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2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2368
Wenji Song, Weiyong Tang, Bob Chen
Abstract The 4JB1 diesel engine originated from Isuzu has large share in the China light duty truck market. However, the tightened NOx emission target enforced by NS-V legislation compared with NS-IV regulatory standard is very challenging for this engine platform which originally adopted the DOC+POC catalyst layout. Furthermore, combustion characterization of this type engine leads to high soluble organic fraction (SOF) content in engine out particulates, which requires the catalysts in the exhaust after-treatment system (ATS) to deliver high SOF conversion efficiency in order to meet the regulation limit for particulate matters (PM). In this paper, an innovative exhaust catalyst layout with DOC+V-SCR is introduced. The front DOC is specially formulated with optimized PGM (Platinum Group Metal) loading which ensures effective SOF oxidation while keeping sulfuric acid and sulfate generation minimal.
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2491
Baskar Anthonysamy, Arun Kumar Prasad, Babasaheb Shinde
Abstract Automotive industry has led to constant production innovation among manufactures. This has resulted in the reduction of the life cycle of the design philosophies and design tools. One of the performance factors that have continues to challenge automotive designer is to design and fine tune the braking performance with low cost and short life cycle. Improvement in braking performance and vehicle stability can be achieved through the use of braking systems whosebrake force distribution is variable. Braking force distribution has an important and serious role in thevehicle stopping distance and stability. In this paper a new approach will be presented to achieve the braking forcedistribution strategy for articulated vehicles. For this purpose, the virtual optimization process has beenimplemented.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0095
Zbynek Syrovatka, Michal Takats, Jiri Vavra
Abstract An ongoing research and development activities on the scavenged pre-chamber ignition system for an automotive natural gas fueled engine is presented in this paper. The experimental works have been performed in engine laboratory at steady state conditions on a gas engine with 102 mm bore and 120 mm stroke, converted to a single cylinder engine. The in-house designed scavenged pre-chamber is equipped with a spark plug, fuel supply and a miniature pressure sensor for detailed combustion diagnostics. The engine was operated at constant speed, fully open throttle valve and four different fueling modes with or without spark discharge. A partly motored mode allowed direct evaluation of the pre-chamber heat release. The experimental data acquired in this research served as a validation data for the numerical simulations. The performed tests of prototypes and calculations have recently been expanded to include 3-D flow calculations in the Ansys Fluent software.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1921
Jyotirmoy Barman
Abstract Engine down speeding is rapidly picking up momentum in many segment of world market. Numerous engine down speeding packages from OEM have been tailored to take advantage of the increased efficiencies associated with engine down speeding. Running engine at lower rpm has numerous advantages. The most obvious of these is reduced fuel consumption, since the engine can spend more time running within its optimum efficiency range. By down speeding, the engine is made to run at low speeds and with high torques. For the same power, the engine is operated at higher specific load- Brake Mean Effective pressure (BMEP) which results in higher efficiency and reduced fuel consumption-Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC). The reasons for increased fuel efficiency are reduced engine friction due to low piston speeds, reduced relative heat transfer and increased thermodynamic efficiency.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1945
Jyotirmoy Barman, Himanshu Gambhir, Rizwan Khan
Abstract During the last few decades, concerns have grown on the negative effects that diesel particulate matter has on health. Because of this, particulate emissions were subjected to restrictions and various emission-reduction technologies were developed. It is ironic that some of these technologies led to reductions in the legislated total particulate mass while neglecting the number of particles. Focusing on the mass is not necessarily correct, because it might well be that not the mass but the number of particles and the characteristics of them (size, composition) have a higher impact on health. During the diesel engine combustion process, soot particles are produced which is very harmful for the atmosphere. Particulate matter is composed of much organic and inorganic composition which was analyzed after the optimization of SCR and EGR engine out.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1775
Mark A. Gehringer, Robert Considine, David Schankin
Abstract This paper describes recently developed test methods and instrumentation to address the specific noise and vibration measurement challenges posed by large-diameter single-piece tubular aluminum propeller (prop) shafts with high modal density. The prop shaft application described in this paper is a light duty truck, although the methods described are applicable to any rotating shaft with similar dynamic properties. To provide a practical example of the newly developed methods and instrumentation, impact FRF data were acquired in-situ for two typical prop shafts of significantly different diameter, in both rotating and stationary conditions. The example data exhibit features that are uniquely characteristic of large diameter single-piece tubular shafts with high modal density, including the particular effect of shaft rotation on the measurements.
