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2015-05-20
Book
This is the electronic format of the Journal.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1643
Benedikt Von Imhoff, Johannes Zweck, Georg Wachtmeister
Modern methods of engine development use complex mathematical model approaches, which need to be applied using a multitude of accurate and repeatable measurements. Advanced components like variable valve trains or direct injection systems result in an increasing number of degrees of freedom and therefore in additionally required measurements. Both leads to higher efforts regarding time, staff and costs, why it becomes crucial to improve measurement techniques in order to reduce the required time and enhance the quality. Many of the models above consider the simulated system being stationary, i.e. the system variables would no longer change with time. Therefore the calibration measurements also have to be conducted at stationary system states to be valid and moreover to be comparable and repeatable.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1647
Matthieu Lecompte, Stephane Raux
Euro VI standards for heavy duty vehicles require the use of a DPF in order to fulfill the particulate matter threshold. Although passive regeneration of soot by NO2, promoted by a DOC located upstream the DPF, is preferred, the use of an active regeneration might be required whenever the DPF soot mass trapped increases. Some manufacturers made the choice a fuel injection in the exhaust system in order to generate an exothermic reaction in the DOC that helps to regenerate the particulate filter. This dedicated circuit avoids the use of post-injection which may induce oil dilution by diesel. The DPF regeneration is efficient and the DOC works durably if the exhaust diesel spray is completely vaporized before entering DOC and thoroughly mixed with the exhaust gases. However, ensuring complete evaporation and an optimum mixture distribution in the exhaust line is challenging.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0210
S Kevin Chen, Li-Chun Chien, Masaki Nagashima, Joel Van Ess, Sam Hashemi
Misfire Detection in a Dynamic Skip Fire Engine Kevin Chen, Ricky Chien, Masaki Nagashima, Joel Van Ess and Sam Hashemi Abstract Misfire detection is one of the monitors that have the most specific and detailed requirements in the OBD-II regulations. There have been a number of technical papers in the literature discussing various methods and metrics for detecting misfire in conventional all-cylinder firing engines. However, those misfire detection systems are generally not suitable for detecting misfire in a dynamic skip fire engine. For example, a detection approach based on crankshaft angular acceleration may work well in conventional, all-cylinder firing engine operation, since it is expected that crankshaft acceleration will remain generally consistent for a given operating condition. In skip fire engine operation, however, any working cylinder or working cycle may be skipped.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0209
Lihil Uthpala Subasinghe, Dilan Mendis, Tharindu Chandima, Nirosh Jayaweera, Sasiranga De Silva
Fault detection and diagnosis for automobile engines are very important to ensure reliable operation of the engine. Most of the faults in an automobile engine cannot be detected in real time. Detecting faults and its’ location, without dismantling the engine is very difficult. On-board diagnostic (OBD) systems in modern vehicles can be used to detect engine faults up to some extent. However, OBD systems are not accurate enough in certain conditions and technicians have difficulties when interpreting information. OBD method cannot be used for old vehicles because those vehicles do not have OBD systems. Hence, these factors necessitate the development of intelligent and accurate diagnosis method for troubleshooting automobile engine faults. Therefore in this research, a mathematical model was developed to identify engine faults through the simulation of Instantaneous Angular Speed Fluctuation (IASF) of crank shaft.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0208
Hongtao Yu, Reza Langari
In order to prevent accidents caused by vehicle problems and drivers’ misapplication of vehicle controls, a detection system to perform real-time identification of abnormal vehicle behaviors is needed, which is an inherently complex task. Research efforts to this end include Sang et al. [1], which implemented an approach to abnormal behavior identification by performing video-based detection and creating information chain of tracked vehicles. Meanwhile, Bouttefroy et al. [2] introduced a paradigm for abnormal behavior detection relying on the integration of contextual information in Markov random fields. This technique models the local density of object feature vector and leads to simple and elegant criterion for behavior classification. Likewise, Chen et al. [3] presented an approach to detect potential ECU application software abnormal behavior based on the Mahalanobis Distance, the Mahalanobis-Taguchi System and vehicle driving data playback capability with a simulator.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0592
Mehdi Hajian
