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Viewing 271 to 300 of 4781
2010-10-06
Technical Paper
2010-36-0307
Joel da Concei\acao Junior, Sergio Luis da Silva
Product development process (PDP) is a strategic element for organization's success, linking the market to the company. In spite of this, manufacturing can be considered as PDP's first customer, with requirements and constraints in order to maximize new product fabrication efficiency. In a wide range of manufacturing elements, production systems availability is critical for operation performance. To this end, companies have invested resources on Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) implementation, in which its main purpose consists in policies, practices and activities to improve efficiency through manufacturing system life cycle management approach. However, some TPM concepts have not been investigated accurately yet, one of them is to explore how to integrate TPM into PDP through a structured method.
2010-10-06
Technical Paper
2010-36-0346
Cleber Willian Gomes, Armando A. M. Lagana, Gustavo Oioli de Campos, Carlos Alberto Moraes
Internal combustion engine calibration teaching by Stand Alone System. This paper illustrates a teaching methodology for technical students of internal combustion engine calibration, by stand alone engine control unit with variable ignition and fuel injection time. Using a system named HIS (Stand alone Electronic Control Unit), to change the engine parameters, as fuel injection time and ignition time, the students can optimize fuel consumption, performance and exhaust emission. The tests are developed using the DOE (design of experiments) technique of artificial intelligence.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2012
Arnold Taube, Matthew Cappel, Vincent Boens
Light-weight, tessellated surface models are increasingly used in marketing websites and electronic documents as well as in electronic training materials and service information documents. While these models are effective in developing consumer interest and communicating information, without implementing adequate Intellectual Property Protection (IPP) they also provide valuable geometry to miscreants wanting to reverse engineer a product and/or its component parts. Geometry Distortion is an excellent component of a layered IPP Plan for implementation when publishing 3-D models. However, how much distortion is needed to provide adequate IPP? Too much distortion detracts from their appearance while too little does not sufficiently complicate reverse engineering analysis. This paper describes a practical process for determining rational geometry distortion values that provide adequate IPP.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2015
Saurabh Singh, Narayan Jadhav, Kamaljeet Nandkeolyar, Shirish Pandav, Pankaj Sali
The automotive sector is going through a phase of stiff competition among various Original Equipment Manufacturers for increasing their profitability while ensuring highest levels of customer satisfaction. The biggest challenge for such companies lies in minimizing their overall cost involving investments in Research and Development, manufacturing, after sales service and warranty costs. Higher warranty costs not only affect the net profit but in turn it also affects the brand image of the company to a large extent in the long run. An effort is made here to target such warranty costs due to frequent tail pinion and hub seal leakages on single reduction/hub reduction axles of Heavy Commercial Vehicles in the field. A preliminary study involving the severity analysis of such failures is followed by a step by step investigation of these failures.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2016
Mohamed Khalil
In this paper the study is directed to a condition-based predictive maintenance concept as an alternative policy to determine a fleet's health, for increasing the fleet availability and to reduce the operating cost. The concept is based on predicting the system degradation by using an expert system. Therefore, the decision-maker can calculate the remaining lifetime for any mechanical system. These calculations help the decision-maker in making a repair or replacement decision in a suitable time. An application is presented herein on the cylinder kit components (piston, piston rings and liner) to illustrate the effectiveness of this technique. The results indicate that knowing the wear between the cylinder kit components in automotive engines is very important to plan the maintenance for making the repair or replacement decision in a suitable time.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2014
Chris Merkle, Lisa Kennedy
Manufacturers have engineered high voltage batteries and highly efficient electric motors that have been combined with an internal combustion engine (ICE) or in some cases, replaced the engine altogether. While this advancement is beneficial in many ways, service technicians are faced with new challenges in servicing high voltage vehicle systems. Although highly trained in many areas, today's automotive and commercial vehicle service technicians traditionally have not been trained to work with high voltage (HV). To ensure proper and safe HV service, information and training is critical. This paper will highlight some typical safety precautions and service procedures directed by manufacturers, such as the use of high voltage insulation gloves, proper tools needed and the practices of performing HV disabling procedures including zero voltage checks.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2013
Marius-Dorin Surcel, Jan Michaelsen, Jean-Sebastien Foisy
The experience with the implementation of IV-ITS (In-vehicle Intelligent Transportation Systems, also know as EOBR or electronic onboard recorders) type tools and services in previous projects showed that there is an opportunity to standardize an infrastructure that would increase a project's rate of success. As such, a project that defined, streamlined and standardized a tech transfer approach to IV-ITS products and services was initiated. Therefore, the objective of the project was to develop a standard procedure based on technology transfer best practices and defining the steps and actions required to increase the rate of success and the optimization of the implementation of IV-ITS products and services. A literature review was conducted to identify technology transfer and implementation best practices and to assist in defining a survey for measuring the success of the implementation of participants in IV-ITS implementation projects.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2011
Carsten John
Geometric product representations are of gaining importance in product manufacturing industries. Several case studies yield that the utilization of three-dimensional digital product data in the product development chain has given many manufacturing companies a big advantage in business competition. The field of application for 3D technology is versatile and its further implementation still proceeds along product delivery processes. Leveraging 3D graphics in service information creation processes like the creation of manual illustrations or service instruction imagery is currently a big topic at many companies. E. g. the utilization of animated 3D product representations for explanation of service tasks becomes possible due to the recent advances in computer hardware more and more popular.
