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2015-05-07
WIP Standard
ARP1340B
This document specifies those requirements and procedures for periodic tests to insure maintenance of balance machine capabilities for balancing jet engine components.
2015-05-07
Standard
J2842_201505
The intent of this standard is to establish a framework to assure that all evaporators for R-744, R-1234yf, and R-445A mobile air conditioning (MAC) systems meet appropriate testing and labeling requirements. SAE J639 requires vehicle manufacturers to perform assessments to minimize reasonable risks in production MAC systems. The evaporator (as designed and manufactured) shall be part of that risk assessment and it is the responsibility of the vehicle manufacturer to assure all relevant aspects of the evaporator are included. It is the responsibility of all vehicle or evaporator manufacturers to comply with the standards of this document at a minimum. (Substitution of specific test procedures by vehicle manufactures that correlate well to field return data is acceptable.) As appropriate, this standard can be used as a guide to support risk assessments.
2015-05-06
WIP Standard
AMS1385B
This specification covers a solvent-based compound in the form of a liquid. This compound has been used typically for removal of carbonaceous soils and paint from aircraft turbine engine parts by immersion in liquid at elevated temperature, but usage is not limited to such applications. This compound should not be used on steel parts having hardness of 40 HRC or over.
2015-05-06
WIP Standard
AMS2631E
This specification covers the procedure for ultrasonic inspection of wrought titanium and titanium alloy products 0.25 inch (6.4 mm) and over in cross-section (thickness) or diameter.
2015-05-01
WIP Standard
AIR4827B
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) has been written for individuals associated with ground level testing of turbofan and turbojet engines and particularly for those who might be interested in investigating the performance characteristics of a new test cell design or of proposed modifications to an existing test cell by means of a scale model test.
2015-04-28
WIP Standard
AIR6892
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is applicable to rotorcraft structural health monitoring (SHM) applications, both commercial and military, where end users are seeking guidance on the definition, development, integration, qualification, and certification of SHM technologies to achieve enhanced safety and reduced maintenance burden based on the lessons learned from existing Health and Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS). While guidance on SHM business case analysis would be useful to the community, such guidance is beyond the scope of this AIR. For the purpose of this document, SHM is defined as “the process of acquiring and analyzing data from on-board sensors to evaluate the health of a structure.” The suite of on-board sensors could include any presently installed aircraft sensors as well as new sensors to be defined in the future. Interrogation of the sensors could be done onboard during flight or using ground support equipment.
2015-04-19
WIP Standard
J1115
Historically SAE has been concerned with nomenclature as an integral part of the standards development process. Guidelines for automotive nomenclature were written in 1916, were last revised in 1941, and were included in the SAE Handbook until 1962. The present diversity of groups working on nomenclature in the various ground vehicle committees led to the organization of the Nomenclature Advisory Committee under SAE Automotive Council.
2015-04-19
WIP Standard
J2740
This Technical Information Report defines the General Motors UART Serial Data Communications Bus, commonly referred to as GM UART. This document should be used in conjunction with SAE J2534-2 in order to fully implement GM UART in an SAE J2534 interface. SAE J2534-1 includes requirements for an interface that can be used to program certain emission-related Electronic Control Units (ECU) as required by U.S. regulations, and SAE J2534-2 defines enhanced functionality required to program additional ECUs not mandated by current U.S. regulations. The purpose of this document is to specify the requirements necessary to implement GM UART in an aftermarket SAE J2534 interface intended for use by independent automotive service facilities to program GM UART ECUs in General Motors vehicles.
2015-04-16
Book
Robert J. Flemming
The effects of inflight atmospheric icing can be devastating to aircraft. Universities and industry have been hard at work to respond to the challenge of maintaining flight safety in all weather conditions. Proposed changes in the regulations for operation in icing conditions are sure to keep this type of research and development at its highest level. This is especially true for the effects of ice crystals in the atmosphere, and for the threat associated with supercooled large drop (SLD) icing. This collection of ten SAE International technical papers brings together vital contributions to the subject. Icing on aircraft surfaces would not be a problem if a material were discovered that prevented the freezing and accretion of supercooled drops. Many options that appeared to have promising icephobic properties have had serious shortfalls in durability.
