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Viewing 271 to 300 of 4788
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0965
Mandar Hazare, Paul J Th Venhovens
The U.S. NHTSA has established the FMVSS 126 standard that requires all vehicles sold in the U.S. to include an ESC system as standard equipment after September 1 st , 2011. There is growing concern among aftermarket suppliers specialized in development and installation of vehicle performance parts that chassis modifications may cause the ESC systems to be inoperative or can create unforeseen issues with stability and safety systems. This industry is in need of a process to support the development and validation of chassis modification. The authors propose the implementation of SIL and HIL simulations as a solution to the problem statement. Based on the results of a sensitivity analysis, guidelines for safe aftermarket modifications will be presented.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0008
Sunghyun Kim, Hyungil Kim, Dongseok Kim, Youngjn Cho
The insurance rating has been differentiated in grades according to cost of repair for damaged vehicles and has been an important consideration point for customers when buying a new vehicle. The RCAR (Research Council for Automobile Repairs) has evaluated low speed damageability and reparability of cars. Vehicle manufacturers have tried to reduce the repair cost by designing vehicles with the intent to minimize damage sustained in low speed crash. Repair costs can be reduced by isolating damage through energy absorption structures or damaged structures and components repair or replace easily, quickly and cost effectively. This paper demonstrates an idea to achieve a reduction in repair cost and improve damageability and reparability of the structure and components.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2246
Kevin R. Sholes, Kiyotaka Shouji, Tomohiro Chaya, Jay B. Jeffries, Jason M. Porter, Sung Hyun Pyun, Ronald K. Hanson
Simultaneous crank-angle-resolved measurements of gasoline vapor concentration, gas temperature, and liquid fuel droplet scattering were made with three-color infrared absorption in a direct-injection spark-ignition engine with premium gasoline. The infrared light was coupled into and out of the cylinder using fiber optics incorporated into a modified spark plug, allowing measurement at a location adjacent to the spark plug electrode. Two mid-infrared (mid-IR) laser wavelengths were simultaneously produced by difference-frequency-generation in periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) using one signal and two pump lasers operating in the near-infrared (near-IR). A portion of the near-IR signal laser residual provided a simultaneous third, non-resonant, wavelength for liquid droplet detection. This non-resonant signal was used to subtract the influence of droplet scattering from the resonant mid-IR signals to obtain vapor absorption signals in the presence of droplet extinction.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2254
Russell P. Fitzgerald, Richard R. Steeper
An infrared laser absorption technique has been developed to measure in-cylinder concentrations of CO in an optical, automotive HCCI engine. The diagnostic employs a distributed-feedback, tunable diode laser selected to emit light at the R15 line of the first overtone of CO near 2.3 μm. The collimated laser beam makes multiple passes through the cylinder to increase its path length and its sampling volume. High-frequency modulation of the laser output (wavelength modulation spectroscopy) further enhances the signal-to-noise ratio and detection limits of CO. The diagnostic has been tested in the motored and fired engine, exhibiting better than 200-ppm sensitivity for 50-cycle ensemble-average values of CO concentration with 1-ms time resolution. Fired results demonstrate the ability of the diagnostic to quantify CO production during negative valve overlap (NVO) for a range of fueling conditions.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2253
Rik Baert, Arno Klaassen, Erik Doosje
Existing gasoline DI injection equipment has been modified to generate single hole pulsed gas jets. Injection experiments have been performed at combinations of 3 different pressure ratios (2 of which supercritical) respectively 3 different hole geometries (i.e. length to diameter ratios). Injection was into a pressure chamber with optical access. Injection pressures and injector hole geometry were selected to be representative of current and near-future DI natural gas engines. Each injector hole design has been characterized by measuring its discharge coefficient for different Re-levels. Transient jets produced by these injectors have been visualized using planar laser sheet Mie scattering (PLMS). For this the injected gas was seeded with small oil droplets. The corresponding flow field was measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV) laser diagnostics.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2251
Jay B. Jeffries, Jason M. Porter, Sung Hung Pyun, Ronald K. Hanson, Kevin R. Sholes, Kiyotaka Shouji, Tomohiro Chaya
Simultaneous crank-angle-resolved measurements of gasoline concentration and gas temperature were made with two-color mid-infrared (mid-IR) laser absorption in a production spark-ignition engine (Nissan MR20DE, 2.0L, 4 cyl, MPI with premium gasoline). The mid-IR light was coupled into and out of the cylinder using fiber optics incorporated into a modified spark plug. The absorption line-of-sight was a 5.3 mm optical path located closely adjacent to the ignition spark providing spatially resolved absorption. Two sensor wavelengths were selected in the strong bands associated with the carbon-hydrogen (C-H) stretching vibration near 3.4 μm, which have an absorption ratio that is strongly temperature dependent. Fuel concentration and temperature were determined simultaneously from the absorption at these two wavelengths.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2262
Cinzia Tornatore, Simona Merola, Paolo Sementa
Nowadays an elevated number of two, three and four wheels vehicles circulating in the world-wide urban areas is equipped with Port Fuel Injection Spark Ignition (PFI SI) engines. Their technological level is high, but a further optimization is still possible, especially at low engine speed and high load. To this purpose, the scientific community is now focused on deepening the understanding of thermo fluid dynamic phenomena that takes place in this kind of engine: the final purpose is to find key points for the reduction in engine specific fuel consumption and exhaust emissions without a decrease in performance. In this work, the combustion process was investigated in an optically accessible single cylinder PFI SI engine. It was equipped with the head, injection device and exhaust line of a commercial small engine for two-wheel vehicles, it had the same geometrical characteristics in terms of bore, stroke and compression ratio.
