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Viewing 61 to 90 of 4783
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0376
Yunkai Gao, Zhaoxuan Feng, Jianguang Fang, Shihui Wang
Abstract The performance of the rear axle plays an important role in the performance of vehicle, and its fatigue durability is an integral part in the vehicle development. Taking a SUV model as the research subject, a new methodology of multi-channel spindle coupled road simulator and fatigue simulation analysis for rear axle assembly was introduced in the paper, aiming to address the fatigue design and its verification for the rear axle in the development phase. Firstly, road loads in the proving ground was collected by arranging proper sensors. Secondly, physical iteration was performed on the multichannel spindle coupled road simulator by taking six component forces at the wheel hub as the target signals. Then, after the time waveform replication of the loads the durability test was conducted. Finally, the validated simulation model was successfully implemented to improve the fatigue life of the axle.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0320
Tejas Janardan Sarang, Mandar Tendolkar, Sivakumar Balakrishnan, Gurudatta Purandare
Abstract In the automotive industry, multiple prototypes are used for vehicle development purposes. These prototypes are typically put through rigorous testing, both under accelerated and real world conditions, to ensure that all the problems related to design, manufacturing, process etc. are identified and solved before it reaches the hands of the customer. One of the challenges faced in testing, is the low repeatability of the real world tests. This may be predominantly due to changes in the test conditions over a period of time like road, traffic, climate etc. Estimating the repeatability of a real world test has been difficult due to the complex and multiple parameters that are usually involved in a vehicle level test and the time correlation between different runs of a real world test does not exist. In such a scenario, the popular and the well-known univariate correlation methods do not yield the best results.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0076
Mostafa Anwar Taie, Eman Magdy Moawad, Mohammed Diab, Mohamed ElHelw
Abstract New challenges and complexities are continuously increasing in advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) development (e.g. active safety, driver assistant and autonomous vehicle systems). Therefore, the health management of ADAS’ components needs special improvements. Since software contribution in ADAS’ development is increasing significantly, remote diagnosis and maintenance for ADAS become more important. Furthermore, it is highly recommended to predict the remaining useful life (RUL) for the prognosis of ADAS’ safety critical components; e.g. (Ultrasonic, Cameras, Radar, LIDAR). This paper presents a remote diagnosis, maintenance and prognosis (RDMP) framework for ADAS, which can be used during development phase and mainly after production. An overview of RDMP framework’s elements is explained to demonstrate how/when this framework is connected to database servers and remote analysis servers.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0072
Jihas Khan
Abstract Unified Diagnostic Service and On Board Diagnostics require a client side device with necessary software to implement certain specific algorithms. This paper proposes a highly optimized and generic model based architecture to implement client side algorithms used in Unified Diagnostic Service systems and with On Board Diagnostics which can be reused for any hardware target. The proposed method can implement particular algorithms which include flow control, timing control, database parsing, logging of messages, diagnostic database parsing, security unlock, intuitive HMI layer, DTC display with textual information, frame control, multi network - multi ECU support, software flashing, physical-functional message handling, and interfacing for multiple hardware host devices. Re-usability of this model based product ensures that it can be ported to the diagnostic tool used by a work shop engineer or by a diagnostics validation engineer working at OEM or Tier 1suppliers.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0073
Peter Subke, Muzafar Moshref
Abstract Passenger cars are equipped with an OBD connector according to SAE J1962 / ISO 15031-3. Passenger cars that support ISO UDS on DoIP use the same connector with Ethernet pins according to ISO/DIS 13400-4 (Ethernet diagnostic connector). If external test equipment is connected to the Ethernet diagnostic connector via a 100BASE-TX cable with the RJ45 connector at the tester, a VCI is not necessary anymore. With a device that fits the Ethernet diagnostic connector physically and acts as a converter between the Ethernet signals and WLAN, external test equipment that supports wireless communication, can be connected to the vehicle. Examples for such wireless external test equipment include Android/iOS- based smart phones and tablets with purpose-made applications (APPs). The software components of external test equipment are standardized in ISO 22900 (MVCI). The MVCI D-Server processes data in ODX (ISO 22901) and sequences in OTX (ISO 13209).
