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2014-05-07
WIP Standard
AIR1903A
An airplane fuel tank inerting system provides an inert atmosphere in a fuel tank to minimize explosive ignition of fuel vapor. This AIR deals with the three methods of fuel tank inerting systems currently used in operational aircraft: (1) on-board inert gas generation systems (OBIGGS), (2) liquid/gaseous nitrogen systems and (3) Halon systems. The OBIGGS and nitrogen systems generally are designed to provide full-time fuel tank fire protection; the Halon systems generally are designed to provide only on-demand or combat-specific protection. This AIR does not treat the subject of Explosion Suppression Foam (ESF) that has been used for fuel tank explosion protection on a number of military aircraft. ESF is a totally passive, full-time protection system with multiple and simultaneous hit capability up to 23 mm. The primary disadvantages of foam are weight, reduction of usable fuel, and the added maintenance complexity when the foam must be removed for tank maintenance or inspection.
2014-04-29
Article
Volvo Buses recently opened its fourth Volvo Bus Center in India, this one in Bangalore. The company’s “bus centers” are an aftermarket concept offering a range of services, parts, training, and “soft solutions” at one location, with the aim of enhancing product uptime, product upkeep, and the overall customer experience.
2014-04-29
Standard
ARP1967B
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) recommends design and test criteria for reusable shipping and storage containers for aircraft engines and modules, weapon systems and components, etc. The containers are to provide water-vaporproof and physical protection.
2014-04-28
Technical Paper
2014-28-0011
Santosh Bhoomaraddi
Abstract The influence of embedded optical fibre on the strength and stiffness of flexurally loaded composite laminate is studied in this paper. In a given structure, different loads create a complex state of stresses in the structure. In-situ structural health monitoring of composite structures could be achieved by using embedded optical fiber as sensors. Modern OFS (Optical Fibre Sensors) are suitable for the measurement of temperature, pressure, strain, angular rotation, speed, acceleration, curvature, flow, refractive index, and many other parameters. The strength and fracture behaviour of the structure could be significantly affected by improper alignment and placement of optical fibres in the laminate. The utilization of embedded optical fibres for damage detection is accurate and reliable if the interaction between the optical fibre and the delamination is known.
2014-04-25
WIP Standard
AIR4782B
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) presents historical information and background data related to hydrant valves and couplers used in worldwide ground refueling of commercial aircraft (hereafter generically referred to as hydrant devices). Military hydrant devices are not included since their mission requirements demand approaches that may differ.
2014-04-24
WIP Standard
GEIASTD0005_1B
This standard defines the objectives of, and requirements for, documenting processes that assure customers and regulatory agencies that ADHP electronic systems containing Pb-free solder, piece parts, and PBs will satisfy the applicable requirements for performance, reliability, airworthiness, safety, and certifiability throughout the specified life of performance. It is intended to communicate requirements for a Pb-free Control Plan (LFCP), hereinafter referred to as the Plan, and to assist the Plan Owners in the development of their own Plans. The Plan documents the Plan Owner’s processes that assure their customers, and all other stakeholders that the Plan Owner's products will continue to meet their requirements, given the risks stated in the Introduction. This standard does not contain detailed descriptions of the processes to be documented but lists high-level requirements for such processes, and areas of concern to the ADHP industries that must be addressed by the processes.
2014-04-22
Article
The SAE International Motor Vehicle Council (MVC) has indicated support for a proposal by the Historic Vehicle Association (HVA) to cooperate in the development and publication of best-practice guidelines for preservation, restoration, and responsible use of historic vehicles.
2014-04-15
WIP Standard
AIR1589B
Only those incidents where a piece of ground support equipment directly associated with the "turnaround" servicing of an aircraft was involved are reviewed. Specifically excluded are those incidents that occurred during heavy maintenance, overhaul activity, or aircraft taxiing. This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) summarizes aircraft damage, coupled with contributory factors, caused by GSE. it also offers recommendations in reducing exposure to aircraft damage.
2014-04-15
WIP Standard
ARP1816D
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) describes two general types of Ground Support Equipment (GSE) battery chargers. The conventional industrial battery charger typically requiring up to 8 hours to recharge a 100% discharged battery, hereafter called “Conventional Charger”. The other type a fast battery charger typically used as an opportunity charger for ground support equipment, hereafter called “Fast Charger”. Recommendations that apply to both types will refer generically to “charger”.
2014-04-15
WIP Standard
ARP1836C
This SAE Recommended Practice (ARP) outlines the functional and design requirements for a battery powered, self propelled belt conveyor for handling baggage and cargo at aircraft bulk cargo holds.
2014-04-15
Standard
AS1390
This standard establishes general requirements and descriptions of specific activities for performance of LORA during the life cycle of products or equipment. When these requirements and activities are performed in a logical and iterative nature, they comprise the LORA process.
