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2017-04-11
Book
This is the electronic format of the Journal.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0167
Steven Lambert, William Jamo, Mike Kurtz
Purpose: Determine the effectiveness of flushing a contaminated automotive A/C system with a refrigerant recovery and recharge machine, using refrigerant as a flushing agent. The current flushing method uses solvent flushing. Methodology: Introduce contamination into the vehicle A/C system to induce a compressor failure. Run the vehicle A/C system at various speeds and engine RPM’s until the compressor fails. Certified Arizona Dust is the contaminant chosen for this study. Flush contaminated components using various manufactures A/C recovery and recharge machines using refrigerant as a flush agent. Flush components at different time intervals of 15, 30, 40 and 60 minutes for each machine being tested. Machines that were used for this test had continuous loop flushing capability. The current solvent flush time is 15 minutes flushing and 30 minutes purge for a total time of 45 minutes. Flushed components are evaluated to determine the amount of contamination removal.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1685
Gopal K. Chamarthi, Andrew Sarkar, Paul Baltusis, Mark Laleman
An average luxury car contains more than 50 sensors connected, to over 28 microprocessors, through multiple communication networks. What makes these complex machines diagnosable at a dealership, is the ability of sophisticated diagnostics algorithms. Besides use of diagnostics in service, diagnosing a failure is also key for functional safety and vehicle availability. Safety functions such as loss of Brake fluid and leaky fuel system are essential. Once a failure is detected, Vehicle availability functions allow vehicle to operate, so that one could reach the dealership without being stranded. The number of failure modes in a car could far exceed tens of thousands, thereby identifying key failure modes for developing diagnostics can be a challenge.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1686
Muhammad Askar
A vehicle's electrical system is one of the top sources of problems requiring service. Electronic means of service documentation have been replacing static documents as a way of speeding vehicle troubleshooting. The next step on this path of evolution is to turn those into smart maintenance systems, capable of offering technicians true data insights, and highly-efficient diagnostic procedures. This paper briefly summarizes the technologies underpinning the evolution in electrical system diagnosis and repair; which include schematic layout automation using prototypes and rule-based styling, instant language translation, 2D/3D view links with schematics, interactive diagnostic procedures, and dynamically-generated signal-tracing diagrams. These technologies empower after sales service teams with state-of-the-art capabilities; which not only reduce costs but also improve the quality of the brand in the eyes of its customers.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1229
Ken Yamamoto, Nobuyasu Sadakata, Hidetoshi Okada, Yusuke Fujita
Electric oil pumps (EOP) for automobiles are used to lubricate and cool moving mechanisms and supply oil pressure to components. Conventional EOPs consist of two separate units including a driver and a pump system comprised of a motor and a pump, which, as a result, impedes layout flexibility for vehicles. To overcome this shortcoming, we have developed an ECU-integrated oil pump in which a driver, a motor and a pump are incorporated as a single unit. In the course of the project, we focused on improving vibration resistance and developing a compact design. The first challenge was to improve vibration resistance because of the driver located in close proximity of the powertrain. Since the driver is installed on the motor unit via bus bars that are electrically welded, the joints of the driver and the bus bar become susceptible to vibration.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1690
Dirk Hall, Tim Felke
An IVHM Fault Model contains relations between Symptoms, Failure Modes, and Corrective Actions. Since it also encode the specific vehicle variants for which these items are applicable, it can be used to create vehicle variant specific fault isolation plans for a pattern of symptoms on a specific vehicle. This paper will discuss the methodology through which a diagnostic reasoner can use a fault model, vehicle reported symptoms and vehicle configuration data to produce a vehicle fault specific troubleshooting plan. This paper will also discuss how a wide variety of diagnostic troubleshooting plans can be automatically created for a platform and its variants and how these plans can be adapted by Service Engineering authors to further improve their content.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1439
John C. Steiner, Christopher Armstrong, Tyler Kress
The use of the United States’ Global Positioning System (GPS) to assist with the management of large commercial fleets of vehicles is quickly becoming commonplace. The GPS system can be used to track fleet vehicles resulting in more efficient and safe operations by refining and streamlining routing and operations. GPS-based fleet telematics data is also valuable for reducing unnecessary engine idle times and minimizing fuel consumption. Driver performance and policy adherence can also be monitored, for example by transmitting data regarding seatbelt usage when there is vehicle movement. Despite its advantages for fleet management, there are performance limitations that affect the utility of the system for analysis and reconstruction of accidents. The U.S. Air Force, responsible for maintaining and operating the GPS space and control segments, publishes information about these limitations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1192
