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2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1643
Benedikt Von Imhoff, Johannes Zweck, Georg Wachtmeister
Modern methods of engine development use complex mathematical model approaches, which need to be applied using a multitude of accurate and repeatable measurements. Advanced components like variable valve trains or direct injection systems result in an increasing number of degrees of freedom and therefore in additionally required measurements. Both leads to higher efforts regarding time, staff and costs, why it becomes crucial to improve measurement techniques in order to reduce the required time and enhance the quality. Many of the models above consider the simulated system being stationary, i.e. the system variables would no longer change with time. Therefore the calibration measurements also have to be conducted at stationary system states to be valid and moreover to be comparable and repeatable.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1647
Matthieu Lecompte, Stephane Raux
Euro VI standards for heavy duty vehicles require the use of a DPF in order to fulfill the particulate matter threshold. Although passive regeneration of soot by NO2, promoted by a DOC located upstream the DPF, is preferred, the use of an active regeneration might be required whenever the DPF soot mass trapped increases. Some manufacturers made the choice a fuel injection in the exhaust system in order to generate an exothermic reaction in the DOC that helps to regenerate the particulate filter. This dedicated circuit avoids the use of post-injection which may induce oil dilution by diesel. The DPF regeneration is efficient and the DOC works durably if the exhaust diesel spray is completely vaporized before entering DOC and thoroughly mixed with the exhaust gases. However, ensuring complete evaporation and an optimum mixture distribution in the exhaust line is challenging.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0209
Lihil Uthpala Subasinghe, Dilan Mendis, Tharindu Chandima, Nirosh Jayaweera, Sasiranga De Silva
Fault detection and diagnosis for automobile engines are very important to ensure reliable operation of the engine. Most of the faults in an automobile engine cannot be detected in real time. Detecting faults and its’ location, without dismantling the engine is very difficult. On-board diagnostic (OBD) systems in modern vehicles can be used to detect engine faults up to some extent. However, OBD systems are not accurate enough in certain conditions and technicians have difficulties when interpreting information. OBD method cannot be used for old vehicles because those vehicles do not have OBD systems. Hence, these factors necessitate the development of intelligent and accurate diagnosis method for troubleshooting automobile engine faults. Therefore in this research, a mathematical model was developed to identify engine faults through the simulation of Instantaneous Angular Speed Fluctuation (IASF) of crank shaft.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0208
Hongtao Yu, Reza Langari
In order to prevent accidents caused by vehicle problems and drivers’ misapplication of vehicle controls, a detection system to perform real-time identification of abnormal vehicle behaviors is needed, which is an inherently complex task. Research efforts to this end include Sang et al. [1], which implemented an approach to abnormal behavior identification by performing video-based detection and creating information chain of tracked vehicles. Meanwhile, Bouttefroy et al. [2] introduced a paradigm for abnormal behavior detection relying on the integration of contextual information in Markov random fields. This technique models the local density of object feature vector and leads to simple and elegant criterion for behavior classification. Likewise, Chen et al. [3] presented an approach to detect potential ECU application software abnormal behavior based on the Mahalanobis Distance, the Mahalanobis-Taguchi System and vehicle driving data playback capability with a simulator.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0592
Mehdi Hajian
With growing incorporation of adhesively bonded joints in automotive industries, the need for fast and reliable nondestructive testing (NDT) methods for testing of adhesive joints has increased. Pulse-echo is considered to be the most suitable technique for NDT of adhesively bonded joints thanks to its relative simplicity, ease for industrial applications, and more importantly, not requiring access to both sides of the component. In a pulse-echo system, the pattern recognition of the ultrasonic backscattered echoes gives us important information about the interrogated object. These information can be size, geometric shape and orientation of the object. Furthermore, some information about the propagation path is obtained from these patterns. In some applications, such as automobile industry, this would not be straightforward to extract these information from the backscattered echoes due to the overlapping data and also presence of noise.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0439
Daniel B. Kosinski
