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2017-04-11
Book
This is the electronic format of the Journal.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1688
Hassene Jammoussi, Imad Makki
The usage of the universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensor to control the the air-fuel ratio (AFR) in gasoline engines allowed to significantly improve the efficiency of the combustion process and reduce tailpipe emissions. The diagnostics of this sensor is very important to ensure proper operation and indicate the need for service when the sensor fails to accurately determine the AFR upstream of the catalyst. California air resources board (CARB) has imposed several legislations around the operation of the UEGO sensor and particularly when specific faults would cause tailpipe emissions to exceed certain limits. In this paper, the possible sensor faults are reviewed, and a non-intrusive diagnostics monitor is proposed to detect, identify and estimate the magnitude of the fault present. This paper extends the approach in [1] where technical details are emphasized and algorithm improvements are discussed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1689
Peter Subke
Remote diagnostic systems, support diagnostic communication by having the capability of sending diagnostic requests to a vehicle and receiving diagnostic responses from a vehicle. Diagnostic communication includes but is not limited to the services that are specified in SAE J1979, SAE J1939 or ISO 14229 (UDS). Diagnostic communication utilizes the standard in-vehicle network, which is usually CAN. Any unauthorized access to the in-vehicle network poses a security vulnerability. Such vulnerabilities can severely harm the functional safety, thus causing damage to the vehicle, machine or – even worse – to life and health of the driver, passengers or operators. This paper describes the architecture of a system for remote diagnostics, its security vulnerability and measures to prevent unauthorized access to the in-vehicle network.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1684
Hassene Jammoussi, Imad Makki, Michael Kluzner, Robert Jentz
Air Fuel Ratio (AFR) imbalance between engine cylinders remains one of the most challenging problems in powertrain systems diagnostics. California Air Resources Board(CARB) has started imposing specific requirements on automotive companies since 2011 that required the integration of on-board diagnostics (OBD) monitor for the detection and reporting of this type of powertrain malfunction. In this paper, some methodologies of AFR cylinder imbalance monitoring are investigated and a novel approach is proposed that shows reliable detection capability compared to the other methods. The proposed method requires certain conditions during deceleration fuel shutoff events to intrusively reactivate the cylinders and determine the imbalance condition. The method was evaluated on a V6 3.7L engine in an experimental Lincoln MKZ vehicle. Vehicle results are shown and discussed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1687
Nick Mikulec, Tim Felke, Shaunak Bangale
For an automotive OEM, it is usual to produce a wide variety of automotive models related to a common platform. As such, it is important to analyze how these variants perform with relation to reliability and warranty claims relative to each other. This paper will illustrate techniques that have been applied to use warranty claim information to assess the relative reliability and incident rates for DTC occurrences, component removals and co-occurrence with other DTCs for a family of Vehicle applications. These results are then used to identify common root cause failure modes, DTCs on specific vehicle applications that are performing much worse than fleet averages and components with much lower reliability than components in similar applications.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1690
Dirk Hall, Tim Felke
An IVHM Fault Model contains relations between Symptoms, Failure Modes, and Corrective Actions. Since it also encode the specific vehicle variants for which these items are applicable, it can be used to create vehicle variant specific fault isolation plans for a pattern of symptoms on a specific vehicle. This paper will discuss the methodology through which a diagnostic reasoner can use a fault model, vehicle reported symptoms and vehicle configuration data to produce a vehicle fault specific troubleshooting plan. This paper will also discuss how a wide variety of diagnostic troubleshooting plans can be automatically created for a platform and its variants and how these plans can be adapted by Service Engineering authors to further improve their content.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1686
Muhammad Askar
A vehicle's electrical system is one of the top sources of problems requiring service. Electronic means of service documentation have been replacing static documents as a way of speeding vehicle troubleshooting. The next step on this path of evolution is to turn those into smart maintenance systems, capable of offering technicians true data insights, and highly-efficient diagnostic procedures. This paper briefly summarizes the technologies underpinning the evolution in electrical system diagnosis and repair; which include schematic layout automation using prototypes and rule-based styling, instant language translation, 2D/3D view links with schematics, interactive diagnostic procedures, and dynamically-generated signal-tracing diagrams. These technologies empower after sales service teams with state-of-the-art capabilities; which not only reduce costs but also improve the quality of the brand in the eyes of its customers.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0167
