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Standard
2013-10-11
This document is offered to provide state-of-the-art information about design factors that must be considered in the design of new or significantly modified engine test cells used to test propeller equipped turboprop engines in either QEC or bare engine configurations. The report does not address design considerations for test cells designed to test turboprop engines with dynamometer type load absorption devices because they are essentially tested as turboshaft engines. Design considerations for those test cells are presented in AIR4989, Reference 2.1.
WIP Standard
2013-10-10
This ARP documents methods and processes that may be utilized by aircraft manufacturers (or type certificate holders, researchers, or others) to evaluate the aerodynamic effects of SAE aircraft ground deicing/anti-icing fluids (“fluids”) when applied to specific aircraft.
Standard
2013-10-10
Scope is unavailable.
Technical Paper
2013-10-07
Fernanda Meneses Kelly, Helaine Maria Braga Sbampato
On cab-over trucks to access the engine and others components it is necessary to tilt the cab. This is a regular procedure done several times during the vehicle life cycle. In order to make it easier and safer for mechanical tilting system, it was developed an articulated safety bar to sustain and maintain the cab on the open position. On the current bars available in the market, to close the cab it is necessary that the operator get under the cab to disengage the safety bar. This procedure puts the operator under risk because an accident can happen while the disengagement and the cab can close over him. Thinking on that and looking for a better ergonomic and safety situation, the objective of this work is to present a new articulated safety bar that the engagement and disengagement is done automatically with the natural tilting movement of the cab. This solution was developed at Iveco Latin America for adoption on the new Vertis HD and is under patent process.
Technical Paper
2013-10-07
Hélio Rocha Pegorer, João Vilan Júnior, Max Mauro Dias Santos
The increasing application of embedded electronic components in vehicles brings the need to use diagnostic systems for track and control of parameters. Development, manufacturing and after-sales are all fields that use diagnostic systems' help to execute their tasks. Applying communication protocols such as KWP2000, SAEJ1939/73 and UDS makes diagnostic device and automotive network communicate to each other according to standards. This work aims to present an overview about a few communication protocols for diagnostic and services, by showing their specific tools and applications.
Standard
2013-10-04
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides design data reliability information relative to the long-term storage of gas containers or pressure vessels charged with nitrogen or helium at pressures ranging from 6000 to 12 000 psi. The gas containers are cylindrical, spherical, or toroidal in shape. Internal volumes range up to 1385 in3. Applications for this type cold gas actuation system include tactical missiles, guided projectiles, and smart bombs. A typical system is described.
Standard
2013-10-04
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides to the aerospace industry a procedure for the consistent and accurate calculation of fuel flow using turbine flowmeters during development, production, and post overhaul/repair gas turbine engine testing.
Standard
2013-09-26
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) is to provide a recommended minimum laboratory roll performance for main landing gear aircraft wheels without tires installed and applies to both bolted and lock-ring wheel designs for FAA Part 25 and military aircraft main wheels (not required for any nose wheels or main wheels on FAA Part 23, 27 or 29 applications).
WIP Standard
2013-09-26
The purpose of this SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) is to provide the sample selection and endurance time test procedures, for SAE Type II, III, and IV aircraft deicing/anti-icing fluids, required for the generation of endurance time data of acceptable quality for review by the SAE G 12 Holdover Time Subcommittee.
Standard
2013-09-26
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is broken into various categories for convenience and ease of identification. It is the purpose of this document to provide certain criteria for the design and selection of stairways, for the boarding of passengers onto an aircraft. The criteria presented are limited to those factors which affect the safety of the passengers and are coordinated, where applicable, with the practices of the architectural profession, with respect to the design of stairways. Comprehensive design requirements for passenger stairs can be found in the industry documents listed under 2.1.3, 2.1.4, and 2.1.5 hereafter. The recommended practices are applicable to both mobile variable-elevation type stairways and to fixed-elevation stairways of the type built into an aircraft fuselage.
WIP Standard
2013-09-26
This Standard specifies the minimum design and performance criteria and testing methods of passive fire resistant containers ( FRCs ) for carriage on aircraft main deck, to be used: (a) either in those cargo compartments of civil transport aircraft where they constitute one means of complying with applicable airworthiness regulations, (b) or on a voluntary basis, when deemed appropriate by operators to improve fire protection in aircraft cargo compartments where airworthiness regulations do not currently mandate their use.