2017-06-05
Journal Article
2017-01-1909
Joel Bruns, Jason Dreyer
Abstract The application of hydraulic body mounts between a pickup truck frame and cab to reduce freeway hop and smooth road shake has been documented in literature and realized in production vehicles. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential benefits of these devices, often through iterative prototype evaluation. Component dynamic characterization has also shown that these devices exhibit significant dependence to preload and dynamic amplitude; however, analysis of these devices has not addressed these dependences. This paper aims to understand the amplitude and preload dependence on the spectrally-varying properties of a production hydraulic body mount. This double-pumping, three-spring mount construction has a shared compliant element between the two fluid-filled chambers.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0428
Tianqi Lv, Yan Wang, Xingxing Feng, Yunqing Zhang
Abstract Steering returnability is an important index for evaluating vehicle handling performance. A systematic method is presented in this paper to reduce the high yaw rate residue and the steering response time for a light duty truck in the steering return test. The vehicle multibody model is established in ADAMS, which takes into consideration of the frictional loss torque and hydraulically assisted steering property in the steering mechanism, since the friction, which exists in steering column, spherical joint, steering universal joint, and steering gear, plays an important role in vehicle returnability performance. The accuracy of the vehicle model is validated by road test and the key parameters are determined by executing the sensitivity analysis, which shows the effect of each design parameter upon returnability performance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1531
Keiichi Taniguchi, Akiyoshi Shibata, Mikako Murakami, Munehiko Oshima
Abstract This paper describes a study of drag reduction devices for production pick-up trucks with a body-on-frame structure using full-scale wind tunnel testing and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. First, the flow structure around a pick-up truck was investigated and studied, focusing in particular on the flow structure between the cabin and tailgate. It was found that the flow structure around the tailgate was closely related to aerodynamic drag. A low drag flow structure was found by flow analysis, and the separation angle at the roof end was identified as being important to achieve the flow structure. While proceeding with the development of a new production model, a technical issue of the flow structure involving sensitivity to the vehicle velocity was identified in connection with optimization of the roof end shape. (1)A tailgate spoiler was examined for solving this issue.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1519
Arturo Guzman, Young-Chang Cho, John Tripp, Kumar Srinivasan
Abstract Pickup trucks are designed with a taller ride height and a larger tire envelope compared to other vehicle types given the duty cycle and environment they operate in. These differences play an important role in the flow field around spinning wheels and tires and their interactions with the vehicle body. From an aerodynamics perspective, understanding and managing this flow field are critical for drag reduction, wheel design, and brake cooling. Furthermore, the validation of numerical simulation methodology is essential for a systematic approach to aerodynamically efficient wheel design as a standard practice of vehicle design. This paper presents a correlation the near-wheel flow field for both front and rear spinning wheels with two different wheel designs for a Ram Quad Cab pick-up truck with moving ground. Twelve-hole probe experimental data obtained in a wind tunnel with a full width belt system are compared to the predictions of numerical simulations.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0153
Dipankar Sahoo, Adam Kotrba, Tom Steiner, Greg Swift
Abstract Nearly a third of the fuel energy is wasted through the exhaust of a vehicle. An efficient waste heat recovery process will undoubtedly lead to improved fuel efficiency and reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Currently, there are multiple waste heat recovery technologies that are being investigated in the auto industry. One innovative waste heat recovery approach uses Thermoacoustic Converter (TAC) technology. Thermoacoustics is the field of physics related to the interaction of acoustic waves (sonic power) with heat flows. As in a heat engine, the TAC produces electric power where a temperature differential exists, which can be generated with engine exhaust (hot side) and coolant (cold side). Essentially, the TAC converts exhaust waste heat into electricity in two steps: 1) the exhaust waste heat is converted to acoustic energy (mechanical) and 2) the acoustic energy is converted to electrical energy.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0340
Sarang Bire, Prashant R Pawar, M Saraf