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0075
Steven Holland, Tim Felke, Luis Hernandez, Robab Safa-Bakhsh, Matthew A. Wuensch
Abstract Health Ready Components are essential to unlocking the potential of Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) as it relates to real-time diagnosis and prognosis in order to achieve lower maintenance costs, greater asset availability, reliability and safety. IVHM results in reduced maintenance costs by providing more accurate fault isolation and repair guidance. IVHM results in greater asset availability, reliability and safety by recommending preventative maintenance and by identifying anomalous behavior indicative of degraded functionality prior to detection of the fault by other detection mechanisms. The cost, complexity and effectiveness of the IVHM system design, deployment and support depend, to a great extent, on the degree to which components and subsystems provide the run-time data needed by IVHM and the design time semantic data to allow IVHM to interpret those messages.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1112
Byeong Wook Jeon, Sang-Hwan Kim, Donghoon Jeong, Joseph Young-il Chang
Abstract In general, driving performance is developed to meet preference of average customers. But there is no single standardized guideline which can satisfy various driving tastes of all drivers whose gender, cultural background, and age are different. To resolve this issue, automotive companies have introduced drive mode buttons which drivers can manually select from Normal, Eco, and Sport driving modes. Although this multi-mode manual systems is more efficient than single-mode system, it is in a transient state where drivers need to go through troubles of frequently selecting their preferred drive mode in volatile driving situations It is also doubtful whether the three-categorized driving mode can meet complex needs of drivers.. In order to settle these matters, it is necessary to analyze individual driving style automatically and to provide customized driving performance service in real time.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1195
Atsushi Baba, Kinnosuke Itabashi, Nozomu Teranishi, Yoshihiro Edamoto, Kensuke Osamura, Ichiro Maruta, Shuichi Adachi
Abstract This paper proposes a battery state estimation on a battery management system (BMS) for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs). It is important to estimate a state of charge (SOC) and parameters of the battery such as a state of health (SOH), internal resistances and dynamics of electrochemical reactions. The BMS can provide information on the driving range of the EVs to the drivers by accurately estimating SOC and SOH. It can also calculate a state of power (SOP) to use the battery safely by accurately estimated SOC, internal resistances and others. For that purpose, this paper proposes the BMS adopted a simultaneous state of charge (SOC) and parameter estimation method using log-normalized unscented Kalman filter (LnUKF). The key idea is a lognormalization of the parameters to improve numerical stability and robustness of the algorithm. The proposed system is verified by a series of simulations using experimental data with EVs.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1212
Yupu Chen, Miaohua Huang
Abstract Lithium-ion battery plays a key role in electric vehicles, which is critical to the system availability. One of the most important aspects in battery managements systems(BMS) in electric vehicles is the stage of health(SOH) estimation. The state of health (SOH) estimation is very critical to battery management system to ensure the safety and reliability of EV battery operation. The classical approach of current integration(coulomb counting) can't get the accurate values because of accumulative error. In order to provide timely maintenance and replacements of electric vehicles, several estimation approaches have been proposed to develop a reliable and accurate battery state of health estimation. A common drawback of previous algorithm is that the computation quantity is huge and not quite accurate, that is updated partially in this study.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0865
R. Lockett, Mahesh Jeshani, Kassandra Makri, Richard Price
Abstract High-speed planar laser Mie scattering and Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) were employed for the determination of Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) distribution in non-evaporating diesel sprays. The effect of rail pressure, distillation profile, and consequent fuel viscosity on the drop size distribution developing during primary and secondary atomization was investigated. Samples of conventional crude-oil derived middle-distillate diesel and light distillate kerosene were delivered into an optically accessible mini-sac injector, using a customized high-pressure common rail diesel fuel injection system. Two optical channels were employed to capture images of elastic Mie and inelastic LIF scattering simultaneously on a high-speed video camera at 10 kHz. Results are presented for sprays obtained at maximum needle lift during the injection. These reveal that the emergent sprays exhibit axial asymmetry and vorticity.
2016-03-14
Journal Article
2016-01-9151
Somnath Sengupta, Alok Deb, Siddhartha Mukhopadhyay
Abstract Model based approaches for engine fault diagnosis mostly address the faults external to cylinder since they predominantly use simplified averaged models which do not capture within cycle dynamics. Hence, by using an instantaneous engine model which distinctly characterizes the cylinder’s modes, the events occurring within the cycle can be captured. The events happening across various modes and the engine subsystems can be due to normal operation or faults whose symptoms can be seen as features. In this work, which involves detection and classification of faults occurring in cylinders, is carried out in simulation environment, where, a Kalman filter for state estimation incorporating a nominal instantaneous mode based engine model is considered. Using this estimator as base, faults occurring repetitively (every cycle) are addressed whose features are seen across relevant modes of a cycle.