Book
2013-09-25
Ian K. Jennions
Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) is a relatively new subject, with its roots back in the space sector of the early 1990s. Although many of the papers written around that time did not refer to it as IVHM, the fundamental principles of considering an integrated end-to-end system to monitor the overall health of the asset were clearly visible. As the subject of Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) and its associated technologies have grown up, businesses are making the transformation from selling a product to selling a service. This can be viewed as a positive disruption, as a relatively small technology breakthrough is being brought to market for a large business benefit. The sequence “sense—acquire—transfer—analyze—act “ feeds the information (processed data) on the asset’s health into the Operations or Management control center. Here, decisions can be made on maintenance actions with knowledge of the supply chain status, MRO loading, etc., provided by Maintenance and Logistics systems.
Technical Paper
2013-09-24
Arnold Taube, Michael Mercier
Adoption of a new Electronic Systems Computer-Aided Design (ECAD) system for modeling electrical systems design by Product Engineering offers the promise of improved accuracy and productivity for Service Publication's authors to create wiring diagrams and to standardize their format; while improving the comprehension and functionality of those documents for service technicians. It is also potentially disruptive, requiring new workflows, processes, standards and lines of communication to be developed. This paper describes how to structure and organize a project for effectively and efficiently bringing a new ECAD system for modeling electrical system design into Service Publications. It also provides insight into some lessons learned.
Technical Paper
2013-09-24
Tomi Krogerus, Mika Hyvönen, Kalevi Huhtala
In this paper, the operating states of a wheel loader were studied for diagnostics purposes using a real time simulation model of an articulated-frame-steered wheel loader. Test drives were carried out to obtain measurement data, which were then analyzed. The measured time series data were analyzed to find the sequences of operating states using two different data sets, namely the variables of hydrostatic transmission and working hydraulics. A time series is defined as a collection of observations made sequentially in time. In our proposed method, the time series data were first segmented to find operating states. One or more segments build up an operating state. A state is defined as a combination of the patterns of the selected variables. The segments were then clustered and classified. The operating states were further analyzed using the quantization error method to detect anomalies. The recognized operating states define the operation of the machine so the analysis can be focused on specific sections and situations in time series and to identify which kinds of operating situations generate anomalies.
WIP Standard
2013-09-24
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) applies to Point-Of-Use, Central and Mobile Pre-Conditioned Air Equipment. It does not apply to aircraft mounted equipment.
Technical Paper
2013-09-20
Shawki Abouel-Seoud, Mohamed Khalil, Sameh Metwalley, Essam Allam, Hany Assad
Reliability has always been an important aspect in the assessment of industrial products and/or equipments. Good product design is of course essential for products with high reliability. However, no matter how good the product design is, products deteriorate over time since they are operating under certain stress or load in the real environment, often involving randomness. Maintenance has, thus, been introduced as an efficient way to assure a satisfactory level of reliability during the useful life of a physical asset. The earliest maintenance technique is basically breakdown maintenance (also called unplanned maintenance, or run-to-failure maintenance), which takes place only at breakdowns. A later maintenance technique is time-based preventive maintenance (also called planned maintenance), which sets a periodic interval to perform preventive maintenance regardless of the health status of a physical asset. The vehicle component is judged to be safe depending on its reliability. Consequently, there is a general attention to establish approach by which the failure risk has to be known.
Standard
2013-09-19
This document is applicable to civil aerospace airframe structural applications where stakeholders are seeking guidance on the definition, development and certification of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) technologies for aircraft health management applications. For the purpose of this document, SHM is defined as “the process of acquiring and analyzing data from on-board sensors to evaluate the health of a structure.” The suite of on-board sensors could include any presently installed aircraft sensors as well as new sensors to be defined in the future.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Raphael Van Der Vorst, Jean Louis Magerman, Bruno Bernay, Swen Vandenberk, Alex Carrella
Wing Anti-Icing Systems (WAIS) are integral part of a wing design. Their presence ensures safety in all-weather conditions. In standard designs, the WAIS are fitted in the slat internal structure and runs throughout its span in between the ribs. Given its critical function, such a system has to pass qualification test. The test specification is dictated by international standards. In the case discussed in this article, the standard adopted is the RTCA DO-160G “Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures for Airborne Equipment”. In particular, the work presented here concerns with the Vibration environmental test. The standard prescribes a number of dynamic tests to be carried out on the AIS: random, shock and sine excitation tests have to be performed in order to study their effect on the parts composing the Anti-Icing System. The standard prescribes vibration levels at the attachment locations of the AIS to the wings' ribs. However, one issue specific to the anti-icing system is its dimension.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Faisal Khan, Ian Jennions, Tarapong Sreenuch
