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2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2159
Zheming Li, Yann Gallo, Ted Lind, Oivind Andersson, Marcus Alden, Mattias Richter
Soot emission from internal combustion engines is strictly regulated and upcoming requirements present a challenge. Laser extinction measurement (LEM) and natural luminosity of sooty flames have been used to analyze soot formation and oxidation processes. LEM measures soot along the laser beam path and it can probe soot regardless of temperature. Natural luminosity measurement is a global measurement and highly relies on soot temperature. In this work, a comparison of simultaneously recorded LEM and natural luminosity data has been performed in a heavy-duty optical engine. A 685 nm laser beam is used for LEM to minimize the absorption by fuel or PAH. The laser was modulated at 63 kHz, which facilitated subtraction of the background natural luminosity signal from the raw LEM data. Temporal offset is found between the LEM and natural luminosity data. The LEM detects ‘soot’ earlier than natural luminosity measurement.
2016-10-01
Book
Lev Klyatis
The ability to successfully predict industrial product performance during service life provides benefits for producers and users. This book addresses methods to improve product quality, reliability, and durability during the product life cycle, along with methods to avoid costs that can negatively impact profitability plans. The methods presented can be applied to reducing risk in the research and design processes and integration with manufacturing methods to successfully predict product performance. This approach incorporates components that are based on simulations in the laboratory. The results are combined with in-field testing to determine degradation parameters. These approaches result in improvements to product quality, performance, safety, profitability, and customer satisfaction.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8014
David A. Schaller, Michael D. Roeth
Fuel efficiency has always been important to fleets and as fuel costs have risen, a plethora of technologies emerged. The industry also cares about sustainability and emissions reductions and now Greenhouse gas regulations exist to even further encourage development and adoption. Recent history has shown a variety of paths and success levels including SCR aftertreatment, 6x2 axles, automated manual transmissions, trailer skirts, low rolling resistance and wide-base tires, idle reduction, alternative fuels and many more. Lab and fleet testing are challenging with a wide variety of applications, configurations and test methods. Real world results don’t always match expectations as some exceed, while others disappoint. We will overview recent fleet history of technical solution adoption rates from detailed fleet surveys. Manufacturers’ contributions in terms of technology development, cost reduction, durability and refinement will be discussed.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2107
Rainer Mueller, Matthias Vette, Matthias Scholer, Jan Ball
The global competition challenges aircraft manufactures in high wage countries. The assembly of large components is distinguished by fixed position assembly. Many complex assembly processes such as in the aircraft assembly are manually done by high experienced workers. The aircraft manufacturers deal with a varying number of items, growing product variants and an increase of requirements for their products. During the assembly process hundreds of clips, ties and stringers as well as thousands of rivets must be assembled. An important aspect is the maintenance of a high productivity and ensuring the competitiveness and the existence of manufacturing companies in Germany. To achieve a reduction of cycle times with a simultaneous increase in quality, supportive assistance systems for visual support and for the documentation and organization within the assembly are required. One example for visual assistance systems are laser projection systems.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2109
Michael Morgan, Caroline McClory, Colm Higgins, Yan Jin, Adrian Murphy
Aerospace structures are typically joined to form larger assemblies using screw lock or swage lock fasteners or rivets. Countersunk fasteners are used widely in the aerospace industry on flying surfaces to reduce excrescence drag and increase aircraft performance. Typically these fasteners are installed to a nominal countersink value which leaves them flush to the surface before being locked into position. The Northern Ireland Technology Centre at Queen’s University Belfast has developed and demonstrated two processes which enable high flushness fastening of countersunk fasteners. The ‘Flush Install’ process produces countersunk holes based on the specific geometry of each individual fastener. The ‘Fettle Flush’ process accurately machines fasteners to match the surrounding surface. Flushness values well within the allowable tolerances have been demonstrated for both Flush Install and Fettle Flush processes.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2077
Fatih Burak Sahin, Hans-Juergen Borchers, Cagatay Ucar