2010-05-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-1508
Romain Demory, Cyril Crua, Morgan Heikal
The research presented here aims at providing a deeper understanding of the formation of nitric oxide in diesel combustion. To this end, in-cylinder distributions of nitric oxide (NO) were acquired by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) in a rapid compression machine at conditions representative of a modern diesel passenger vehicle. In particular, the effects of injection and in-cylinder pressure on NO formation were investigated temporally and spatially to offer new insight into the formation of NO. Excitation and collection strategies were notably fine-tuned to avoid the collection of spurious signal due to oxygen (O₂) fluorescence. NO fluorescence was first recorded slightly after the onset of the diffusion flame and until late in the expansion stroke. The early low levels of NO were located on the lean side of the high density of hydroxyl radicals (OH).
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0343
Russell P. Fitzgerald, Richard Steeper, Jordan Snyder, Ronald Hanson, Randy Hessel
Fuel injection during negative valve overlap offers a promising method of controlling HCCI combustion, but sorting out the thermal and chemical effects of NVO fueling requires knowledge of temperatures throughout the cycle. Computing bulk temperatures throughout closed portions of the cycle is relatively straightforward using an equation of state, once a temperature at one crank angle is established. Unfortunately, computing charge temperatures at intake valve closing for NVO operation is complicated by a large, unknown fraction of residual gases at unknown temperature. To address the problem, we model blowdown and recompression during exhaust valve opening and closing events, allowing us to estimate in-cylinder charge temperatures based on exhaust-port measurements. This algorithm permits subsequent calculation of crank-angle-resolved bulk temperatures and residual gas fraction over a wide range of NVO operation.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0344
Xiao Ma, Xu He, Jian-Xin Wang, Shi-Jin Shuai
A method to design a feasible multi-component fuel for fuel concentration measurements by using PLIF was developed based on thermal gravity (TG) analysis and vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) calculations. Acetone, toluene, and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene were respectively chosen as tracers for the light, medium, and heavy components of gasoline. A five-component test fuel was designed for LIF measurement, which contains n -pentane (light), isooctane, n -octane (medium), n -nonane and n -decane (heavy). The TG analysis and VLE calculation were used to ensure that the fuel had volatility similar to real gasoline and that all the tracers had a good coevaporation ratio. The fully optimized results of the six-component fuel and the disadvantages of this case are discussed. The results indicated that optimization based on the six-component fuel, which included C4 compounds such as n -butane, controlled acetone's coevaporation ratio.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0347
David P. Sczomak, Allan Zhao, Michael Simon, Yangbing Zeng
Optimization of engine startup from crank to catalyst light-off is essential for achieving low emissions. For Spark Ignition Direct Injected (SIDI) engines, this requires optimization of the piston crown features, spray characteristics and control strategy. In this case study, high speed endoscope imaging was used to provide a qualitative confirmation of CFD spray predictions and to provide insight into engine starting in a “real” engine environment. The effect of piston feature was initially evaluated in a single cylinder engine running the dual-injection catalyst heating mode. The piston features were also assessed at part load and wide open throttle. The videos of the spray development were compared to CFD predictions. In the example case reported here, endoscope imaging showed that the baseline piston bowl was not effective in deflecting the spray toward the spark plug. Moving the piston bowl toward the injector gave a visible improvement in the spray deflection.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0166
Kyung-ho Ahn, Hakan Yilmaz, Anna Stefanopoulou, Li Jiang
Flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) are able to operate on a blend of ethanol and gasoline in any volumetric concentration of up to 85% ethanol (93% in Brazil). The estimation of ethanol content is crucial for optimized and robust performance in such vehicles. Even if an ethanol sensor is utilized, an estimation scheme independent of the ethanol sensor measurement retains advantages in enhancing the reliability of ethanol estimation and allowing on-board diagnostics. It is well-known that an exhaust gas oxygen (EGO) sensor could be utilized to estimate the ethanol content, which exploits the difference in stoichiometric air-to-fuel ratio (SAFR) between ethanol (9.0) and gasoline (14.6). The SAFR-based ethanol estimation has been shown to be prone to large errors with mass air flow sensor bias and/or fuel injector shift.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0256