The major topic that will be discussed in this paper is the new reliability growth planning model that is being developed by a member of the Reliability, Availability and Maintainability (RAM) team at the Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC). The model incorporates many of the advantageous features of the Army Materiel System Analysis Activity’s (AMSAA) Planning Model for Projection Methodology (PM2) and Bayesian Continuous Planning Model (BCPM) but replaces many of the unrealistic assumptions with more realistic and customizable ones. The interface, input setup and output results that were similar between PM2 and BCPM remain the same to ensure the new reliability growth planning model is intuitive to those familiar with PM2 or BCPM.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0212
Mohamed El Morsy, Gabriela Achtenova
Condition monitoring is used to increase machinery availability and machinery performance, whilst reducing consequential damage, increasing machine life, reducing spare parts inventories, and reducing breakdown maintenance. An efficient condition monitoring system provides early warning of faults by predicting them at an early stage. When a localized fault occurs in gears, the vibration signals always exhibit non-stationary behavior. The periodic impulsive feature of the vibration signal appears in the time domain and the corresponding gear mesh frequency (GMF) emerges in the frequency domain. However, one limitation of frequency-domain analysis is its inability to handle non-stationary waveform signals, which are very common when machinery faults occur. Particularly at the early stage of gear failure, the GMF contains very little energy and is often overwhelmed by noise and higher-level macro-structural vibrations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0206
Jihas Khan
Existing encryption technique used for flashing ECU software, writing or reading the internal ECU variable values is based on a seed-key mechanism. A multitude of existing techniques can be used for finding the algorithm behind key generation from a specific seed. This hacking technique can allow a stranger to flash ECU software of his choice, to change internal variables, to change the VIN number of ECU, to lock/unlock doors and a lot more using diagnostic commands over CAN. Car thieves, car hackers can exploit this hidden feature to alter performance from stock and may prove dangerous to lives of passengers. A novel and fool proof algorithm is established and explained here to protect vehicle and ECU from such malicious activities. An advanced encryption technique is developed and tested in ECU for replacing the current seed-key mechanisms for ECU security unlock guarantying a secure operation of vehicle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0486
Jamshid Mohammadi, Mehdi Modares
Performance data offers a powerful tool for system condition assessment and health monitoring. In most applications, a host of various types of sensors is employed and data on key parameters (describing the system performance) is compiled for further analysis and evaluation. In ensuring the adequacy of the data acquisition process, two important questions arise: (1) is the complied data robust and reasonable in representing the system parameters; and (2) is the duration of data acquisition adequate to capture a favorable percentage (say for example 90%) of the critical values of a given system parameter? The issue related to the robustness and reasonableness of data can be addressed through known values for key parameters of the system. This is the information that is not often available. And as such, methods based on trends in a given system parameter, expected norms, the parameter’s relation with other known parameters, and simulations can be used to assure the quality of the data.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0487
Lev Klyatis
Abstract title: INTRODUCTION TO SUCCESSFUL PREDICTING OF PRODUCT PERFORMANCE (RELIABILITY, DURABILITY, SAFETY, QUALITY, RECALLS, AND OTHERS) This paper will discuss the problem with successful predicting of product performance components. The best component for analyzing performance during service life, including predicting, is recalls, because, first, recall accumulates reliability, durability, safety, profit, and total economic situation. Second, there is open official and objective information about the number of recalls from the government (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and others), as well as companies-producers. Therefore, for analyzing the situation with the product performance , including predicting, this paper considers the situation with recalls. It will demonstrate how dangerous is the current situation with recalls, reliability, durability, safety, especially in automotive, including in the USA for last thirty years.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0210
S Kevin Chen, Li-Chun Chien, Masaki Nagashima, Joel Van Ess, Sam Hashemi
Misfire Detection in a Dynamic Skip Fire Engine Kevin Chen, Ricky Chien, Masaki Nagashima, Joel Van Ess and Sam Hashemi Abstract Misfire detection is one of the monitors that have the most specific and detailed requirements in the OBD-II regulations. There have been a number of technical papers in the literature discussing various methods and metrics for detecting misfire in conventional all-cylinder firing engines. However, those misfire detection systems are generally not suitable for detecting misfire in a dynamic skip fire engine. For example, a detection approach based on crankshaft angular acceleration may work well in conventional, all-cylinder firing engine operation, since it is expected that crankshaft acceleration will remain generally consistent for a given operating condition. In skip fire engine operation, however, any working cylinder or working cycle may be skipped.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0918