Steven Lambert, William Jamo, Mike Kurtz
Purpose: Determine the effectiveness of flushing a contaminated automotive A/C system with a refrigerant recovery and recharge machine, using refrigerant as a flushing agent. The current flushing method uses solvent flushing. Methodology: Introduce contamination into the vehicle A/C system to induce a compressor failure. Run the vehicle A/C system at various speeds and engine RPM’s until the compressor fails. Certified Arizona Dust is the contaminant chosen for this study. Flush contaminated components using various manufactures A/C recovery and recharge machines using refrigerant as a flush agent. Flush components at different time intervals of 15, 30, 40 and 60 minutes for each machine being tested. Machines that were used for this test had continuous loop flushing capability. The current solvent flush time is 15 minutes flushing and 30 minutes purge for a total time of 45 minutes. Flushed components are evaluated to determine the amount of contamination removal.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0614
Hao Chen, Volker Sick
Plenoptic particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) shows great potential for three-dimensional, three-component (3D3C) flow measurement with a simple single-camera, single-shot setup. It is therefore especially promising for applications in systems with limited optical access, such as internal combustion engines. The 3D visualization of a plenoptic imaging system is achieved by inserting a micro-lens array directly anterior to the photo-sensor. The depth is calculated from reconstruction of the resulting multi-angle view sub-images from different micro-lenses. In the present study, we demonstrate the application of a plenoptic system for 3D3C PTV measurement of engine-like air flow on a steady-state engine flow bench. This system consists of a plenoptic camera (Raytrix R29) setup with depth-of-field about 25 mm and depth resolution of 90-350 µm depending of the distance to the camera, and a dual-cavity PIV laser (Litron Nano T 120-15).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0015
Wolfgang Granig, Dirk Hammerschmidt, Hubert Zangl
Authors: DI(FH) Wolfgang Granig, Infineon Technologies Austria AG Dr. Dirk Hammerschmidt, Infineon Technologies Austria AG Dr. Hubert Zangl, Alpe-Adria University Klagenfurt Abstract: Functional safe products conforming the ISO26262 standard are getting more important for automotive applications wherein electronic takes more and more response for safety relevant operations. Consequently safety mechanisms are needed and implemented in order to reach defined functional safety targets. To prove their effectiveness diagnostic coverage provides a measurable quantity. A straight forward safety mechanism for sensor systems can be established by redundant signal paths measuring the same physical quantity and subsequently performing an independent output difference-check that decides if the data can be transmitted or an error message shall be sent.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1235
Baoming Ge, Lihua Chen, Shuitao Yang
Electrified vehicles (xEV) require high torque/acceleration ability and wide speed range. To meet both of them, the traction machines have to be oversized, which results in large volume and weight, high cost, and low efficiency. In practical applications, high speed motors combining with gear box achieve tradeoff between torque and speed capacity, because the increased motor speed can reduce the motor volume at the same power rating and the gear box is employed to increase torque. In fact, electric machine can achieve “electrical gear” rather than using “mechanical gear”, so electric machines integrate “gear” and “motor” together, as a result that “mechanical gear” can be minimized. “Electrical gear” of electric machine is performed by pole-changing. In the past, pole-changing employs mechanical contactor, the windings are de-energized prior to pole changing and the stator winding needs to be reconfigurable using contactors, which will produce discontinuous torques.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1685
Gopal K. Chamarthi, Andrew Sarkar, Paul Baltusis, Mark Laleman
An average luxury car contains more than 50 sensors connected, to over 28 microprocessors, through multiple communication networks. What makes these complex machines diagnosable at a dealership, is the ability of sophisticated diagnostics algorithms. Besides use of diagnostics in service, diagnosing a failure is also key for functional safety and vehicle availability. Safety functions such as loss of Brake fluid and leaky fuel system are essential. Once a failure is detected, Vehicle availability functions allow vehicle to operate, so that one could reach the dealership without being stranded. The number of failure modes in a car could far exceed tens of thousands, thereby identifying key failure modes for developing diagnostics can be a challenge.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1192