2015-04-15
WIP Standard
ARP4990B
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides to the aerospace industry a procedure for the consistent and accurate calculation of fuel flow using turbine flowmeters during development, production, and post overhaul/repair gas turbine engine testing.
2015-04-15
Book
“Spotlight on Design” features video interviews and case study segments, focusing on the latest technology breakthroughs. Viewers are virtually taken to labs and research centers to learn how design engineers are enhancing product performance/reliability, reducing cost, improving quality, safety or environmental impact, and achieving regulatory compliance. In the episode “Diagnostics and Prognostics: Proactive Maintenance and Failure Prevention” (21:04), Delphi engineers explain how they leverage the growing number of sensors and computing power in vehicles to diagnose and proactively solve emerging mechanical or electronic problems, before a breakdown occurs. This video also looks at the next generation of automotive telematics, with HEM Data demonstrating how in-vehicle data acquisition is used to monitor the inner workings of vehicles.
2015-04-15
Book
“Spotlight on Design: Insight” features an in-depth look at the latest technology breakthroughs impacting mobility. Viewers are virtually taken to labs and research centers to learn how design engineers are enhancing product performance/reliability, reducing cost, improving quality, safety or environmental impact, and achieving regulatory compliance. Telematics, the convergence of telecommunications and informatics, uses electronic and computer technology built in to the vehicle to provide vehicle tracking, satellite navigation, wireless technology, and diagnostic information. In the episode “Diagnostics and Prognostics: Telematics Deep Dive” (8:09), an engineer from Delphi’s Telematics program discusses the advantages and challenges of telematics devices for the automotive industry, demonstrates the installation of an aftermarket telematics device, and shows how telematics can enhance diagnostics and preventative maintenance.
2015-04-14
Collection
Model Validation and Verification invite papers that deal with the theoretical and/or applied aspects of one or more of the following representative topics: model development, model correlation/calibration, model verification, model validation, uncertainty quantification, uncertainty propagation, validation metrics, predictive capability assessment, etc.
2015-04-14
Collection
This collection of technical papers will address theoretical developments and automotive applications in RBDO and Robust Design. Topics include: computational algorithms for efficient estimation of reliability, Monte Carlo simulation, Bayesian reliability, Dempster-Shafer Evidence Theory, and Multi-Disciplinary Optimization, among others.
2015-04-14
WIP Standard
J2892
This document establishes standard graphical symbols and color conventions for use in either still (static) or animated graphics used for communicating service information. This document’s purpose is to communicate conventions for using those symbols and colors to accurately and consistently communicate intended information via graphics-based documentation. These practices are intended for use in service procedures, assembly instructions, training materials, and similar applications when trying to minimize the amount of human natural language text used within the document. The still and animated graphical conventions referenced should support effective communication via paper and “traditional” electronic media. The conventions can also extend to documenting via additional electronic delivery paradigms such as Augmented Reality (AR).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0267
Ryoichi Inada, Teppei Hirotsu, Yasushi Morita, Takahiro Hata
Abstract The ISO 26262 is a functional safety standard for road vehicles. The standard requires manufacturers to conduct quantitative assessment of the diagnostic coverage (DC) of products. The DC is defined as the percentage of failure probability covered by safety mechanisms. However, DC evaluation methods for drift faults, in which the change in element values is not constant, have not been discussed. In this paper, we propose a DC evaluation method for analog circuits with drift faults. With this method, we first parameterize the effect of drift faults onto a bounded region then split the region into safe fault, hazardous detectable fault, and hazardous undetectable fault regions. We evaluate the classification rate distribution by the area ratios of these regions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0439
Daniel B. Kosinski
Abstract The current reliability growth planning model used by the US Army, the Planning Model for Projection Methodology (PM2), is insufficient for the needs of the Army. This paper will detail the limitations of PM2 that cause Army programs to develop reliability growth plans that incorporate unrealistic assumptions and often demand that infeasible levels of reliability be achieved. In addition to this, another reliability growth planning model being developed to address some of these limitations, the Bayesian Continuous Planning Model (BCPM), will be discussed along with its own limitations. This paper will also cover a third reliability growth planning model that is being developed which incorporates the advantageous features of PM2 and BCPM but replaces the unrealistic assumptions with more realistic and customizable ones.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0487
Lev Klyatis