2010-10-19
Technical Paper
2010-01-2314
Niall T. Berkery
Abstract Connectivity, software and services are the key elements that will define the next-generation vehicle experience. Drivers are being provided new innovative solutions that seamlessly integrate their online digital lifestyle into their vehicle environment, enabling automakers increased opportunity for brand differentiation, while giving drivers the ability to personalize their vehicles down to an individual level. This will be accomplished through “virtual accessorization” - where drivers will personalize their connected vehicle experience by choosing applications and services that best suit their individual needs. After selecting applications from an online automotive apps exchange, the apps are sent wirelessly to the car or the driver's smartphone for immediate use. The in-vehicle apps can also be configured based on who is driving, so that preferences and personal functionality moves with each driver.
2010-10-06
Technical Paper
2010-36-0346
Cleber Willian Gomes, Armando A. M. Lagana, Gustavo Oioli de Campos, Carlos Alberto Moraes
Internal combustion engine calibration teaching by Stand Alone System. This paper illustrates a teaching methodology for technical students of internal combustion engine calibration, by stand alone engine control unit with variable ignition and fuel injection time. Using a system named HIS (Stand alone Electronic Control Unit), to change the engine parameters, as fuel injection time and ignition time, the students can optimize fuel consumption, performance and exhaust emission. The tests are developed using the DOE (design of experiments) technique of artificial intelligence.
2010-10-06
Technical Paper
2010-36-0307
Joel da Concei\acao Junior, Sergio Luis da Silva
Product development process (PDP) is a strategic element for organization's success, linking the market to the company. In spite of this, manufacturing can be considered as PDP's first customer, with requirements and constraints in order to maximize new product fabrication efficiency. In a wide range of manufacturing elements, production systems availability is critical for operation performance. To this end, companies have invested resources on Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) implementation, in which its main purpose consists in policies, practices and activities to improve efficiency through manufacturing system life cycle management approach. However, some TPM concepts have not been investigated accurately yet, one of them is to explore how to integrate TPM into PDP through a structured method.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2016
Mohamed Khalil
In this paper the study is directed to a condition-based predictive maintenance concept as an alternative policy to determine a fleet's health, for increasing the fleet availability and to reduce the operating cost. The concept is based on predicting the system degradation by using an expert system. Therefore, the decision-maker can calculate the remaining lifetime for any mechanical system. These calculations help the decision-maker in making a repair or replacement decision in a suitable time. An application is presented herein on the cylinder kit components (piston, piston rings and liner) to illustrate the effectiveness of this technique. The results indicate that knowing the wear between the cylinder kit components in automotive engines is very important to plan the maintenance for making the repair or replacement decision in a suitable time.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2011
Carsten John
Geometric product representations are of gaining importance in product manufacturing industries. Several case studies yield that the utilization of three-dimensional digital product data in the product development chain has given many manufacturing companies a big advantage in business competition. The field of application for 3D technology is versatile and its further implementation still proceeds along product delivery processes. Leveraging 3D graphics in service information creation processes like the creation of manual illustrations or service instruction imagery is currently a big topic at many companies. E. g. the utilization of animated 3D product representations for explanation of service tasks becomes possible due to the recent advances in computer hardware more and more popular.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2015
Saurabh Singh, Narayan Jadhav, Kamaljeet Nandkeolyar, Shirish Pandav, Pankaj Sali