Daniel Duke, Andrew Swantek, Alan Kastengren, Kamel Fezzaa, Christopher Powell
Cavitation plays an important role in fuel injection systems. It alters the nozzle’s internal flow structure and discharge coefficient, and also contributes to injector wear. Quantitatively measuring and mapping the cavitation vapor distribution in a fuel injector is difficult, as cavitation occurs on very short time and length scales. Optical measurements of transparent model nozzles can indicate the morphology of large-scale cavitation, but are generally limited by the substantial amount of scattering that occurs due to large changes in refractive index between vapor and liquid phases. These limitations can be overcome with x-ray diagnostics, as x-rays refract, scatter and absorb much more weakly. Here, we present an overview of some recent developments in quantitative x-ray diagnostics for cavitating flows. Measurements were conducted at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, using a submerged plastic test nozzle 500µm in diameter.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0881
Sunyu Tong, Haimiao Li, Zhaohui Yang, Jun Deng, Zongjie Hu, Liguang Li
For the purpose of fuel economy improvement, engine downsizing with turbocharger and the need of more accurate control of combustion process optimization are strongly desired. The cylinder pressure transducer is usually used to detect the in-cylinder combustion condition, but it is now too expensive to equip each cylinder with a pressure sensor for the automotive engines. Ion current sensor is more preferred because of its low cost and easy installation. In this paper, a robust ion current sensor and a spark plug type pressure transducer are installed on the cylinder of a 1.8L turbo boosted PFI engine. And the ion current signal and the cylinder pressure are sampled simultaneously. The parameters of ion current signal such as ion current integral value, ion current peak value and the ion current peak phase are calculated and then the relationship between ion current signal and cylinder pressure could berevealed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1249
Jinli Wang, Fuyuan Yang, Minggao Ouyang
There is increasing demand for engine diagnostic and control with in-cylinder pressure signal. However, the application of cylinder pressure sensors are restricted by the high cost of the sensor. Another possible way for engine combustion state estimation is by processing of instantaneous crankshaft speed signal, but it is limited by the precision and complexity of the algorithm. It could be a solution by combined processing of one cylinder pressure signal and crankshaft speed signal together. A rigid crankshaft dynamics model was used to model the system. Measurement results from experiments show that the indicated torque error traces of different cylinder are similar in shape. According to this assumption, the reference cylinder with cylinder pressure signal available can serve as both a parameter calibration information source and an error reduction measure. The algorithm can be simplified with rather good precision.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0013
Ashwini S. Athreya, Sreenath K R, Deepak Sharma
Abstract In the era where governmental agencies are perennially pushing automobile OEMs for reducing harmful emissions and customers looking for vehicles with better fuel economy values, it is imperative on the manufacturers to implement new technologies to appease them. Of the many new technologies, the most promising ones are the new control strategies/algorithms which predictively access the road condition, weather, traffic situations and help automobile to function in the most efficient mode. These control strategies/algorithms are termed as “Predictive technologies”. The most common way to assess the benefit of such new technologies is to simulate the vehicle behavior in conjunction with the existing complex control strategies of Hybrid vehicles in simulation environment.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0043
Rajesh Kashyap, Vamsidhar Sunkari, Prakash Verma
Abstract Regular service of the vehicle is to be done with high precision service equipment, to ensure the factory performance of the vehicle over the entire life of product usage. However, complex nature of the physical processes involved in the service of the vehicle subsystems makes it costly for optimizing the service equipment performance for entire range of operation. Air-conditioning service (ACS) equipment is one such product in the diagnostics domain which deals with compressible, transient and two phase flow in open loop systems. Development of control system for the service equipment to perform optimally over the entire operational range requires accurate mathematical model of the system under study. Application of mathematical model based approach requires calculation of geometrical details, environment information and fluid properties during the process for estimating the process behavior.