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0843
Marek Lajda, Sebastian Hook, Nikolai Reimgen
During the start-up phase of machines it can happen that tools are inadvertently rotating, which is caused by the half-throttle setting. Due to the starting throttle locking mechanism, the engine's rotational speed is above the engagement speed of the tool (for example the chain of a chain saw). This article describes the software algorithms developed by PRUFREX that are able to prevent rotation of the tool upon machine start at idle. The patented software solution is able to differentiate between start behavior with and without a starting throttle locking mechanism based on the machine's speed and time information and, as a result, can identify or estimate the position of the throttle valve. The effect of the algorithms is the switch-over between different ignition curves that are stored in the microcontroller-operated ignition modules. This includes a provision in the start ignition curve that prevents the tool from rotating.
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0783
Yong Fu Syu, Jia Siou Wu, Jhih Si Syu, Bo-Chiuan Chen, Yuh-Yih Wu
In this paper, the off-line analysis method is applied to develop three-way catalytic converter (TWC) diagnostic strategy including oxygen sensor (O2 sensor) diagnostic strategy with common narrow band oxygen sensor (EGO sensor) in Matlab/Simulink software. Moreover, Mototron ECU (Engine Control Unit) is used for monitoring catalyst deterioration. However, aged catalyst is difficult to possess so the different catalytic conversion efficiency (CCE) is simulated by using exhaust by-pass valve. The CEC (China Engine Corporation) 1L V2, four stroke, water-cooled engine is selected as target engine to conduct engine dynamometer test. After making sure O2 sensor operates normally, the catalyst diagnostic strategy test is executed. The experimental result shows that the catalyst deterioration accurately can be detected when the failure phenomenon takes place.
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0748
Nobuyuki Kawahara, Shota Hashimoto, Eiji Tomita
The objective of this study is to investigate the initial flame propagation characteristics of turbulent flame in an engine cylinder through time-series analysis of radical emissions. A spark plug with optical fiber was developed in this study. The plug sensor is M12 type that makes it possible to mount in practical engine. The spark plug sensor can detect radical emissions in time-resolved spectra through time-series spectroscopic measurement. In this spectra, some kinds of radical emissions such as OH*(306nm), CH*(431nm) and C2*(517nm) based on principle of chemiluminescence are observed. In this study, the spark plug sensor was applied to both compression-expansion machine (CEM) and practical engine. As a result of CEM with bottom viewed high-speed camera, three kinds of spectra could be detected.
2015-10-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9019
Jean-Baptiste Gallo, Robert L. Russell, Kent Johnson, Thomas Durbin
Abstract With funding from the California Energy Commission, the California Hybrid, Efficient and Advanced Truck Research Center, contracted with the University of California, Riverside's College of Engineering to evaluate the performance of a Class 5 battery electric urban delivery vehicle over two standardized driving cycles and a steady state range test on a chassis dynamometer. The test vehicle, a Smith Electric Newton Step Van, was equipped with a proprietary data acquisition system which was set to record a wide variety of vehicle parameters at a 1 Hz sampling period. In addition, the chassis dynamometer was set to measure and record additional parameters. Lastly, a portable J1772 EVSE recorded both grid energy and power at 15-minute intervals. This project provides a controlled test evaluation of the Smith Electric Newton Step Van.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2846
Chunshan Li, Guoying Chen, Changfu Zong, Wenchao Liu
Abstract This paper presents a fault-tolerant control (FTC) algorithm for four-wheel independently driven and steered (4WID/4WIS) electric vehicle. The Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) algorithm is utilized in the fault detection (FD) module so as to estimate the in-wheel motor parameters, which could detect parameter variations caused by in-wheel motor fault. A motion controller based on sliding mode control (SMC) is able to compute the generalized forces/moments to follow the desired vehicle motion. By considering the tire adhesive limits, a reconfigurable control allocator optimally distributes the generalized forces/moments among healthy actuators so as to minimize the tire workloads once the actuator fault is detected. An actuator controller calculates the driving torques of the in-wheel motors and steering angles of the wheels in order to finally achieve the distributed tire forces. If one or more in-wheel motors lose efficacy, the FD module diagnoses the actuator failures first.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2728
Paul C. Cain
Abstract OEM benefit: Vehicle manufacturers desire continuous feedback in monitoring key safety related sub-assemblies. In this application, engineers are calculating the remaining brake pad life by continuously monitoring the current thickness of the brake pad friction material. This information is used in scheduling preventative maintenance activities and avoiding safety incidents. Unplanned machine down time and field repair expenses in earthmoving equipment are cost prohibitive. Today, this technology allows OEM's to have high confidence, continuous feedback on this critical vehicle safety feature, avoiding expensive, unplanned repairs and to improve field “up time” performance. Application challenge: to develop a reliable linear position sensor that is suitable for continuous monitoring of brake pad material thickness in a high pressure, high temperature, high vibration and contaminated environment typical of large construction (earthmoving) vehicles.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2879
Evandro Silva