Jingliang Zhang, Linxia Liao, Jay Lee
Li-ion Batteries are one of the most critical components of the next generation Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) as degradation or failure of the Li-ion battery could lead to reduced performance, operational impairment and even catastrophic safety issues. An effective diagnostics and prognostics system for Li-ion battery health monitoring would greatly improve the reliability of such systems and thus secure general public acceptance. This paper presents a similarity-based health assessment method for Li-ion battery. Instead of physically diagnosing the health of the Li-ion battery, the proposed method defines the healthy operations (charging and discharging) as the baseline and the deviation from this baseline is treated as the degradation. Specifically, novel features are extracted from the voltage, current and temperature measurements firstly. Then Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is applied to minimize the dimensionality of the multivariate feature space.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0167
Gerard W. Malaczynski, Robert Van der Poel
Certain harmonics of angular crankshaft velocity are indicative of engine imbalance induced by cylinder misfire. Application of the Digital Fourier Transformation (DFT) facilitates the production-feasible calculation of a singular index in the frequency domain indicative either of smooth engine operation or misfire. The phase of that particular index with proper interpretation directly points to a misfiring cylinder. The identification of a misfiring pair, either opposing or a non-opposing in the cylinder bank, requires a bit more sophisticated approach since the phase response of the characteristic index in the frequency domain becomes more complex. The method demonstrated here was successfully applied in real time in four-, six-, and eight-cylinder engines, both SI and Diesel, for the On-Board Diagnostic application with reliability exceeding relevant regulatory requirements.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0346
Loic de Francqueville, Gilles Bruneaux, Benoist Thirouard
In order to study the soot formation and oxidation phenomena during the combustion process of Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines, soot volume fraction measurements were performed in an optical GDI engine by combined Laser-Induced Incandescence (LII) and Laser Extinction Method (LEM). The coupling of these two diagnostics takes advantages of their complementary characteristics. LII provides a two-dimensional image of the soot distribution while LEM is used to calibrate the LII image in order to obtain soot volume fraction fields. The LII diagnostic was performed through a quartz cylinder liner in order to obtain a vertical plane of soot concentration distribution. LEM was simultaneously performed along a line of sight that was coplanar with the LII plane, in order to carry out quantitative measurements of path-length-averaged soot volume fraction. The LII images were calibrated along the same path as that of the LEM measurement.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0169
Mark N. Subramaniam, Henning Kleeberg, Anamitra Bhattacharyya, Nick Chomic, Dean Tomazic
In a gasoline engine, the cycle-by-cycle fresh trapped charge, and corresponding unswept residual gas fraction (RGF) are critical parameters of interest for maintaining the desired air-fuel ratio (AFR). Accurate fueling is a key precursor to improved engine fuel economy, and reduced engine out emissions. Asymmetric flow paths to cylinders in certain engines can cause differences in the gas exchange process, which in turn cause imbalances in trapped fresh charge and RGF. Variable cam timing (VCT) can make the gas exchange process even more complex. Due to the reasons stated above, simplified models can result in significant estimation errors for fresh trapped charge and RGF if they are not gas dynamics-based or detailed enough to handle features such as variable valve timing, duration, or lift. In this paper, a new air flow and RGF measurement tool is introduced.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0345
Derek Splitter, Sage Kokjohn, Keith Rein, Reed Hanson, Scott Sanders, Rolf D. Reitz
The ignition process of fuel reactivity controlled PCCI combustion was investigated using engine experiments and detailed CFD modeling. The experiments were performed using a modified all metal heavy-duty, compression-ignition engine. The engine was fueled using commercially available gasoline (PON 91.6) and ULSD diesel delivered through separate port and direct injection systems, respectively. Experiments were conducted at a steady state-engine load of 4.5 bar IMEP and speed of 1300 rev/min. In-cylinder optical measurements focused on understanding the fuel decomposition and fuel reactivity stratification provided through the charge preparation. The measurement technique utilized point location optical access through a modified cylinder head with two access points in the firedeck. Optical measurements of natural thermal emission were performed with an FTIR operating in the 2-4.5 μm spectral region.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0342
