Abstract Aircraft cabin systems, especially cabin management systems (CMS) have to cope with frequent cabin changes during their lifecycle. This includes not only layout rearrangements and technological upgrades during the service, but also extensive CMS customizations and product variations before aircraft delivery. Therefore it is inevitable for the CMS to be highly changeable and offer an easy and agile change process. Today's CMS solutions face this challenge with configurable system architectures. Although such architectures offer a vast change domain, they usually come with time consuming and error prone change processes. This paper introduces an adaptive avionics software architecture that enables the CMS to cope with cabin changes highly automatically and with minimal human interactions. The adaptation is performed during an on ground organization phase, in which system changes are detected and evaluated by the CMS itself.
A keen focus on operations, cost management, leadership, and customer service is presented in this book for fleets to thrive in today’s competitive business environment. Basic concepts and customer service fundamentals, along with integrated best practices, and business tools are fully described. This model can be applied by service groups of any size to achieve quality performance benefits for both the customer and the fleet-provider. Fleet Services: Redefining Success presents: • A back-to-basics approach that begins by redefining a fleet's customers to fully identify and provide customer-driven services. • A hierarchy for success that includes development of management goals and strategies to exceed customer expectations. • Best practices and associated business tool requirements that assure exceptional service and win-win results. • An innovative business model that maximizes opportunities and positive outcomes for fleet service providers.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides to the aerospace industry a procedure for the consistent and accurate calculation of fuel flow using turbine flowmeters during development, production, and post overhaul/repair gas turbine engine testing.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) covers the requirements for a Stationary Runway Weather Information System (referred to as the system) to monitor the surface conditions of airfield operational areas to ensure safer ground operations of aircraft. The system provides (1) temperature and condition information of runway, taxiway, and ramp pavements and (2) atmospheric weather conditions that assist airport personnel to maintain safer and more efficient airport operations. The system can be either a wired system or a wireless system.
Abstract A vehicle gearbox serves for torque and speed conversion with help of rotating elements. Therefore the gearbox experiences periodic excitation forces with a fundamental frequency following the rotation frequency. These excitation forces give rise to corresponding periodic response signals, i.e. signals having content at the fundamental (rotational) frequency and its harmonics. Order analysis is an analysis technique which is used to extract these harmonic orders from the response signals. This article intends to use the order tracking analysis for gearbox fault diagnosis under variable speed conditions to compare between healthy and faulty cases by using order extraction. Finally, determine maximum Root Mean Square (RMS) as severity index.
An Erosion Aggressiveness Index (EAI) Based on Pressure Load Estimation Due to Bubble Collapse in Cavitating Flows Within the RANS Solvers
Abstract Despite numerous research efforts, there is no reliable and widely accepted tool for the prediction of erosion prone material surfaces due to collapse of cavitation bubbles. In the present paper an Erosion Aggressiveness Index (EAI) is proposed, based on the pressure loads which develop on the material surface and the material yield stress. EAI depends on parameters of the liquid quality and includes the fourth power of the maximum bubble radius and the bubble size number density distribution. Both the newly proposed EAI and the Cavitation Aggressiveness Index (CAI), which has been previously proposed by the authors based on the total derivative of pressure at locations of bubble collapse (DP/Dt>0, Dα/Dt<0), are computed for a cavitating flow orifice, for which experimental and numerical results on material erosion have been published. The predicted surface area prone to cavitation damage, as shown by the CAI and EAI indexes, is correlated with the experiments.
Today, we are all strongly dependent on the correct functioning of technical systems. They fail, and we become vulnerable. Disruptions due to degradation or anomalous behavior can negatively impact safety, operations, and brand name, reducing the profitability of all elements of the value chain. This can be tolerated if the link between cause and effect is understood and remedied. Anomalous behavior, which indicates systems or subsystems not acting in accordance with design intent, is a much more serious problem. It includes unwanted system responses and faults whose root cause can’t be properly diagnosed, leading to costly, and sometimes unnecessary, component replacements. The title No Fault Found: The Search for the Root Cause was developed to propose solutions to this technical and business challenge, which has become less and less acceptable to the commercial aviation industry globally.
For Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) technology to fully achieve its promise, there is a need for integration architecture to support interoperability between multiple vendors' IVHM components and insertion of new IVHM capabilities. To date there have been very limited studies on different approaches in integrating IVHM components. This paper presents design candidates for plug-and-play (PnP) IVHM architecture. The open standard based designs are derived from desired IVHM data flow characteristics and system configuration requirements. The designs and enabling middleware technologies are qualitatively and empirically evaluated for their adequacy and effectiveness. The qualitative assessment focuses on the implementation and system configuration based on different test scenarios. The empirical performance is measured in terms of latency (in both normal and intermittent network connections) and throughput.