In today's aircraft the diagnostic and prognostic systems play a crucial part in aircraft safety while reducing the operating and maintenance costs. Aircraft are very complex in their design and require consistent monitoring of systems to establish the overall vehicle health status. Most diagnostic systems utilize advanced algorithms (e.g. Bayesian belief networks or neural networks) which usually operate at system or sub-system level. The sub-system reasoners collect the input from components and sensors to process the data and provide the diagnostic/detection results to the flight advisory unit. Several sources of information must be taken into account when assessing the vehicle health, to accurately identify the health state in real time. These sources of information are independent system-level diagnostics that do not exchange any information/data with the surrounding systems. This limits the system by preventing cross check or health status information exchange amongst the related sub-systems.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Jianhua Ge, Brian Lefevre, Michael Roemer, Rodney Martin
This paper presents a novel health monitoring and fault adaptive control architecture for an unmanned hexrotor helicopter. The technologies developed to achieve the described level of robust fault contingency management include; 1.) A Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) routine for maximizing the “built-in” fault tolerance that the closed loop flight control system affords, 2.) A two-stage Kalman filter scheme for real-time identification of faults that are masked by control system compensation, and 3.) A reconfigurable control allocation method which compensates for large degradations of the six main motor/rotor assemblies. The fault adaptive control system presented herein has strong robustness against small faults without the need for controller reconfiguration, and strong tolerance of large faults through adaptive accommodation of the fault source and severity. By taking advantage of the inherent fault-tolerant nature of typical closed loop control systems, the technology described in this paper avoids the difficulties associated with typical fault detection and isolation (FDI) techniques that have poor performance when targeting incipient faults.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Lucas Campos Puttini
This paper discusses the correlation of IVHM (Integrated Vehicle Health Management) as an emerging aerospace discipline and the Big Data paradigm widely discussed in the Information Technology industry. The 4-V model is discussed to qualify a Big Data problem in terms of the volume, variety, velocity and veracity of the data involved. Big Data management allows, for example, correlations to be found to “spot business trends, determine quality of research, prevent diseases, combat crime, and determine real-time roadway traffic conditions”. Examining these two fields side by side is necessary and desirable because innovation is very likely to occur when and where different but correlated domains interface. This paper compares the most significant technical components required for Big Data Analytics and IVHM to work. Most aerospace players have recognized the strategic value of IVHM, but only a few have been able to establish coordinated action plans that allow them to offer advanced services in line with the possibilities envisioned.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Marc Olivas, Jérôme Genoulaz, Luca Incarbone
In this paper, we present a new application of electromagnetic topology to model the channel formed by an aircraft harness to develop fault detection and localization. This method allows the numerical simulation of reflectometry signals for any kind of wired uniform and non-uniform.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Hitoshi Oyori, Noriko Morioka
With airlines increasingly directing their attention to operating costs and environmental initiatives, the More Electric Architecture for Aircraft and Propulsion (MEAAP) is emerging as a viable solution for improved performance and eco-friendly aircraft operations. This paper focuses on electric taxiing that does not require the use of jet engines or the auxiliary power unit (APU) during taxiing, either from the departure gate to take-off or from landing to the arrival gate. Many researchers and engineers are considering introducing electric taxiing systems as part of efforts to improve airport conditions. To help cut aircraft emissions at airports, MEAAP seeks to introduce an electric taxiing system that would reduce the duration for which engines and APUs operate while on the ground. Given this goal, the aircraft electrical system deployed for use at airports must rely on a power source other than the jet engines or APU. A report based on a specific airport indicates that use of the jet engine and APU while on the aircraft is on the ground consumes 3% of all fuel consumed during the course of a flight.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Ivana Durickovic, Mario Marchetti, Stephanie Poissonnier, Guillaume Casteran, Rachel Mansour, Nathalie Schweigert, Benoit Mars
Winter maintenance is based on the intervention of operating services, as well as the use of deicers. Each year, in France, thousands of tons of deicers are spread through runways and taxiways. On the airport sector, the main deicers are sodium or potassium acetates and formates. All these deicers aim to prevent ice formation (preventive strategy) and/or improve the ice melting of snow residual film (curative strategy) at temperatures below 0°C. The operating principle of these compounds is based on the lowering of the solution's freezing point once dissolved in water. The phase diagram's knowledge is predominant to determine the deicer's amount to be applied on the surface. It provides a way to optimize their amounts applied with respect to weather conditions, present or forecasted. The Center for Technical Studies of Equipment in East of France (CETE de l'Est) developed and implemented a method based on Raman spectroscopy to characterize aqueous solutions of airport de-icers. This application determines the phase transition temperatures of these solutions, according to their concentration.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