2015-01-14
Journal Article
2015-26-0090
Federico Stola, Matteo De Cesare, Luca Lacchini, Nicolò Cavina, Sandeep Sohal
Abstract The Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system installed on the exhaust line is currently widely used on Diesel heavy-duty trucks and it is considered a promising technique for light and medium duty trucks, large passenger cars and off-highway vehicles, to fulfill future emission legislation. Some vehicles of these last categories, equipped with SCR, have been already put on the market, not only in the US, where the emission legislation on Diesel vehicles is more restrictive, but also in Europe, demonstrating to be already compliant with the upcoming Euro 6. Moreover, new and more stringent emission regulations and homologation cycles are being proposed all over the world, with a consequent rapidly increasing interest for this technology. As a matter of fact, a physical model of the Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) supply system is very useful, not only during the product development phase, but also for the implementation of the on-board real-time controller.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0239
Azeez Ahmed, Gopalakrishna Deshpande, Varghese Manu Varghese, Ramakrishnan Rangaswamy, Prakash Prashanth Ravi
Abstract The engine research and development has a significant contribution to meet the stringent emission norms and the changing global market demands. Leveraging the available virtual engineering methods to improve performance, velocity, quality and diminish the lead time is the key for any global brand to stay in the competition. It is the key element to reduce the research and development costs substantially by virtually developing the idea as it is conceived. Engine development test cells consist of expensive test and measurement systems which demand skilled labor and advanced equipment. Effective utilization of the test cells is essential to meet the scheduled project deadlines and cost targets. Engine Design process and tools when used effectively can increase the efficiency and lower the test cell operation costs substantially. This paper discusses the examples for this application in the area of engine installation, sensitive instrumentation/assembly.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0036
Jan Czerwinski, Markus Kurzwart, Andreas Mayer, Pierre Comte
Abstract The progressing exhaust gas legislation for on- and off-road vehicles includes gradually the nanoparticle count limits. The invisible nanoparticles from different emission sources penetrate like a gas into the living organisms and may cause several health hazards. The present paper shows some results of a modern chain saw with & without oxidation catalyst, with Alkylate fuel and with different lube oils. The measurements focused specially on particulate emissions. Particulates were analysed by means of gravimetry (PM) and granulometry SMPS (PN). In this way the reduction potentials with application of the best materials (fuel, lube oil, ox-cat.) were indicated. It has been shown that the particle mass (PM) and the particle numbers (PN), which both consisting almost exclusively of unburned lube-oil, can attain quite high values, but can be influenced by the lube oil quality and can be considerably reduced with an oxidation catalyst.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0111
Brian Mason, Keith Lawes
Abstract For handheld power tools, a four-stroke engine allows compliance with exhaust emissions regulations although four-stroke engines available tend to have unfavorable power to weight. The requirement for a low cost diecast block compromises valve sizes and port flow. While dynamic valve train limitations restrict maximum engine speeds. The use of a rotary valve as opposed to poppet valves avoids these issues and results in an engine with competitive performance. The engine block can be diecast and the engine can operate up to 14,000 rpm without valve related issues. This paper describes the evolution of a rotary valve concept and its application to two 35cc handheld development engines. The HRCV35 is based on a belt driven rotary valve horizontally mounted parallel to the crankshaft axis. The VRCV35 is based on a gear driven rotary valve vertically mounted on the cylinder axis. In both configurations, the rotary valve exposes inlet and exhaust ports providing unrestricted flow.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0115
Mikael Bergman, Magnus Bergwall, Thomas Elm, Sascha Louring, Lars Nielsen
Abstract Present two stroke engines used for hand held power tools must confirm to prevailing emission legislation. A fact is that today the engines have to be run at leaner air fuel setting resulting in less amount of lubrication oil passing through the engine. This lean mixture combined with high mixture trapping efficiency also affects the combustion, raising the overall working temperature of the engine. So to gain more robustness out of these air-cooled power heads one viable route is to use different coatings to take control of tribology and heat management within the two stroke power head. In this paper a first discussion and description of the different coatings and their merits to the air cooled two stroke engine is conducted. Furthermore engine data for the test engine, in this case a 70cc professional chainsaw are presented. The outcome of engine dyno testing of the different coatings are presented and analyzed for further discussion.