Abstract Air suspension systems had been introduced in automobiles since 1950s. These systems are being explored to improve the ride comfort, handling stability and also serve as a medium for better cargo protection. These system are well developed for buses and high end passenger sedans, also have feasibility for adapting for wide range of configurations of suspension system and axle. Passenger cars and Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV) pickup category of vehicle offers different challenges such as space availability, spring selection and characterization that need to be addressed for successful implementation of air suspension in these category vehicles. This work defines methodology to implement air suspension system in SUV Pickup category vehicle. Paper work includes concept study, mathematical co-relation, and prediction of air spring characteristics and integration of experimental and analytical tool for development of air suspension system.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0128
Om Parkash Bhardwaj, Ketan Krishnamurthy, David Blanco-Rodriguez, Bastian Holderbaum, Thomas Körfer
Abstract Despite the trend in increased prosperity, the Indian automotive market, which is traditionally dominated by highly cost-oriented producion, is very sensitive to the price of fuels and vehicles. Due to these very specific market demands, the U-LCV (ultra-light commercial vehicle) segment with single cylinder natural aspirated Diesel engines (typical sub 650 cc displacement) is gaining immense popularity in the recent years. By moving to 2016, with the announcement of leapfrogging directly to Bharat Stage VI (BS VI) emission legislation in India, and in addition to the mandatory application of Diesel particle filters (DPF), there will be a need to implement effective NOx aftertreament systems. Due to the very low power-to-weight ratio of these particular applications, the engine operation takes place under full load conditions in a significant portion of the test cycle.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0140
Rodrigo Luiz de Campos
Abstract This work aims to summarize in a single form all legal requirements that dictates the minimum safety compliance required by government edicts to any wheel manufacture to have their products available for passenger or light truck vehicle in any country around the world in the year of 2016. It is not intention of this paper compare or discuss the different requirement among the countries but indicate to the manufactures of wheels what legal edicts they need to meet in case they are willing to go overseas to explore the wheel market of other country. Before start designing wheels for passenger or light truck application, any manufacture should be sure about what the government of the new market demands for wheels when installed on vehicle axis or just available as temporary spare.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8074
Gaurav Kumar, Pavan Sindgikar, Narayan Jadhav, Sandip Gaidhane, Sarfaraj Shaikh
Abstract With the advent of most advanced diesel engines the demand for upgraded engine cooling modules capable of handling more heat rejection in a smaller space is surging. Moreover, the variance in the operating conditions, i.e., the simultaneous cooling demands for peak load as well as partial load in different ambient conditions of the vehicle operation, broadens the scope of development of a cooling system. Also, the cooling system needs to be configured judiciously so as to cater effective cooling at peak loads and efficient cooling at partial loads. This research paper deals with a cooling system developed using modularity approach in order to have a control over tuning of subsystems for varying operating conditions and also to achieve the performance targets with a compact design adhering to packaging constraints. Kuli simulation of different designed configurations were carried out for identification of best concept.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1300
Jacob Milhorn, Vincent Rovedatti, Richard DeJong, Gordon Ebbitt
Abstract Road tests on a pickup truck have been conducted to determine the acoustic loads on the back panel surfaces of the vehicle. Surface mounted pressure transducers arrays are used to measure both the turbulent flow pressures and the acoustic pressures. These measurements are used to determine the spatial excitation parameters used in an SEA model of the transmission loss through the back panel surfaces. Comparisons are made between tests on different road surfaces and at different speeds to identify the relative contributions of acoustic and wind noise.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1333
Edward C. Fontana
Abstract Individuals in the United States consume twice as much energy as those in any other region. Solitary workday commutes in light vehicles are the leading reason for this difference. An electric vehicle design is proposed to help catalyze more social, higher occupancy, commuting habits - through application of existing technology. Performance criteria are: 1) attract passengers to the suburban front yard at 6:30 AM, 2) match market leading crash test performance, cargo capability, and sense of freedom, and 3) deliver easier parking, better acoustics and better passenger mile efficiency. A vehicle as a rolling event venue determines a large windscreen, side-by-side upright seating arrangements, and acoustic excellence -an experience where there are only good seats. These requirements force a decision to close the wake along a vertical line to form a narrow wake. The chassis is platform batteries with dual motor electric rear drive and undetermined front drive.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0907
Matthew Blanks, Nathan Forster