Abstract In recent years the commercial vehicle industry, specifically the heavy duty truck product line, has seen a rapid increase in the replacement of pure mechanical systems by electronic controlled systems. Engine, transmission, brakes, lighting, clusters, etc. are all monitored and/or controlled electronically. The adoption of electronic systems created a substantial change in the complexity of the heavy duty trucks systems. Currently Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTC) displayed on instrument clusters, in the majority of the cases, are no longer generated by a single sensor/component failure, instead these DTCs are triggered by a system monitor flag, as the result of a below average performance or a failure of an entire system. This new level of complexity makes it very difficult for the current diagnostic methods and tools, to identify what is causing the equipment to operate below ideal conditions.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0281
Marcelo Vandresen, James Silveira, Milton Pereira, Richard Chaplin, Gustavo Fernandes
Abstract Integrated controls for commercial dynamometers do not have appropriate characteristics to perform research and teaching tasks. These are developed to perform quick tests and its logic is prepared to obtaining the information in accordance with the technical standards. This way, the use for research is hindered because it does not have an interface that allows a refinement to the desired data ranges, t data sampling and the type of load that is applied. Its use for teaching is limited because these "standard" controls does not allow to analyze or to determine engines characteristics that are not covered through tests specified by the standards, so the use of this tool as an important part in professional training formed by the institution.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2401
Michael Schmidt, Philipp Nguyen, Mirko Hornung
Abstract The projected uptick in world passenger traffic challenges the involved stakeholders to optimise the current aviation system and to find new solutions being able to cope with this trend. Since especially large hub airports are congested, operate at their capacity limit and further extensions are difficult to realise. Delays due to late arrival of aircraft or less predictable ground operation processes disrupt the airport operations in a serious way. Various concepts improving the current turnaround processes have been presented thus far, whereby radical aircraft design changes have little chances for realisation in the short term. By maintaining the established overall aircraft configuration, the concepts promote higher probability to become commercially available for aircraft manufactures and operators.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2397
Angelo C. Conner, Luis Rabelo
Abstract In planning, simulation models create microcosms, small universes that operate based on assumed principles. While this can be powerful, the information it can provide is limited by the assumptions made and the designed operation of the model. When performing schedule planning and analysis, modelers are often provided with timelines representing project tasks, their relationships, and estimates related to durations, resource requirements, etc. These timelines can be created with programs such as Microsoft Excel or Microsoft Project. There are several important attributes these timelines have; they represent a nominal flow (meaning they do not represent stochastic processes), and they are not necessarily governed by dates or subjected to a calendar. Attributes such as these become important in project planning since timelines often serve as the basis for creating schedules.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2619
Karl-Otto Strömberg, Stefan Borgenvall, Mohamed Loukil, Bertrand Noharet, Carola Sterner, Magnus Lindblom, Orjan Festin
Abstract Lightweight Production Technology (LWPT) is today a well-established technology in the automotive industry. By introducing light weight fixtures manufactured from Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) in aeronautical applications, new challenges as well as possibilities of in-situ health monitoring emerges. The present paper present results from experimental investigations using optical fibers with multiplex Bragg gratings (FBG) as strain gauges in an industrial CFRP fixture. Fixtures were manufactured of laminates made from CFRP. Measurements have been performed on a single CFRP beam with dimensions (8000 × 500 × 500 mm), used as a structural part in a larger assembly (9000 × 4000mm). The optical fibers were placed in between two laminates on two sides of the beam. The measurement data from the FBGs were compared and correlated to the measured displacements of the beam and the applied loads.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2440
Robert Moehle, Jason Clauss
Abstract Labor costs rank second only to fuel in expenses for commercial air transports. Labor issues are a growing concern in the airline industry, with an impending worldwide pilot shortage. One solution proposed and requested by some of the industry leaders is to allow a single flight crew member to operate the aircraft. Safety concerns represent the dominant barrier to single-pilot Part 121 operations. The FAA and Congress consistently demonstrate a bias toward conservatism in their regulation of airlines and commercial aircraft. Bureaucrats and the general public fall prey to isolated news stories that highlight pilot error and anchor their viewpoint on further regulating a two-person crew. Yet, in an alarming spate of recent airline accidents, the presence of multiple crewmembers did nothing to prevent, and actually may have contributed to, the crash. Technology is not the problem.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2473
Alessandro Ceruti, Alfredo Liverani, Piergiovanni Marzocca