Owing to high strength to weight ratio CFRP composite materials has been widely use in aerospace industries. However drilling CFRP laminates is difficult owing to the highly abrasive nature of the carbon fibers and low thermal conductivity of CFRP. Therefore for the manufacturers it is a challenge to drill CFRP materials without causing any delamination within the high quality requirements while also considering the costs of the process. This paper will discuss the process of drilling CFRP-Al stack ups within tight tolerances using a seven axis drilling robot. All components required for drilling are integrated in the drill end-effector. The pressure foot is extended in order to clamp the work piece, and then holes are drilled. The drilling process has four steps as moving to fast approach level, controlled drill feed, countersink depth reached and lift the drill. This paper will discuss the process of drilling CFRP-Al stack ups within tight tolerances using a Robot.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2096
Simon Schnieders, Dirk Eickhorst
Drilling of high-strength titan material and composites in combination creates complex challenges in order to achieve required productivity and quality. Long spiral chips are characteristically for the titan drilling process, which leads to e.g. chip accumulation, high thermomechanical load, surface damages and excessive tool wear. The basic approach is the substitution of today’s peck-drilling as current solution to this problem and the implementation of a vibration assisted drilling, so called micro-peck-drilling-process, to generate a kinematic chip breakage in a significant more efficient way. To meet perfectly the requirements regarding rates, quality and automation level, Broetje-Automation as system integrator has investigated and developed the implementation of different alternative high-performance systems and methods to approach the optimal oscillation movement of the tool.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2110
Ilker Erdem, Peter Helgosson, Ashwin Gomes, Magnus Engstrom
The ability to adapt to rapidly evolving market demands continues to be the one of the key challenges in the automation of assembly processes in the aerospace industry. In order to meet this challenge industry and academia have made efforts to automate flexible fixturing. LOCOMACHS (Low Cost Manufacturing and Assembly of Composite and Hybrid Structures) – a European Union funded project with 31 partners – aims to address various aspects of aero-structure assembly with a special attention is directed to the development of a new build philosophy along with relevant enabling technologies. This paper aims to present the results on the developed wing box build philosophy and the integration of automated flexible tooling solutions into the prospective assembly process.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2108
Marc Fette, Kim Schwake, Jens Wulfsberg, Frank Neuhaus, Manila Brandt
The rising demand for civil aircraft leads to the development of flexible and adaptive production systems in aviation industry. Due to economic efficiency, operational accuracy and high performance these manufacturing and assembly systems must be technologically robust and standardized. The current aircraft assembly and its jigs are characterized by a high complexity with poor changeability and low adaptability. In this context, the use of industrial robots and standardized jigs promise highly flexible and accurate complex assembly operations. This paper deals with the flexible and adaptable aircraft assembly based on industrial robots with special end-effectors for shaping operations. By the development and use of lightweight gripper system made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics the required scaling, robustness and stiffness of the whole assembly system can be realized.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2106
Dan R.W. Vaughan, Otto J. Bakker, David Branson, Svetan Ratchev
Aircraft manufacturers desire to increase production to keep up with anticipated demand. To achieve this, the aerospace industry requires a significant increase in the manufacturing and assembly performance to reach the required output levels. This work therefore introduces the Variation Aware Assembly (VAA) concept and identifies its suitability for implementation into aircraft wing assembly processes. The VAA system concept focuses on achieving assemblies towards the nominal dimensions, as opposed to traditional tooling methods that aim to achieve assemblies anywhere within the tolerance band. It enables control of the variation found in Key Characteristics (KC), which will allow for an increase in the assembly quality and product performance. The concept consists of utilizing metrology data from sources both before and during the assembly process, to precisely position parts using motion controllers.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-2082
Ralf Schomaker, Björn Knickrehm, Jürgen Langediers
In the frame of incremental product improvement, AIRBUS has developed and implemented a new innovative rapid decompression / pressure relieve concept for the cargo compartment area. The core change lays with detaching the complete cargo lining panels from the substructure in case of a rapid decompression in the cargo area instead of using dedicated blow in panels. In that way, pressure equilibrium can be achieved by air flow through the opened areas around the cargo lining panels rather than through specific blow out / blow in venting areas. The key for this is a self-detaching fastener AIRBUS has developed in an outstanding cooperation with ARCONIC Fastening Systems & Rings (former Alcoa Fastening Systems & Rings) in Kelkheim, Germany. These fasteners are installed to keep the cargo lining panels in place and tight against smoke in case of fire which is one of the main purposes for their use.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8132
Sanket Pawar