Amardeep Sidhu, Afshin Izadian PhD, Sohel Anwar
Condition monitoring of lithium ion batteries plays a critical role in the battery management system of a hybrid electric or full electric vehicle. Battery fault conditions such as overcharge and over discharge causes significant variations of parameters from nominal values and can be considered as separate models. In this paper, multiple- model adaptive estimation techniques have been successfully applied to fault detection and identification in lithium-ion batteries. The diagnostic performance of a battery depends greatly on the modeling technique used in representing the system and the associated faults under investigation. Here, both linear and non-linear battery modeling techniques are evaluated and the effects of battery model and noise estimation on the over-charge and over-discharge fault diagnosis performance are studied.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0619
Ravi Teja Vedula, Thomas Stuecken, Harold Schock, Cody Squibb, Ken Hardman
Piston temperature plays a major role in determining details of fuel spray vaporization, fuel film deposition and the resulting combustion in direct-injection engines. Due to different heat transfer properties that occur in optical and all-metal engines, it becomes an inevitable requirement to verify the piston temperatures in both engine configurations before carrying out optical engine studies. A novel Spot Infrared Temperature Estimations (SITE) technique was developed to estimate the piston window temperature in an optical engine. Chromium spots of 200 nm thickness were vacuum-arc deposited at different locations on a sapphire window. An infrared (IR) camera was used to record the intensity of radiation emitted by deposited spots. From a set of calibration experiments, a relation was established between the IR camera measurements of these spots and the surface temperature measured by a thermocouple.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1229
Ken Yamamoto, Nobuyasu Sadakata, Hidetoshi Okada, Yusuke Fujita
Electric oil pumps (EOP) for automobiles are used to lubricate and cool moving mechanisms and supply oil pressure to components. Conventional EOPs consist of two separate units including a driver and a pump system comprised of a motor and a pump, which, as a result, impedes layout flexibility for vehicles. To overcome this shortcoming, we have developed an ECU-integrated oil pump in which a driver, a motor and a pump are incorporated as a single unit. In the course of the project, we focused on improving vibration resistance and developing a compact design. The first challenge was to improve vibration resistance because of the driver located in close proximity of the powertrain. Since the driver is installed on the motor unit via bus bars that are electrically welded, the joints of the driver and the bus bar become susceptible to vibration.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0386
Michael Wohlthan, Gerhard Pirker, Andreas Wimmer
To achieve high power output and good efficiency and to comply with increasingly stricter emission standards, modern combustion engines require a more complex engine design, which results in a greater number of control parameters. As the measurement effort and the number of sensors for engine development at the test bed continue to increase, it is becoming nearly impossible for the test bed engineer to manually check measurement data quality. As a result, automated methods for analysis and plausibility checks of measurement data are necessary in order to find faults as soon as they occur and to obtain test results of the highest possible quality. This paper presents a fully integrated methodology for automated fault diagnosis on engine test beds. The methodology allows reliable detection of measurement faults as well as the identification of the root cause of faults.
2017-01-18
WIP Standard
J2762
This Standard provides an overview of results and requirements needed to remove refrigerant from a mobile air conditioning system for determining refrigerant emissions (leakage). This reclaim procedure for use on fleet vehicles in a field service environment should produce an accuracy and repeatability sufficient to determine refrigerant loss within 2 g.
2017-01-18
WIP Standard
AMS1424N
This foundation specification (AMS1424M) and its associated detail specifications (AMS1424/1 and AMS1424/2) cover a deicing/anti-icing material in the form of a fluid.
CURRENT
2017-01-12
Standard
AS6305
The standard sets forth the dimensions and gaging system for the Spiral Drive (MORTORQ) System and is supplemental to fastener standards developed that incorporate this drive feature.
CURRENT
2017-01-10
Standard
AS4775B
This document covers the general requirements for hydraulic aircraft jacks. It can be applied to tripod, unipod, and axle jacks that may be used on open ramp areas as well as in the aircraft hangar. Throughout this Aerospace Standard, the minimum essential criteria are identified by the key word “shall”. Recommended criteria are identified by use of the key word “should”. Deviation from recommended criteria should only occur after careful consideration and thorough service evaluation have shown alternate methods to provide an equivalent level of safety. The term “vertical load” throughout this Aerospace Standard is defined as the force imposed on the aircraft jack at the airframe jack point.