2014-11-11
Journal Article
2014-32-0009
Alexander Trattner, Helmut Grassberger, Oliver Schoegl, Stephan Schmidt, Roland Kirchberger, Helmut Eichlseder, Armin Kölmel, Stephan Meyer, Tim Gegg
Abstract One of the most significant current discussions worldwide is the anthropogenic climate change accompanying fossil fuel consumption. Sustainable development in all fields of combustion engines is required with the principal objective to enhance efficiency. This certainly concerns the field of hand-held power tools as well. Today, two-stroke SI engines equipped with a carburetor are the most widely used propulsion technology in hand-held power tools like chain saws and grass trimmers. To date, research tended to focus on two-stroke engines with rich mixture setting. In this paper the advantages and challenges of leaner and/or lean operation are discussed. Experimental investigations regarding the influence of equivalence ratio on emissions, fuel consumption and power have been performed. Accompanying 3D-CFD simulations support the experiments in order to gain insight into these complex processes. The investigations concentrate on two different mixture formation processes, i.e.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2589
Chunshan Li, Guoying Chen, Changfu Zong
Abstract The passive fault-tolerant approach for four-wheel independently driven and steered (4WID/4WIS) electric vehicles has been investigated in this study. An adaptive control based passive fault-tolerant controller is designed to improve vehicle safety, performance and maneuverability when an actuator fault happens. The proposed fault tolerant control method consists of the following three parts: 1) a fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) module that monitors vehicle driving condition, detects and diagnoses actuator failures with the inequality constraints; 2) a motion controller that computes the generalized forces/moments to track the desired vehicle motion using Model Predictive Control (MPC); 3) a reconfigurable control allocator that redistributes the generalized forces/moments to four wheels with equality constrained optimization.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2427
Giorgio Malaguti, Carlo Ferraresi, Luca Dariz, Massimiliano Ruggeri
Abstract Alongside with the increasing vehicle complexity, the functionalities related to the safety, diagnosis and maintainability have become critical. The operators of special machines such as agricultural, mining, construction vehicles might be overwhelmed by this increased complexity and, as a result, operations for the recovery or maintenance of their vehicles become difficult. The Augmented Reality (AR) seems to be a very promising technology both if applied to traditional smart-phones or to the upcoming glasses, that has been just presented to the market by several manufacturers. This paper reviews some use cases of applications created in Institute for Agricultural and Earthmoving Machines (IMAMOTER) of the National research Council of Italy (CNR) engineers laboratories, which propose a novel approach for assisted maintenance, recovery or training.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2161
Alireza R. Behbahani, Alex Von Moll, Robert Zeller, James Ordo
Abstract Modern propulsion system designers face challenges that require that aircraft and engine manufacturers improve performance as well as reduce the life-cycle cost (LCC). These improvements will require a more efficient, more reliable, and more advanced propulsion system. The concept of smart components is built around actively controlling the engine and the aircraft to operate optimally. Usage of smart components intelligently increases efficiency and system safety throughout the flight envelope, all while meeting environmental challenges. This approach requires an integration and optimization, both at the local level and the system level, to reduce cost. Interactions between the various subsystems must be understood through the use of modeling and simulation. This is accomplished by starting with individual subsystem models and combining them into a complete system model. Hierarchical, decentralized control reduces cost and risk by enabling integration and modularity.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2132
Prashant Vadgaonkar, Ullas Janardhan, Adishesha Sivaramasastry
Abstract Performance of Avionics systems is dictated by the timely availability and usage of critical health parameters. Various sensors are extensively used to acquire and communicate the desired parameters. In today's scenario, sensors are hardwired. The number of sensors is growing due to automation which increases the accuracy of intended Aircraft functions. Sensors are distributed all over the Aircraft and they are connected through wired network for signal processing and communication. LRUs (Line Replaceable Unit) which are integrating various sensors also use a wired approach for communication. The use of a wired network approach poses challenges in terms of cable routing, stray capacitances, noise, mechanical structure and added weight to the structure. The weight of cables contributes significantly to the overall weight of the aircraft. As the weight of Aircraft increases, the required fuel quantity also increases. The Key driver for Airline operational cost is fuel.
