technology e.
Carbon Fiber Fabric and Epoxy Resin Wet Lay-Up Repair Material Part 5 - Material Specification: Carbon Fiber Fabrics, Plain Weave, 193 g/m2, and Epoxy
This Material Specification defines the requirements of carbon fiber fabric and epoxy resin systems used for wet lay-up repair of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy structures, qualified according to AMS 2980/1 and 2980/2.
Technical Specification: Carbon Fiber Fabric and Epoxy Resin Wet Lay-Up Repair Material Part 2 - Qualification Program
AMS 2980/2 gives specific information about the qualification program for carbon fiber fabric, epoxy systems and the material combination used for wet lay-up repair of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy structures.
Technical Specification: Carbon Fiber Fabric and Epoxy Resin Wet Lay-Up Repair Material Part 1 - General Requirements
AMS 2980/1 gives information about the technical requirements and qualification procedure for carbon fiber fabric and epoxy resin systems used for wet lay-up repair of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy structures.
Technical Specification: Carbon Fiber Fabric and Epoxy Resin Wet Lay-Up Repair Material Purchasing Specification - Fabric
The PS specifies the batch release and delivery requirements for carbon fiber and carbon fabric used for wet lay-up repair purposes.
Technical Specification: Carbon Fiber Fabric and Epoxy Resin Wet Lay-Up Repair Material Purchasing Specification - Resin
This PS specifies the batch release and delivery requirements for epoxy resin systems (base resin and curing agent) used for wet lay-up repair purposes. This specification relates to qualified epoxy resin systems listed in the associated QPL.
This SAE Standard covers the Mini-Shed testing methodology to measure the rate of refrigerant loss from an automotive air conditioning (A/C) system. This SAE procedure encompasses both front and rear air conditioning systems utilizing refrigerants operating under sub-critical conditions.
Technical Specification: Carbon Fiber Fabric and Epoxy Resin Wet Lay-Up Repair Material, Part 0 - Introduction
This document (Technical Specification) gives information about qualification rules and the relation between the different specification parts involved, such as Technical Specification (TS), Material Specification (MS), and Purchasing Specification (PS). The link to material qualification and qualified products is presented.
This standard is for use by organizations that procure and/or integrate electronic parts and/or assemblies containing such items. The requirements of this standard are generic and intended to be applied/flowed down through the supply chain to all organizations that procure electronic parts and/or assemblies, regardless of type, size and product provided. The mitigation of fraudulent/counterfeit EEE parts in this standard is risk-based and will vary depending on the desired performance or reliability of the equipment/hardware.
This is a general curriculum that has been developed to identify the minimum knowledge and skill requirements of a composite and/or metal bond repair technician/specialist. This revision changes the document from an all-inclusive curriculum into a modular set of curricula. Teaching levels have been assigned to the curriculum to define the knowledge, skills and abilities graduates will need to make composite repairs. Minimum hours of instruction have been provided to ensure adequate coverage of all subject matter - lecture and laboratory. These minimums may be exceeded, and may include an increase in the total number of training hours and/or increases in the teaching levels.
Performance Requirements for R-134a and R-1234yf Refrigerant Diagnostic Identifiers (RDI) for Use with Mobile Air Conditioning Systems
This SAE Standard applies to refrigerant identification equipment to be used for identifying refrigerant HFC-134a (R-134a) and HFO-1234yf (R-1234yf) refrigerant when servicing a mobile A/C system or for identifying refrigerant in a container to be used to charge a mobile A/C system. Identification of other refrigerants is the option of the equipment manufacturer, although it shall not misidentify refrigerants, per 3.2.
SAE ARP 5120 provides recommended best practices, procedures, and technology to guide the physical and functional development, integration, verification, and validation of highly reliable Engine Health Management System (EHMS) for gas turbine engines, including aircraft engines and Auxiliary Power Units (APUs). This ARP also serves as a concise reference of considerations, approaches, activities, and requirements for producing the end-to-end engine health monitoring system comprised of both on and off-board subsystems for the sensing, acquisition, analysis, detection, and data handling functions of an EHMS. These functions and related maintenance activities promote engine safety. These functions may also be used to effect continued operation or return to service decisions when demonstrated as compliant with the applicable airworthiness requirements defined by the responsible Aviation Authority. Where practical, this document delineates between military and commercial practices.
