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Viewing 91 to 120 of 7379
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0747
Youji Hiraoka, Katsunari Yamamoto, Tamotsu Murakami, Yoshiyuki Furukawa, Hiroyuki Sawada
Abstract The authors propose computerized support for Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) based on new knowledge management in product design. FTA is a method of analyzing and visualizing the causes of a fault event by Fault Tree diagram (FT diagram) that has a tree structure with logical step. Many methods of support for FTA are studied, but they are not effective for our FTA. We have developed the system of Computer-Aided FTA (FTAid) for design engineers by the collaborative research group (JATCO Ltd, The University of Tokyo and National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology). We reported this system in SAE2012 World Congress. After that, the knowledge management for FTA and new functions of this system have been studied continuously. In this paper we report that FT diagrams used FTAid improved to be useful for design engineers are analyzed based on individual qualification and skill of FTA, we study improvement of FTAid and the FTA education system.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0281
Peter Subke
Abstract In the past, the automotive industry has learned the lesson that competition on the level of bits and bytes, proprietary bus systems, data communication and diagnostic protocols is unrewarding. Too much time and money has been spent on the development of proprietary diagnostic tools. Vehicle manufacturers and suppliers realized that standardization would be the best way to overcome this situation. Furthermore, regulatory requirements in the US and the EU for such standardization have strengthened this lesson. As a result, the automotive industry has standardized the technology for the communication of external test equipment with electronic control units (ECUs) in road vehicles. Standardization serves the price, the quality and the maintainability via scale and training curve effects. This paper contains a technical introduction of internationally standardized diagnostic protocols (UDS on CAN, WWH-OBD, UDSonIP and DoIP), the D-Server (MVCI) with D-Server API and D-PDU API, the diagnostic data format (ODX) and the open test sequence exchange format (OTX).
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0291
Gopal Athani, Prasad Yerraguntla, Anand Gajaraj, Kapil Dongare
Abstract Micro Hybrid Systems are a premier approach for improving fuel efficiency and reducing emissions, by improving the efficiency of electrical energy generation, storage, distribution and consumption, yet with lower costs associated with development and implementation. However, significant efforts are required while implementing micro hybrid systems, arising out of components like Intelligent Battery Sensor (IBS). IBS provides battery measurements and battery status, and in addition mission critical diagnostic data on a communication line to micro hybrid controller. However, this set of data from IBS is not available instantly after its initialization, as it enters into a lengthy learning phase, where it learns the battery parameters, before it gives the required data on the communication line. This learning period spans from 3 to 8 hours, until the IBS is fully functional and is capable of supporting the system functionalities. This scenario poses a great challenge to conduct the system performance checks at End of Line testing stations in assembly lines, and also in after sales service stations, as the battery data is not available, without which the micro hybrid systems cannot perform their full set of functions.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0278
Olof Lindgarde, Rune Prytz
Abstract This paper presents an approach to fault detection and isolation that is based on off-board 1D simulation tools such as GT-power or AVL Boost. The proposed method enables engineers to develop diagnostic functions early on in a development project. The proposed algorithm is evaluated based on measurements from the air path system of the new Volvo FH truck. The results are encouraging. The paper discusses pros and cons of the method and concludes that it has clear potential to be used for on-board diagnostics.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0279
Rasoul Salehi, Aria Alasty, Gholam-Reza Vossoughi
Proper operation of an internal combustion engine is required by demands of a vehicle driver and governmental legislations. Therefore it is necessary to monitor, within an online technique, the engine and detect any fault which disrupts its normal operation. In this paper, the air-charge path, as a key element in a turbocharged engine, is monitored for an air leakage fault. At first, a robust algorithm to estimate unmeasured turbocharger rotational speed is presented. The sliding mode methodology is used to design the estimator which is shown to be robust to the compressor modeling uncertainties. The estimation error from the sliding mode observer (SMO) is then used to detect abnormal behavior of the turbocharger along with the engine due to a leakage fault in the air-charge path. Experimental results from a modern turbocharged SI engine indicate the designed monitoring technique is able to detect a leakage fault, of 7 mm or higher sizes, in the air-charge path.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0280
Rui Chen, Xinlei Wang