2014-09-16
Journal Article
2014-01-2144
Marco Amrhein, Jason Wells, Eric Walters, Seana McNeal, Brett Jordan, Peter Lamm
Abstract Transient operating conditions in electrical systems not only have significant impact on the operating behavior of individual components but indirectly affect system and component reliability and life. Specifically, transient loads can cause additional loss in the electrical conduction path consisting of windings, power electronic devices, distribution wires, etc., particularly when loads introduce high peak vs. average power ratios. The additional loss increases the operating temperatures and thermal cycling in the components, which is known to reduce their life and reliability. Further, mechanical stress caused by dynamic loading, which includes load torque cycling and high peak torque loading, increases material fatigue and thus reduces expected service life, particularly on rotating components (shaft, bearings).
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2164
Srikanth Gururajan, Mario Luca Fravolini, Matthew Rhudy, Antonio Moschitta, Marcello Napolitano
Abstract Recent catastrophic air crashes have shown that physical redundancy is not a foolproof option for failures on Air Data Systems (ADS) on an aircraft providing airspeed measurements. Since all the redundant sensors are subjected to the same environmental conditions in flight, a failure on one sensor could occur on the other sensors under certain conditions such as extreme weather; this class of failure is known in the literature as “common mode” failure. In this paper, different approaches to the problem of detection, identification and accommodation of failures on the Air Data System (ADS) of an aircraft are evaluated. This task can be divided into component tasks of equal criticality as Sensor Failure Detection and Identification (SFDI) and Sensor Failure Accommodation (SFA). Data from flight test experiments conducted using the WVU YF-22 unmanned research aircraft are used.
2014-05-10
Journal Article
2014-01-9121
Robert E Smith, Edward Lumsdaine
Since transient vehicle HVAC computational fluids (CFD) simulations take too long to solve in a production environment, the goal of this project is to automatically create a lumped-parameter flow network from a steady-state CFD that solves nearly instantaneously. The data mining algorithm k-means is implemented to automatically discover flow features and form the network (a reduced order model). The lumped-parameter network is implemented in the commercial thermal solver MuSES to then run as a fully transient simulation. Using this network a “localized heat transfer coefficient” is shown to be an improvement over existing techniques. Also, it was found that the use of the clustering created a new flow visualization technique. Finally, fixing clusters near equipment newly demonstrates a capability to track localized temperatures near specific objects (such as equipment in vehicles).
2014-05-09
Journal Article
2014-01-9022
John O. Manyala, Todd W. Fritz
Electro-hydraulic actuated systems are widely used in industrial applications due to high torque density, higher speeds and wide bandwidth operation. However, the complexities and the parametric uncertainties of the hydraulic actuated systems pose challenges in establishing analytical mathematical models. Unlike electro-mechanical and pneumatic systems, the nonlinear dynamics due to dead band, hysteresis, nonlinear pressure flow relations, leakages and friction affects the pressure sensitivity and flow gain by altering the system's transient response, which can introduce asymmetric oscillatory behavior and a lag in the system response. The parametric uncertainties make it imperative to have condition monitoring with in-built diagnostics capability. Timely faults detection and isolation can help mitigate catastrophic failures. This paper presents a signal-based fault diagnostic scheme for a gearbox hydraulic actuator leakage detection using the wavelet transform.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 4660