Cylinder by cylinder indicated torque and combustion feature estimation based on engine instantaneous speed and one cylinder pressure through error similarity analysis
Abstract There is increasing demand for engine diagnostic and control with in-cylinder pressure signal. However, the application of cylinder pressure sensors are restricted by the high cost of the sensor. Another possible way for engine combustion state estimation is by processing of instantaneous crankshaft speed signal, but it is limited by the precision and complexity of the algorithm. It could be a solution by processing one cylinder pressure signal in combination with a crankshaft speed signal. The indicated torque could be estimated through engine speed processing and also from the measure cylinder pressure for the reference cylinder. Measurement results from experiments show that the indicated torque error traces of different cylinder are similar in shape. According to this assumption, the reference cylinder with cylinder pressure signal available can serve as both a parameter calibration information source and an error reduction measure.
Cycle Resolved Combustion and Pre-Ignition Diagnostic Employing Ion Current in a PFI Boosted SI Engine
Abstract An ion current sensor is employed in a 4 cylinder production SI engine for combustion diagnosis during combustion process, knock, and low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) detection. The results show that the ion current peak value and ion current peak phase have strong correlation with the cylinder pressure and pressure peak phase respectively. The COV of ion current integral value is greater than the COV of IMEP at the same operating condition. Results show that the ion current signal is sensitive to different lambdas. Using ion current signal, the knock in any given cylinder can be detected. Importantly, the ion sensor successfully detected the low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) about more than 20 °CA before spark ignition.
Abstract A rotating bearing must have an excellent durability life. Various studies have been conducted for a long time to predict the bearing durability life. However, the bearing durability life has been predicted by an analytic formula in terms of the raceway and ball. A finite element structural analysis has been carried out for a flange, commonly with an assumption of a static load. So it is difficult to consider the dynamic effects (Centrifugal force, Gyroscope effect) of the bearing, which is very important due to its high speed operation. In order to predict the accurate bearing durability life, the dynamic effects must be considered. This paper proposes a method for bearing durability life prediction, considering dynamic effects. Contact between the raceway and ball is one of the important factors to take into account for the dynamic effects of the bearing.
Reliability and Robust Design in Automotive Engineering: Reliability-Based Design Optimization and Robustness, 2015
This collection of technical papers will address theoretical developments and automotive applications in RBDO and Robust Design. Topics include: computational algorithms for efficient estimation of reliability, Monte Carlo simulation, Bayesian reliability, Dempster-Shafer Evidence Theory, and Multi-Disciplinary Optimization, among others.
Abstract Security access feature based on seed-key mechanism is widely used in automotive electronics, mainly for flashing ECU software, writing or reading specific parameter values and running diagnostic routines. There exist a number of techniques to decode the algorithm for key generation from a specific seed. Such techniques can put vehicle network at great risks due to an intruder flashing unauthorized version of ECU software, or changing internal parameters of ECU, or changing a VIN number. A lot more similar malicious attacks can be done by getting control over the ECUs. Attackers can exploit this vulnerability to alter the performance from the stock and affect the safety of the passengers. A novel and fool proof algorithm to protect the vehicle and ECU from such malicious attacks is explained in this paper. An advanced encryption technique is developed and tested in ECU to replace the current seed-key mechanisms for ECU security guarantying a secure operation of the vehicle.
Abstract In this paper we propose a secure wireless sensor network system for vehicle health monitoring (VHM). We discuss the architecture of the proposed model, and it's implementation in vehicles. Modified AES-CCM is used to provide confidentiality in the network. In the proposed scheme combination of interactive and non-interactive methods are used for reliable message delivery.
Diagnostic Coverage Evaluation Method for Analog Circuits to Comply with Functional Safety Standards
Abstract The ISO 26262 is a functional safety standard for road vehicles. The standard requires manufacturers to conduct quantitative assessment of the diagnostic coverage (DC) of products. The DC is defined as the percentage of failure probability covered by safety mechanisms. However, DC evaluation methods for drift faults, in which the change in element values is not constant, have not been discussed. In this paper, we propose a DC evaluation method for analog circuits with drift faults. With this method, we first parameterize the effect of drift faults onto a bounded region then split the region into safe fault, hazardous detectable fault, and hazardous undetectable fault regions. We evaluate the classification rate distribution by the area ratios of these regions.
Abstract Cavitation plays an important role in fuel injection systems. It alters the nozzle's internal flow structure and discharge coefficient, and also contributes to injector wear. Quantitatively measuring and mapping the cavitation vapor distribution in a fuel injector is difficult, as cavitation occurs on very short time and length scales. Optical measurements of transparent model nozzles can indicate the morphology of large-scale cavitation, but are generally limited by the substantial amount of scattering that occurs between vapor and liquid phases. These limitations can be overcome with x-ray diagnostics, as x-rays refract, scatter and absorb much more weakly from phase interfaces. Here, we present an overview of some recent developments in quantitative x-ray diagnostics for cavitating flows. Measurements were conducted at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, using a submerged plastic test nozzle.