The automotive sector is going through a phase of stiff competition among various Original Equipment Manufacturers for increasing their profitability while ensuring highest levels of customer satisfaction. The biggest challenge for such companies lies in minimizing their overall cost involving investments in Research and Development, manufacturing, after sales service and warranty costs. Higher warranty costs not only affect the net profit but in turn it also affects the brand image of the company to a large extent in the long run. An effort is made here to target such warranty costs due to frequent tail pinion and hub seal leakages on single reduction/hub reduction axles of Heavy Commercial Vehicles in the field. A preliminary study involving the severity analysis of such failures is followed by a step by step investigation of these failures.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2014
Chris Merkle, Lisa Kennedy
Manufacturers have engineered high voltage batteries and highly efficient electric motors that have been combined with an internal combustion engine (ICE) or in some cases, replaced the engine altogether. While this advancement is beneficial in many ways, service technicians are faced with new challenges in servicing high voltage vehicle systems. Although highly trained in many areas, today's automotive and commercial vehicle service technicians traditionally have not been trained to work with high voltage (HV). To ensure proper and safe HV service, information and training is critical. This paper will highlight some typical safety precautions and service procedures directed by manufacturers, such as the use of high voltage insulation gloves, proper tools needed and the practices of performing HV disabling procedures including zero voltage checks.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2013
Marius-Dorin Surcel, Jan Michaelsen, Jean-Sebastien Foisy
The experience with the implementation of IV-ITS (In-vehicle Intelligent Transportation Systems, also know as EOBR or electronic onboard recorders) type tools and services in previous projects showed that there is an opportunity to standardize an infrastructure that would increase a project's rate of success. As such, a project that defined, streamlined and standardized a tech transfer approach to IV-ITS products and services was initiated. Therefore, the objective of the project was to develop a standard procedure based on technology transfer best practices and defining the steps and actions required to increase the rate of success and the optimization of the implementation of IV-ITS products and services. A literature review was conducted to identify technology transfer and implementation best practices and to assist in defining a survey for measuring the success of the implementation of participants in IV-ITS implementation projects.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2012
Arnold Taube, Matthew Cappel, Vincent Boens
Light-weight, tessellated surface models are increasingly used in marketing websites and electronic documents as well as in electronic training materials and service information documents. While these models are effective in developing consumer interest and communicating information, without implementing adequate Intellectual Property Protection (IPP) they also provide valuable geometry to miscreants wanting to reverse engineer a product and/or its component parts. Geometry Distortion is an excellent component of a layered IPP Plan for implementation when publishing 3-D models. However, how much distortion is needed to provide adequate IPP? Too much distortion detracts from their appearance while too little does not sufficiently complicate reverse engineering analysis. This paper describes a practical process for determining rational geometry distortion values that provide adequate IPP.
2010-05-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-1508
Romain Demory, Cyril Crua, Morgan Heikal
The research presented here aims at providing a deeper understanding of the formation of nitric oxide in diesel combustion. To this end, in-cylinder distributions of nitric oxide (NO) were acquired by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) in a rapid compression machine at conditions representative of a modern diesel passenger vehicle. In particular, the effects of injection and in-cylinder pressure on NO formation were investigated temporally and spatially to offer new insight into the formation of NO. Excitation and collection strategies were notably fine-tuned to avoid the collection of spurious signal due to oxygen (O₂) fluorescence. NO fluorescence was first recorded slightly after the onset of the diffusion flame and until late in the expansion stroke. The early low levels of NO were located on the lean side of the high density of hydroxyl radicals (OH).
