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2013-10-20
Standard
AS85352/3A
Scope is unavailable.
2013-10-20
Standard
AS85352/4A
Scope is unavailable.
2013-10-20
Standard
ARP6240
The task of chemical process operator in the parts cleaning area is generally considered unskilled labor and in the past, little or no training had been provided or recommended. Since overhaul cleaning is a critical process step prior to visual and fluorescent penetrant inspection processes, consideration must be given to minimum levels of training for these process operators. It is the responsibility of the department supervisor to ensure that all personnel within the department are trained to acceptable level in all general aspects of health and safety and basic operating procedures. This document is intended to augment the local quality control system which will control the application and frequency of the guidelines stated within.
2013-10-17
Standard
AMS2644F
This specification establishes the classification, technical requirements, tests, and test procedures for the qualification, approval, and quality verification of all materials used in the liquid penetrant methods of inspection with the exception of those excluded in the application section.
2013-10-14
Journal Article
2013-01-2544
Chao Liu, Changfu Zong, Lei He, Chunshan Li, Minghui Liu
A fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) algorithm of 4WID/4WIS Electric Vehicles has been proposed in this study aiming to find the actuator faults. The 4WID/4WIS EV is one of the promising architectures for electric vehicle designs which is driven independently by four in-wheel motors and steered independently by four steering motors. The 4WID/4WIS EVs have many potential abilities in advanced vehicle control technologies, but diagnosis and accommodation of the actuator faults becomes a significant issue. The proposed FDD approach is an important part of the active fault tolerant control (AFTC) algorithm. The main objective of the FDD approach is to monitor vehicle states, find the faulty driving motor and then feedback fault information to the controller which would adopt appropriate control laws to accommodate the post-fault vehicle control system.
2013-10-11
Standard
AIR5295A
This document is offered to provide state-of-the-art information about design factors that must be considered in the design of new or significantly modified engine test cells used to test propeller equipped turboprop engines in either QEC or bare engine configurations. The report does not address design considerations for test cells designed to test turboprop engines with dynamometer type load absorption devices because they are essentially tested as turboshaft engines. Design considerations for those test cells are presented in AIR4989, Reference 2.1.
2013-10-10
Standard
AS85352/1A
Scope is unavailable.
2013-10-10
WIP Standard
ARP6852
This ARP documents methods and processes that may be utilized by aircraft manufacturers (or type certificate holders, researchers, or others) to evaluate the aerodynamic effects of SAE aircraft ground deicing/anti-icing fluids (“fluids”) when applied to specific aircraft.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0228
Fernanda Meneses Kelly, Helaine Maria Braga Sbampato
On cab-over trucks to access the engine and others components it is necessary to tilt the cab. This is a regular procedure done several times during the vehicle life cycle. In order to make it easier and safer for mechanical tilting system, it was developed an articulated safety bar to sustain and maintain the cab on the open position. On the current bars available in the market, to close the cab it is necessary that the operator get under the cab to disengage the safety bar. This procedure puts the operator under risk because an accident can happen while the disengagement and the cab can close over him. Thinking on that and looking for a better ergonomic and safety situation, the objective of this work is to present a new articulated safety bar that the engagement and disengagement is done automatically with the natural tilting movement of the cab. This solution was developed at Iveco Latin America for adoption on the new Vertis HD and is under patent process.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0248
Hélio Rocha Pegorer, João Vilan Júnior, Max Mauro Dias Santos
The increasing application of embedded electronic components in vehicles brings the need to use diagnostic systems for track and control of parameters. Development, manufacturing and after-sales are all fields that use diagnostic systems' help to execute their tasks. Applying communication protocols such as KWP2000, SAEJ1939/73 and UDS makes diagnostic device and automotive network communicate to each other according to standards. This work aims to present an overview about a few communication protocols for diagnostic and services, by showing their specific tools and applications.
2013-10-04
Standard
AIR4725A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides design data reliability information relative to the long-term storage of gas containers or pressure vessels charged with nitrogen or helium at pressures ranging from 6000 to 12 000 psi. The gas containers are cylindrical, spherical, or toroidal in shape. Internal volumes range up to 1385 in3. Applications for this type cold gas actuation system include tactical missiles, guided projectiles, and smart bombs. A typical system is described.
2013-10-04
Standard
ARP4990A
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides to the aerospace industry a procedure for the consistent and accurate calculation of fuel flow using turbine flowmeters during development, production, and post overhaul/repair gas turbine engine testing.
2013-09-26
Standard
AIR6133
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is broken into various categories for convenience and ease of identification. It is the purpose of this document to provide certain criteria for the design and selection of stairways, for the boarding of passengers onto an aircraft. The criteria presented are limited to those factors which affect the safety of the passengers and are coordinated, where applicable, with the practices of the architectural profession, with respect to the design of stairways. Comprehensive design requirements for passenger stairs can be found in the industry documents listed under 2.1.3, 2.1.4, and 2.1.5 hereafter. The recommended practices are applicable to both mobile variable-elevation type stairways and to fixed-elevation stairways of the type built into an aircraft fuselage.