Amardeep Sidhu, Afshin Izadian, Sohel Anwar
Condition monitoring of lithium ion batteries plays a critical role in the battery management system of a hybrid electric or full electric vehicle. Battery fault conditions such as overcharge and over discharge causes significant variations of parameters from nominal values and can be considered as separate models. In this paper, multiple- model adaptive estimation techniques have been successfully applied to fault detection and identification in lithium-ion batteries. The diagnostic performance of a battery depends greatly on the modeling technique used in representing the system and the associated faults under investigation. Here, both linear and non-linear battery modeling techniques are evaluated and the effects of battery model and noise estimation on the over-charge and over-discharge fault diagnosis performance are studied.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0233
Weihong Guo, Shenghan Guo, Hui Wang, Xiao Yu, Annette Januszczak, Saumuy Suriano
The wide applications of automatic sensing devices and data acquisition systems in automotive manufacturing have resulted in a data-rich environment, which demands new data mining methodologies for effective data fusion and information integration to support decision-making. This paper presents a new methodology for developing a diagnostic system using manufacturing system data for high-value assets in automotive manufacturing. The key issues studied in this paper include optimal feature extraction using descriptive analysis, optimal feature subset selection using statistical hypothesis testing, machine fault prediction using multivariate process control chart, and diagnostic performance assessment using process trend detection. The performance of the developed diagnostic system can be continuously improved as the knowledge of machine faults is automatically accumulated during production.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1624
Tim Felke, Steven Holland, Sachin Raviram
Suppliers and integrators are working with SAE’s HM-1 standards team to develop mechanisms to enable “Health Ready Components” to be more effectively and efficiently integrated into larger systems to better deliver IVHM functionality (see SAE JA6268). This paper will discuss how the operational functionality provided by the supplier of a component/subsystem can be integrated into a vehicle level IVHM system. The intent is to better communicate how supplier provided functionality can be integrated into the vehicle IVHM infrastructure whether it be embedded into the platform or hosted in the off-platform infrastructure or through syndicated web services. As a specific example, the paper will describe the JA6268 run-time functionality provided by the supplier of the Turbocharger and other Engine Air System components are integrated with Vehicle Level Services in order to clarify the integration processes.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1627
Stephan Rinderknecht, Rafael Fietzek, Stéphane Foulard
An online and real-time Condition Prediction system, so-called lifetime monitoring system, was developed at the Institute for Mechatronic Systems in Mechanical Engineering (IMS) of the TU Darmstadt, which is intended for implementation in standard control units of series production cars. Without additional hardware and only based on sensors and signals already available in a standard car, the lifetime monitoring system aims at recording the load/usage profiles of transmission components in aggregated form and at estimating continuously their remaining useful life. For this purpose, the dynamic transmission input and output torques are acquired realistically through sensor fusion. In a further step, the lifetime monitoring system is used as an input-module for the introduction of innovative procedures to more load appropriate dimensioning, cost-efficient lightweight design, failure-free operation and predictive maintenance of transmissions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1626
Tomas Poloni, Jianbo Lu
This paper proposes a method to make diagnostic/prognostic judgement about the health of a tire, in term of its wear, using existing sensor signals. The approach focuses on using an estimate of the effective rolling radius (ERR) of individual tires as one of the main diagnostic/prognostic features and it determines if a tire has significant wear and how long it needs to be changed or rotated. The ERR is determined from the combination of wheel speed sensor (WSS), Global Positioning sensor (GPS), the other motion sensor signals, together with the radius kinematic model of a rolling tire. The ERR estimation fits the relevant signals to a linear model and utilizes the relationship revealed in the magic formula tire model. The ERR can then be related to multiple sources of uncertainty such as the tire inflation pressure, tire loading changes, and tire wear. The estimated ERR are further processed to compute the unloaded tire radius (UTR).