With growing incorporation of adhesively bonded joints in automotive industries, the need for fast and reliable nondestructive testing (NDT) methods for testing of adhesive joints has increased. Pulse-echo is considered to be the most suitable technique for NDT of adhesively bonded joints thanks to its relative simplicity, ease for industrial applications, and more importantly, not requiring access to both sides of the component. In a pulse-echo system, the pattern recognition of the ultrasonic backscattered echoes gives us important information about the interrogated object. These information can be size, geometric shape and orientation of the object. Furthermore, some information about the propagation path is obtained from these patterns. In some applications, such as automobile industry, this would not be straightforward to extract these information from the backscattered echoes due to the overlapping data and also presence of noise.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0211
Yong Liu
The most common methodology used in element concentration measurement and analyzing of wear particles is Atomic emission (AE) spectroscopy. This paper presents a health state evaluation method on wear behavior of power-shift steering transmission (PSST). By removing the problematic components which were highly correlated with oil additives, the Robust Kernel Principal Component Analysis (RKPCA) method and the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method were both accessed to extract the principle components of spectral data for oil samples collected from the life-cycle test of PSST in different stage and to calculate the amount of each principle component and its contribution rate respectively.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0439
Daniel B. Kosinski
The major topic that will be discussed in this paper is the new reliability growth planning model that is being developed by a member of the Reliability, Availability and Maintainability (RAM) team at the Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC). The model incorporates many of the advantageous features of the Army Materiel System Analysis Activity’s (AMSAA) Planning Model for Projection Methodology (PM2) and Bayesian Continuous Planning Model (BCPM) but replaces many of the unrealistic assumptions with more realistic and customizable ones. The interface, input setup and output results that were similar between PM2 and BCPM remain the same to ensure the new reliability growth planning model is intuitive to those familiar with PM2 or BCPM.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0212
Mohamed El Morsy, Gabriela Achtenova
Condition monitoring is used to increase machinery availability and machinery performance, whilst reducing consequential damage, increasing machine life, reducing spare parts inventories, and reducing breakdown maintenance. An efficient condition monitoring system provides early warning of faults by predicting them at an early stage. When a localized fault occurs in gears, the vibration signals always exhibit non-stationary behavior. The periodic impulsive feature of the vibration signal appears in the time domain and the corresponding gear mesh frequency (GMF) emerges in the frequency domain. However, one limitation of frequency-domain analysis is its inability to handle non-stationary waveform signals, which are very common when machinery faults occur. Particularly at the early stage of gear failure, the GMF contains very little energy and is often overwhelmed by noise and higher-level macro-structural vibrations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0206
Jihas Khan
Existing encryption technique used for flashing ECU software, writing or reading the internal ECU variable values is based on a seed-key mechanism. A multitude of existing techniques can be used for finding the algorithm behind key generation from a specific seed. This hacking technique can allow a stranger to flash ECU software of his choice, to change internal variables, to change the VIN number of ECU, to lock/unlock doors and a lot more using diagnostic commands over CAN. Car thieves, car hackers can exploit this hidden feature to alter performance from stock and may prove dangerous to lives of passengers. A novel and fool proof algorithm is established and explained here to protect vehicle and ECU from such malicious activities. An advanced encryption technique is developed and tested in ECU for replacing the current seed-key mechanisms for ECU security unlock guarantying a secure operation of vehicle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0486
Jamshid Mohammadi, Mehdi Modares
Performance data offers a powerful tool for system condition assessment and health monitoring. In most applications, a host of various types of sensors is employed and data on key parameters (describing the system performance) is compiled for further analysis and evaluation. In ensuring the adequacy of the data acquisition process, two important questions arise: (1) is the complied data robust and reasonable in representing the system parameters; and (2) is the duration of data acquisition adequate to capture a favorable percentage (say for example 90%) of the critical values of a given system parameter? The issue related to the robustness and reasonableness of data can be addressed through known values for key parameters of the system. This is the information that is not often available. And as such, methods based on trends in a given system parameter, expected norms, the parameter’s relation with other known parameters, and simulations can be used to assure the quality of the data.