2014-04-14
WIP Standard
AIR4174A
The purpose of this SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is to provide management, designers, and operators with information to assist them to decide what type of power train monitoring they desire. This document is to provide assistance in optimizing system complexity, performance and cost effectiveness. This document covers all power train elements from the point at which the gas generator energy is transferred to mechanical energy for propulsion purposes. The document covers engine power train components, their interfaces, transmissions, gearboxes, hanger bearings, shafting and associated rotating accessories, propellers and rotor systems as shown in Figure 1. This document addresses application for rotorcraft, turboprop, and propfan drive trains for both commercial and military aircraft. Information is provided to assist in; a. Defining technology maturity and application risk b. Cost benefit analysis (Value analysis) c. Selection of system components d.
2014-04-11
Standard
AMS2980/5A
This Material Specification defines the requirements of carbon fiber fabric and epoxy resin systems used for wet lay-up repair of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy structures, qualified according to AMS 2980/1 and 2980/2.
2014-04-10
Article
Dangers from malware, including ransom demands, must be pro-actively avoided as industry and owners enter era of connected cars. For all their conveniences, telematics could pose ugly series of risks that will require new approaches to prevent, explains Cisco Systems scientist to SAE Congress attendees. Vulnerabilities are in many areas, including the OBD system.
2014-04-09
Standard
J1699/4_201404
To define a list of anomalies related to OBD Communications. Misinterpretations of various OBD Communications Standards and Recommended Practices have resulted in OBD “no-communications” situations in the field. This Information Report identifies the most prevalent of these.
2014-04-09
Standard
AMS2980/2B
AMS 2980/2 gives specific information about the qualification program for carbon fiber fabric, epoxy systems and the material combination used for wet lay-up repair of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy structures.
2014-04-08
Standard
AMS2980/1B
AMS 2980/1 gives information about the technical requirements and qualification procedure for carbon fiber fabric and epoxy resin systems used for wet lay-up repair of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy structures.
2014-04-08
Standard
AMS2980/3B
The PS specifies the batch release and delivery requirements for carbon fiber and carbon fabric used for wet lay-up repair purposes.
2014-04-03
WIP Standard
EIASTD4899B
This document defines the requirements for developing an Electronic Components Management Plan (ECMP), hereinafter also called the Plan, to assure customers and regulatory agencies that all of the electronic components in the equipment of the Plan owner are selected and applied in controlled processes compatible with the end application; and that the Technical Requirements detailed in clause 5.0 are accomplished. In general the owners of a complete Electronic Components Management Plan are avionics equipment manufacturers.
2014-04-03
Standard
AMS2980/4B
This PS specifies the batch release and delivery requirements for epoxy resin systems (base resin and curing agent) used for wet lay-up repair purposes. This specification relates to qualified epoxy resin systems listed in the associated QPL.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0724
Derek R. Braden, David M. Harvey
Abstract There is a continual growth of test and validation in high reliability product applications such as automotive, military and avionics. Principally this is driven by the increased use and complexity of electronic systems deployed in vehicles, in addition to end user reliability expectations. Higher reliability expectations consequently driving increased test durations. Furthermore product development cycles continue to reduce, resulting in less available time to perform accelerated life tests. The challenge for automotive electronic suppliers is performing life tests in a shorter period of time whilst reducing the overall associated costs of validation testing. In this paper, the application of prognostic and health monitoring techniques are examined and a novel approach to the validation and testing of automotive electronics proposed which it is suggested may be more cost effective and efficient than traditional testing.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0747
Youji Hiraoka, Katsunari Yamamoto, Tamotsu Murakami, Yoshiyuki Furukawa, Hiroyuki Sawada
Abstract The authors propose computerized support for Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) based on new knowledge management in product design. FTA is a method of analyzing and visualizing the causes of a fault event by Fault Tree diagram (FT diagram) that has a tree structure with logical step. Many methods of support for FTA are studied, but they are not effective for our FTA. We have developed the system of Computer-Aided FTA (FTAid) for design engineers by the collaborative research group (JATCO Ltd, The University of Tokyo and National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology). We reported this system in SAE2012 World Congress. After that, the knowledge management for FTA and new functions of this system have been studied continuously. In this paper we report that FT diagrams used FTAid improved to be useful for design engineers are analyzed based on individual qualification and skill of FTA, we study improvement of FTAid and the FTA education system.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1479
Antonino La Rocca, Gianluca Di Liberto, Paul Shayler, Christopher Parmenter, Mike Fay
The determination of size distribution of soot particles and agglomerates in oil samples using a Nanosight LM14 to perform Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA) is described. This is the first application of the technique to sizing soot-in-oil agglomerates and offers the advantages of relatively high rates of sample analysis and low cost compared to Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Lubricating oil samples were drawn from the sump of automotive diesel engines run under a mix of light duty operating conditions. The oil samples were diluted with heptane before analysing. Results from NTA analysis were compared with the outputs of a more conventional analysis based on Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). This work shows that soot-in-oil exists as agglomerates with average size of 115 nm. This is also in good agreement with TEM analysis carried out in a previous work. NTA can measure soot particles in polydisperse oil solutions and report the size distribution of soot-in-oil aggregates.