INSTALLING AND REMOVAL TOOLS, CONNECTOR, ELECTRICAL CONTACTS, INTERFACIAL SEAL, TYPE III, CLASS 1, COMPOSITION A
SCOPE IS UNAVAILABLE.
The Scope of SAE J2064 covers coupled hose assemblies intended for containing and circulating lubricant, liquid and gaseous R134a and/or R-1234yf refrigerant in automotive air-conditioning systems. Historically, requirements for the hose used in coupled automotive refrigerant air conditioning assemblies was included in SAE J2064. SAE J2064 has been changed to establish the requirements for factory and field coupled hose assemblies. SAE J3062 has been issued to define requirements for the hose used in these assemblies into its own standard. SAE J2064 also provides the necessary values used in SAE J2727 Mobile Air Conditioning System Refrigerant Emission charts for R-134a and R-1234yf. The certified coupling of MAC hose assemblies is required in meeting certain regulatory requirements. A hose which has met the requirements of SAE J3062 and certified in J2911 must be used as part of the coupled assembly.
SAE J1939-73 Diagnostics Application Layer defines the SAE J1939 messages to accomplish diagnostic services and identifies the diagnostic connector to be used for the vehicle service tool interface. Diagnostic messages (DMs) provide the utility needed when the vehicle is being repaired. Diagnostic messages are also used during vehicle operation by the networked electronic control modules to allow them to report diagnostic information and self-compensate as appropriate, based on information received. Diagnostic messages include services such as periodically broadcasting active diagnostic trouble codes, identifying operator diagnostic lamp status, reading or clearing diagnostic trouble codes, reading or writing control module memory, providing a security function, stopping/starting message broadcasts, reporting diagnostic readiness, monitoring engine parametric data, etc.
The objective of this document is to define basic terms and definitions and to provide general guidance for M&S of aircraft EPS.
The FAA has issued Advisory Circular, AC43-207, that recommends re-correlation, trending or period checks. The FAA, AC43-207 bases their recommendation on ARP741. This paper describes a recommended practice and procedure for the configuration control requirements to maintain test cell correlation status. This is necessary to maintain performance measurement integrity, particularly when correlation approval is achieved by statistical trending. The configuration of a test facility that exists at the time when a correlation is being carried out should be "base lined" as a condition of correlation approval acceptance, and, be maintained during the time period that the respective correlation approval lasts. This defines test facility configuration control. This is due to the fact that a change in configuration may have the potential to change the established correlation factors and measured engine performance.
This specification covers a deicing/anti-icing material in the form of a fluid.
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) establishes a test procedure and recommended surge pressure limit value for the evaluation of fixed aircraft pressure fuel dispensing systems. Note: This ARP is not applicable to aerial refueling systems or mobile aircraft refueling systems (trucks, hydrant servicing vehicles, etc.). Testing of aerial refueling systems is addressed in ARSAG documents. Testing of mobile refueling systems is addressed in ARP 5918. Note: This ARP does not address requirements that may be specific to the testing of shipboard aircraft refueling systems.
The primary focus of this standard is information of interest to Configuration Management (CM) practitioners related to the performance of CM functions as products are conceived, proposed, defined, developed, produced, operated, maintained, modified, and disposed. This information is stored when generated and, from time to time, must be moved or shared with others. This standard, through the use of the Data Dictionary, defines real world things of interest to the CM practitioner, which are the foundation of the following CM functional areas, and are needed for effective data exchange and interoperability: Configuration Management Planning and Management; Configuration Identification; Configuration Change Management; Configuration Audit; Configuration Verification; Configuration Status Accounting.
This document is a guideline for the design and operation of Aviation Aircraft Refueling Vehicles and for the materials, components, and systems used thereon. The criteria set forth herein are the minimum recommendations for all types of aircraft refueling vehicles, including tanker vehicles, hydrant service vehicles, towable hydrant carts, fixed refueling cabinets, and any other type of aircraft refueling vehicles used at airports for aircraft refueling operations with nominal operating fuel pressures and flow rates as specified within this document.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) establishes requirements for the manufacture and certification of tool steel rings for magnetic particle inspection.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) establishes minimum ice and rain performance criteria for electrically-heated pitot and pitot-static probes intended for use on the following classes of fixed-wing aircraft and rotorcraft. The classes of fixed-wing aircraft are defined by aircraft flight envelopes and are shown in Figure 1. The flight envelopes generally fall into the classes as shown below: Class 1: Cruise altitude ≤ 23 000 feet Class 2: Cruise altitude ≤ 31 000 feet Class 3: Cruise altitude ≤ 42 000 feet Class 4: Cruise altitude > 42 000 feet Class R: Rotorcraft The user of this standard must evaluate the aircraft level installation requirements for the probe against the class definition criteria to ensure adequate coverage for the application. It may be necessary to step up in class or modify the test conditions in order to meet the applicable installation requirements. NOTE: Class 2 is divided into two subgroups identified as either Class 2a or Class 2b.