William Bense
Operational reliability of aircraft engines can be increased if one can detect signs of damages before failure. Prognosis and Health Monitoring (PHM) consists in detecting these signs, and giving the probability of equipment anomaly at a defined horizon. This article presents a global overview of PHM systems. Using a system engineering approach, the needs and the equipments to monitor are clearly specified. The dedicated algorithms and embedded / ground systems split are then defined. Embedded system is mainly limited to data acquisition and data reduction. Ground system contains most of the algorithmic part. First, embedded indicators are normalized in order to be compared flight by flight. Then several kinds of approach can be applied to these indicators: among them, trend analysis toward a predefined threshold or anomaly detection. When an anomaly is detected, a classification algorithm identifies failure signature and associated equipment. Lastly, Remaining Useful Life (RUL) is estimated.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Luigi Di Palma, Assunta Sorrentino, Pasquale Vitiello, Carmelo Izzo
The target of this paper is to describe the SHM project developed at CIRA. In order to achieve the low weigh target in the MALE UAV structures, the SHM project has the target to setup a system that, being able to evaluate the current state of the structure, will enable minus conservative assumption in the composite structural design. A lamb wave based procedure has been developed in order to analyze the presence of a barely visible impact defect (BVID). The techniques for the damage detections of composite and metallic structures have been developed through extensive numerical-experimental analysis based on lambwave investigation by using piezoelectric sense- actuators. The use of SHM technology and methodology has shown the possibility to have a significant reduction in the structural weight. The technology has achieved a TRL level between 4 and 5 and in order to achieve a higher TRL a test on a component in relevant environment is planned at the end of 2014. The application on MALE UAV prototype will be done also considering the STANAG 4671 (USAR) NATO airworthiness regulation.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Manoj Radle, Biswadip Shome
Liquid ring pumps are used in aircraft fuel systems in conjunction with main impeller pumps. These pumps are used for priming the pump system as well as to remove fuel vapor and air from the fuel. Prediction of cavitation in liquid ring pumps is important as cavitation degrades the performance of these pumps and leads to their failure. As test based assessment of cavitation risk in liquid ring pump is expensive and time consuming, recent approaches have been to assess and predict the risk of cavitation using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods with the goal to quicken the design process and optimize the performance of these pumps. The present study deals with the development and assessment of a CFD methodology to simulate cavitation for a liquid fuel pump used in aircraft fuel systems. The study simulates the cavitation phenomena using a multi-phase flow model consisting of fuel vapor, air, and liquid fuel phases. The rotation of the blades is simulated using two approaches, a steady state multiple reference frame approach and a transient sliding mesh approach.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Christian Modest, Frank Thielecke
This paper presents a model-based approach for the multi-objective design of optimized diagnosis functions for high lift actuation systems. These systems are used to augment lift at low speed during takeoff and landing, and are safety critical. This demands requirements to the detection of failures and the isolation of root causes in order to provide a high availability at low risk. Dedicated functions cover the determination of features, the detection of symptoms and the isolation of root causes by means of inference and resolution. The aim of the design approach is to provide these functions in an optimal manner with respect to multiple objectives. In order to be clear and traceable the approach consists of separate consecutive steps. These are arranged by using systems engineering principles. With respect to requirements, models of different levels of detail are developed and used to design stepwise all required functions. This is done by evaluating cause-effect matrices, temporal information about the appearance of effects, and a configuration graph.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Nayeff Najjar, James Hare, Paul D'Orlando, Gregory Leaper, Krishna Pattipati, Andre Silva, Shalabh Gupta, Rhonda Walthall
This paper addresses the issue of fault diagnosis in the heat exchanger of an aircraft Air Conditioning System (ACS). The heat exchanger cools the air by transferring the heat to the ram-air. Due to a variety of biological, mechanical and chemical reasons, the heat exchanger may experience fouling conditions that reduces the efficiency and could considerably affect the functionality of the ACS. Since, the access to the heat exchanger is limited and time consuming, it is preferable to implement an early fault diagnosis technique that would facilitate Condition Based Maintenance (CBM). The main contribution of the paper is pre-flight fault assessment of the heat exchanger using a combined model-based and data-driven approach of fault diagnosis. A Simulink model of the ACS, that has been designed and validated by an industry partner, has been used for generation of sensor data for various fouling conditions. A total of nine different fouling levels are simulated including the nominal condition.
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