2015-01-23
WIP Standard
AS6317
This document applies to hardware and software and provides CM requirements to be used for NASA Acquisitions and In House DDT&E activities as tailored by the customer or acquirer. The requirements have been organized using the five CM functions and 37 CM principles contained in the SAE 649B Standard: a. Configuration Planning and Management b. Configuration Identification c. Configuration Change Management d. Configuration Status Accounting e. Configuration Verification and Audit
2015-01-22
Standard
AIR6284
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) covers forced air technology including: reference material, equipment, safety, operation, and methodology. This resource document is intended to provide information and minimum safety guidelines regarding use of forced air or forced air/fluid equipment to remove frozen contaminants. During the effective period of this document, relevant sections herein should be considered and included in all/any relevant SAE documents.
2015-01-21
Article
Tech Mahindra Ltd. recently launched its Automotive Aftermarket Suite, which enables the company to offer solutions in telematics and sensor-based predictive maintenance for thousands of cars on the road worldwide.
2015-01-20
WIP Standard
ARP6338
This document is intended for use by designers and producers of electronic sub-assemblies, assemblies, and equipment used in ADHP applications to conduct lifetime assessments of microcircuits with the potential for early wearout; and to implement mitigations when required; and by the users of the ADHP equipment to assess those designs and mitigations.
2015-01-20
WIP Standard
J1939/75
SAE J1939-75 Generator Sets and Industrial Applications defines the set of data parameters (SPNs) and messages (PGNs) for information predominantly associated with monitoring and control generators and driven equipment in electric power generation and industrial applications. Applications using the SAE J1939-75 document may need to reference SAE J1939-71 for the SAE J1939 parameters and messages for monitoring and controlling the power units, e.g. engines and turbines, that power the generators and driven industrial equipment.
2015-01-15
Standard
J3054_201501
This Technical Information Report defines the diagnostic communication protocol TP1.6. This document should be used in conjunction with SAE J2534-2 in order to fully implement the communication protocol in an SAE J2534 interface. Some Volkswagen of America and Audi of America vehicles are equipped with ECU(s), in which a TP1.6 proprietary diagnostic communication protocol is implemented. The purpose of this document is to specify the requirements necessary to implement the communication protocol in an SAE J2534 interface. This Technical Information Report describes how a tester can be connected to a vehicle to perform diagnostics using the TP1.6 protocol. Details regarding ECU to ECU communication have been left out.