Abstract With demands for enhanced environmental performance such as fuel economy, the tendency has been to reduce the amount of wind introduced to the engine room to reduce drag. Meanwhile, exhaust gas temperatures are increasing in order to reduce emissions concentrations. As a result, the temperature environments for parts inside the engine room and underfloor parts are becoming harsher, and accurately understanding the temperature environments of parts is crucial in determining Engine room component layout during vehicle development and applying effective thermal countermeasures. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are effective for understanding complex phenomena such as heat generation and cooling. However, this paper reports the development of a method for accurately calculating the vehicle temperature distribution through identification from test results.
Study on Vehicle Collision Predicting using Vehicle Acceleration and Angular Velocity of Brake Pedal
Abstract The combination of passive and active vehicle safety technologies can effectively improve vehicle safety. Most of them predict vehicle crashes using radar or video, but they can't be applied extensively currently due to the high cost. Another collision forecasting method is more economic which is based on the driver behavior and vehicle status, such as the acceleration, angular velocity of the brake pedal and so on. However, the acceleration and angular velocity of the brake pedal will change with the driver and the vehicle type. In order to study the effect of different drivers and vehicle types on the braking acceleration and angular velocity of the brake pedal, six volunteers were asked to drive five vehicles for simulating the working conditions of emergency braking, normal braking, inching braking and passing barricades under different velocities. All the tests were conducted on asphalt road, and comprehensive experimental design was used to arrange tests.
This document establishes standard graphical symbols and color conventions for use in either still (static) or animated graphics used for communicating service information. This document’s purpose is to communicate conventions for using those symbols and colors to accurately and consistently communicate intended information via graphics-based documentation. These practices are intended for use in service procedures, assembly instructions, training materials, and similar applications when trying to minimize the amount of human natural language text used within the document. The still and animated graphical conventions referenced should support effective communication via paper and “traditional” electronic media. The conventions can also extend to documenting via additional electronic delivery paradigms such as Augmented Reality (AR).
This section presents the basic equations for computing ice protection requirements for nontransparent and transparent surfaces and for fog and frost protection of windshields. Simplified graphical presentations suitable for preliminary design and a description of various types of ice, fog, frost, and rain protection systems are also presented.
This is a general curriculum that has been developed to identify the minimum knowledge and skill requirements of a composite and/or metal bond repair technician/specialist. This revision changes the document from an all-inclusive curriculum into a modular set of curricula. Teaching levels have been assigned to the curriculum to define the knowledge, skills and abilities graduates will need to make composite repairs. Minimum hours of instruction have been provided to ensure adequate coverage of all subject matter - lecture and laboratory. These minimums may be exceeded, and may include an increase in the total number of training hours and/or increases in the teaching levels.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) outlines the basic general design considerations for transport aircraft tow bars. It does not cover the requirements for tow bars intended for aircraft with a maximum ramp mass (MRW) below 8600 kg (19 000 lb).
The purpose of this SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is to provide information that would be useful to potential users/operators and decision makers for evaluating and quantifying the benefits of an Engine Monitoring Systems (EMS) versus its cost of implementation. This document presents excerpts from reports developed to analyze "actual aircraft cost/benefits results". These are presented as follows: a. First, to outline the benefits and cost elements pertaining to EMS that may be used in performing a cost versus benefits analysis. b. Second, to present considerations for use in conducting the analysis. c. Third, to provide examples of analyses and results as they relate to the user/operator and decision-maker community. The document encompasses helicopters and fixed wing aircraft and distinguishes between civilian and military considerations.
Minimum Performance Requirements for Non-Refrigerant Tracer Gasses and Electronic Tracer Gas Leak Detectors
This standard provides the testing and functional requirements guidance necessary for a leak detection device that uses any non-A/C refrigerant tracer gas, such as helium or a nitrogen-hydrogen blend, to provide functional performance equivalent to a refrigerant electronic leak detector. It explains how a non- refrigerant leak detector’s calibration can be established to provide levels of detection equal to electronic leak detectors that meet SAE J2791 for R-134a and SAE J2913 for R-1234yf.
This paper describes a recommended practice and procedure for the correlation of test cells that are used for the performance testing of turboprop and turboshaft engines. This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) shall apply to both dynamometer and propeller based testing. Test cell correlation is performed to determine the effect of any given test cell enclosure and equipment on the performance of an engine relative to the baseline performance of that engine.