Abstract In this paper, a model-based diagnostic system was developed to detect and isolate the dosing fault and the outlet NOx sensor fault for the SCR system. The dosing fault is treated as an actuator additive fault, while the outlet NOx sensor drift and/or offset fault is treated as a sensor additive fault. First, a 0-D SCR model was developed to facilitate the model-based approach. A parity equation residual generator was designed based on the linearized SCR model and the fault transfer function matrix. The diagnostic algorithm is then implemented in the Matlab/Simulink environment for validation. A high fidelity nonlinear 1-D SCR model is used to generate system outputs and to simulate the plant. The simulation results show that the model-based fault diagnosis system succeeds in detecting and isolating the outlet NOx sensor and dosing faults with good sensitivity and robustness
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0284
Håkan Warnquist, Mattias Nyberg, Jonas Biteus
When a truck or bus suffers from a breakdown it is important that the vehicle comes back on the road as soon as possible. In this paper we present a prototype diagnostic decision support system capable of automatically identifying possible causes of a failure and propose recommended actions on how to get the vehicle back on the road as cost efficiently as possible. This troubleshooting system is novel in the way it integrates the remote diagnosis with the workshop diagnosis when providing recommendations. To achieve this integration, a novel planning algorithm has been developed that enables the troubleshooting system to guide the different users (driver, help-desk operator, and mechanic) through the entire troubleshooting process. In this paper we formulate the problem of integrated remote and workshop troubleshooting and present a working prototype that has been implemented to demonstrate all parts of the troubleshooting system.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1260
Cosmin Emil Dumitrescu, Christopher Polonowski, Brian T. Fisher, A. S. (Ed) Cheng, Gregory K. Lilik, Charles J. Mueller
Natural luminosity (NL) and chemiluminescence (CL) imaging diagnostics are employed to investigate fuel-property effects on mixing-controlled combustion, using select research fuels-a #2 ultra-low sulfur emissions-certification diesel fuel (CF) and four of the Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) diesel fuels (F1, F2, F6, and F8)-that varied in cetane number (CN), distillation characteristics, and aromatic content. The experiments were performed in a single-cylinder heavy-duty optical compression-ignition (CI) engine at two injection pressures, three dilution levels, and constant start-of-combustion timing. If the experimental results are analyzed only in the context of the FACE fuel design parameters, CN had the largest effect on emissions and efficiency. Low-CN fuels had higher indicated specific nitrogen oxides (ISNOx) emissions, but up to 9 and 33 times lower smoke emissions, ∼ 0.01 filter smoke number (FSN), at 80 MPa and 180 MPa injection pressure, respectively, independent of intake oxygen concentration, relative to the high-CN fuels.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1479
Antonino La Rocca, Gianluca Di Liberto, Paul Shayler, Christopher Parmenter, Mike Fay
The determination of size distribution of soot particles and agglomerates in oil samples using a Nanosight LM14 to perform Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA) is described. This is the first application of the technique to sizing soot-in-oil agglomerates and offers the advantages of relatively high rates of sample analysis and low cost compared to Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Lubricating oil samples were drawn from the sump of automotive diesel engines run under a mix of light duty operating conditions. The oil samples were diluted with heptane before analysing. Results from NTA analysis were compared with the outputs of a more conventional analysis based on Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). This work shows that soot-in-oil exists as agglomerates with average size of 115 nm. This is also in good agreement with TEM analysis carried out in a previous work. NTA can measure soot particles in polydisperse oil solutions and report the size distribution of soot-in-oil aggregates. NTA allows for an estimation of soot mass contained in the soot-laden oil samples.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0282
Alex Beresnev, Max Beresnev
The article provides the rationale for, and describes a new internal combustion engine (ICE) diagnosing method, which involves obtaining a signal within the audio frequency range and its examination together with engine performance through the use of algorithms of high resolution time-and-frequency analysis and techniques involving partial signal reconstruction in the phase space. Examples of how the method may be applied to reveal defects and faults of various units and systems are also described in the article. The paper shows that the method may also be used for other assemblies and units of cars (apart from engines) to analyze patterns for periodic wave structures.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1448
Johan Hult, Simon Matlok, Stefan Mayer
A combination of optical and laser based methods have been employed for simultaneously studying fuel jet penetration and ignition behaviour of fuel jets inside the cylinder of a large marine two-stroke diesel engine during operation. Tests were performed on a four-cylinder Diesel engine with a bore diameter of 0.5 meter. Optical access was obtained through a custom designed engine cover. A double pulsed laser was employed for global illumination of the liquid fuel jet. For detection a dual camera set-up was employed, which allowed both simultaneous fuel jet and flame emission imaging, or dual frame fuel jet imaging for velocity measurements. From the data recorded the liquid penetration, jet cone angle, jet penetration velocity, ignition location, ignition time and flame lift-off could be extracted. Data was recorded for two different charge densities and temperatures, for two different atomizer designs, and for two different fuels. The fuel jet was observed to ignite at a position around 1/4 of the length downstream.
