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Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Marc Olivas, Jérôme Genoulaz, Luca Incarbone
In this paper, we present a new application of electromagnetic topology to model the channel formed by an aircraft harness to develop fault detection and localization. This method allows the numerical simulation of reflectometry signals for any kind of wired uniform and non-uniform.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Luigi Di Palma, Assunta Sorrentino, Pasquale Vitiello, Carmelo Izzo
The target of this paper is to describe the SHM project developed at CIRA. In order to achieve the low weigh target in the MALE UAV structures, the SHM project has the target to setup a system that, being able to evaluate the current state of the structure, will enable minus conservative assumption in the composite structural design. A lamb wave based procedure has been developed in order to analyze the presence of a barely visible impact defect (BVID). The techniques for the damage detections of composite and metallic structures have been developed through extensive numerical-experimental analysis based on lambwave investigation by using piezoelectric sense- actuators. The use of SHM technology and methodology has shown the possibility to have a significant reduction in the structural weight. The technology has achieved a TRL level between 4 and 5 and in order to achieve a higher TRL a test on a component in relevant environment is planned at the end of 2014. The application on MALE UAV prototype will be done also considering the STANAG 4671 (USAR) NATO airworthiness regulation.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Hitoshi Oyori, Noriko Morioka
With airlines increasingly directing their attention to operating costs and environmental initiatives, the More Electric Architecture for Aircraft and Propulsion (MEAAP) is emerging as a viable solution for improved performance and eco-friendly aircraft operations. This paper focuses on electric taxiing that does not require the use of jet engines or the auxiliary power unit (APU) during taxiing, either from the departure gate to take-off or from landing to the arrival gate. Many researchers and engineers are considering introducing electric taxiing systems as part of efforts to improve airport conditions. To help cut aircraft emissions at airports, MEAAP seeks to introduce an electric taxiing system that would reduce the duration for which engines and APUs operate while on the ground. Given this goal, the aircraft electrical system deployed for use at airports must rely on a power source other than the jet engines or APU. A report based on a specific airport indicates that use of the jet engine and APU while on the aircraft is on the ground consumes 3% of all fuel consumed during the course of a flight.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Ivana Durickovic, Mario Marchetti, Stephanie Poissonnier, Guillaume Casteran, Rachel Mansour, Nathalie Schweigert, Benoit Mars
Winter maintenance is based on the intervention of operating services, as well as the use of deicers. Each year, in France, thousands of tons of deicers are spread through runways and taxiways. On the airport sector, the main deicers are sodium or potassium acetates and formates. All these deicers aim to prevent ice formation (preventive strategy) and/or improve the ice melting of snow residual film (curative strategy) at temperatures below 0°C. The operating principle of these compounds is based on the lowering of the solution's freezing point once dissolved in water. The phase diagram's knowledge is predominant to determine the deicer's amount to be applied on the surface. It provides a way to optimize their amounts applied with respect to weather conditions, present or forecasted. The Center for Technical Studies of Equipment in East of France (CETE de l'Est) developed and implemented a method based on Raman spectroscopy to characterize aqueous solutions of airport de-icers. This application determines the phase transition temperatures of these solutions, according to their concentration.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Raphael Van Der Vorst, Jean Louis Magerman, Bruno Bernay, Swen Vandenberk, Alex Carrella
Wing Anti-Icing Systems (WAIS) are integral part of a wing design. Their presence ensures safety in all-weather conditions. In standard designs, the WAIS are fitted in the slat internal structure and runs throughout its span in between the ribs. Given its critical function, such a system has to pass qualification test. The test specification is dictated by international standards. In the case discussed in this article, the standard adopted is the RTCA DO-160G “Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures for Airborne Equipment”. In particular, the work presented here concerns with the Vibration environmental test. The standard prescribes a number of dynamic tests to be carried out on the AIS: random, shock and sine excitation tests have to be performed in order to study their effect on the parts composing the Anti-Icing System. The standard prescribes vibration levels at the attachment locations of the AIS to the wings' ribs. However, one issue specific to the anti-icing system is its dimension.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Joao Pedro Pinheiro Malere, Luis Gustavo dos Santos
1 The current pressure across the entire aerospace industry to reduce operating costs and increase efficiency has arguably never been greater. Thus the need to improve parameters such as availability and reliability, and increase the tools and services associated with more efficient aircraft operations and sustainment is now paramount. Moreover, these improvements are seen by many as important factors that define the differentiation and competitiveness of not only current but also future aircraft fleets. The paper will focus on some of the opportunities for OEMs that arise from implementing Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) systems on their platforms and the challenges associated with evaluating the costs and benefits of their implementation and operation.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Jonathan L. Geisheimer, David Kwapisz, Thomas Holst, Michael Hafner
Blade tip clearance is a key design parameter for gas turbine designers. This parameter is often measured during engine testing and development phases as part of design validation but has yet to be utilized during normal engine fleet operation. Although blade tip clearance measurements are often mentioned for fleet operation in the context of active clearance control, the use of blade tip clearance measurements can provide an additional benefit for engine health monitoring. This paper explores the use of blade tip clearance sensors for engine condition monitoring of hot section blades. Blade tip clearance, especially in the first stage turbine, has an impact on exhaust gas temperature. The use of tip clearance measurements can provide supplementary information to traditional EGT measurements by providing a direct measurement of wear on the blade tips. In addition, blade creep and cracking can be measured and tracked if the sensors are able to provide clearance values of individual blades.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
William Bense
Operational reliability of aircraft engines can be increased if one can detect signs of damages before failure. Prognosis and Health Monitoring (PHM) consists in detecting these signs, and giving the probability of equipment anomaly at a defined horizon. This article presents a global overview of PHM systems. Using a system engineering approach, the needs and the equipments to monitor are clearly specified. The dedicated algorithms and embedded / ground systems split are then defined. Embedded system is mainly limited to data acquisition and data reduction. Ground system contains most of the algorithmic part. First, embedded indicators are normalized in order to be compared flight by flight. Then several kinds of approach can be applied to these indicators: among them, trend analysis toward a predefined threshold or anomaly detection. When an anomaly is detected, a classification algorithm identifies failure signature and associated equipment. Lastly, Remaining Useful Life (RUL) is estimated.
