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Viewing 1 to 30 of 7760
2017-04-11
Book
This is the electronic format of the Journal.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1685
Gopal K. Chamarthi, Andrew Sarkar, Paul Baltusis, Mark Laleman
An average luxury car contains more than 50 sensors connected, to over 28 microprocessors, through multiple communication networks. What makes these complex machines diagnosable at a dealership, is the ability of sophisticated diagnostics algorithms. Besides use of diagnostics in service, diagnosing a failure is also key for functional safety and vehicle availability. Safety functions such as loss of Brake fluid and leaky fuel system are essential. Once a failure is detected, Vehicle availability functions allow vehicle to operate, so that one could reach the dealership without being stranded. The number of failure modes in a car could far exceed tens of thousands, thereby identifying key failure modes for developing diagnostics can be a challenge.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1626
Tomas Poloni, Jianbo Lu
Abstract This paper proposes a method to make diagnostic/prognostic judgment about the health of a tire, in term of its wear, using existing on-board sensor signals. The approach focuses on using an estimate of the effective rolling radius (ERR) for individual tires as one of the main diagnostic/prognostic means and it determines if a tire has significant wear and how long it can be safely driven before tire rotation or tire replacement are required. The ERR is determined from the combination of wheel speed sensor (WSS), Global Positioning sensor (GPS), the other motion sensor signals, together with the radius kinematic model of a rolling tire. The ERR estimation fits the relevant signals to a linear model and utilizes the relationship revealed in the magic formula tire model. The ERR can then be related to multiple sources of uncertainties such as the tire inflation pressure, tire loading changes, and tire wear.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1627
Stephan Rinderknecht, Rafael Fietzek, Stéphane Foulard
Abstract An online and real-time Condition Prediction system, so-called lifetime monitoring system, was developed at the Institute for Mechatronic Systems in Mechanical Engineering (IMS) of the TU Darmstadt, which is intended for implementation in standard control units of series production cars. Without additional hardware and only based on sensors and signals already available in a standard car, the lifetime monitoring system aims at recording the load/usage profiles of transmission components in aggregated form and at estimating continuously their remaining useful life. For this purpose, the dynamic transmission input and output torques are acquired realistically through sensor fusion. In a further step, the lifetime monitoring system is used as an input-module for the introduction of innovative procedures to more load appropriate dimensioning, cost-efficient lightweight design, failure-free operation and predictive maintenance of transmissions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1192
Amardeep Sidhu, Afshin Izadian, Sohel Anwar
In this paper, multiple-model adaptive estimation techniques have been successfully applied to fault detection and identification in lithium-ion batteries. The diagnostic performance of a battery depends greatly on the modeling technique used in representing the system and the associated faults under investigation. Here, both linear and non-linear battery modeling techniques are evaluated and the effects of battery model and noise estimation on the over-charge and over-discharge fault diagnosis performance are studied. Based on the experimental data obtained under the same fault scenarios for a single cell, the non-linear model based detection method is found to perform much better in accurately detecting the faults in real time when compared to those using linear model based method.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1229
Ken Yamamoto, Nobuyasu Sadakata, Hidetoshi Okada, Yusuke Fujita
Abstract Electric oil pumps (EOP) for automobiles are used to lubricate and cool moving parts and supply oil pressure to components. Conventional EOPs consist of two separate units including a motor driver and a pump system comprised of a motor and a pump, which impedes layout flexibility for vehicles. To overcome this shortcoming, we have developed an ECU (electronic control unit)-integrated oil pump in which a driver, a motor and a pump are incorporated as a single unit. In the course of the project, we focused on improving vibration resistance and developing a compact design. The first challenge was to improve vibration resistance because of the driver located in close proximity to the powertrain. Since the driver is installed on the motor unit via electrically welded bus bars, the joints of the driver and the bus bar become susceptible to vibration.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1439
John C. Steiner, Christopher Armstrong, Tyler Kress
The use of the United States’ Global Positioning System (GPS) to assist with the management of large commercial fleets of vehicles is quickly becoming commonplace. The GPS system can be used to track fleet vehicles resulting in more efficient and safe operations by refining and streamlining routing and operations. GPS-based fleet telematics data is also valuable for reducing unnecessary engine idle times and minimizing fuel consumption. Driver performance and policy adherence can also be monitored, for example by transmitting data regarding seatbelt usage when there is vehicle movement. Despite its advantages for fleet management, there are performance limitations that affect the utility of the system for analysis and reconstruction of accidents. The U.S. Air Force, responsible for maintaining and operating the GPS space and control segments, publishes information about these limitations.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0386