2014-03-27
WIP Standard
J2763
This SAE Standard covers the Mini-Shed testing methodology to measure the rate of refrigerant loss from an automotive air conditioning (A/C) system. This SAE procedure encompasses both front and rear air conditioning systems utilizing refrigerants operating under sub-critical conditions.
2014-03-25
Standard
AS4041B
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) establishes the basic requirements for the design, construction and testing of air mode 2.44 m x 2.44 (8 ft X 8 ft) cross-section containers. These containers are to be used exclusively in conjunction with the air mode in freighter versions of wide-body commercial transport aircraft. Air mode containers will normally be on aircraft roller conveying systems and/or on similarly equipped ancillary ground handling devices. Similar requirements for air/surface (intermodal) containers are provided in AS832.
2014-03-25
Standard
AS832G
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) establishes the basic requirements for the specification and testing of air/surface (intermodal) 8 ft x 8 ft (2.44 m x 2.44 m) cross-section containers. The basic rquirements for the air/surface (intermodal) container are presented in Sections 3 to 6 while the detailed design requirements are in Appendix A. Appendix B describes the sections of other standards that apply to air/surface containers. Appendix C describes uniformity of test apparatus and methods. These appendices shall be referred to for important supplemental requirements and procedures for this document. AS4041 presents the requirements for air mode general purpose containers. Requirements for containers to be transported by rotary-wing aircraft are excluded from this document. NOTE: The essential basic and detail criteria are identified by use of the key word "shall." Recommended basic and detail criteria are identified by use of the key word "should," and while notmandatory, are considered to be of primary importance in providing serviceable, economical, and practical air/surface containers.
2014-03-25
Standard
ARP1523C
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) delineates the minimum operational requirements that will ensure that perishable cargoes in insulated standard airborne containers are kept in prime condition during the ground handling and air transportation cycle for a maximum period of 36 h.
2014-03-25
Standard
AS1825C
The scope of this SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) shall cover the methodology of defining and determining the "internal volumes" of both the main deck and lower deck aircraft cargo compartments. The minimum required clearance between the compartment envelope and the unit load devices (ULDs) shall also be stated in order to provide the maximum ULD external contour and the methodology to define the ULD internal volumes.
2014-03-25
Standard
AIR4899A
The methodology for maximum package size loading is bsed on a mathematical method allowing the calculation of maximum package size tables. This method does not in principal differentiate between bulk loading and cargo system loading. However, some restrictions have to be considered: - Some cargo systems generate pre-determined pallet trajectories. Envelope curves depending on the pallet size and the possible trajectories have to be determined first. - Door geometric limitations (with or without cargo loading system) - Turning limitations due to weight, load geometry and conveyance capability - Securing requirements This document is not intended for airline operational use. It should be used by engineers performing calculations or developing computer programs to produce Maximum Package Size tables specified in AS1825.
2014-03-17
Standard
AMS2980B
This document (Technical Specification) gives information about qualification rules and the relation between the different specification parts involved, such as Technical Specification (TS), Material Specification (MS), and Purchasing Specification (PS). The link to material qualification and qualified products is presented.
2014-03-11
Standard
AIR4652A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) covers handicapped passenger boarding devices used airside to transfer handicapped passengers between the terminal building and the aircraft. It provides an elevating platform to facilitate access to the aircraft; it does not cover devices for in-terminal or streetside transfers, wheelchairs for on-board aircraft or in-terminal usage, or aircraft boarding bridges. However, it should be recognized that for many handicapped passengers, a boarding chair is necessary for the lifting operation and movement to the passenger's seat inside the aircraft cabin. Such wheelchairs are widely used in larger aircraft, and the Federal Aviation Agency has developed a performance specification for a boarding chair for commuter aircraft.