2013-09-26
WIP Standard
AS6278
This Standard specifies the minimum design and performance criteria and testing methods of passive fire resistant containers ( FRCs ) for carriage on aircraft main deck, to be used: (a) either in those cargo compartments of civil transport aircraft where they constitute one means of complying with applicable airworthiness regulations, (b) or on a voluntary basis, when deemed appropriate by operators to improve fire protection in aircraft cargo compartments where airworthiness regulations do not currently mandate their use.
2013-09-26
Standard
ARP1786C
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) is to provide a recommended minimum laboratory roll performance for main landing gear aircraft wheels without tires installed and applies to both bolted and lock-ring wheel designs for FAA Part 25 and military aircraft main wheels (not required for any nose wheels or main wheels on FAA Part 23, 27 or 29 applications).
2013-09-26
WIP Standard
ARP5485B
The purpose of this SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) is to provide the sample selection and endurance time test procedures, for SAE Type II, III, and IV aircraft deicing/anti-icing fluids, required for the generation of endurance time data of acceptable quality for review by the SAE G 12 Holdover Time Subcommittee.
2013-09-25
Book
Ian K. Jennions
Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) is a relatively new subject, with its roots back in the space sector of the early 1990s. Although many of the papers written around that time did not refer to it as IVHM, the fundamental principles of considering an integrated end-to-end system to monitor the overall health of the asset were clearly visible. As the subject of Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) and its associated technologies have grown up, businesses are making the transformation from selling a product to selling a service. This can be viewed as a positive disruption, as a relatively small technology breakthrough is being brought to market for a large business benefit. The sequence “sense—acquire—transfer—analyze—act “ feeds the information (processed data) on the asset’s health into the Operations or Management control center.
2013-09-24
WIP Standard
ARP5374B
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) applies to Point-Of-Use, Central and Mobile Pre-Conditioned Air Equipment. It does not apply to aircraft mounted equipment.
2013-09-24
Journal Article
2013-01-2409
Tomi Krogerus, Mika Hyvönen, Kalevi Huhtala
In this paper, the operating states of a wheel loader were studied for diagnostics purposes using a real time simulation model of an articulated-frame-steered wheel loader. Test drives were carried out to obtain measurement data, which were then analyzed. The measured time series data were analyzed to find the sequences of operating states using two different data sets, namely the variables of hydrostatic transmission and working hydraulics. A time series is defined as a collection of observations made sequentially in time. In our proposed method, the time series data were first segmented to find operating states. One or more segments build up an operating state. A state is defined as a combination of the patterns of the selected variables. The segments were then clustered and classified. The operating states were further analyzed using the quantization error method to detect anomalies.
2013-09-24
Journal Article
2013-01-2408
Arnold Taube, Michael Mercier
Adoption of a new Electronic Systems Computer-Aided Design (ECAD) system for modeling electrical systems design by Product Engineering offers the promise of improved accuracy and productivity for Service Publication's authors to create wiring diagrams and to standardize their format; while improving the comprehension and functionality of those documents for service technicians. It is also potentially disruptive, requiring new workflows, processes, standards and lines of communication to be developed. This paper describes how to structure and organize a project for effectively and efficiently bringing a new ECAD system for modeling electrical system design into Service Publications. It also provides insight into some lessons learned.
2013-09-20
Journal Article
2013-01-9041
Shawki Abouel-Seoud, Mohamed Khalil, Sameh Metwalley, Essam Allam, Hany Assad
Reliability has always been an important aspect in the assessment of industrial products and/or equipments. Good product design is of course essential for products with high reliability. However, no matter how good the product design is, products deteriorate over time since they are operating under certain stress or load in the real environment, often involving randomness. Maintenance has, thus, been introduced as an efficient way to assure a satisfactory level of reliability during the useful life of a physical asset. The earliest maintenance technique is basically breakdown maintenance (also called unplanned maintenance, or run-to-failure maintenance), which takes place only at breakdowns. A later maintenance technique is time-based preventive maintenance (also called planned maintenance), which sets a periodic interval to perform preventive maintenance regardless of the health status of a physical asset. The vehicle component is judged to be safe depending on its reliability.
2013-09-19
Standard
ARP6461
This document is applicable to civil aerospace airframe structural applications where stakeholders are seeking guidance on the definition, development and certification of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) technologies for aircraft health management applications. For the purpose of this document, SHM is defined as “the process of acquiring and analyzing data from on-board sensors to evaluate the health of a structure.” The suite of on-board sensors could include any presently installed aircraft sensors as well as new sensors to be defined in the future.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2238
Manoj Radle, Biswadip Shome
Liquid ring pumps are used in aircraft fuel systems in conjunction with main impeller pumps. These pumps are used for priming the pump system as well as to remove fuel vapor and air from the fuel. Prediction of cavitation in liquid ring pumps is important as cavitation degrades the performance of these pumps and leads to their failure. As test based assessment of cavitation risk in liquid ring pump is expensive and time consuming, recent approaches have been to assess and predict the risk of cavitation using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods with the goal to quicken the design process and optimize the performance of these pumps. The present study deals with the development and assessment of a CFD methodology to simulate cavitation for a liquid fuel pump used in aircraft fuel systems. The study simulates the cavitation phenomena using a multi-phase flow model consisting of fuel vapor, air, and liquid fuel phases.