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0237
Jonas Biteus, Tony Lindgren
Maintenance planning of trucks at Scania have previously been done using static cyclic plans with fixed sets of maintenance tasks, determined by mileage, calendar time, and some data driven physical models. Flexible maintenance have improved the maintenance program with the addition of general data driven expert rules and the ability to move sub-sets of maintenance tasks between maintenance occasions. Meanwhile, successful modelling with machine learning on big data, automatic planning using constraint programming, and route optimization are hinting on the ability to achieve even higher fleet utilization by further improvements of the flexible maintenance. The maintenance program have therefore been partitioned into its smallest parts and formulated as individual constraint rules. The overall goal is to maximize the utilization of a fleet, i.e. maximize the ability to perform transport assignments, with respect to maintenance.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1623
Tim Felke, Steven Holland, Sachin Raviram
Suppliers and integrators are working with SAE’s HM-1 standards team to develop a mechanism to allow “Health Ready Components” to be integrated into larger systems to enable broader IVHM functionality (reference SAE JA6268). This paper will discuss how the design data provided by the supplier of a component/subsystem can be integrated into a vehicle reference model with emphasis on how each aspect of the model is transmitted to minimize ambiguity. The intent is to enhance support for the analytics, diagnostics and prognostics for the embedded component. In addition, we describe functionality being delegated to other system components and that provided by the supplier via syndicated web services. As a specific example, the paper will describe the JA6268 data submittal for a typical automotive turbocharger and other engine air system components to clarify the data modelling and integration processes.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1662
Tom R. Markham, Alex Chernoguzov
Problem: The OBD-II port began as a means of extracting diagnostic information from vehicles and supporting the right to repair. However, we did not anticipated self-driving vehicles or insurance dongles plugged into the OBD-II port. ADAS, self-driving features and overall vehicle network complexity opens the door for cyber security breaches which can impact vehicle safety. Researchers have already demonstrated how the cellular modem on an OBD-II insurance dongle may be hacked to tamper with the vehicle brakes. Challenge: The industry must balance the interests of multiple stakeholders. • OEMs – are required to provide an OBD-II port. However, the OEM is also responsible for the cyber security and in turn safety of the vehicle. • Repair shops and vehicle owners - have a right to repair which includes access to many vehicle functions via the OBD-II. • Dongle providers - want to offer vehicle-related services via the OBD port.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1688
Hassene Jammoussi, Imad Makki
The usage of the universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensor to control the the air-fuel ratio (AFR) in gasoline engines allowed to significantly improve the efficiency of the combustion process and reduce tailpipe emissions. The diagnostics of this sensor is very important to ensure proper operation and indicate the need for service when the sensor fails to accurately determine the AFR upstream of the catalyst. California air resources board (CARB) has imposed several legislations around the operation of the UEGO sensor and particularly when specific faults would cause tailpipe emissions to exceed certain limits. In this paper, the possible sensor faults are reviewed, and a non-intrusive diagnostics monitor is proposed to detect, identify and estimate the magnitude of the fault present. This paper extends the approach in [1] where technical details are emphasized and algorithm improvements are discussed.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1687
Nick Mikulec, Tim Felke, Shaunak Bangale
For an automotive OEM, it is usual to produce a wide variety of automotive models related to a common platform. As such, it is important to analyze how these variants perform with relation to reliability and warranty claims relative to each other. This paper will illustrate techniques that have been applied to use warranty claim information to assess the relative reliability and incident rates for DTC occurrences, component removals and co-occurrence with other DTCs for a family of Vehicle applications. These results are then used to identify common root cause failure modes, DTCs on specific vehicle applications that are performing much worse than fleet averages and components with much lower reliability than components in similar applications.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1684
Hassene Jammoussi, Imad Makki, Michael Kluzner, Robert Jentz
Air Fuel Ratio (AFR) imbalance between engine cylinders remains one of the most challenging problems in powertrain systems diagnostics. California Air Resources Board(CARB) has started imposing specific requirements on automotive companies since 2011 that required the integration of on-board diagnostics (OBD) monitor for the detection and reporting of this type of powertrain malfunction. In this paper, some methodologies of AFR cylinder imbalance monitoring are investigated and a novel approach is proposed that shows reliable detection capability compared to the other methods. The proposed method requires certain conditions during deceleration fuel shutoff events to intrusively reactivate the cylinders and determine the imbalance condition. The method was evaluated on a V6 3.7L engine in an experimental Lincoln MKZ vehicle. Vehicle results are shown and discussed.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1689
Peter Subke, Muzafar Moshref, Andreas Vach, Markus Steffelbauer
Remote diagnostic systems, support diagnostic communication by having the capability of sending diagnostic requests to a vehicle and receiving diagnostic responses from a vehicle. Diagnostic communication includes but is not limited to the services that are specified in SAE J1979, SAE J1939 or ISO 14229 (UDS). Diagnostic communication utilizes the standard in-vehicle network, which is usually CAN. Any unauthorized access to the in-vehicle network poses a security vulnerability. Such vulnerabilities can severely harm the functional safety, thus causing damage to the vehicle, machine or – even worse – to life and health of the driver, passengers or operators. This paper describes the architecture of a system for remote diagnostics, its security vulnerability and measures to prevent unauthorized access to the in-vehicle network.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0619