This SAE International Aerospace Standard covers requirements for micrometer adjustable, feel impulse, torque wrenches. The torque wrench is used to apply a pre-set torque to threaded fasteners and other torque requirements.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers handles and attachments for use with sockets and crowfoot wrenches in aerospace applications involving high torque, limited clearances, and generally clean conditions. This document provides additional requirements beyond ANSI B107.10M appropriate for aerospace use. The use of adapters, either enlarging or reducing, for turning high-strength fasteners is an unsafe practice. Adapters are not included in this document. Inclusion of dimensional data in this document is not intended to imply all of the products described therein are stock production sizes. Consumers are requested to consult with manufacturers concerning lists of stock production sizes.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers 12 point flare nut crowfoot, flare nut wrenches, double end flare nut wrenches, combination box and flare nut wrenches, and ratcheting flare nut wrenches that are designed with the following requirements: a. Non-distorting usage b. Possessing the strength, clearances, and internal wrenching design to be used on hydraulic tube fittings that conform to the requirements of SAE J514. c. Transmitting torque to tube fittings without bearing on the apex of fitting wrenching points. Inclusion of dimensional data in this document is not intended to imply that all of the products described herein are stock production sizes. Consumers are requested to consult with manufacturers concerning lists of stock production sizes.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers variable speed, reversible battery powered drills with removable, rechargeable battery pack and either 3/8 inch or ½ inch chuck used for general maintenance and construction where a battery powered tool is required. This document also satisfies EMI requirements for driver drills, where EMI suppression is required by the purchaser. This document may involve hazardous materials, operations, or equipment and does not purport to address all of the safety considerations associated. It is the responsibility of the user of a piece of equipment to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to its use. Users are cautioned to read all manufacturer’s instructions prior to use.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers requirements for nickel-chromium coatings, black oxide or black phosphate coatings, and alternate coatings for aerospace hand tools.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers high strength thin wall (commercial) sockets, universal sockets, box wrenches and torque adaptors which possess the strength, clearances, and internal wrenching design so configured that, when mated with 12-point fasteners conforming to the requirement of AS870, they shall transmit torque to the fastener without bearing on the outer 5% of the fastener's wrenching points. Inclusion of dimensional data in this document is not intended to imply that all of the products described herein are stock production sizes. Consumers are requested to consult with manufacturers concerning lists of stock production sizes. The dimensional limits of box and combination wrench lengths have been established to provide configuration control for tool storage applications.
This document provides information on the preparation and use of video for operational and maintenance training of personnel associated with GSE.
This recommended practice covers the procedures and method for establishing acceptance criteria when performing Barkhausen noise testing of surface-hardened steel components to detect grinding burns (metallurgical damage caused by over-heating) in bare or chromium-plated parts. Primarily for nondestructive testing of heat treated, high strength low-alloy steel parts which have been ground, in accordance with MIL-STD-866 or commercial standard, before or after chromium plating. This test method may be used as an independent test or to confirm grinding damage detected in accordance with AMS 2440 or MIL-STD-867 in bare or chromium plated components.
The main purpose of this Recommended Practice is to verify that vehicles are capable of communicating a minimum subset of information, in accordance with the diagnostic test services specified in SAE J1979: E/E Diagnostic Test Modes, or the equivalent document ISO 15031-5: Communication Between Vehicle and External Equipment for Emissions-Related Diagnostics – Part 5: Emissions-related diagnostic services. Any software meeting these specifications will utilize the vehicle interface that is defined in SAE J2534, Recommended Practice for Pass-Thru Vehicle Programming.
To develop Aerospace Standards (AS) for the minimum performance standards for external cargo and search and rescue hoists. The Aerospace Standards (AS) will lead to the development of a hoist Technical Standard Order (TSO); which will include the Minimum Operation Performance Standard (MOPS). which contain the design, qualification, test procedures and any other related tasks to support the hoist MOPS.
The companies have partnered to jointly develop and commercialize a next-generation exhaust system for heavy trucks that incorporates thermoelectric waste heat recovery.