Regular service of the vehicle is to be done to ensure the factory performance of the vehicle over the entire life of product usage. However, complex nature of the physical processes involved in the service of the vehicle subsystems makes it costly for optimizing the service equipment performance for entire range of operation. Air-conditioning service (ACS) equipment is one such product in the diagnostics domain which deals with compressible, transient and two phase flow in open loop systems. Development of design controls for the service equipment to perform optimally over the entire operational range requires accurate mathematical model of the system under study. Application of mathematical model based approach requires calculation of geometrical details, environment information and fluid properties during the process for estimating the process behavior.
Abstract The Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system installed on the exhaust line is currently widely used on Diesel heavy-duty trucks and it is considered a promising technique for light and medium duty trucks, large passenger cars and off-highway vehicles, to fulfill future emission legislation. Some vehicles of these last categories, equipped with SCR, have been already put on the market, not only in the US, where the emission legislation on Diesel vehicles is more restrictive, but also in Europe, demonstrating to be already compliant with the upcoming Euro 6. Moreover, new and more stringent emission regulations and homologation cycles are being proposed all over the world, with a consequent rapidly increasing interest for this technology. As a matter of fact, a physical model of the Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) supply system is very useful, not only during the product development phase, but also for the implementation of the on-board real-time controller.
Abstract The engine research and development has a significant contribution to meet the stringent emission norms and the changing global market demands. Leveraging the available virtual engineering methods to improve performance, velocity, quality and diminish the lead time is the key for any global brand to stay in the competition. It is the key element to reduce the research and development costs substantially by virtually developing the idea as it is conceived. Engine development test cells consist of expensive test and measurement systems which demand skilled labor and advanced equipment. Effective utilization of the test cells is essential to meet the scheduled project deadlines and cost targets. Engine Design process and tools when used effectively can increase the efficiency and lower the test cell operation costs substantially. This paper discusses the examples for this application in the area of engine installation, sensitive instrumentation/assembly.
Implementation and evaluation of Predictive Concepts for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvement
In the era where governmental agencies are perennially pushing automobile OEMs for reducing harmful emissions and customers looking for vehicles with better fuel economy values, it is imperative on the manufacturers to implement/add new technologies to appease them. Of the many new technologies, the most promising ones are the new control strategies/algorithms which predictively access the road condition, weather, traffic situations and help automobile to function in the most efficient mode. These control strategies/algorithms are termed as “Predictive technologies”. The most common way to assess the benefit of such new technologies is to simulate the vehicle behaviour in conjunction with the existing complex control strategies of Hybrid vehicles, in the simulation environment.
The gradual path to semi or fully autonomous drive is seen for connectivity and electromechanical hardware, with improvements to data bandwidth for maximum connectivity, enhanced GPS for greater accuracy, and mining "Big Data" needed for traffic management.
Aerospace Qualified Electronic Component (AQEC) Requirements, Volume 1 - Integrated Circuits and Semiconductors
This Standard applies to integrated circuits and semiconductors exhibiting the following attributes: a. A minimum set of requirements, or information provided by the part manufacturer, which will allow a standard COTS component to be designated AQEC by the manufacturer. b. As a minimum, each COTS component (designated AQEC) will have been designed, fabricated, assembled, and tested in accordance with the component manufacturer's requirements for standard data book components. c. Qualification of, and quality systems for, the COTS components to be designated as AQEC shall include the manufacturer's standards, operating procedures, and technical specifications. d. Components manufactured before the manufacturer has addressed AQEC requirements, but utilizing the same processes, are also considered AQEC compliant. e. Additional desired attributes of a device designated AQEC (that will support AQEC users) are found in Appendix B of this standard.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) provides a performance station designation system for aircraft propulsion systems and their derivatives. The station numbering conventions presented herein are for use in all communications concerning propulsion system performance such as computer programs, data reduction, design activities, and published documents. They are intended to facilitate calculations by the program user without unduly restricting the method of calculation used by the program supplier. The contents of this document were previously a subset of AS755E. Due to the growing complexity of station numbering schemes and an industry desire to expand nomenclature descriptions, a decision was made to separate the “station numbering” and “nomenclature” contents of AS755 into two separate documents. AS755 will continue to maintain standards for station numbering. SAE Aerospace Standard AS6502 will maintain standards for classical nomenclature moving forward.