Ravi Teja Vedula, Thomas Stuecken, Harold Schock, Cody Squibb, Ken Hardman
Piston temperature plays a major role in determining details of fuel spray vaporization, fuel film deposition and the resulting combustion in direct-injection engines. Due to different heat transfer properties that occur in optical and all-metal engines, it becomes an inevitable requirement to verify the piston temperatures in both engine configurations before carrying out optical engine studies. A novel Spot Infrared Temperature Estimations (SITE) technique was developed to estimate the piston window temperature in an optical engine. Chromium spots of 200 nm thickness were vacuum-arc deposited at different locations on a sapphire window. An infrared (IR) camera was used to record the intensity of radiation emitted by deposited spots. From a set of calibration experiments, a relation was established between the IR camera measurements of these spots and the surface temperature measured by a thermocouple.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0386
Michael Wohlthan, Gerhard Pirker, Andreas Wimmer
To achieve high power output and good efficiency and to comply with increasingly stricter emission standards, modern combustion engines require a more complex engine design, which results in a greater number of control parameters. As the measurement effort and the number of sensors for engine development at the test bed continue to increase, it is becoming nearly impossible for the test bed engineer to manually check measurement data quality. As a result, automated methods for analysis and plausibility checks of measurement data are necessary in order to find faults as soon as they occur and to obtain test results of the highest possible quality. This paper presents a fully integrated methodology for automated fault diagnosis on engine test beds. The methodology allows reliable detection of measurement faults as well as the identification of the root cause of faults.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1235
Baoming Ge, Lihua Chen, Shuitao Yang
Electrified vehicles (xEV) require high torque/acceleration ability and wide speed range. To meet both of them, the traction machines have to be oversized, which results in large volume and weight, high cost, and low efficiency. In practical applications, high speed motors combining with gear box achieve tradeoff between torque and speed capacity, because the increased motor speed can reduce the motor volume at the same power rating and the gear box is employed to increase torque. In fact, electric machine can achieve “electrical gear” rather than using “mechanical gear”, so electric machines integrate “gear” and “motor” together, as a result that “mechanical gear” can be minimized. “Electrical gear” of electric machine is performed by pole-changing. In the past, pole-changing employs mechanical contactor, the windings are de-energized prior to pole changing and the stator winding needs to be reconfigurable using contactors, which will produce discontinuous torques.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0614
Hao Chen, Volker Sick
Abstract Plenoptic particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) shows great potential for three-dimensional, three-component (3D3C) flow measurement with a simple single-camera setup. It is therefore especially promising for applications in systems with limited optical access, such as internal combustion engines. The 3D visualization of a plenoptic imaging system is achieved by inserting a micro-lens array directly anterior to the camera sensor. The depth is calculated from reconstruction of the resulting multi-angle view sub-images. With the present study, we demonstrate the application of a plenoptic system for 3D3C PTV measurement of engine-like air flow in a steady-state engine flow bench. This system consists of a plenoptic camera and a dual-cavity pulsed laser. The accuracy of the plenoptic PTV system was assessed using a dot target moved by a known displacement between two PTV frames.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0015
Wolfgang Granig, Dirk Hammerschmidt, Hubert Zangl
Abstract Functional safe products conforming to the ISO 26262 standard are getting more important for automotive applications wherein electronic takes more and more response for safety relevant operations. Consequently safety mechanisms are needed and implemented in order to reach defined functional safety targets. To prove their effectiveness diagnostic coverage provides a measurable quantity. A straight forward safety mechanism for sensor systems can be established by redundant signal paths measuring the same physical quantity and subsequently performing an independent output difference-check that decides if the data can be transmitted or an error message shall be sent. This paper focuses on the diagnostic coverage figure calculation of such data correlation-checks for linear sensors which are also shown in ISO 26262 part5:2011 ANNEX D2.10.2.
CURRENT
2017-02-21
Standard
J2773_201702
This Standard describes methods to understand the risks associated with vehicle mobile air conditioning [MAC] systems in all aspects of a vehicle’s lifecycle including design, production, assembly, operation and end of life. Information for input to the risk assessment is provided in the Appendices of this document. This information should not be considered to be complete, but only a reference of some of the data needed for a complete analysis of the risk associated with the use of refrigerants in MAC systems.
CURRENT
2017-02-21
Standard
AIR6170A
This test method provides stakeholders (runway deicing chemical manufacturers, users, regulators, and airport authorities) with relative ice melting capacity of runway deicing chemicals, by measuring the amount of ice melted as a function of time. Such runway deicing chemicals are often also used on taxiways and other paved areas. This test method does not quantitatively measure the theoretical or extended time ice melting capability of ready-to-use runway deicing/anti-icing chemicals in liquid or solid form.
2017-02-16
WIP Standard
ARP4737J
This document establishes the minimum requirements for ground based aircraft deicing/anti-icing Methods and procedures to ensure the safe operation of aircraft during icing conditions. This document does not specify requirements for particular airplane models. NOTE: Particular airline or aircraft manufacturers' published manuals, procedures, or methods supplement the information contained in this document.
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