Reliability engineering methods are used to assess risk and eliminate hazards by estimation, elimination and management of risks of failures. ISO 26262 functional safety standard gives detailed guidance on reliability engineering methods like Failure Mode Effects Analysis (FMEA), Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) etc. While, there are many methods available for reliability engineering; no single method is full proof for securing safety by eliminating hazards completely. Out of these methods, FMEA is widely being used as an integral part of product development life cycle. In this method, failure modes of individual components are analyzed considering one failure at a time. FMEA is efficient method for analyzing failures in simple systems. For complex systems, FMEA becomes impractical. It is also difficult to consider variables in FMEA. FMEA provides fairly detailed recommended actions to avoid failures and eliminate hazards in average working conditions.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8011
Kevin Grove, Jon Atwood, Myra Blanco, Andrew Krum, Richard Hanowski
The goal of this research was to investigate the reliability of tractor-trailer collision avoidance systems (CASs) and characterize the activations observed in the real world. 150 commercial tractor-trailers were equipped with a data acquisition system (DAS) for up to one year. The DAS recorded video of the roadway, video of the driver and vehicle data whenever the truck was driving. Data was collected between November 2013 and August 2015, and the trucks in the study were equipped with either the Meritor WABCO OnGuardTM or Bendix® Wingman® AdvancedTM products. Seven companies from across the United States participated in the study, and all participating vehicles drove their normal, revenue-producing routes. The study evaluated reliability by classifying activations into three categories, based on whether a valid object was being tracked and whether the driver need to react immediately to the activation.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2127
Sylvain Guerin, Sylvain da Costa
Contribution of 3D printing in tooling and portable tools Application case for a Smart Driller The recent contribution rise in 3D printing is rapidly changing the whole industry. In aeronautics, it has 2 major domains of growth: • Aircraft parts • Tooling and portable tools Aircraft parts in metallic 3D printing have been highly publicized in the media, although they represent only a tiny share of the aircraft cell in the short term. On the other hand, metallic (and non-metallic) 3D printing in tooling and tools bring immediate advantages compared to traditional methods. The advantages • Design made directly from the final function • Optimized for strength vs weight • Weight reduction • Reduction in parts number • Short cycle time from design to use • Low cost for customization The drawbacks • Limited in size We have already applied this new manufacturing technique to obtain real breakthroughs in portable tools.
2016-09-20
Journal Article
2016-01-2022
Ajay Rao, Vivek Karan, Pradeep Kumar
Abstract Turbulence is by far the number one concern of anxious passengers and a cause for airline injuries. Apart from causing discomfort to passengers, it also results in unplanned downtime of aircrafts. Currently the Air Traffic Control (ATC) and the meteorological weather charts aid the pilot in devising flight paths that avoid turbulent regions. Even with such tailored flight paths, pilots report constant encounters with turbulence. The probability of turbulence avoidance can be increased by the use of predictive models on historical and transactional data. This paper proposes the use of predictive analytics on meteorological data over the geographical area where the aircraft is intended to fly. The weather predictions are then relayed to the cloud server which can be accessed by the aircraft planned to fly in the same region. Predictive algorithms that use Time series forecasting models are discussed and their comparative performance is documented.
2016-09-20
Journal Article
2016-01-2024
Allan J. Volponi, Liang Tang
Abstract Engine module performance trending and engine system anomaly detection and identification are core capabilities for any engine Condition Based Maintenance system. The genesis of on-condition monitoring can be traced back nearly 4 decades, and a methodology known as Gas Path Analysis (GPA) has played a pivotal role in its evolution. GPA is a general method that assesses and quantifies changes in the underlying performance of the major modules of the engine (compressors and turbines) which directly affect performance changes of interest such as fuel consumption, power availability, compressor surge margins, and the like. This approach has the added benefit in that it enables anomaly detection and identification of many engine system accessory faults (e.g., variable stator vanes, handling and customer bleeds, sensor biases and drift).
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2046
Neno Novakovic
Abstract A Landing Gear Control and Actuation System (LGCAS) is one of the most complex aircraft systems. Due to the large landing gear masses and high performance requirements, aircraft hydraulic power with multiple hydraulic actuators and valves is used to provide system dynamic. LGCAS also requires a electrical source of energy for the electro-mechanical components, sensors and electronic control unit. For many years, correct fault isolation in a complex kinematic system, such as an aircraft landing gear actuation system, has been a great challenge with limited success. The fault isolation design challenge rests on the fact that landing gear control and actuation system has many so called “passive” components, whose basic function cannot be continuously monitored without additional sensors, transducers, and designated health monitoring equipment.