Performance Requirements for R-134a and R-1234yf Refrigerant Diagnostic Identifiers (RDI) for Use with Mobile Air Conditioning Systems
This SAE Standard applies to refrigerant identification equipment to be used for identifying refrigerant HFC-134a (R-134a) and HFO-1234yf (R-1234yf) refrigerant when servicing a mobile A/C system or for identifying refrigerant in a container to be used to charge a mobile A/C system. Identification of other refrigerants is the option of the equipment manufacturer, although it shall not misidentify refrigerants, per 3.2.
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) covers information relative to ULDs (Unit Load Devices) container and pallet configurations, maximum usable container, pallet and bulk compartment volumes and tare weights for the lower deck of various wide-body aircraft. Bulk compartment volumes are also included for standard-body aircraft. This document brings together data concerning the lower deck capacity of wide-body and standard- body airplanes. The information includes airplanes manufactured by Airbus, Boeing, British Aerospace, British Aircraft, Fokker-VFW, Hawker Siddeley, Ilyushin, Lockheed and McDonnell- Douglas.
The scope of the document is to define communication best practices in order to minimize problems for the vehicle owner when installing equipment which has a permanently or semi-permanently diagnostic communication device connected to the SAE J1962 connector or hardwired directly to the in-vehicle network.
This document discusses the work done by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Waterways Experiment Station (WES) in support of SAE A-5 Committee activity on Aerospace Landing Gear Systems. It is an example of how seemingly unrelated disciplines can be combined effectively for the eventual benefit of the overall aircraft systems, where that system includes the total airfield environment in which the aircraft must operate. In summary, this AIR documents the history of aircraft flotation analysis as it involves WES and the SAE.
High-tech design causes time to remanufacture engines to nearly triple and adds to cost, while used engines remain a competitive factor. However, Purdue University data shows remanufacturing is far more energy efficient than installing a new powerplant.
SEMA develops step-by-step system in conjunction with California Air Resources Board to help participating members comply with emissions regulations. Clemson University I-CAR is an active participant, providing laboratory facilities for analysis to aid SEMA members who are aftermarket manufacturers.
This document is used for placing Configuration Management Requirements on Defense Contracts after being tailored by the Acquirer. When effectively and consistently applied, Configuration Management (CM) provides a positive impact on product quality, cost, and schedule. The planning and execution of Configuration Management (CM) is an essential part of the product development and life cycle management process. It provides control of all configuration documentation, physical parts and software representing or comprising the product. Configuration Management's overarching goal is to establish and maintain consistency of a product's functional and physical attributes with its requirements, design and operational information throughout its life cycle. When effectively and consistently applied, Configuration Management (CM) provides a positive impact on product quality, cost, and schedule.
"Craft shop" approach of low-volume, all-aluminum, high-end makes is too restrictive for America's best-selling vehicle. SEMA Show training classes by I-CAR demonstrate special techniques necessary and the learning curve for mainstream body shop technicians.
Potential exists for more efficient re-use of rare earth elements, Purdue professor asserts. Regardless of choice, original component design should be engineered for dismantling to enhance end-of-life recovery, he tells Automotive Aftermarket Industry Week forum in Las Vegas.
Oil debris monitoring in aero engines In a gas turbine engine, small particles or "chips" are generated at the point of wear, serving as an advanced warning that catastrophic failure will occur if the wear is not addressed. Health monitoring systems, such as oil debris monitoring, are used to find these small particles so that the wear can be resolved before it's too late. Indigenous powertrain development Customer needs and expectations on drivability, fuel economy, and safety has pushed Indian and multinational OEMs to think about the development of powertrains and gearboxes for local needs with global standards. The next wave of crash simulation As computing speed has improved and software itself has made significant speed and performance gains with each release, modeling tools are now quick enough to build high-quality, large, high-detail vehicle models in a very efficient manner.
Packing, Preformed, Petroleum Hydraulic Fluid Resistant Improved Performance at 275°F (135°C) Sizes and Tolerances
The purpose of this specification sheet is to set up a standardized part numbering system for O-rings procured to MIL-P-83461.
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) was prepared by a panel of the SAE A-5 Committee. This document establishes the specifications for fluids used in landing gear shock struts with extreme pressure and antiwear additives that have been added for improved lubrication.
This document provides guidance concerning the maintenance and serviceability of oxygen cylinders beginning with the quality of oxygen that is required, supplemental oxygen information, handling and cleaning procedures, transfilling and marking of serviced oxygen assemblies. This document attempts to outline in a logical sequence oxygen quality, serviceability and maintenance of oxygen cylinders.