Abstract In 2012, NHTSA and EPA extended Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards for light duty vehicles through the 2025 model year. The new standards require passenger cars to achieve an average of five percent annual improvement in fuel economy and light trucks to achieve three percent annual improvement. This regulatory requirement to improve fuel economy is driving research and development into fuel-saving technologies. A large portion of the current research is focused on incremental improvements in fuel economy through technologies such as new lubricant formulations. While these technologies typically yield less than two percent improvement, the gains are extremely significant and will play an increasing role in the overall effort to improve fuel economy. The ability to measure small, but statistically significant, changes in vehicle fuel economy is vital to the development of new technologies.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1594
Petter Ekman, Roland Gardhagen, Torbjorn Virdung, Matts Karlsson
Abstract Considerable amounts of the everyday goods transports are done using light trucks. In the last ten years (2005-2015), the number of light trucks has increased by 33 % in Sweden. The majority of these light trucks are fitted with a swap body and encounter the same problem as many other truck configurations, namely that several different manufacturers contribute to the final shape of the vehicle. Due to this, the aerodynamics of the final vehicle is often not fully considered. Hence there appears to be room for improving the aerodynamic performance. In this study the flow around a swap body fitted to a light truck has been investigated using Computational Fluid Dynamics. The focus has been on improving the shape of the swap body in order to reduce both the aerodynamic drag and fuel consumption, while still keeping it usable for daily operations.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1628
Gurdeep Singh Pahwa, Baskar Anthonysamy, Karan Shah
Abstract Lateral Stability is an important attribute which must be accounted for in the pick-up truck segment vehicles. If designed in an improper way, undesirable effects such as oversteer or tail sway may occur. Excessive yaw rate magnitudes, or tail sway, can reduce the confidence of the driver during severe lane change events. The concept architecture of the vehicle plays an important role in how stable the vehicle will be. High yaw rate or tail sway during limit cornering was reported during prototype vehicle evaluations. The tested vehicle configuration incorporated a double wish bone front suspension with an antiroll bar and a rear solid axle suspension with leaf springs and an antiroll bar. The feedback was critically analysed using computer simulations of the condition found in on track testing. Since the vehicle was still with the validation team, quick solution was necessary. This paper discusses the process which resulted in improved vehicle performance.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1613
Guy Larose, Leanna Belluz, Ian Whittal, Marc Belzile, Ryan Klomp, Andreas Schmitt
Abstract In a campaign to quantify the aerodynamic drag changes associated with drag reduction technologies recently introduced for light-duty vehicles, a 3-year, 24-vehicle study was commissioned by Transport Canada. The intent was to evaluate the level of drag reduction associated with each technology as a function of vehicle size class. Drag reduction technologies were evaluated through direct measurements of their aerodynamic performance on full-scale vehicles in the National Research Council Canada (NRC) 9 m Wind Tunnel, which is equipped with a the Ground Effect Simulation System (GESS) composed of a moving belt, wheel rollers and a boundary layer suction system. A total of 24 vehicles equipped with drag reduction technologies were evaluated over three wind tunnel entries, beginning in early 2014 to summer 2015. Testing included 12 sedans, 8 sport utility vehicles, 2 minivans and 2 pick-up trucks.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0141
Alisson Sarmento, André Luiz J. Pereira, Lincoln Lima, Luciana Rodrigues
Abstract The purpose of this paper is present a successfully application of Design For Assembly (DFA) and Design for Manufacturing (DFM) on Pickup-Box reinforcement. Those powerful quality tools are widely used during automotive design development and it might be a competitive design solution. As an introduction, a complete DFA and DFM revision is provided in order to allow methodology comprehension. Currently automakers technologies are shown as well. An introduction about product development process is presented in order to contextualize the DFA/DFM application in a real design situation. A rich and detailed revision about Pickup versions and body structure concept are covered as well. The study of case about DFA/DFM application on Mid-size Pickup-box Inner asm reinforcement generated 36-42% of mass reduction and 58-66% of cost reduction.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-1780
Nobunori okui, Masayuki Kobayashi
Next-generation vehicles which include Electric Vehicles and Hybrid Electric Vehicles are studied and expected to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The number of small delivery hybrid trucks has increased in the commercial vehicle class. The engine load of a commercial hybrid truck is reduced by using an electric motor. Fuel economy of the hybrid truck is improved with the assist. On the other hand, exhaust-gas temperature is decreased, and it has a negative effect on the purification performance of aftertreatment system. In this report, the fuel performance and emission gas characteristics of marketed small hybrid trucks were surveyed using the chassis dynamometer test system.