2015-01-15
Standard
J2610_201501
The purpose of this SAE Information Report is to specify the requirements necessary to fully define the Serial Data Communication Interface (SCI) used in the reprogramming of emission-related powertrain Electronic Control Units (ECU) in Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (FCA) vehicles. It is intended to satisfy new regulations proposed by the federal U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and California Air Resource Board (CARB) regulatory agencies regarding “pass-thru programming” of all On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) compliant emission-related powertrain devices. These requirements are necessary to provide independent automotive service organizations and after-market scan tool suppliers the ability to reprogram emission-related powertrain ECUs for all manufacturers of automotive vehicles. Specifically, this document details the SCI physical layer and SCI data link layer requirements necessary to establish communications between a diagnostic tester and an ECU.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0043
Rajesh Kashyap, Vamsidhar Sunkari, Prakash Verma
Abstract Regular service of the vehicle is to be done with high precision service equipment, to ensure the factory performance of the vehicle over the entire life of product usage. However, complex nature of the physical processes involved in the service of the vehicle subsystems makes it costly for optimizing the service equipment performance for entire range of operation. Air-conditioning service (ACS) equipment is one such product in the diagnostics domain which deals with compressible, transient and two phase flow in open loop systems. Development of control system for the service equipment to perform optimally over the entire operational range requires accurate mathematical model of the system under study. Application of mathematical model based approach requires calculation of geometrical details, environment information and fluid properties during the process for estimating the process behavior.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0239
Azeez Ahmed, Gopalakrishna Deshpande, Varghese Manu Varghese, Ramakrishnan Rangaswamy, Prakash Prashanth Ravi
Abstract The engine research and development has a significant contribution to meet the stringent emission norms and the changing global market demands. Leveraging the available virtual engineering methods to improve performance, velocity, quality and diminish the lead time is the key for any global brand to stay in the competition. It is the key element to reduce the research and development costs substantially by virtually developing the idea as it is conceived. Engine development test cells consist of expensive test and measurement systems which demand skilled labor and advanced equipment. Effective utilization of the test cells is essential to meet the scheduled project deadlines and cost targets. Engine Design process and tools when used effectively can increase the efficiency and lower the test cell operation costs substantially. This paper discusses the examples for this application in the area of engine installation, sensitive instrumentation/assembly.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0013
Ashwini S. Athreya, Sreenath K R, Deepak Sharma
Abstract In the era where governmental agencies are perennially pushing automobile OEMs for reducing harmful emissions and customers looking for vehicles with better fuel economy values, it is imperative on the manufacturers to implement new technologies to appease them. Of the many new technologies, the most promising ones are the new control strategies/algorithms which predictively access the road condition, weather, traffic situations and help automobile to function in the most efficient mode. These control strategies/algorithms are termed as “Predictive technologies”. The most common way to assess the benefit of such new technologies is to simulate the vehicle behavior in conjunction with the existing complex control strategies of Hybrid vehicles in simulation environment.
2015-01-14
Journal Article
2015-26-0090
Federico Stola, Matteo De Cesare, Luca Lacchini, Nicolò Cavina, Sandeep Sohal
Abstract The Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system installed on the exhaust line is currently widely used on Diesel heavy-duty trucks and it is considered a promising technique for light and medium duty trucks, large passenger cars and off-highway vehicles, to fulfill future emission legislation. Some vehicles of these last categories, equipped with SCR, have been already put on the market, not only in the US, where the emission legislation on Diesel vehicles is more restrictive, but also in Europe, demonstrating to be already compliant with the upcoming Euro 6. Moreover, new and more stringent emission regulations and homologation cycles are being proposed all over the world, with a consequent rapidly increasing interest for this technology. As a matter of fact, a physical model of the Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) supply system is very useful, not only during the product development phase, but also for the implementation of the on-board real-time controller.
2015-01-05
Article
Current products from 3M can be used to repair aluminum- and carbon fiber-intensive vehicles, but the company is working with OEMs such as General Motors to develop optimized solutions for multi-material structural applications.
2014-12-23
WIP Standard
AMSR83248/1A
The purpose of this specification sheet is to set up a standardized part numbering system for o-rings procured to MIL-R-83248, Class 1 (75 ± 5 hardness).
2014-12-23
WIP Standard
AMSR83248/2A
The purpose of this specification sheet is to set up a standardized part numbering system for o-rings procured to MIL-R-83248, Class 2 (90 ± 5 hardness).
2014-12-19
WIP Standard
J2911
This SAE Standard provides manufacturers, testing facilities and providers of technician training with a procedure for certifying compliance with the appropriate standards. Manufacturers or seller who advertise their products as Certified to an SAE J standard shall follow this procedure. Certification of a product is voluntary; however, this certification process is mandatory for those advertising meeting SAE Standard(s) requirements. Only certifying to this standard allows those claiming compliance to advertise that their product (unit), component, or service meets all requirements of the specific SAE standard. Certification of compliance to this and the appropriate standard and use of the SAE label on the product shall only be permitted after all the required information has been submitted to SAE International and it has been posted on the SAE web site.
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