Michael Wohlthan, Gerhard Pirker, Andreas Wimmer
To achieve high power output and good efficiency and to comply with increasingly stricter emission standards, modern combustion engines require a more complex engine design, which results in a greater number of control parameters. As the measurement effort and the number of sensors for engine development at the test bed continue to increase, it is becoming nearly impossible for the test bed engineer to manually check measurement data quality. As a result, automated methods for analysis and plausibility checks of measurement data are necessary in order to find faults as soon as they occur and to obtain test results of the highest possible quality. This paper presents a fully integrated methodology for automated fault diagnosis on engine test beds. The methodology allows reliable detection of measurement faults as well as the identification of the root cause of faults.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0619
Ravi Teja Vedula, Thomas Stuecken, Harold Schock, Cody Squibb, Ken Hardman
Abstract Piston temperature plays a major role in determining details of fuel spray vaporization, fuel film deposition and the resulting combustion in direct-injection engines. Due to different heat transfer properties that occur in optical and all-metal engines, it becomes an inevitable requirement to verify the piston temperatures in both engine configurations before carrying out optical engine studies. A novel Spot Infrared-based Temperature (SIR-T) technique was developed to measure the piston window temperature in an optical engine. Chromium spots of 200 nm thickness were vacuum-arc deposited at different locations on a sapphire window. An infrared (IR) camera was used to record the intensity of radiation emitted by the deposited spots. From a set of calibration experiments, a relation was established between the IR camera measurements of these spots and the surface temperature measured by a thermocouple.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0015
Wolfgang Granig, Dirk Hammerschmidt, Hubert Zangl
Abstract Functional safe products conforming to the ISO 26262 standard are getting more important for automotive applications wherein electronic takes more and more response for safety relevant operations. Consequently safety mechanisms are needed and implemented in order to reach defined functional safety targets. To prove their effectiveness diagnostic coverage provides a measurable quantity. A straight forward safety mechanism for sensor systems can be established by redundant signal paths measuring the same physical quantity and subsequently performing an independent output difference-check that decides if the data can be transmitted or an error message shall be sent. This paper focuses on the diagnostic coverage figure calculation of such data correlation-checks for linear sensors which are also shown in ISO 26262 part5:2011 ANNEX D2.10.2.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1662
Tom R. Markham, Alex Chernoguzov
Abstract The On-Board Diagnostics II (OBD-II) port began as a means of extracting diagnostic information and supporting the right to repair. Self-driving vehicles and cellular dongles plugged into the OBD-II port were not anticipated. Researchers have shown that the cellular modem on an OBD-II dongle may be hacked, allowing the attacker to tamper with the vehicle brakes. ADAS, self-driving features and other vehicle functions may be vulnerable as well. The industry must balance the interests of multiple stakeholders including Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) who are required to provide OBD function, repair shops which have a legitimate need to access the OBD functions, dongle providers and drivers. OEMs need the ability to protect drivers and manage liability by limiting how a device or software application may modify the operation of a vehicle.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1688
Hassene Jammoussi, Imad Makki
The usage of the universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensor to control the air-fuel ratio (AFR) in gasoline engines allowed to significantly improve the efficiency of the combustion process and reduce tailpipe emissions. The diagnostics of this sensor is very important to ensure proper operation and indicate the need for service when the sensor fails to accurately determine the AFR upstream of the catalyst. California air resources board (CARB) has imposed several legislations around the operation of the UEGO sensor and particularly when specific faults would cause tailpipe emissions to exceed certain limits. In this paper, the possible sensor faults are reviewed, and a non-intrusive diagnostics monitor is proposed to detect, identify and estimate the magnitude of the fault present. This paper extends the approach in [4] where technical details are emphasized and algorithm improvements are discussed.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1687
Nick Mikulec, Tim Felke, Shaunak Bangale
Abstract It is common for an automotive OEM to produce a wide variety of automotive models related to a common platform. As such, it is important to analyze how these variants perform with relation to reliability and warranty claims relative to each other. This paper illustrates techniques that have been applied to use warranty claim information to assess the relative reliability and incident rates for DTC occurrences, component removals, and co-occurrences with other DTCs for a family of Vehicle applications. These results are then used to identify common root cause failure modes and DTCs on specific vehicle applications that perform worse than fleet averages, and components with much lower reliability than components in similar applications.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1684
