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2013-09-17
Journal Article
2013-01-2183
Joao Pedro Pinheiro Malere, Luis Gustavo dos Santos
1 The current pressure across the entire aerospace industry to reduce operating costs and increase efficiency has arguably never been greater. Thus the need to improve parameters such as availability and reliability, and increase the tools and services associated with more efficient aircraft operations and sustainment is now paramount. Moreover, these improvements are seen by many as important factors that define the differentiation and competitiveness of not only current but also future aircraft fleets. The paper will focus on some of the opportunities for OEMs that arise from implementing Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) systems on their platforms and the challenges associated with evaluating the costs and benefits of their implementation and operation.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2331
Jianhua Ge, Brian Lefevre, Michael Roemer, Rodney Martin
This paper presents a novel health monitoring and fault adaptive control architecture for an unmanned hexrotor helicopter. The technologies developed to achieve the described level of robust fault contingency management include; 1.) A Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) routine for maximizing the “built-in” fault tolerance that the closed loop flight control system affords, 2.) A two-stage Kalman filter scheme for real-time identification of faults that are masked by control system compensation, and 3.) A reconfigurable control allocation method which compensates for large degradations of the six main motor/rotor assemblies. The fault adaptive control system presented herein has strong robustness against small faults without the need for controller reconfiguration, and strong tolerance of large faults through adaptive accommodation of the fault source and severity.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2101
Ivana Durickovic, Mario Marchetti, Stephanie Poissonnier, Guillaume Casteran, Rachel Mansour, Nathalie Schweigert, Benoit Mars
Winter maintenance is based on the intervention of operating services, as well as the use of deicers. Each year, in France, thousands of tons of deicers are spread through runways and taxiways. On the airport sector, the main deicers are sodium or potassium acetates and formates. All these deicers aim to prevent ice formation (preventive strategy) and/or improve the ice melting of snow residual film (curative strategy) at temperatures below 0°C. The operating principle of these compounds is based on the lowering of the solution's freezing point once dissolved in water. The phase diagram's knowledge is predominant to determine the deicer's amount to be applied on the surface. It provides a way to optimize their amounts applied with respect to weather conditions, present or forecasted. The Center for Technical Studies of Equipment in East of France (CETE de l'Est) developed and implemented a method based on Raman spectroscopy to characterize aqueous solutions of airport de-icers.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2227
Shuhei Segawa, Junich Tamura, Satoshi Suzuki, Hisao Oka, Kiichi Meguro, Yoshiji Satou
In the expansion of composite material application, it is one of the most important subjects in assembly of aircraft structure how drilling of composite/metal stack should be processed in an efficient way. This paper will show the result of development of a drill bit for CFRP/Aluminum-alloy stack by Kawasaki Heavy Industries (KHI) and Sumitomo Electric Hardmetal (SEH). In order to improve workability and economic performance, the drill bit which enables drilling CFRP/Al-alloy stack: at 1 shot; from both directions; without air blow and coolant (just usual vacuuming); was required. A best mix drill bit which has smooth multi angles edge and pointed finishing edge was produced as a result of some trials. Developed drill bit achieved required performance and contributed to large cost reduction, labor hour saving, production speed increase and work environment improvement.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2333
Ravi Rajamani, Abhinav Saxena, Frank Kramer, Michael Augustin, J.B. Schroeder, Kai Goebel, Ginger Shao, Indranil Roychoudhury, Wei Lin
The term Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) describes a set of capabilities that enable sustainable and safe operation of components and subsystems within aerospace platforms. However, very little guidance exists for the systems engineering aspects of design with IVHM in mind. It is probably because of this that designers have to use knowledge picked up exclusively by experience rather than by established process. This motivated a group of leading IVHM practitioners within the aerospace industry under the aegis of SAE's HM-1 technical committee to author a document that hopes to give working engineers and program managers clear guidance on all the elements of IVHM that they need to consider before designing a system. This proposed recommended practice (ARP6883 [1]) will describe all the steps of requirements generation and management as it applies to IVHM systems, and demonstrate these with a “real-world” example related to designing a landing gear system.