2014-04-01
Collection
Vehicle diagnostics deals with the development, delivery and execution of diagnostic procedures for vehicle systems. This technical paper collection will explore new technologies, processes and trends in the area of vehicle diagnostics.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1448
Johan Hult, Simon Matlok, Stefan Mayer
A combination of optical and laser based methods have been employed for simultaneously studying fuel jet penetration and ignition behaviour of fuel jets inside the cylinder of a large marine two-stroke diesel engine during operation. Tests were performed on a four-cylinder Diesel engine with a bore diameter of 0.5 meter. Optical access was obtained through a custom designed engine cover. A double pulsed laser was employed for global illumination of the liquid fuel jet. For detection a dual camera set-up was employed, which allowed both simultaneous fuel jet and flame emission imaging, or dual frame fuel jet imaging for velocity measurements. From the data recorded the liquid penetration, jet cone angle, jet penetration velocity, ignition location, ignition time and flame lift-off could be extracted. Data was recorded for two different charge densities and temperatures, for two different atomizer designs, and for two different fuels.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0281
Peter Subke
Abstract In the past, the automotive industry has learned the lesson that competition on the level of bits and bytes, proprietary bus systems, data communication and diagnostic protocols is unrewarding. Too much time and money has been spent on the development of proprietary diagnostic tools. Vehicle manufacturers and suppliers realized that standardization would be the best way to overcome this situation. Furthermore, regulatory requirements in the US and the EU for such standardization have strengthened this lesson. As a result, the automotive industry has standardized the technology for the communication of external test equipment with electronic control units (ECUs) in road vehicles. Standardization serves the price, the quality and the maintainability via scale and training curve effects.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0279
Rasoul Salehi, Aria Alasty, Gholam-Reza Vossoughi
Proper operation of an internal combustion engine is required by demands of a vehicle driver and governmental legislations. Therefore it is necessary to monitor, within an online technique, the engine and detect any fault which disrupts its normal operation. In this paper, the air-charge path, as a key element in a turbocharged engine, is monitored for an air leakage fault. At first, a robust algorithm to estimate unmeasured turbocharger rotational speed is presented. The sliding mode methodology is used to design the estimator which is shown to be robust to the compressor modeling uncertainties. The estimation error from the sliding mode observer (SMO) is then used to detect abnormal behavior of the turbocharger along with the engine due to a leakage fault in the air-charge path. Experimental results from a modern turbocharged SI engine indicate the designed monitoring technique is able to detect a leakage fault, of 7 mm or higher sizes, in the air-charge path.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1260
Cosmin Emil Dumitrescu, Christopher Polonowski, Brian T. Fisher, A. S. (Ed) Cheng, Gregory K. Lilik, Charles J. Mueller
Natural luminosity (NL) and chemiluminescence (CL) imaging diagnostics are employed to investigate fuel-property effects on mixing-controlled combustion, using select research fuels-a #2 ultra-low sulfur emissions-certification diesel fuel (CF) and four of the Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) diesel fuels (F1, F2, F6, and F8)-that varied in cetane number (CN), distillation characteristics, and aromatic content. The experiments were performed in a single-cylinder heavy-duty optical compression-ignition (CI) engine at two injection pressures, three dilution levels, and constant start-of-combustion timing. If the experimental results are analyzed only in the context of the FACE fuel design parameters, CN had the largest effect on emissions and efficiency.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0282
Alex Beresnev, Max Beresnev
The article provides the rationale for, and describes a new internal combustion engine (ICE) diagnosing method, which involves obtaining a signal within the audio frequency range and its examination together with engine performance through the use of algorithms of high resolution time-and-frequency analysis and techniques involving partial signal reconstruction in the phase space. Examples of how the method may be applied to reveal defects and faults of various units and systems are also described in the article. The paper shows that the method may also be used for other assemblies and units of cars (apart from engines) to analyze patterns for periodic wave structures.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0280
Rui Chen, Xinlei Wang
Abstract In this paper, a model-based diagnostic system was developed to detect and isolate the dosing fault and the outlet NOx sensor fault for the SCR system. The dosing fault is treated as an actuator additive fault, while the outlet NOx sensor drift and/or offset fault is treated as a sensor additive fault. First, a 0-D SCR model was developed to facilitate the model-based approach. A parity equation residual generator was designed based on the linearized SCR model and the fault transfer function matrix. The diagnostic algorithm is then implemented in the Matlab/Simulink environment for validation. A high fidelity nonlinear 1-D SCR model is used to generate system outputs and to simulate the plant. The simulation results show that the model-based fault diagnosis system succeeds in detecting and isolating the outlet NOx sensor and dosing faults with good sensitivity and robustness
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