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0343
Russell P. Fitzgerald, Richard Steeper, Jordan Snyder, Ronald Hanson, Randy Hessel
Fuel injection during negative valve overlap offers a promising method of controlling HCCI combustion, but sorting out the thermal and chemical effects of NVO fueling requires knowledge of temperatures throughout the cycle. Computing bulk temperatures throughout closed portions of the cycle is relatively straightforward using an equation of state, once a temperature at one crank angle is established. Unfortunately, computing charge temperatures at intake valve closing for NVO operation is complicated by a large, unknown fraction of residual gases at unknown temperature. To address the problem, we model blowdown and recompression during exhaust valve opening and closing events, allowing us to estimate in-cylinder charge temperatures based on exhaust-port measurements. This algorithm permits subsequent calculation of crank-angle-resolved bulk temperatures and residual gas fraction over a wide range of NVO operation.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0344
Xiao Ma, Xu He, Jian-Xin Wang, Shi-Jin Shuai
A method to design a feasible multi-component fuel for fuel concentration measurements by using PLIF was developed based on thermal gravity (TG) analysis and vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) calculations. Acetone, toluene, and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene were respectively chosen as tracers for the light, medium, and heavy components of gasoline. A five-component test fuel was designed for LIF measurement, which contains n -pentane (light), isooctane, n -octane (medium), n -nonane and n -decane (heavy). The TG analysis and VLE calculation were used to ensure that the fuel had volatility similar to real gasoline and that all the tracers had a good coevaporation ratio. The fully optimized results of the six-component fuel and the disadvantages of this case are discussed. The results indicated that optimization based on the six-component fuel, which included C4 compounds such as n -butane, controlled acetone's coevaporation ratio.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0342
Louis-Marie Malbec, Gilles Bruneaux
The air entrainment of multi-hole diesel injection is investigated by high speed Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) using a multi-hole common rail injector with an injection pressure of 100 MPa. The sprays are observed in a high pressure, high temperature cell that reproduces the thermodynamic conditions which exist in the combustion chamber of a diesel engine during injection. Typical ambient temperature of 800K and ambient density of 25 kg/m3 are chosen. The air entrainment is studied with the PIV technique, giving access to the velocity fields in the surrounding air and/or in the interior of two neighboring jets. High acquisition rate of 5000 Hz, corresponding to 200 μs between two consecutive image pairs is obtained by a high-speed camera coupled with a high-speed Nd:YLF laser. The effect of neighboring jets interaction is studied by comparing four injectors with different numbers of holes (4, 6, 8 and 12) with similar static mass flow rate per hole.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0256
Jingliang Zhang, Linxia Liao, Jay Lee
Li-ion Batteries are one of the most critical components of the next generation Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) as degradation or failure of the Li-ion battery could lead to reduced performance, operational impairment and even catastrophic safety issues. An effective diagnostics and prognostics system for Li-ion battery health monitoring would greatly improve the reliability of such systems and thus secure general public acceptance. This paper presents a similarity-based health assessment method for Li-ion battery. Instead of physically diagnosing the health of the Li-ion battery, the proposed method defines the healthy operations (charging and discharging) as the baseline and the deviation from this baseline is treated as the degradation. Specifically, novel features are extracted from the voltage, current and temperature measurements firstly. Then Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is applied to minimize the dimensionality of the multivariate feature space.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0169
Mark N. Subramaniam, Henning Kleeberg, Anamitra Bhattacharyya, Nick Chomic, Dean Tomazic
In a gasoline engine, the cycle-by-cycle fresh trapped charge, and corresponding unswept residual gas fraction (RGF) are critical parameters of interest for maintaining the desired air-fuel ratio (AFR). Accurate fueling is a key precursor to improved engine fuel economy, and reduced engine out emissions. Asymmetric flow paths to cylinders in certain engines can cause differences in the gas exchange process, which in turn cause imbalances in trapped fresh charge and RGF. Variable cam timing (VCT) can make the gas exchange process even more complex. Due to the reasons stated above, simplified models can result in significant estimation errors for fresh trapped charge and RGF if they are not gas dynamics-based or detailed enough to handle features such as variable valve timing, duration, or lift. In this paper, a new air flow and RGF measurement tool is introduced.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0168
Ornella Chiavola, Giancarlo Chiatti, Luigi Arnone, Stefano Manelli
This paper presents the results of an experimental analysis on a multi-cylinder diesel engine, in which in-cylinder pressure and accelerometer transducers are used with the purpose of developing and setting up a methodology able to monitor and optimize the combustion behavior by means of non-intrusive measurements. Previously published results have demonstrated the direct relationship existing between in-cylinder pressure and engine block vibration signals, as well as the sensitivity of the engine surface vibration to variation of injection parameters when the accelerometer is placed in sensitive location of the engine block. Moreover, the accelerometer trace has revealed to be able to locate in the crank-angle domain important phenomena characterizing the combustion process (the start of pre-mixed combustion, the crank angle value corresponding to the beginning of diffusive combustion and to the in-cylinder pressure maximum value).