2015-05-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9016
Jean-Baptiste Gallo, Christopher Weaver
Abstract In-service emissions measurements were conducted on two package delivery trucks: one model year 2008 FCCC MT-55 conventional diesel and one model year 2012 FCCC MT-55 hydraulic hybrid (HHV). Mass emissions of CO2, CO, NOx, PM, and THC from the HHV and the conventional diesel test vehicle were each measured under conditions closely simulating normal package delivery operation. The HHV demonstrated a 29.4% improvement in fuel economy and a 17.4% reduction in CO2 emissions compared to the conventional diesel vehicle. The HHV showed its best potential in operating areas characterized by low driving speeds and high number of stops (“pick-up and delivery”) with a 40.5% improvement in fuel economy and a 21.2% reduction in CO2 emissions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0974
Aaron Brooker, Jeffrey Gonder, Sean Lopp, Jacob Ward
Abstract The Automotive Deployment Options Projection Tool (ADOPT) is a light-duty vehicle consumer choice and stock model supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office. It estimates technology improvement impacts on future U.S. light-duty vehicles sales, petroleum use, and greenhouse gas emissions. ADOPT uses techniques from the multinomial logit method and the mixed logit method to estimate vehicle sales. Specifically, it estimate sales based on the weighted value of key attributes including vehicle price, fuel cost, acceleration, range and usable volume. The average importance of several attributes changes nonlinearly across its range and changes with income. For several attributes, a distribution of importance around the average value is used to represent consumer heterogeneity. The majority of existing vehicle makes, models, and trims are included to fully represent the market. The Corporate Average Fuel Economy regulations are enforced.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0559
Cheryl Caffrey, Kevin Bolon, Greg Kolwich, Robert Johnston, Timothy Shaw
Abstract The United States Environmental Protection Agency contracted with FEV North America, Inc. to conduct a whole vehicle analysis of the potential for mass reduction and related cost impacts for a future light-duty pickup truck. The goal was to evaluate the incremental costs of reducing vehicle mass on a body on frame vehicle at levels that are feasible in the 2020 to 2025 model year (MY) timeframe given the design, material, and manufacturing processes likely to be available, without sacrificing utility, performance, or safety. The holistic, vehicle-level approach and body-structure CAE modeling that were demonstrated in a previous study of a mid-sized crossover utility vehicle were used for this study. In addition, evaluations of closures performance, durability, and vehicle dynamics that are unique to pickup trucks are included. Secondary mass reduction was also analyzed on a part by part basis with consideration of vehicle performance requirements.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1541
Kuo-Huey Chen, Bahram Khalighi
Abstract Various drag reduction strategies have been applied to a full size production pickup truck to evaluate their effectiveness by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The drag reduction devices evaluated in this study were placed at the rear end of the truck bed and the tailgate. Three types of devices were evaluated: (1) boat tail-like extended plates attached to the tailgate; (2) mid-plate attached to the mid-section of the tailgate and; (3) flat plates partially covering the truck bed. The effect of drag reduction by various combinations of these three devices are presented in this paper. Twenty-four configurations were evaluated in the study with the best achievable drag reduction of around 21 counts (ΔCd = 0.021). A detailed breakdown of the pressure differentials at the base of the truck is provided in order to understand the flow mechanism for the drag reductions.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0090
Cherdsak Chuaymung, Chi-na Benyajati, Sutee Olarnrithinun
Abstract A vehicle of interest in this paper was a light agriculture truck. In order to obtain reliable predictions of stress generated in the frame under loads, a combination of experimental tests and computer simulations was arranged. Since the focused deformations were bending and torsion modes, the truck driven up one-wheel ramp and two-wheel ramp was investigated. Strains results obtained from both tests and simulations were compared. The discussions and conclusions were made regarding the accuracy and further improvements of the simulations.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0155
Amit Kamalakar Pathak, Mayur Rajke, Anupama Madiyan
Abstract Globally, road traffic crashes kill about 1.24 million people each year. Pedestrians constitute 22% of all road deaths, and in some countries this is as high as 60%. The capacity to respond to pedestrian safety is an important component of efforts to prevent road traffic injuries. Pedestrian collisions, like other road traffic crashes, should not be accepted as inevitable because they are, in fact, both predictable and preventable. Examination of pedestrian injury distribution reveals that given an impact speed, the probability of fatal injuries is substantially greater when the striking vehicle is a pick-up rather than a passenger car. Given their utility areas, pickup vehicles require negotiating rough terrains and are therefore engineered with higher ground clearance and larger approach angle. The challenge is to optimize these design parameters and also style the vehicle for pedestrian safety while maintaining a low design cost at the same time.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2903
Nobunori Okui, Tetsuya Niikuni
Abstract Next-generation vehicles which include Electric Vehicles (EV) and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) are researched and expected to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the future. In the national new-car sales in 2012 of Japan, the total sales of hybrid vehicles kept 26.5% share. In the field of passenger cars, this share was 29.7%. And, this share rose about four times compared to that of 2008 [1]. Also, small delivery hybrid trucks are increased in the commercial vehicle class. Fuel economy of hybrid trucks in the catalog specifications is relatively better than that of the diesel tracks which have no hybrid systems. Nevertheless, hybrid trucks' users report that advantages of fuel economy of hybrid trucks at the real traffic driving conditions are small.
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