2013-09-17
Journal Article
2013-01-2145
Jonathan L. Geisheimer, David Kwapisz, Thomas Holst, Michael Hafner
Blade tip clearance is a key design parameter for gas turbine designers. This parameter is often measured during engine testing and development phases as part of design validation but has yet to be utilized during normal engine fleet operation. Although blade tip clearance measurements are often mentioned for fleet operation in the context of active clearance control, the use of blade tip clearance measurements can provide an additional benefit for engine health monitoring. This paper explores the use of blade tip clearance sensors for engine condition monitoring of hot section blades. Blade tip clearance, especially in the first stage turbine, has an impact on exhaust gas temperature. The use of tip clearance measurements can provide supplementary information to traditional EGT measurements by providing a direct measurement of wear on the blade tips.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2106
Hitoshi Oyori, Noriko Morioka
With airlines increasingly directing their attention to operating costs and environmental initiatives, the More Electric Architecture for Aircraft and Propulsion (MEAAP) is emerging as a viable solution for improved performance and eco-friendly aircraft operations. This paper focuses on electric taxiing that does not require the use of jet engines or the auxiliary power unit (APU) during taxiing, either from the departure gate to take-off or from landing to the arrival gate. Many researchers and engineers are considering introducing electric taxiing systems as part of efforts to improve airport conditions. To help cut aircraft emissions at airports, MEAAP seeks to introduce an electric taxiing system that would reduce the duration for which engines and APUs operate while on the ground. Given this goal, the aircraft electrical system deployed for use at airports must rely on a power source other than the jet engines or APU.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2202
Jonathan G. Pelham, Ip-Shing Fan, Ian Jennions, Jim McFeat
UAS (Unmanned aircraft system), widely known to the general public as drones, are comprised of two major system elements: an Unmanned Aircraft (UA) and a Ground Control Station (GCS). UAS have a high mishap rate when compared to manned aircraft. This high mishap rate is one of several barriers to the acceptance of UAS for more widespread usage. Better awareness of the UA real time as well as long term health situation may allow timely condition based maintenance. Vehicle health and usage are two parts of the same solution to improve vehicle safety and lifecycle costs. These can be worked on through the use of two related aircraft management methods, these are: IVHM (Integrated Vehicle Health Management) which combines diagnosis and prognosis methods to help manage aircraft health and maintenance, and FOQA (Flight Operations Quality Assurance) systems which are mainly used to assist in pilot skill quality assurance.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2249
Christian Modest, Frank Thielecke
This paper presents a model-based approach for the multi-objective design of optimized diagnosis functions for high lift actuation systems. These systems are used to augment lift at low speed during takeoff and landing, and are safety critical. This demands requirements to the detection of failures and the isolation of root causes in order to provide a high availability at low risk. Dedicated functions cover the determination of features, the detection of symptoms and the isolation of root causes by means of inference and resolution. The aim of the design approach is to provide these functions in an optimal manner with respect to multiple objectives. In order to be clear and traceable the approach consists of separate consecutive steps. These are arranged by using systems engineering principles. With respect to requirements, models of different levels of detail are developed and used to design stepwise all required functions.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2182
Marc Olivas, Jérôme Genoulaz, Luca Incarbone
In this paper, we present a new application of electromagnetic topology to model the channel formed by an aircraft harness to develop fault detection and localization. This method allows the numerical simulation of reflectometry signals for any kind of wired uniform and non-uniform.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2250
Nayeff Najjar, James Hare, Paul D'Orlando, Gregory Leaper, Krishna Pattipati, Andre Silva, Shalabh Gupta, Rhonda Walthall
This paper addresses the issue of fault diagnosis in the heat exchanger of an aircraft Air Conditioning System (ACS). The heat exchanger cools the air by transferring the heat to the ram-air. Due to a variety of biological, mechanical and chemical reasons, the heat exchanger may experience fouling conditions that reduces the efficiency and could considerably affect the functionality of the ACS. Since, the access to the heat exchanger is limited and time consuming, it is preferable to implement an early fault diagnosis technique that would facilitate Condition Based Maintenance (CBM). The main contribution of the paper is pre-flight fault assessment of the heat exchanger using a combined model-based and data-driven approach of fault diagnosis. A Simulink model of the ACS, that has been designed and validated by an industry partner, has been used for generation of sensor data for various fouling conditions.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2332
Lucas Campos Puttini
This paper discusses the correlation of IVHM (Integrated Vehicle Health Management) as an emerging aerospace discipline and the Big Data paradigm widely discussed in the Information Technology industry. The 4-V model is discussed to qualify a Big Data problem in terms of the volume, variety, velocity and veracity of the data involved. Big Data management allows, for example, correlations to be found to “spot business trends, determine quality of research, prevent diseases, combat crime, and determine real-time roadway traffic conditions”. Examining these two fields side by side is necessary and desirable because innovation is very likely to occur when and where different but correlated domains interface. This paper compares the most significant technical components required for Big Data Analytics and IVHM to work.