Hassene Jammoussi, Imad Makki, Michael Kluzner, Robert Jentz
Air Fuel Ratio (AFR) imbalance between engine cylinders remains one of the most challenging problems in powertrain systems diagnostics. California Air Resources Board(CARB) has started imposing specific requirements on automotive companies since 2011 that required the integration of on-board diagnostics (OBD) monitor for the detection and reporting of this type of powertrain malfunction. In this paper, some methodologies of AFR cylinder imbalance monitoring are investigated and a novel approach is proposed that shows reliable detection capability compared to the other methods. The proposed method requires certain conditions during deceleration fuel shutoff events to intrusively reactivate the cylinders and determine the imbalance condition. The method was evaluated on a V6 3.7L engine in an experimental Lincoln MKZ vehicle. Vehicle results are shown and discussed.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1623
Tim Felke, Steven Holland, Sachin Raviram
Abstract Suppliers and integrators are working with SAE’s HM-1 standards team to develop a mechanism to allow “Health Ready Components” to be integrated into larger systems to enable broader IVHM functionality (reference SAE JA6268). This paper will discuss how the design data provided by the supplier of a component/subsystem can be integrated into a vehicle reference model with emphasis on how each aspect of the model is transmitted to minimize ambiguity. The intent is to enhance support for the analytics, diagnostics and prognostics for the embedded component. In addition, we describe functionality being delegated to other system components and that provided by the supplier via syndicated web services. As a specific example, the paper will describe the JA6268 data submittal for a typical automotive turbocharger and other engine air system components to clarify the data modeling and integration processes.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1689
Peter Subke, Muzafar Moshref, Andreas Vach, Markus Steffelbauer
Abstract (Summary) Remote diagnostic systems support diagnostic communication by having the capability of sending diagnostic request services to a vehicle and receiving diagnostic response services from a vehicle. These diagnostic services are specified in diagnostic protocols, such as SAE J1979, SAE J1939 or ISO 14229 (UDS). For the purpose of diagnostic communication, the tester needs access to the electronic control units as communication partners. Physically, the diagnostic tester gets access to the entire vehicle´s E/E system, which consists of connectors, wiring, the in-vehicle network (e.g. CAN), the electronic control units, sensors, and actuators. Any connection of external test equipment and the E/E system of a vehicle poses a security vulnerability. The combination can be used for malicious intrusion and manipulation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1690
Dirk Hall, Tim Felke
Abstract An IVHM Reference Model contains relations between Symptoms, Failure Modes, Troubleshooting Tests and Corrective Actions. Since it also encodes the specific vehicle variants for which these items are applicable, it can be used to create vehicle variant specific fault isolation plans for a pattern of symptoms on a specific vehicle. This paper will discuss the methodology through which a diagnostic reasoner can use a fault model, vehicle reported symptoms and vehicle configuration data to produce a vehicle fault specific troubleshooting plan. This paper will also discuss how a wide variety of Diagnostic Work Plans can be automatically created for a platform and its variants and how these plans can be adapted by Service Engineering authors to further improve their content.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0237
Jonas Biteus, Tony Lindgren
Abstract Maintenance planning of trucks at Scania have previously been done using static cyclic plans with fixed sets of maintenance tasks, determined by mileage, calendar time, and some data driven physical models. Flexible maintenance have improved the maintenance program with the addition of general data driven expert rules and the ability to move sub-sets of maintenance tasks between maintenance occasions. Meanwhile, successful modelling with machine learning on big data, automatic planning using constraint programming, and route optimization are hinting on the ability to achieve even higher fleet utilization by further improvements of the flexible maintenance. The maintenance program have therefore been partitioned into its smallest parts and formulated as individual constraint rules. The overall goal is to maximize the utilization of a fleet, i.e. maximize the ability to perform transport assignments, with respect to maintenance.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0614
Hao Chen, Volker Sick
Abstract Plenoptic particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) shows great potential for three-dimensional, three-component (3D3C) flow measurement with a simple single-camera setup. It is therefore especially promising for applications in systems with limited optical access, such as internal combustion engines. The 3D visualization of a plenoptic imaging system is achieved by inserting a micro-lens array directly anterior to the camera sensor. The depth is calculated from reconstruction of the resulting multi-angle view sub-images. With the present study, we demonstrate the application of a plenoptic system for 3D3C PTV measurement of engine-like air flow in a steady-state engine flow bench. This system consists of a plenoptic camera and a dual-cavity pulsed laser. The accuracy of the plenoptic PTV system was assessed using a dot target moved by a known displacement between two PTV frames.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1471