2016-08-19
Standard
AS6285
This document establishes the minimum requirements for ground based aircraft deicing/anti-icing methods and procedures to ensure the safe operation of aircraft during icing conditions on the ground. This document does not specify the requirements for particular aircraft models. NOTE: Refer to particular aircraft operator or aircraft manufacturers’ published manuals and procedures. The application of the procedures specified in this document are intended to effectively remove and/or prevent the accumulation of frost, snow, slush or ice contamination which can seriously affect the aerodynamic performance and/or the controllability of an aircraft. The principal method of treatment employed is the use of fluids qualified to AMS1424 and AMS1428 (Type I, II, III, and IV fluids). All guidelines referred to herein are applicable only in conjunction with the applicable documents.
2016-08-16
WIP Standard
AIR36105B
The present Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides a list of the main government regulations, SAE and international standards, and standing industry recommendations applying to air cargo unit load devices (pallets, nets and containers) to be loaded with either baggage or freight on board civil transport aircraft.
2016-08-15
Standard
AMS1426D
This specification covers a glycol-base deicing/anti-icing material in the form of a liquid.
2016-08-12
Standard
AS90387D
SCOPE IS UNAVAILABLE.
2016-08-10
WIP Standard
AIR6211A
This test method provides stakeholders (runway deicing chemical manufacturers, deicing/anti-icing chemical operators and airport authorities) with a relative ice penetration capacity of runway deicing/anti-icing chemicals, by measuring the ice penetration as a function of time. Such runway deicing/anti-icing chemicals are often also used on taxiways and other paved areas. This test method does not quantitatively measure the theoretical or extended time of ice penetration capability of ready-to-use runway deicing/anti-icing chemicals in liquid or solid form.
2016-08-10
WIP Standard
AIR6170A
This test method provides stakeholders (runway deicing chemical manufacturers, deicing/anti-icing chemical operators and airport authorities) with relative ice melting capacity of runway deicing chemicals, by measuring the amount of ice melted as a function of time. Such runway deicing chemicals are often also used on taxiways. This test method does not quantitatively measure the theoretical or extended time ice melting capability of ready-to-use runway deicing/anti-icing chemicals in liquid or solid form.
2016-08-10
WIP Standard
AIR6172A
This test method provides stakeholders (runway deicing chemical manufacturers, deicing/anti-icing chemical operators and airport authorities) with relative ice undercutting capacity of runway deicing chemicals, by measuring the area of ice undercut pattern as a function of time. Such runway deicing chemicals are often also used on taxiways.
2016-08-03
WIP Standard
AMS1428J
This specification covers three types of deicing/anti-icing material, each in the form of a non-Newtonian fluid.
2016-07-28
WIP Standard
J2012DA
The J2012 Digital Annex of Diagnostic Trouble Code Definitions Spreadsheet provides DTC information in an excel format for use in your organization's work processes. The column headings include the same information as contained in the J2012 standard.

There is also a column heading denoting which DTC have been updated in the current version.

2016-07-19
Standard
ARD6888
The purpose of this document is to specify the functional requirements for a miniature connector to be used for health monitoring purposes on aircraft (including harsh environments such as found in propulsion systems). It is actually a family of miniature connectors that is specified in this document for various uses (e.g., pin counts) and environments. This specification will be used by the SAE committee for connectors (AE-8C1) to study the feasibility of developing a dedicated connector standard.
2016-07-12
WIP Standard
AMS1428/2
The foundation specification (AMS1428) and the category specifications (AMS1428/1 and AMS1428/2) cover deicing/anti- icing materials in the form of a fluid. 1.1.1 Foundation and Category Specifications The foundation specification establishes the requirements for all Type I deicing/anti-icing fluids and defines the terms Glycol (Conventional and Non-Conventional) and Non-Glycol and contains technical and other requirements that apply to both Glycol (Conventional and Non-Conventional) and Non-Glycol based fluids. The category specification AMS1428/1 covers Glycol (Conventional and Non-Conventional) based fluids whereas the category specification AMS1428/2 covers Non-Glycol based fluids. 1.2 Other Scope Requirements Other Scope requirements are set in AMS1428.
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