Louis-Marie Malbec, Gilles Bruneaux
The air entrainment of multi-hole diesel injection is investigated by high speed Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) using a multi-hole common rail injector with an injection pressure of 100 MPa. The sprays are observed in a high pressure, high temperature cell that reproduces the thermodynamic conditions which exist in the combustion chamber of a diesel engine during injection. Typical ambient temperature of 800K and ambient density of 25 kg/m3 are chosen. The air entrainment is studied with the PIV technique, giving access to the velocity fields in the surrounding air and/or in the interior of two neighboring jets. High acquisition rate of 5000 Hz, corresponding to 200 μs between two consecutive image pairs is obtained by a high-speed camera coupled with a high-speed Nd:YLF laser. The effect of neighboring jets interaction is studied by comparing four injectors with different numbers of holes (4, 6, 8 and 12) with similar static mass flow rate per hole.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0168
Ornella Chiavola, Giancarlo Chiatti, Luigi Arnone, Stefano Manelli
This paper presents the results of an experimental analysis on a multi-cylinder diesel engine, in which in-cylinder pressure and accelerometer transducers are used with the purpose of developing and setting up a methodology able to monitor and optimize the combustion behavior by means of non-intrusive measurements. Previously published results have demonstrated the direct relationship existing between in-cylinder pressure and engine block vibration signals, as well as the sensitivity of the engine surface vibration to variation of injection parameters when the accelerometer is placed in sensitive location of the engine block. Moreover, the accelerometer trace has revealed to be able to locate in the crank-angle domain important phenomena characterizing the combustion process (the start of pre-mixed combustion, the crank angle value corresponding to the beginning of diffusive combustion and to the in-cylinder pressure maximum value).
2009-11-10
Technical Paper
2009-01-3163
Yinni Cao, Guangjun Liu, Zhenning Liu
With the prevalence of more electrical aircraft (MEA), aircrafts are more vulnerable to electrical system faults. The proactive Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) for aircraft electrical systems has become an issue of substantial importance and urgency. Although certain aspects of CBM have been implemented with considerable success, CBM for aircraft electrical systems is still at its early stage of development. Diagnostic and prognostic technologies need to be improved to meet CBM requirements. This paper reviews the existing studies on the CBM for aircraft electrical systems in terms of its concept, content, requirements, hierarchy, methodologies and system configuration, and is intended to provide a technology survey particularly on the state of the art and challenging issues of aircraft electrical system CBM.
2009-11-10
Technical Paper
2009-01-3211
Hilmar Apmann, Martin Deepen, Thorsten Flessner
The high manufacturing-rate of CFRP-parts for aerospace components is demanding for efficient solutions in the field of automated systems and intelligent toolings. Combining these two factors the production of CFRP-parts is becoming more efficient than using this separately or even better than using manual processes and conventional toolings. The department of Production Systems within Premium AEROTEC has developed both self heating toolings for preforming and curing of CFRP-parts as w ell as automated handling and draping systems for CFRP-material (i.e. dry laminates or prepreg). This will be presented in this article.
2009-11-10
Technical Paper
2009-01-3269
Rodrigo Pinheiro, Charles Dibley, Jay Olkowski, Richard Lantow, Luke Haylock
The installation of aerospace fasteners with pneumatic or cordless tools generally requires specialized systems which are dedicated to the fastener hex size and torque, often requiring laborious disassembly for a configuration change. This paper presents a quick change system that can be used together with a large variety of tooling configurations and provides instant socket exchange without requiring wrenching or disassembly. A comparison with traditional socket system is made, highlighting the characteristics and benefits of this new technology in terms of ergonomics, productivity and cost.
2009-11-10
Technical Paper
2009-01-3270
Cris Cobzaru
New concepts in research and development with Cherry Aerospace are leading to major advancements in portable riveter functionality. A hand powered riveter using some of these concepts is light, compact, ergonomically fitted, and capable to reach very high installation loads with low hand effort and reduced actuations to installation. It is capable to install of a wide variety of blind fasteners used in aircraft maintenance and repair. This paper outlines the design tools and concepts used to develop this unit as well as the tested performance characteristics. The technologies incorporated into this unit are a preview of the capabilities of the next generation of smaller, stronger, composite friendly and ergonomic riveters.