Abstract This paper will discuss the problem with successful predicting of product performance (reliability, quality, durability, safety, recalls, profit, life cycle cost, and other interconnected technical and economic components of performance). The best component for analysing the performance situation during service life, including predicting, is recalls, because, first, recall accumulates the safety, reliability, durability, quality, profit, and total economic situation. And second, there is open official and objective information about the number of recalls from Government (National Highway Trafic Safety Administration and others), as well as companies-producers. Therefore, for analyzing the situation with the product performance, including predicting, this paper considers the situation with recalls.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0486
Jamshid Mohammadi, Mehdi Modares
Abstract Performance data offers a powerful tool for system condition assessment and health monitoring. In most applications, a host of various types of sensors is employed and data on key parameters (describing the system performance) is compiled for further analysis and evaluation. In ensuring the adequacy of the data acquisition process, two important questions arise: (1) is the complied data robust and reasonable in representing the system parameters; and (2) is the duration of data acquisition adequate to capture a favorable percentage (say for example 90%) of the critical values of a given system parameter? The issue related to the robustness and reasonableness of data can be addressed through known values for key parameters of the system. This is the information that is not often available.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0494
Sulki Seong, Wangoo Kim, Daesung Bae, Seungpyo Lee, Younggeol Cho, Kyeongdeok Yang
Abstract A rotating bearing must have an excellent durability life. Various studies have been conducted for a long time to predict the bearing durability life. However, the bearing durability life has been predicted by an analytic formula in terms of the raceway and ball. A finite element structural analysis has been carried out for a flange, commonly with an assumption of a static load. So it is difficult to consider the dynamic effects (Centrifugal force, Gyroscope effect) of the bearing, which is very important due to its high speed operation. In order to predict the accurate bearing durability life, the dynamic effects must be considered. This paper proposes a method for bearing durability life prediction, considering dynamic effects. Contact between the raceway and ball is one of the important factors to take into account for the dynamic effects of the bearing.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0498
Matt Gynn, Jamie Steele
Abstract This study explores the process changes and challenges encountered during the transition from physical to virtual automotive maintenance and service operations. The confirmation process was reworked significantly, while the final evaluation and reporting process was able to be maintained. Problems were encountered with the organization of the digital part data, the increase in workload of virtual simulations over physical checks, and the limitations of current simulation and virtual reality (VR) technologies. Ideas for future enhancements of product lifecycle management (PLM) and simulation systems are explored.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1405
Guanjun Zhang, Feng Yu, Zhigao OuYang, Huiqin Chen, Zhonghao Bai, Libo Cao
Abstract The combination of passive and active vehicle safety technologies can effectively improve vehicle safety. Most of them predict vehicle crashes using radar or video, but they can't be applied extensively currently due to the high cost. Another collision forecasting method is more economic which is based on the driver behavior and vehicle status, such as the acceleration, angular velocity of the brake pedal and so on. However, the acceleration and angular velocity of the brake pedal will change with the driver and the vehicle type. In order to study the effect of different drivers and vehicle types on the braking acceleration and angular velocity of the brake pedal, six volunteers were asked to drive five vehicles for simulating the working conditions of emergency braking, normal braking, inching braking and passing barricades under different velocities. All the tests were conducted on asphalt road, and comprehensive experimental design was used to arrange tests.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0926
Tianyun Li, Min Xu, David Hung, Shengqi Wu, Siqi Cheng
Abstract Comparing with port-fuel-injection (PFI) engine, the fuel sprays in spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engines play more important roles since they significantly influence the combustion stability, engine efficiency as well as emission formations. In order to design higher efficiency and cleaner engines, further research is needed to understand and optimize the fuel spray atomization and vaporization. This paper investigates the atomization and evaporation of n-pentane, gasoline and surrogate fuels sprays under realistic SIDI engine conditions. An optical diagnostic technique combining high-speed Mie scattering and Schlieren imaging has been applied to study the characteristics of liquid and vapor phases inside a constant volume chamber under various operating conditions. The effects of ambient temperature, fuel temperature, and fuel type on spray atomization and vaporization are analyzed by quantitative comparisons of spray characteristics.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0441