2013-09-17
Journal Article
2013-01-2201
Joshua Benhabib
Manufacturing operations introduce unreliability into hardware that is not ordinarily accounted for by reliability design engineering efforts. Inspections and test procedures normally interwoven into fabrication processes are imperfect, and allow defects to escape which later result in field failures. Therefore, if the reliability that is designed and developed into an equipment/system is to be achieved, efforts must be applied during production to insure that reliability is built into the hardware. There are various ways to improve the reliability of a product. These include: Simplification Stress reduction/strength enhancement Design Improvement Using higher quality components Environmental Stress Screening before shipment Process Improvements, etc. This paper concentrates on ‘Manufacturing Process Improvement’ effort through the use of design of experiments, (DOE). Hence, improved levels of reliability can be achieved.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2315
Raphael Van Der Vorst, Jean Louis Magerman, Bruno Bernay, Swen Vandenberk, Alex Carrella
Wing Anti-Icing Systems (WAIS) are integral part of a wing design. Their presence ensures safety in all-weather conditions. In standard designs, the WAIS are fitted in the slat internal structure and runs throughout its span in between the ribs. Given its critical function, such a system has to pass qualification test. The test specification is dictated by international standards. In the case discussed in this article, the standard adopted is the RTCA DO-160G “Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures for Airborne Equipment”. In particular, the work presented here concerns with the Vibration environmental test. The standard prescribes a number of dynamic tests to be carried out on the AIS: random, shock and sine excitation tests have to be performed in order to study their effect on the parts composing the Anti-Icing System. The standard prescribes vibration levels at the attachment locations of the AIS to the wings' ribs.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2159
Luigi Di Palma, Assunta Sorrentino, Pasquale Vitiello, Carmelo Izzo
The target of this paper is to describe the SHM project developed at CIRA. In order to achieve the low weigh target in the MALE UAV structures, the SHM project has the target to setup a system that, being able to evaluate the current state of the structure, will enable minus conservative assumption in the composite structural design. A lamb wave based procedure has been developed in order to analyze the presence of a barely visible impact defect (BVID). The techniques for the damage detections of composite and metallic structures have been developed through extensive numerical-experimental analysis based on lambwave investigation by using piezoelectric sense- actuators. The use of SHM technology and methodology has shown the possibility to have a significant reduction in the structural weight. The technology has achieved a TRL level between 4 and 5 and in order to achieve a higher TRL a test on a component in relevant environment is planned at the end of 2014.
2013-09-17
Journal Article
2013-01-2301
Yao Wang, Shon Grabbe
When the demand for either a region of airspace or an airport approaches or exceeds the available capacity, miles-in-trail (MIT) restrictions are the most frequently issued traffic management initiatives (TMIs) that are used to mitigate these imbalances. Miles-in-trail operations require aircraft in a traffic stream to meet a specific inter-aircraft separation in exchange for maintaining a safe and orderly flow within the stream. This stream of aircraft can be departing an airport, over a common fix, through a sector, on a specific route or arriving at an airport. This study begins by providing a high-level overview of the distribution and causes of arrival MIT restrictions for the top ten airports in the United States. This is followed by an in-depth analysis of the frequency, duration and cause of MIT restrictions impacting the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport (ATL) from 2009 through 2011.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2294
Faisal Khan, Ian Jennions, Tarapong Sreenuch
In today's aircraft the diagnostic and prognostic systems play a crucial part in aircraft safety while reducing the operating and maintenance costs. Aircraft are very complex in their design and require consistent monitoring of systems to establish the overall vehicle health status. Most diagnostic systems utilize advanced algorithms (e.g. Bayesian belief networks or neural networks) which usually operate at system or sub-system level. The sub-system reasoners collect the input from components and sensors to process the data and provide the diagnostic/detection results to the flight advisory unit. Several sources of information must be taken into account when assessing the vehicle health, to accurately identify the health state in real time. These sources of information are independent system-level diagnostics that do not exchange any information/data with the surrounding systems.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2146
William Bense
Operational reliability of aircraft engines can be increased if one can detect signs of damages before failure. Prognosis and Health Monitoring (PHM) consists in detecting these signs, and giving the probability of equipment anomaly at a defined horizon. This article presents a global overview of PHM systems. Using a system engineering approach, the needs and the equipments to monitor are clearly specified. The dedicated algorithms and embedded / ground systems split are then defined. Embedded system is mainly limited to data acquisition and data reduction. Ground system contains most of the algorithmic part. First, embedded indicators are normalized in order to be compared flight by flight. Then several kinds of approach can be applied to these indicators: among them, trend analysis toward a predefined threshold or anomaly detection. When an anomaly is detected, a classification algorithm identifies failure signature and associated equipment.
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