Xiao Luo, Wenjing Du, Hao Li, Peiyu LI, Chunsheng Ma, Shucai Xu, Jinhuan Zhang
Abstract Occupant restraint systems are developed based on some baseline experiments. While these experiments can only represent small part of various accident modes, the current procedure for utilizing the restraint systems may not provide the optimum protection in the majority of accident modes. This study presents an approach to predict occupant injury responses before the collision happens, so that the occupant restraint system, equipped with a motorized pretensioner, can be adjusted to the optimal parameters aiming at the imminent vehicle-to-vehicle frontal crash. The approach in this study takes advantage of the information from pre-crash systems, such as the time to collision, the relative velocity, the frontal overlap, the size of the vehicle in the front and so on. In this paper, the vehicle containing these pre-crash features will be referred to as ego vehicle. The information acquired and the basic crash test results can be integrated to predict a simplified crash pulse.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1686
Muhammad Askar
Abstract A vehicle's electrical system is one of the top sources of problems requiring service. For years now electronic means of service documentation have been replacing static documents as a way of speeding vehicle troubleshooting. The next step on this path of evolution is to turn this e-documentation into smart maintenance systems, capable of offering technicians true data insights and highly-efficient diagnostic procedures. This paper briefly summarizes the technologies underpinning the evolution in electrical system diagnosis and repair; which include schematic layout automation using prototypes and rule-based styling, instant language translation, 2D/3D view links with schematics, interactive diagnostic procedures, and dynamically-generated signal-tracing diagrams. These technologies empower after sales service teams with state-of-the-art capabilities; which not only reduce costs but also improve the quality of the brand in the eyes of its customers.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0233
Weihong Guo, Shenghan Guo, Hui Wang, Xiao Yu, Annette Januszczak, Saumuy Suriano
Abstract The wide applications of automatic sensing devices and data acquisition systems in automotive manufacturing have resulted in a data-rich environment, which demands new data mining methodologies for effective data fusion and information integration to support decision making. This paper presents a new methodology for developing a diagnostic system using manufacturing system data for high-value assets in automotive manufacturing. The proposed method extends the basic attributes control charts with the following key elements: optimal feature subset selection considering multiple features and correlation structure, balancing the type I and type II errors in decision making, on-line process monitoring using adaptive modeling with control charts, and diagnostic performance assessment using shift and trend detection. The performance of the developed diagnostic system can be continuously improved as the knowledge of machine faults is automatically accumulated during production.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0167
Steven Lambert, William Jamo, Mike Kurtz
Abstract The failure of an A/C system often results in the introduction of contaminants to the A/C system. The sources of the contaminants include debris from damaged components and debris from the surrounding environment. Returning the A/C system to service requires the removal of these contaminants from any reused components. The recommended approach to cleaning contaminated components and systems is to flush with a solvent flushing machine. Previous internal studies have concluded that solvent flushing will remove all contaminants, restoring component and system performance. Many commercial refrigerant recovery and recharge machines include a refrigerant “flush” feature which can flush oil from the system and components with the systems refrigerant. The effectiveness of using the “flush” feature of a refrigerant recovery and recharge machine with an added in-line filter to remove contaminants is investigated.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1235
Baoming Ge, Lihua Chen, Shuitao Yang
Electrified vehicles (xEV) require high torque/acceleration ability and wide speed range. To meet both of them, the traction machines have to be oversized, which results in large volume and weight, high cost, and low efficiency. In practical applications, high speed motors combining with gear box achieve tradeoff between torque and speed capacity, because the increased motor speed can reduce the motor volume at the same power rating and the gear box is employed to increase torque. In fact, electric machine can achieve “electrical gear” rather than using “mechanical gear”, so electric machines integrate “gear” and “motor” together, as a result that “mechanical gear” can be minimized. “Electrical gear” of electric machine is performed by pole-changing. In the past, pole-changing employs mechanical contactor, the windings are de-energized prior to pole changing and the stator winding needs to be reconfigurable using contactors, which will produce discontinuous torques.
CURRENT
2017-03-21
Standard
AS22520/3D
SCOPE IS UNAVAILABLE.
2017-03-17
WIP Standard
AS20708/62B
No Scope Available
2017-03-17
WIP Standard
AS20708/66B
No Scope Available
2017-03-17
WIP Standard
AS20708/67B
No Scope Available
2017-03-17
WIP Standard
AS20708/74B
No Scope Available
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