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Viewing 61 to 90 of 7379
2014-05-09
Technical Paper
2014-01-9022
John O. Manyala, Todd W. Fritz
Electro-hydraulic actuated systems are widely used in industrial applications due to high torque density, higher speeds and wide bandwidth operation. However, the complexities and the parametric uncertainties of the hydraulic actuated systems pose challenges in establishing analytical mathematical models. Unlike electro-mechanical and pneumatic systems, the nonlinear dynamics due to dead band, hysteresis, nonlinear pressure flow relations, leakages and friction affects the pressure sensitivity and flow gain by altering the system's transient response, which can introduce asymmetric oscillatory behavior and a lag in the system response. The parametric uncertainties make it imperative to have condition monitoring with in-built diagnostics capability. Timely faults detection and isolation can help mitigate catastrophic failures. This paper presents a signal-based fault diagnostic scheme for a gearbox hydraulic actuator leakage detection using the wavelet transform. The novelty of the work is the development of a high fidelity leakage fault detection as low as 0.128 lit/min.
2014-05-09
Technical Paper
2014-01-9025
John O. Manyala
The emergence of tougher environmental legislations and ever increasing demand for increased ride comfort, fuel efficiency, and low emissions have triggered exploration and advances towards more efficient vehicle gearbox technologies. The growing complexity and spatial distribution of such a mechatronic gearbox demands precise timing and coordination of the embedded electronics, integrated sensors and actuators as well as excellent overall reliability. The increased gearbox distributed systems have seen an increased dependence on sensors for feedback control, predominantly relying on hardware redundancy for faults diagnosis. However, the conventional hardware redundancy has disadvantages due to increased costs, weight, volume, power requirements and failure rates. This paper presents a virtual position sensor-based Fault Detection, Isolation and Accommodation (FDIA), which generates an analytical redundancy for comparison against the actual sensor output. The proposed FDIA scheme has been validated experimentally using an electro-hydraulic test rig and the gearshift simulation model, including the non-linear hydraulic actuator dynamics.
2014-05-08
WIP Standard
AMS2641C
This specification covers two types of refined hydrocarbon compounds in the form of liquids. This product has been used typically as a vehicle for the suspension of magnetic particles used in magnetic particle inspection procedures, but usage is not limited to such applications.
2014-05-07
WIP Standard
AS5877B
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) prescribes requirements for the various types of nozzles that are used for the refueling of aircraft fitted with pressure fuel servicing systems. It is to be used as a replacement for MIL-N-5877, MS29520 and for all commercial applications.
2014-05-07
WIP Standard
AIR1903A
An airplane fuel tank inerting system provides an inert atmosphere in a fuel tank to minimize explosive ignition of fuel vapor. This AIR deals with the three methods of fuel tank inerting systems currently used in operational aircraft: (1) on-board inert gas generation systems (OBIGGS), (2) liquid/gaseous nitrogen systems and (3) Halon systems. The OBIGGS and nitrogen systems generally are designed to provide full-time fuel tank fire protection; the Halon systems generally are designed to provide only on-demand or combat-specific protection. This AIR does not treat the subject of Explosion Suppression Foam (ESF) that has been used for fuel tank explosion protection on a number of military aircraft. ESF is a totally passive, full-time protection system with multiple and simultaneous hit capability up to 23 mm. The primary disadvantages of foam are weight, reduction of usable fuel, and the added maintenance complexity when the foam must be removed for tank maintenance or inspection. AIR4170A is an excellent reference for the use of ESF for fuel tank explosion protection [1].
2014-04-29
Article
Volvo Buses recently opened its fourth Volvo Bus Center in India, this one in Bangalore. The company’s “bus centers” are an aftermarket concept offering a range of services, parts, training, and “soft solutions” at one location, with the aim of enhancing product uptime, product upkeep, and the overall customer experience.
2014-04-29
Standard
ARP1967B
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) recommends design and test criteria for reusable shipping and storage containers for aircraft engines and modules, weapon systems and components, etc. The containers are to provide water-vaporproof and physical protection.
2014-04-28
Technical Paper
2014-28-0011
Santosh Bhoomaraddi
Abstract The influence of embedded optical fibre on the strength and stiffness of flexurally loaded composite laminate is studied in this paper. In a given structure, different loads create a complex state of stresses in the structure. In-situ structural health monitoring of composite structures could be achieved by using embedded optical fiber as sensors. Modern OFS (Optical Fibre Sensors) are suitable for the measurement of temperature, pressure, strain, angular rotation, speed, acceleration, curvature, flow, refractive index, and many other parameters. The strength and fracture behaviour of the structure could be significantly affected by improper alignment and placement of optical fibres in the laminate. The utilization of embedded optical fibres for damage detection is accurate and reliable if the interaction between the optical fibre and the delamination is known. Despite their small size, compared to the typical diameter of the reinforcement fibres, the diameter of optical fibre is large enough to induce stress concentrations and geometric discontinuities in the structure.