2014-03-11
Standard
ARP5140A
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) outlines the design and functional requirements for aircraft passenger lifts, operated manually and self-propelled. The primary function of the lift described in this document is to act as an elevator between ground level and aircraft doorsills to a maximum of 144 in.
2014-03-11
Standard
ARP5141A
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) is intended to recommend a minimum standard, for the design and manufacturer of a self-propelled, chassis mounted passenger boarding vehicle. The vehicle will permit safe operation while minimizing aircraft damage and personnel safety hazards associated with commercial aircraft boarding operations. The vehicle described is intended to be used for assisting wheelchair passengers and passengers with disabilities on and off aircraft with door sill heights of 60 in (152.4 cm) and above.
2014-03-10
WIP Standard
J2030
This SAE Standard encompasses connectors between two cables or between a cable and an electrical component and focuses on the connectors external to the electrical component. This document provides environmental test requirements and acceptance criteria for the application of connectors for direct current electrical systems of 50 V or less in the majority of heavy-duty applications typically used in off-highway machinery. Severe applications may require higher test levels, or field-testing on the intended application.
2014-03-10
WIP Standard
AS5553B
This standard is for use by organizations that procure and/or integrate electronic parts and/or assemblies containing such items. The requirements of this standard are generic and intended to be applied/flowed down through the supply chain to all organizations that procure electronic parts and/or assemblies, regardless of type, size and product provided. The mitigation of fraudulent/counterfeit EEE parts in this standard is risk-based and will vary depending on the desired performance or reliability of the equipment/hardware.
2014-03-06
Standard
AIR4938A
This is a general curriculum that has been developed to identify the minimum knowledge and skill requirements of a composite and/or metal bond repair technician/specialist. This revision changes the document from an all-inclusive curriculum into a modular set of curricula. Teaching levels have been assigned to the curriculum to define the knowledge, skills and abilities graduates will need to make composite repairs. Minimum hours of instruction have been provided to ensure adequate coverage of all subject matter - lecture and laboratory. These minimums may be exceeded, and may include an increase in the total number of training hours and/or increases in the teaching levels.
2014-02-25
WIP Standard
J2912
This SAE Standard applies to refrigerant identification equipment to be used for identifying refrigerant HFC-134a (R-134a) and HFO-1234yf (R-1234yf) refrigerant when servicing a mobile A/C system or for identifying refrigerant in a container to be used to charge a mobile A/C system. Identification of other refrigerants is the option of the equipment manufacturer, although it shall not misidentify refrigerants, per 3.2.
2014-02-21
WIP Standard
ARP5120
SAE ARP 5120 provides recommended best practices, procedures, and technology to guide the physical and functional development, integration, verification, and validation of highly reliable Engine Health Management System (EHMS) for gas turbine engines, including aircraft engines and Auxiliary Power Units (APUs). This ARP also serves as a concise reference of considerations, approaches, activities, and requirements for producing the end-to-end engine health monitoring system comprised of both on and off-board subsystems for the sensing, acquisition, analysis, detection, and data handling functions of an EHMS. These functions and related maintenance activities promote engine safety. These functions may also be used to effect continued operation or return to service decisions when demonstrated as compliant with the applicable airworthiness requirements defined by the responsible Aviation Authority. Where practical, this document delineates between military and commercial practices.
2014-02-21
Standard
ARP6109
This document is intended for use by manufacturers of aircraft, engines and Electronic Engine Controls [EECs] as a component change process and evaluation guideline. Its purpose is to provide an effective means of managing the modification of electronic hardware.
2014-02-13
Standard
ARP6262
It is recognized that the structural integrity of repaired composite structures depends upon the capabilities of the individuals who are responsible for performing the repairs. This document is intended to address repairs of composite structure regardless of the type of structure such as marine, wind turbine, automotive, aircraft, or other applications. This certification standard establishes the minimum requirements for training, examining, and certifying composite structure repair personnel. It establishes criteria for the certification of personnel requiring appropriate knowledge of the technical principles underlying the composite structural repairs they perform. Persons certified under this document may be eligible for licensing or certification/ qualification by an appropriate authority, in addition to this industry accepted basic composite repair technician certification. Persons who successfully complete the requirements of this certification standard are considered to be able to perform basic composite repairs to composite structures in compliance with the manufacturers’ repair documentation or other acceptable repair methods.
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