2013-09-17
Journal Article
2013-01-2219
Peter Foote
The first cross-industry guidelines for the implementation of structural health monitoring for aerospace applications have been created as a SAE International Aerospace Recommended Practices document: SAE ARP 6461 ‘Guidelines for Implementation of Structural Health Monitoring on Fixed Wing Aircraft’ [1]. These guidelines have brought together manufacturers, operators / users, systems integrators, regulators, technology providers and researchers to produce information on the integration of SHM into aircraft maintenance procedures, generic requirements and advice on validation, verification and airworthiness. The take-up of SHM in the aerospace industry has been slow, in part due to the lack of accepted industry practices surrounding not just the technology itself (sensors and sensor systems) but also the associated issues arising from the introduction of new methods into aircraft maintenance.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2220
M. Reza Mofakhami, Jerome Pinsonnault
In civil aviation the main driver for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is to provide maintenance and ownership benefits. The maintenance benefits are defined in terms of improving maintenance planning, increasing inspection intervals and reducing inspection cost. The ownership benefits can be measured in residual value and life extension. In this paper different aspects of SHM implementation are discussed for fatigue monitoring and fatigue damage sensing with a consideration of minimizing challenges for SHM implementation. First, the current Fatigue Monitoring implementation scenarios for the most representative agile military aircraft are reviewed. In the following some aircraft utilization results obtained from analyzing different airlines are presented. The obtained results show a better possibility of categorizing fleet of an airline in comparison with agile military aircraft.
2013-09-10
Standard
AS1875A
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) presents all appropriate boss dimensions from .125 inch to 2.0 inch tube sizes.
2013-09-05
WIP Standard
AIR9968B
This SAE AIR provides a description of a reference method for viscosity tests of thickened (AMS 1428) anti-icing fluids.
2013-09-05
Book
Ian K. Jennions
The third volume in the Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) series focuses on the technology that actually supports the implementation of IVHM in real-life situations. Edited by Ian K. Jennions, Director of the IVHM Center at Cranfield University, UK, this book was written collaboratively by twenty-seven authors from industry, academia and governmental research agencies.
2013-09-04
WIP Standard
AMS1378B
This specification covers a carbon soil and paint remover compound in the form of a liquid. Primarily for removal of carbonaceous soils and paint from aircraft turbine engine parts by immersing the parts in liquid at room temperature.
2013-09-04
WIP Standard
AMS1384B
This specification covers an inhibited phosphoric acid in the form of a liquid concentrate or a water soluble powder for dilution with water. Primarily for derusting of aircraft turbine engine ferrous components and removal of heat scale and other contamination from the surface of nickel alloys by immersion at room temperature. Should not be used on steel parts having hardness of 40 HRC or over.
2013-09-04
WIP Standard
AMS1383B
This specification covers an alkaline permanganate oxide conditioner in the form of a water-soluble powder or a liquid for dilution with water. This product has been used typically for conditioning of oxidation products on aircraft turbine engine components fabricated from steels, nickel alloys, and cobalt alloys by immersion in a solution of the cleaner at elevated temperature, but usage is not limited to such applications.
2013-09-04
WIP Standard
AMS1380B
This specification covers a strongly alkaline scale conditioner in the form of a liquid or a water-soluble powder. This product has been used typically in conditioning heat scale formed on aircraft turbine engine high-temperature alloy part by immersion in a solution of the compound at elevated temperature, but usage is not limited to such applications. These compounds are unsuitable for cleaning aluminum parts.
2013-09-03
Standard
AIR4989A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) developed by a broad cross section of personnel from the aviation industry and government agencies is offered to provide state-of-the-art information for the use of individuals and organizations designing new or upgraded turboshaft engine test facilities.
2013-08-29
Standard
ARP4874A
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides guidelines for the format and content of documents defining the interface between electronic propulsion control systems and aircraft systems. The scope includes civilian aircraft powered by turbofan, turboprop, and turboshaft engines equipped with electronic engine controls.
2013-08-23
WIP Standard
ARP1621C
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) defines minimum requirements for an aircraft transport ULD to transport horses properly and safely by air, to protect the horse(s) from injuries, and to protect the aircraft from corrosion created by waste spill. The ULD is designed to accommodate one horse or several.
2013-08-21
Standard
J1360_201308
This standard covers self-propelled off-road work machines as categorized in SAE J1116 and Agricultural Tractors as defined in ANSI/ASAE S390.
2013-08-14
WIP Standard
TSB003
2013-08-14
WIP Standard
J390
2013-08-12
Standard
AIR6232
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides descriptions of test methods for determining if an aircraft surface coating of any thickness has adverse effects on aircraft deicing/anti-icing fluids with respect to fluid holdover time performance and aerodynamic performance. Although not the primary mandate of the G-12 Aircraft Ground Deicing Committee, this document also provides descriptions of suggested test methods for evaluating aircraft surface coatings with respect to durability, hardness, weathering, aerodynamic drag, ice adhesion, ice accumulation, contact angle, and thermal conductivity. These additional tests can provide informational data for characterizing the coatings and may be useful to operators when evaluating the coatings.
Viewing 271 to 300 of 7424

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