Aerospace Qualified Electronic Component (AQEC) Requirements, Volume 1 - Integrated Circuits and Semiconductors
This Standard applies to integrated circuits and semiconductors exhibiting the following attributes: a. A minimum set of requirements, or information provided by the part manufacturer, which will allow a standard COTS component to be designated AQEC by the manufacturer. b. As a minimum, each COTS component (designated AQEC) will have been designed, fabricated, assembled, and tested in accordance with the component manufacturer's requirements for standard data book components. c. Qualification of, and quality systems for, the COTS components to be designated as AQEC shall include the manufacturer's standards, operating procedures, and technical specifications. d. Components manufactured before the manufacturer has addressed AQEC requirements, but utilizing the same processes, are also considered AQEC compliant. e. Additional desired attributes of a device designated AQEC (that will support AQEC users) are found in Appendix B of this standard.
Drivers who live where it gets really cold in the winter know the value of remote-starting systems. In this episode of SAE Eye on Engineering, Senior Editor Lindsay Brooke looks at remote-starting technology.
CRIMPING TOOLS, TERMINAL, HAND OR POWER ACTUATED, WIRE TERMINATION, PNEUMATIC TOOL FOR WIRE BARREL SIZES 20 THROUGH 28
SCOPE IS UNAVAILABLE.
CRIMPING TOOLS, TERMINAL, HAND OR POWER ACTUATED, WIRE TERMINATION, ACCESSORY HARDWARE FOR AS22520/28 AND AS22520/29 TOOLS
SCOPE IS UNAVAILABLE.
This document applies to the development of Plans for integrating and managing electronic components in equipment for the military and commercial aerospace markets; as well as other ADHP markets that wish to use this document. Examples of electronic components, as described in this document, include resistors, capacitors, diodes, integrated circuits, hybrids, application specific integrated circuits, wound components, and relays. It is critical for the Plan owner to review and understand the design, materials, configuration control, and qualification methods of all "as-received" electronic components, and their capabilities with respect to the application; identify risks, and where necessary, take additional action to mitigate the risks. The technical requirements are in Clause 3 of this standard, and the administrative requirements are in Clause 4.
SAE J1979 / ISO 15031-5 set includes the communication between the vehicle's OBD systems and test equipment implemented across vehicles within the scope of the legislated emissions-related OBD.
Balancing Machines – Description and Evaluation Vertical, Single-Plane, Non-Rotating Type for Gas Turbine Rotors
Characteristics of vertical non-rotating balancing machines are described which make such machines suitable for balancing rigid unbladed gas turbine rotors or rotors with fixed, integral blades.
A. This certification standard establishes the minimum requirements for training, examining, and certifying composite structure repair personnel. It establishes criteria for the certification of personnel requiring appropriate knowledge of the technical principles underlying the composite structural repairs they perform. Persons certified under this document may be eligible for licensing or certification/ qualification by an appropriate authority, in addition to this industry accepted aircraft composite repair technician certification and qualification. B. Persons who successfully complete the requirements of this certification standard are considered to be able to perform commercial aircraft composite repairs to composite structures in compliance with the manufacturers’ repair documentation or other acceptable repair methods. C. This document provides a method that a maintenance organization can use to qualify repair technicians
The purpose of this document is to specify the functional requirements for a miniature connector to be used for health monitoring purposes on aircrafts (including harsh environment such as the powerplant). It is actually a family of miniature connectors that is specified in this document for various uses (e.g. pin counts) and environments. This specification will be used by the SAE connector committee to work on a dedicated connector standard.
Rotary SI/CI combustion engines: A thing of the future? The internal combustion engine enjoys widespread use as an inexpensive and reliable power conversion system. While piston engines date back 150 years, various alternative engine architectures and cycles have been considered. Aftertreatment comes with challenging diagnosis Diagnosing engine and aftertreatment systems is forcing design teams to look at new ways to diagnose problems over long vehicle lifetimes. Taking on NVH reduction techniques A look at the enhanced durability benefits obtained by changing the polymer composition, manufacturing methods, and design optimization of a powertrain mount for an off-highway vehicle.
Getting a grip on AWD efficiency The safety and performance benefits of all-wheel drive are undeniable, but so are the penalties of added weight, friction losses, and complexity. Clever axle disconnects and E-axles are driving future AWD developments. E pluribus unum Inputs from many sensors are being combined to give safety systems a true vision of vehicle surroundings, with the resulting sensor fusion becoming a mainstay of autonomous vehicle electronics. Lightweighting poses repair challenges Mass-produced aluminum bodies and mixed-material structures present challenges for assembly and repair, as automakers increasingly pursue these lightweight strategies. Setting the standard Meggitt CTO Emeritus begins term at helm of SAE International, seeks to encourage cross-sector relations, elevate image of SAE as aerospace industry leader.