2009-11-10
Technical Paper
2009-01-3164
J. Wesley Hines, Jamie Coble, B. Keith Bailey
This paper introduces empirical modeling techniques for process and equipment monitoring, fault detection and diagnostics, and prognostics. The paper first provides a brief background and an overview of the theoretical foundations and presents a new method for applying these methods to systems which only have one useful measured variable. A case study is then presented for the application of the method to an aircraft generator that includes 1. Normal feature prediction over different operating conditions 2. Actual feature measurement and residual generation 3. Fault detection, identification, and quantification Application of the proposed single variable monitoring system to the simulated aircraft generator data resulted in fault diagnosis accuracy of 96.3%, only one misdiagnosed case in 27, for the types and severities of faults considered. Future work in developing a prognostic model for a single-variable system will be outlined.
2009-11-10
Technical Paper
2009-01-3122
Fred Potter
This paper presents several possible topologies for Electronic Power Distribution Systems. A discussion is presented on the advantages and drawbacks of each topology. Weight savings, reliability increase, diagnostics and prognostics capabilities are discussed. Trade study results are presented to back up the discussion. The paper also presents some options on communication between the power system and the avionics systems.
2009-11-10
Technical Paper
2009-01-3190
Michael Ballas, Fred Potter
This paper discusses the merits of using an Electronic Power Distribution System (see Ref. 1) to support real-time prognostics data acquisition and analysis. Examples and actual data are presented on the analysis of actuator, motor and pump loads from Voltage and current data collected by the EPDS. Trend monitoring and operation time monitoring are discussed. The methodology of detection and location of arc faults from available data is also discussed.
2009-11-10
Journal Article
2009-01-3162
Freeman Rufus, Seungkoo Lee, Ash Thakker, Sean A. Field, Nathan Kumbar
The electrical and mechanical failures (such as bearing and winding failures) combine to cause premature failures of the generators, which become a flight safety issue forcing the crew to land as soon as practical. Currently, diagnostic / prognostic technologies are not implemented for aircraft generators where repairs are time consuming and its costs are high. This paper presents the development of feature extraction and diagnostic algorithms to ultimately 1) differentiate between these failure modes and normal aircraft operational modes; and 2) determine the degree of damage of a generator. Electrical signature analysis based features were developed to distinguish between healthy and degraded generators while taking into account their operating conditions. The diagnostic algorithms were developed to have a high fault / high-hour detection rate along with a low false alarm rate.
2009-11-10
Technical Paper
2009-01-3192
Gail Hickman, Joseph J. Gerardi, Sean Field, Nathan Kumbar
An onboard Acoustic Wiring Diagnostic System to monitor the health of aircraft wiring is under development by Innovative Dynamics Inc. The AWDS incorporates passive acoustic sensors to monitor wire chafing. The system operates continuously in-flight so that intermittent wiring fault conditions can be detected as they happen. Trend analysis data can be logged to enable pro-active maintenance prior to catastrophic failure. A key advantage of the in-situ system is to perform the inspection without removing or disconnecting the wiring. Acoustic signatures of representative aircraft wiring have been characterized under simulated damage conditions. Flight ready hardware and software have been developed and flight testing is underway on an H-53 helicopter. This paper will present the wire diagnostic approach, the AWDS flight instrumentation, and some representative lab test results.
2009-11-10
Technical Paper
2009-01-3268
Rodrigo Pinheiro, Edgar Frias, Richard Lantow, Jay Olkowski, Luke Haylock
Following the trend in automotive manufacturing, electric cordless tooling platforms are gradually being adopted for aerospace assembly tool systems. This paper introduces a new portable aerospace fastener assembly tool system based on the cordless electric technology platform. These systems are significantly more accurate than traditional pneumatic–based assembly tool systems and offer a range of process monitoring options. Cordless assembly tool systems make the assembly process easier, faster, safer and more accurate. These systems have the ability to provide traceability with time & date stamp for each installed fastener and provide wireless communication to enable process monitoring in real time. A comparison with traditional aerospace tool systems is made, in terms of historical evolution and working performance. Lessons learned from automotive applications are brought to aerospace industry. Key benefits include better ergonomics, improved accessibility, productivity and cost.
Viewing 271 to 300 of 4781