Takashi Takiguchi, Yusuke Yano, Yasuhiro Takii, Nobuyuki Ohta
Abstract With demands for enhanced environmental performance such as fuel economy, the tendency has been to reduce the amount of wind introduced to the engine room to reduce drag. Meanwhile, exhaust gas temperatures are increasing in order to reduce emissions concentrations. As a result, the temperature environments for parts inside the engine room and underfloor parts are becoming harsher, and accurately understanding the temperature environments of parts is crucial in determining Engine room component layout during vehicle development and applying effective thermal countermeasures. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are effective for understanding complex phenomena such as heat generation and cooling. However, this paper reports the development of a method for accurately calculating the vehicle temperature distribution through identification from test results.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0881
Sunyu Tong, Haimiao Li, Zhaohui Yang, Jun Deng, Zongjie Hu, Liguang Li
Abstract An ion current sensor is employed in a 4 cylinder production SI engine for combustion diagnosis during combustion process, knock, and low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) detection. The results show that the ion current peak value and ion current peak phase have strong correlation with the cylinder pressure and pressure peak phase respectively. The COV of ion current integral value is greater than the COV of IMEP at the same operating condition. Results show that the ion current signal is sensitive to different lambdas. Using ion current signal, the knock in any given cylinder can be detected. Importantly, the ion sensor successfully detected the low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) about more than 20 °CA before spark ignition.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1249
Jinli Wang, Fuyuan Yang, Minggao Ouyang
Abstract There is increasing demand for engine diagnostic and control with in-cylinder pressure signal. However, the application of cylinder pressure sensors are restricted by the high cost of the sensor. Another possible way for engine combustion state estimation is by processing of instantaneous crankshaft speed signal, but it is limited by the precision and complexity of the algorithm. It could be a solution by processing one cylinder pressure signal in combination with a crankshaft speed signal. The indicated torque could be estimated through engine speed processing and also from the measure cylinder pressure for the reference cylinder. Measurement results from experiments show that the indicated torque error traces of different cylinder are similar in shape. According to this assumption, the reference cylinder with cylinder pressure signal available can serve as both a parameter calibration information source and an error reduction measure.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0204
Biswajit Panja, Lars Wolleschensky
Abstract In this paper we propose a secure wireless sensor network system for vehicle health monitoring (VHM). We discuss the architecture of the proposed model, and it's implementation in vehicles. Modified AES-CCM is used to provide confidentiality in the network. In the proposed scheme combination of interactive and non-interactive methods are used for reliable message delivery.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0918
Daniel Duke, Andrew Swantek, Alan Kastengren, Kamel Fezzaa, Christopher Powell
Abstract Cavitation plays an important role in fuel injection systems. It alters the nozzle's internal flow structure and discharge coefficient, and also contributes to injector wear. Quantitatively measuring and mapping the cavitation vapor distribution in a fuel injector is difficult, as cavitation occurs on very short time and length scales. Optical measurements of transparent model nozzles can indicate the morphology of large-scale cavitation, but are generally limited by the substantial amount of scattering that occurs between vapor and liquid phases. These limitations can be overcome with x-ray diagnostics, as x-rays refract, scatter and absorb much more weakly from phase interfaces. Here, we present an overview of some recent developments in quantitative x-ray diagnostics for cavitating flows. Measurements were conducted at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, using a submerged plastic test nozzle.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0206
Jihas Khan
Abstract Security access feature based on seed-key mechanism is widely used in automotive electronics, mainly for flashing ECU software, writing or reading specific parameter values and running diagnostic routines. There exist a number of techniques to decode the algorithm for key generation from a specific seed. Such techniques can put vehicle network at great risks due to an intruder flashing unauthorized version of ECU software, or changing internal parameters of ECU, or changing a VIN number. A lot more similar malicious attacks can be done by getting control over the ECUs. Attackers can exploit this vulnerability to alter the performance from the stock and affect the safety of the passengers. A novel and fool proof algorithm to protect the vehicle and ECU from such malicious attacks is explained in this paper. An advanced encryption technique is developed and tested in ECU to replace the current seed-key mechanisms for ECU security guarantying a secure operation of the vehicle.
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