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0167
Gerard W. Malaczynski, Robert Van der Poel
Certain harmonics of angular crankshaft velocity are indicative of engine imbalance induced by cylinder misfire. Application of the Digital Fourier Transformation (DFT) facilitates the production-feasible calculation of a singular index in the frequency domain indicative either of smooth engine operation or misfire. The phase of that particular index with proper interpretation directly points to a misfiring cylinder. The identification of a misfiring pair, either opposing or a non-opposing in the cylinder bank, requires a bit more sophisticated approach since the phase response of the characteristic index in the frequency domain becomes more complex. The method demonstrated here was successfully applied in real time in four-, six-, and eight-cylinder engines, both SI and Diesel, for the On-Board Diagnostic application with reliability exceeding relevant regulatory requirements.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0166
Kyung-ho Ahn, Hakan Yilmaz, Anna Stefanopoulou, Li Jiang
Flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) are able to operate on a blend of ethanol and gasoline in any volumetric concentration of up to 85% ethanol (93% in Brazil). The estimation of ethanol content is crucial for optimized and robust performance in such vehicles. Even if an ethanol sensor is utilized, an estimation scheme independent of the ethanol sensor measurement retains advantages in enhancing the reliability of ethanol estimation and allowing on-board diagnostics. It is well-known that an exhaust gas oxygen (EGO) sensor could be utilized to estimate the ethanol content, which exploits the difference in stoichiometric air-to-fuel ratio (SAFR) between ethanol (9.0) and gasoline (14.6). The SAFR-based ethanol estimation has been shown to be prone to large errors with mass air flow sensor bias and/or fuel injector shift.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0347
David P. Sczomak, Allan Zhao, Michael Simon, Yangbing Zeng
Optimization of engine startup from crank to catalyst light-off is essential for achieving low emissions. For Spark Ignition Direct Injected (SIDI) engines, this requires optimization of the piston crown features, spray characteristics and control strategy. In this case study, high speed endoscope imaging was used to provide a qualitative confirmation of CFD spray predictions and to provide insight into engine starting in a “real” engine environment. The effect of piston feature was initially evaluated in a single cylinder engine running the dual-injection catalyst heating mode. The piston features were also assessed at part load and wide open throttle. The videos of the spray development were compared to CFD predictions. In the example case reported here, endoscope imaging showed that the baseline piston bowl was not effective in deflecting the spray toward the spark plug. Moving the piston bowl toward the injector gave a visible improvement in the spray deflection.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0345
Derek Splitter, Sage Kokjohn, Keith Rein, Reed Hanson, Scott Sanders, Rolf D. Reitz
The ignition process of fuel reactivity controlled PCCI combustion was investigated using engine experiments and detailed CFD modeling. The experiments were performed using a modified all metal heavy-duty, compression-ignition engine. The engine was fueled using commercially available gasoline (PON 91.6) and ULSD diesel delivered through separate port and direct injection systems, respectively. Experiments were conducted at a steady state-engine load of 4.5 bar IMEP and speed of 1300 rev/min. In-cylinder optical measurements focused on understanding the fuel decomposition and fuel reactivity stratification provided through the charge preparation. The measurement technique utilized point location optical access through a modified cylinder head with two access points in the firedeck. Optical measurements of natural thermal emission were performed with an FTIR operating in the 2-4.5 μm spectral region.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0346
Loic de Francqueville, Gilles Bruneaux, Benoist Thirouard
In order to study the soot formation and oxidation phenomena during the combustion process of Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines, soot volume fraction measurements were performed in an optical GDI engine by combined Laser-Induced Incandescence (LII) and Laser Extinction Method (LEM). The coupling of these two diagnostics takes advantages of their complementary characteristics. LII provides a two-dimensional image of the soot distribution while LEM is used to calibrate the LII image in order to obtain soot volume fraction fields. The LII diagnostic was performed through a quartz cylinder liner in order to obtain a vertical plane of soot concentration distribution. LEM was simultaneously performed along a line of sight that was coplanar with the LII plane, in order to carry out quantitative measurements of path-length-averaged soot volume fraction. The LII images were calibrated along the same path as that of the LEM measurement.
2009-11-10
Technical Paper
2009-01-3122
Fred Potter
This paper presents several possible topologies for Electronic Power Distribution Systems. A discussion is presented on the advantages and drawbacks of each topology. Weight savings, reliability increase, diagnostics and prognostics capabilities are discussed. Trade study results are presented to back up the discussion. The paper also presents some options on communication between the power system and the avionics systems.
2009-11-10
Journal Article
2009-01-3149
Jimmy Secretan
Requirements analysis for aircraft simulators is often driven by photographs and videos of the actual aircraft. An engineer may gather and organize hundreds or even thousands of source photos of various instruments and devices unique to the aircraft. Managing all of this source information and referencing it to generate software requirements can be challenging and time-consuming. This paper explores Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) techniques to automatically process and search those images to generate basic requirements and to facilitate reuse. An unsupervised clustering algorithm groups source images based on minimal user input. Images processed in this way can also be queried by image similarity, thereby allowing project managers to find common source material among projects. The effectiveness of these techniques is demonstrated on an example cockpit.
Viewing 271 to 300 of 4788