2017-01-06
WIP Standard
AS6285A
This document establishes the minimum requirements for ground based aircraft deicing/anti-icing methods and procedures to ensure the safe operation of aircraft during icing conditions on the ground. This document does not specify the requirements for particular aircraft models. NOTE: Refer to particular aircraft operator or aircraft manufacturers’ published manuals and procedures. The application of the procedures specified in this document are intended to effectively remove and/or prevent the accumulation of frost, snow, slush or ice contamination which can seriously affect the aerodynamic performance and/or the controllability of an aircraft. The principal method of treatment employed is the use of fluids qualified to AMS1424 and AMS1428 (Type I, II, III, and IV fluids). All guidelines referred to herein are applicable only in conjunction with the applicable documents.
CURRENT
2017-01-04
Standard
AS4786B
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers variable speed, reversible battery powered drills with removable, rechargeable battery pack and either 3/8 inch or ½ inch chuck used for general maintenance and construction where a battery powered tool is required. This document also satisfies EMI requirements for driver drills, where EMI suppression is required by the purchaser. This document may involve hazardous materials, operations, or equipment and does not purport to address all of the safety considerations associated. It is the responsibility of the user of a piece of equipment to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to its use. Users are cautioned to read all manufacturer’s instructions prior to use.
CURRENT
2017-01-04
Standard
AIR1839D
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is a general overview of typical airborne engine vibration monitoring (EVM) systems applicable to fixed or rotary wing aircraft applications, with an emphasis on system design considerations. It describes EVM systems currently in use and future trends in EVM development. The broader scope of Health and Usage Monitoring Systems, (HUMS ) is covered in SAE documents AS5391, AS5392, AS5393, AS5394, AS5395, AIR4174.
2017-01-03
WIP Standard
AS6294/2
This standard documents and establishes common industry practices, and screening and qualification testing, of Plastic Encapsulated Microcircuits (PEMs) for use in military and avionics application environments.
CURRENT
2017-01-03
Standard
ARP6852B
This document describes methods that are known to have been used by aircraft manufacturers to evaluate aircraft aerodynamic performance and handling effects following application of aircraft ground deicing/anti-icing fluids (“fluids”), as well as methods under development. Guidance and insight based upon those experiences are provided, including: - Similarity Analyses - Icing Wind Tunnel Tests - Flight Tests - Computational Fluid Dynamics and other Numerical Analyses This document also describes: - The history of evaluation of the aerodynamic effects of fluids - The effects of fluids on aircraft aerodynamics - The testing for aerodynamic acceptability of fluids for SAE and regulatory qualification performed in accordance with AS5900 - Additionally, Appendices A to E present individual aircraft manufacturers’ histories and methodologies which substantially contributed to the improvement of knowledge and processes for the evaluation of fluid aerodynamic effects.
2016-12-29
WIP Standard
ARP5718B
This document describes: a. the preparatory steps to test experimental Type II, III, and IV fluids according to AMS1428; b. the recommendations for the preparation of samples for endurance time testing according to ARP5485; c. a short description of the recommended field spray test; d. the protocol to generate draft holdover time guidelines from endurance time data obtained from ARP5485; e. the protocol for inclusion of Type II, III, and IV fluids on the FAA and Transport Canada lists of fluids and the protocol for updating the lists of fluids; f. the role of the SAE G-12 Aircraft Deicing Fluids Committee; g. the role of the SAE G-12 Holdover Time Committee; h. the process for the publication of Type II, III, and IV holdover time guidelines. This document does not describe laboratory testing procedures. This document does not include the qualification process for AMS1424 Type I fluids.
2016-12-24
WIP Standard
TAHB0009A
This handbook provides "how to" guidance to industry and government for the reliability Activities and Methods contained in ANSI/GEIA-STD-0009 for developing reliable products and systems, successfully demonstrating them during test and evaluation, and sustaining them throughout the system/product life cycle. ANSI/GEIA-STD-0009 requires the developers and customer/users working as a team to plan and implement a reliability program that provides systems/products that satisfy the user's requirements and expectations using a systems engineering approach. The four Objectives of ANSI/GEIA-STD-0009 are listed below: Objective 1: Understand Customer/User Requirements and constraints. The team (developer, customer, and user), includes the Activities necessary to ensure that the user's requirements and product needs are fully understood and defined, so that a comprehensive design specification and Reliability Program Plan are generated. Objective 2: Design and redesign for reliability.
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