Abstract One of the most significant current discussions worldwide is the anthropogenic climate change accompanying fossil fuel consumption. Sustainable development in all fields of combustion engines is required with the principal objective to enhance efficiency. This certainly concerns the field of hand-held power tools as well. Today, two-stroke SI engines equipped with a carburetor are the most widely used propulsion technology in hand-held power tools like chain saws and grass trimmers. To date, research tended to focus on two-stroke engines with rich mixture setting. In this paper the advantages and challenges of leaner and/or lean operation are discussed. Experimental investigations regarding the influence of equivalence ratio on emissions, fuel consumption and power have been performed. Accompanying 3D-CFD simulations support the experiments in order to gain insight into these complex processes. The investigations concentrate on two different mixture formation processes, i.e.
Abstract Present two stroke engines used for hand held power tools must confirm to prevailing emission legislation. A fact is that today the engines have to be run at leaner air fuel setting resulting in less amount of lubrication oil passing through the engine. This lean mixture combined with high mixture trapping efficiency also affects the combustion, raising the overall working temperature of the engine. So to gain more robustness out of these air-cooled power heads one viable route is to use different coatings to take control of tribology and heat management within the two stroke power head. In this paper a first discussion and description of the different coatings and their merits to the air cooled two stroke engine is conducted. Furthermore engine data for the test engine, in this case a 70cc professional chainsaw are presented. The outcome of engine dyno testing of the different coatings are presented and analyzed for further discussion.
Abstract For handheld power tools, a four-stroke engine allows compliance with exhaust emissions regulations although four-stroke engines available tend to have unfavorable power to weight. The requirement for a low cost diecast block compromises valve sizes and port flow. While dynamic valve train limitations restrict maximum engine speeds. The use of a rotary valve as opposed to poppet valves avoids these issues and results in an engine with competitive performance. The engine block can be diecast and the engine can operate up to 14,000 rpm without valve related issues. This paper describes the evolution of a rotary valve concept and its application to two 35cc handheld development engines. The HRCV35 is based on a belt driven rotary valve horizontally mounted parallel to the crankshaft axis. The VRCV35 is based on a gear driven rotary valve vertically mounted on the cylinder axis. In both configurations, the rotary valve exposes inlet and exhaust ports providing unrestricted flow.
Abstract The progressing exhaust gas legislation for on- and off-road vehicles includes gradually the nanoparticle count limits. The invisible nanoparticles from different emission sources penetrate like a gas into the living organisms and may cause several health hazards. The present paper shows some results of a modern chain saw with & without oxidation catalyst, with Alkylate fuel and with different lube oils. The measurements focused specially on particulate emissions. Particulates were analysed by means of gravimetry (PM) and granulometry SMPS (PN). In this way the reduction potentials with application of the best materials (fuel, lube oil, ox-cat.) were indicated. It has been shown that the particle mass (PM) and the particle numbers (PN), which both consisting almost exclusively of unburned lube-oil, can attain quite high values, but can be influenced by the lube oil quality and can be considerably reduced with an oxidation catalyst.
Integrated Vehicle Health Management: Implementation and Lessons Learned is the fourth title in the IVHM series published by SAE International. This new book introduces a variety of case studies, lessons learned, and insights on what it really means to develop, implement, or manage an integrated system of systems. Integrated Vehicle Health Management: Implementation and Lessons Learned brings to the reader a wide set of hands-on stories, made possible by the contribution of twenty-three authors, who agreed to share their experience and wisdom on how new technologies are developed and put to work. This effort was again coordinated by Dr. Ian K. Jennions, Director of the IVHM Centre at Cranfield University (UK), and editor of the previous books in the series.
The ARP shall cover the objectives and activities of Verification & Vallidation Processes required to assure high quality and/or criticality level of an IVHM Systems and Software.
The basic architecture of General Motors' small block V8 has remained the same since 1955, but now a new crate engine with modern-day advanced technologies is available on the aftermarket.
This document is intended to supplement SAE J2403 by providing the content of Table 1, Table 2, and Table 3 from SAE J2403 in a form that can be sorted and searched for easier use. It is NOT intended as a substitute for the actual document, and any discrepancies between this Digital Annex and the published SAE J2403 document must be resolved in favor of the published document. This document provides the content of Table 1 and Table 2 published in SAE J2403 into the single table in the 'Term' tab, while the 'Recommended Term Definitions' tab provides the content of Table 3 in SAE J2403 and the 'Glossary' tab provides the content of Table 4 in SAE J2403.