It is recognized that the structural integrity of repaired composite structures depends upon the capabilities of the individuals who are responsible for performing the repairs. This document is intended to address repairs of composite structure regardless of the type of structure such as marine, wind turbine, automotive, aircraft, or other applications. This certification standard establishes the minimum requirements for training, examining, and certifying composite structure repair personnel. It establishes criteria for the certification of personnel requiring appropriate knowledge of the technical principles underlying the composite structural repairs they perform. Persons certified under this document may be eligible for licensing or certification/ qualification by an appropriate authority, in addition to this industry accepted basic composite repair technician certification. Persons who successfully complete the requirements of this certification standard are considered to be able to perform basic composite repairs to composite structures in compliance with the manufacturers’ repair documentation or other acceptable repair methods.
This specification details requirements and procedures for the detection of defects in aircraft and engine components during maintenance and overhaul operations.
The SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is intended to be used as a process verification guide for evaluating implementation of key factors in bonded repair of fiber reinforced composite structure in a repair shop environment. The guide will be used in conjunction with a regulatory approved and substantiated repair, and is intended to promote consistency and reliability.
R-1234yf and R744 Design Criteria and Certification for OEM Mobile Air Conditioning Evaporator and Service Replacements
The intent of this standard is to establish a framework to assure that all evaporators for R-744 and R-1234yf mobile air conditioning (MAC) systems meet appropriate testing and labeling requirements. SAE J639 requires vehicle manufacturers to perform assessments to minimize reasonable risks in production MAC systems. The evaporator (as designed and manufactured) shall be part of that risk assessment and it is the responsibility of the vehicle manufacturer to assure all relevant aspects of the evaporator are included. It is the responsibility of all vehicle or evaporator manufacturers to comply with the standards of this document at a minimum. (Substitution of specific test procedures by vehicle manufactures that correlate well to field return data is acceptable.) As appropriate, this standard can be used as a guide to support risk assessments. With regard to certification, most vehicle manufacturers have established formal production part approval processes (PPAP) where compliance certification is established and formally documented.
Measurement of Passenger Compartment Refrigerant Concentrations Under System Refrigerant Leakage Conditions
This Standard is restricted to refrigeration circuits that provide air-conditioning for the passenger compartments of passenger and commercial vehicles. This Standard includes analytical and physical test procedures to evaluate concentration inside the passenger compartment. In the early phases of vehicle evaluation, usage of the analytical approach may be sufficient without performing physical tests. The physical test procedure involves releasing refrigerant from an external source to a location adjacent to the evaporator core (inside the HVAC-Module). An apparatus is used to provide a repeatable, calibrated leak rate. If the system has multiple evaporators, leakage could be simulated at any of the evaporator locations. This standard gives detail information on the techniques for measuring R-744 [CO2] and R-1234yf [HFO-1234yf], but the general techniques described here can be used for other refrigerants as well.
This Standard describes methods to understand the risks associated with vehicle mobile air conditioning [MAC] systems in all aspects of a vehicle’s lifecycle including design, production, assembly, operation and end of life. Information for input to the risk assessment is provided in the Appendices of this document. This information should not be considered to be complete, but only a reference of some of the data needed for a complete analysis of the risk associated with the use of refrigerants in MAC systems.
This specification covers a water-miscible, foam-on, pressure spraying cleaner in the form of a liquid.
Modern Automotive Technology details the construction, operation, diagnosis, service, and repair of late-model automobiles and light trucks. This comprehensive book uses a building-block approach that starts with the fundamental principles of system operation and progresses gradually to complex diagnostic and service procedures. Short sentences, concise definitions, and thousands of color illustrations help readers learn quickly and easily. The new edition of Modern Automotive Technology provides coverage of the latest developments in the automotive field and is correlated to the 2012 NATEF Task List. A new Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics section provides the background needed to troubleshoot and repair the complex electrical/electronic systems found on today’s vehicles. Updated information on hybrid drive systems has been integrated throughout the book, and a new hybrid drive system service chapter details the diagnosis and repair of these important systems.