2014-04-25
WIP Standard
AIR4782B
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) presents historical information and background data related to hydrant valves and couplers used in worldwide ground refueling of commercial aircraft (hereafter generically referred to as hydrant devices). Military hydrant devices are not included since their mission requirements demand approaches that may differ.
2014-04-25
WIP Standard
AMS3046G
This specification covers one type of fluorescent magnetic particles in the form of a mixed, ready to use suspension in an odorless, inspection oil vehicle and packaged in aerosol cans. This product has been used typically as the inspection medium in a wet, fluorescent magnetic particle inspection system as defined in AMS2640 or ASTM E 1444, but usage is not limited to such applications.
2014-04-24
WIP Standard
GEIASTD0005_1B
This standard defines the objectives of, and requirements for, documenting processes that assure customers and regulatory agencies that ADHP electronic systems containing Pb-free solder, piece parts, and PBs will satisfy the applicable requirements for performance, reliability, airworthiness, safety, and certifiability throughout the specified life of performance. It is intended to communicate requirements for a Pb-free Control Plan (LFCP), hereinafter referred to as the Plan, and to assist the Plan Owners in the development of their own Plans. The Plan documents the Plan Owner’s processes that assure their customers, and all other stakeholders that the Plan Owner's products will continue to meet their requirements, given the risks stated in the Introduction. This standard does not contain detailed descriptions of the processes to be documented but lists high-level requirements for such processes, and areas of concern to the ADHP industries that must be addressed by the processes. Pb-free risk management should be accomplished through specific requirements added to the Plan Owner's existing infrastructure of product management and control.
2014-04-22
Article
The SAE International Motor Vehicle Council (MVC) has indicated support for a proposal by the Historic Vehicle Association (HVA) to cooperate in the development and publication of best-practice guidelines for preservation, restoration, and responsible use of historic vehicles.
2014-04-15
WIP Standard
ARP1816D
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) describes two general types of Ground Support Equipment (GSE) battery chargers. The conventional industrial battery charger typically requiring up to 8 hours to recharge a 100% discharged battery, hereafter called “Conventional Charger”. The other type a fast battery charger typically used as an opportunity charger for ground support equipment, hereafter called “Fast Charger”. Recommendations that apply to both types will refer generically to “charger”.
2014-04-15
WIP Standard
ARP1836C
This SAE Recommended Practice (ARP) outlines the functional and design requirements for a battery powered, self propelled belt conveyor for handling baggage and cargo at aircraft bulk cargo holds.
2014-04-15
Standard
AS1390
This standard establishes general requirements and descriptions of specific activities for performance of LORA during the life cycle of products or equipment. When these requirements and activities are performed in a logical and iterative nature, they comprise the LORA process.
2014-04-15
WIP Standard
AIR1589B
Only those incidents where a piece of ground support equipment directly associated with the "turnaround" servicing of an aircraft was involved are reviewed. Specifically excluded are those incidents that occurred during heavy maintenance, overhaul activity, or aircraft taxiing. This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) summarizes aircraft damage, coupled with contributory factors, caused by GSE. it also offers recommendations in reducing exposure to aircraft damage.
2014-04-14
WIP Standard
AIR4174A
The purpose of this SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is to provide management, designers, and operators with information to assist them to decide what type of power train monitoring they desire. This document is to provide assistance in optimizing system complexity, performance and cost effectiveness. This document covers all power train elements from the point at which the gas generator energy is transferred to mechanical energy for propulsion purposes. The document covers engine power train components, their interfaces, transmissions, gearboxes, hanger bearings, shafting and associated rotating accessories, propellers and rotor systems as shown in Figure 1. This document addresses application for rotorcraft, turboprop, and propfan drive trains for both commercial and military aircraft. Information is provided to assist in; a. Defining technology maturity and application risk b. Cost benefit analysis (Value analysis) c. Selection of system components d. Selection of technology e.
2014-04-11
Standard
AMS2980/5A
This Material Specification defines the requirements of carbon fiber fabric and epoxy resin systems used for wet lay-up repair of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy structures, qualified according to AMS 2980/1 and 2980/2.
2014-04-10
Article
Dangers from malware, including ransom demands, must be pro-actively avoided as industry and owners enter era of connected cars. For all their conveniences, telematics could pose ugly series of risks that will require new approaches to prevent, explains Cisco Systems scientist to SAE Congress attendees. Vulnerabilities are in many areas, including the OBD system.
2014-04-09
Standard
AMS2980/2B
AMS 2980/2 gives specific information about the qualification program for carbon fiber fabric, epoxy systems and the material combination used for wet lay-up repair of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy structures.
2014-04-09
Standard
J1699/4_201404
To define a list of anomalies related to OBD Communications. Misinterpretations of various OBD Communications Standards and Recommended Practices have resulted in OBD “no-communications” situations in the field. This Information Report identifies the most prevalent of these.