Standard
2013-09-10
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) presents all appropriate boss dimensions from .125 inch to 2.0 inch tube sizes.
WIP Standard
2013-09-05
This SAE AIR provides a description of a reference method for viscosity tests of thickened (AMS 1428) anti-icing fluids.
Book
2013-09-05
Ian K. Jennions
The third volume in the Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) series focuses on the technology that actually supports the implementation of IVHM in real-life situations. Edited by Ian K. Jennions, Director of the IVHM Center at Cranfield University, UK, this book was written collaboratively by twenty-seven authors from industry, academia and governmental research agencies. Topics include: -Sensors, instrumentation and signal processing -Fault detection and diagnostics -Prognostics and metrics -Architecture -Data Management -Vehicle level reasoning systems -System's design -Applications and disruptive technologies Integrated Vehicle Heath Management: The Technology follows two bestsellers, also published by SAE International, which cover the fundamentals aspects of this new body of knowledge (Integrated Vehicle Health Management: Perspectives on an Emerging Field), and the business justification needed so that investments in the technology make sense (Integrated Vehicle Health Management: Business Case Theory and Practice).
WIP Standard
2013-09-04
This specification covers a carbon soil and paint remover compound in the form of a liquid. Primarily for removal of carbonaceous soils and paint from aircraft turbine engine parts by immersing the parts in liquid at room temperature.
WIP Standard
2013-09-04
This specification covers a strongly alkaline scale conditioner in the form of a liquid or a water-soluble powder. This product has been used typically in conditioning heat scale formed on aircraft turbine engine high-temperature alloy part by immersion in a solution of the compound at elevated temperature, but usage is not limited to such applications. These compounds are unsuitable for cleaning aluminum parts.
WIP Standard
2013-09-04
This specification covers an alkaline permanganate oxide conditioner in the form of a water-soluble powder or a liquid for dilution with water. This product has been used typically for conditioning of oxidation products on aircraft turbine engine components fabricated from steels, nickel alloys, and cobalt alloys by immersion in a solution of the cleaner at elevated temperature, but usage is not limited to such applications.
WIP Standard
2013-09-04
This specification covers an inhibited phosphoric acid in the form of a liquid concentrate or a water soluble powder for dilution with water. Primarily for derusting of aircraft turbine engine ferrous components and removal of heat scale and other contamination from the surface of nickel alloys by immersion at room temperature. Should not be used on steel parts having hardness of 40 HRC or over.
Standard
2013-09-03
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) developed by a broad cross section of personnel from the aviation industry and government agencies is offered to provide state-of-the-art information for the use of individuals and organizations designing new or upgraded turboshaft engine test facilities.
Standard
2013-08-29
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides guidelines for the format and content of documents defining the interface between electronic propulsion control systems and aircraft systems. The scope includes civilian aircraft powered by turbofan, turboprop, and turboshaft engines equipped with electronic engine controls.
WIP Standard
2013-08-23
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) defines minimum requirements for an aircraft transport ULD to transport horses properly and safely by air, to protect the horse(s) from injuries, and to protect the aircraft from corrosion created by waste spill. The ULD is designed to accommodate one horse or several.
Standard
2013-08-21
This standard covers self-propelled off-road work machines as categorized in SAE J1116 and Agricultural Tractors as defined in ANSI/ASAE S390.
Standard
2013-08-12
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides descriptions of test methods for determining if an aircraft surface coating of any thickness has adverse effects on aircraft deicing/anti-icing fluids with respect to fluid holdover time performance and aerodynamic performance. Although not the primary mandate of the G-12 Aircraft Ground Deicing Committee, this document also provides descriptions of suggested test methods for evaluating aircraft surface coatings with respect to durability, hardness, weathering, aerodynamic drag, ice adhesion, ice accumulation, contact angle, and thermal conductivity. These additional tests can provide informational data for characterizing the coatings and may be useful to operators when evaluating the coatings.
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