Abstract Traditional User/Maintenance Manuals provide useful information when dealing with simple machines. However, when dealing with complex systems of systems and highly miniaturized technologies, like UAVs, or with machines with millions of parts, a commercial aircraft is a case in point, new technologies taking advantage of Augmented Reality can rapidly and effectively support the maintenance operations. This paper presents a User/Maintenance Manual based on Augmented Reality to help the operator in the detection of parts and in the sequence to be followed to assemble/disassemble systems and subsystems. The proposed system includes a handheld device and/or an head mounted display or special goggles, to be used by on-site operators, with software management providing data fusion and overlaying traditional 2D user/maintenance manual information with an augmented reality software and appropriate interface.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2486
Greg Kilchenstein, F. Matthew Juarez
Abstract The USAF T56 engine Program Office has adopted a unique maintenance approach which utilizes the concept of complete system reliability in order to optimize their cost of workscoping aircraft gas turbine engines. While classical Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) focuses on the actual reliability and failure modes representative of a particular system, its benefits are limited since it only describes individual system components9. The workscope cost optimization program provides the user with recommended optimal repair workscopes based on the underlying reliability and cost of repair options. This maintenance concept is based upon the methodology documented in SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) JA6097, which is a “Best Practices Guide” established to provide direction in objectively determining which other maintenance to perform on a system when that system requires corrective action, with the goal of improving overall system reliability at the lowest possible cost.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2545
Reza Ahmadi, Oliver Marquardt, Marc Riedlinger, Reinhard Reichel
Abstract Aircraft cabin systems, especially cabin management systems (CMS) have to cope with frequent cabin changes during their lifecycle. This includes not only layout rearrangements and technological upgrades during the service, but also extensive CMS customizations and product variations before aircraft delivery. Therefore it is inevitable for the CMS to be highly changeable and offer an easy and agile change process. Today's CMS solutions face this challenge with configurable system architectures. Although such architectures offer a vast change domain, they usually come with time consuming and error prone change processes. This paper introduces an adaptive avionics software architecture that enables the CMS to cope with cabin changes highly automatically and with minimal human interactions. The adaptation is performed during an on ground organization phase, in which system changes are detected and evaluated by the CMS itself.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2556
Thomas Rousselin, Guillaume Hubert, Didier Regis, Marc Gatti
Abstract The changes brought by the increasing integration density and the new technological trends have pushed the reliability at its limit. Safety analysis for critical system such as embedded electronics for avionics systems needs to take into account these changes. In this paper, we present the consequences on the deep sub-micron (DSM) CMOS devices concerning their single event effect (SEE) sensitivity. We also propose a new modeling method in order to address these issues.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2555
Ephraim Suhir, Alain Bensoussan, Johann Nicolics
There is a concern that the continuing trend on miniaturization (Moore's law) in IC design and fabrication might have a negative impact on the device reliability. To understand and to possibly quantify the physics underlying this concern and phenomenon, it is natural to proceed from the experimental bathtub curve (BTC) - reliability “passport” of the device. This curve reflects the combined effect of two major irreversible governing processes: statistics-related mass-production process that results in a decreasing failure rate with time, and reliability-physics-related degradation (aging) process that leads to an increasing failure rate. It is the latter process that is of major concern of a device designer and manufacturer. The statistical process can be evaluated theoretically, using a rather simple predictive model.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2592
Joao Pedro Malere, Wlamir Olivares Loesch Vianna
Abstract This paper presents a method to determine the root cause of an aircraft component failure by means of the aircraft fault messages history. The k-Nearest Neighbors (k-NN) and the Tree-Augmented naive Bayes (TAN) methods were used in order to classify the failure causes as a function of the fault messages (predictors). The contribution of this work is to show how well the fault messages of aircraft systems can classify specific components failure modes. The training set contained the messages history from a fleet and the root causes of a butterfly valve reported by the maintenance stations. A cross-validation was performed in order to check the loss function value and to compare both methods performance. It is possible to see that the use of just fault messages for the valve failure classification provides results that close to 2/3 and could be used for faster troubleshooting procedures.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2593
Jonathan L. Geisheimer, Michael Wabs, Carlos Carvalho
Abstract Time Domain Reflectometery (TDR) is a Radio Frequency (RF) technology that has been used for many years to find cable breaks and measure fluid levels in industrial processes. The technology uses picosecond length pulses and the associated reflections off the fluid surface in a time of flight measurement to determine fluid height. TDR signals have additional information that can be processed and utilized for Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) applications. For example, when water collects in the fuel tank, TDR is capable of identifying and measuring the amount of water. This can allow the water sumps to be drained on condition instead of on a schedule. In addition, electromagnetic properties of the fluid can be determined, such as the dielectric constant, which can be used to identify mis-fueling situations, contaminants in the fluid, and potentially other fluid health properties.
Viewing 61 to 90 of 4783