2014-04-08
Standard
AMS2980/1B
AMS 2980/1 gives information about the technical requirements and qualification procedure for carbon fiber fabric and epoxy resin systems used for wet lay-up repair of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy structures.
2014-04-08
Standard
AMS2980/3B
The PS specifies the batch release and delivery requirements for carbon fiber and carbon fabric used for wet lay-up repair purposes.
2014-04-03
Standard
AMS2980/4B
This PS specifies the batch release and delivery requirements for epoxy resin systems (base resin and curing agent) used for wet lay-up repair purposes. This specification relates to qualified epoxy resin systems listed in the associated QPL.
2014-04-03
WIP Standard
EIASTD4899B
This document defines the requirements for developing an Electronic Components Management Plan (ECMP), hereinafter also called the Plan, to assure customers and regulatory agencies that all of the electronic components in the equipment of the Plan owner are selected and applied in controlled processes compatible with the end application; and that the Technical Requirements detailed in clause 5.0 are accomplished. In general the owners of a complete Electronic Components Management Plan are avionics equipment manufacturers.
2014-04-01
Collection
Vehicle diagnostics deals with the development, delivery and execution of diagnostic procedures for vehicle systems. This technical paper collection will explore new technologies, processes and trends in the area of vehicle diagnostics.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0724
Derek R. Braden, David M. Harvey
Abstract There is a continual growth of test and validation in high reliability product applications such as automotive, military and avionics. Principally this is driven by the increased use and complexity of electronic systems deployed in vehicles, in addition to end user reliability expectations. Higher reliability expectations consequently driving increased test durations. Furthermore product development cycles continue to reduce, resulting in less available time to perform accelerated life tests. The challenge for automotive electronic suppliers is performing life tests in a shorter period of time whilst reducing the overall associated costs of validation testing. In this paper, the application of prognostic and health monitoring techniques are examined and a novel approach to the validation and testing of automotive electronics proposed which it is suggested may be more cost effective and efficient than traditional testing. The holistic method explored in this paper fuses real time test data obtained during the monitoring of products throughout an environmental exposure with key factors from manufacturing and product design.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0747
Youji Hiraoka, Katsunari Yamamoto, Tamotsu Murakami, Yoshiyuki Furukawa, Hiroyuki Sawada
Abstract The authors propose computerized support for Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) based on new knowledge management in product design. FTA is a method of analyzing and visualizing the causes of a fault event by Fault Tree diagram (FT diagram) that has a tree structure with logical step. Many methods of support for FTA are studied, but they are not effective for our FTA. We have developed the system of Computer-Aided FTA (FTAid) for design engineers by the collaborative research group (JATCO Ltd, The University of Tokyo and National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology). We reported this system in SAE2012 World Congress. After that, the knowledge management for FTA and new functions of this system have been studied continuously. In this paper we report that FT diagrams used FTAid improved to be useful for design engineers are analyzed based on individual qualification and skill of FTA, we study improvement of FTAid and the FTA education system.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0281
Peter Subke
Abstract In the past, the automotive industry has learned the lesson that competition on the level of bits and bytes, proprietary bus systems, data communication and diagnostic protocols is unrewarding. Too much time and money has been spent on the development of proprietary diagnostic tools. Vehicle manufacturers and suppliers realized that standardization would be the best way to overcome this situation. Furthermore, regulatory requirements in the US and the EU for such standardization have strengthened this lesson. As a result, the automotive industry has standardized the technology for the communication of external test equipment with electronic control units (ECUs) in road vehicles. Standardization serves the price, the quality and the maintainability via scale and training curve effects. This paper contains a technical introduction of internationally standardized diagnostic protocols (UDS on CAN, WWH-OBD, UDSonIP and DoIP), the D-Server (MVCI) with D-Server API and D-PDU API, the diagnostic data format (ODX) and the open test sequence exchange format (OTX).
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0291
Gopal Athani, Prasad Yerraguntla, Anand Gajaraj, Kapil Dongare
Abstract Micro Hybrid Systems are a premier approach for improving fuel efficiency and reducing emissions, by improving the efficiency of electrical energy generation, storage, distribution and consumption, yet with lower costs associated with development and implementation. However, significant efforts are required while implementing micro hybrid systems, arising out of components like Intelligent Battery Sensor (IBS). IBS provides battery measurements and battery status, and in addition mission critical diagnostic data on a communication line to micro hybrid controller. However, this set of data from IBS is not available instantly after its initialization, as it enters into a lengthy learning phase, where it learns the battery parameters, before it gives the required data on the communication line. This learning period spans from 3 to 8 hours, until the IBS is fully functional and is capable of supporting the system functionalities. This scenario poses a great challenge to conduct the system performance checks at End of Line testing stations in assembly lines, and also in after sales service stations, as the battery data is not available, without which the micro hybrid systems cannot perform their full set of functions.
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