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2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1251
Thomas Bradley, Clinton Knackstedt, Eric jambor
Abstract As the rigor of vehicle pollution regulations increase there is an increasing need to come up with unique and innovative ways of reducing the effective emissions of all vehicles. In this paper, we will describe our development of a carbon capture and sequestration system that can be used in-tandem with existing exhaust treatment used in convention vehicles or be used as a full replacement. This system is based on work done by researchers from NASA who were developing a next generation life support system and has been adapted here for use in a convention vehicle with minimal changes to the existing architecture. A prototype of this system was constructed and data will be presented showing the changes observed in the effective vehicle emissions to the atmosphere. This system has the potential to extract a significant portion of tailpipe emissions and convert them into a form that allows for safe, clean disposal without causing any harm to the environment.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2386
Robert Sompayrac, Bruce Conger, Mateo Chamberlain, Heather L. Paul
As development of the Constellation spacesuit element progresses, designing the most effective and efficient life support systems is critical. The baseline schematic analysis for the Portable Life Support System indicates that the ventilation loop will need some method of heat exchange and humidification prior to entering the helmet. A trade study was initiated to identify the challenges that are associated with conditioning the spacesuit breathing gas stream for temperature and water vapor control; to survey technological literature and resources on heat exchanger and humidifiers to provide solutions to the problems of conditioning the spacesuit breathing gas stream; and to propose potential candidate technologies to perform the heat exchanger and humidifier functions. This paper summarizes the results of this trade study, and also describes the conceptual designs that NASA developed to address these issues.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2382
Robert C. Morrow, Ross W. Remiker
The Deployable Vegetable Production System (VEGGIE) was originally developed as a way to produce fresh vegetables on the ISS with minimal resources. We are reassessing this system for use in lunar habitats to produce palatable, nutritious, and safe fresh food, provide a recreational tool, and provide a platform to support biological life support development by allowing in situ study of crop productivity and air and water revitalization. The VEGGIE system consists of plant growth chambers that can be stowed in a volume less than 10% of their deployed volume, while still providing the light output and root zone capabilities necessary to support high plant productivity rates. The system has significantly reduced logistical and operational requirements compared to other plant growth systems, and is of a modular design to allow logistical flexibility in terms of transport options and placement in a habitat structure.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2401
M. R. Callahan, A. Lubman, K. D. Pickering
Recovery of potable water from wastewater is essential to the success of long-duration human missions to the moon and Mars. Honeywell International and a team from the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) are developing a wastewater processing subsystem that is based on centrifugal vacuum distillation. The wastewater processor, which is referred to as the cascade distillation subsystem (CDS), uses an efficient multistage thermodynamic process to produce purified water. A CDS unit employing a five-stage distiller engine was designed, built, and delivered to the NASA JSC Advanced Water Recovery Systems Development Facility for performance testing; an initial round of testing was completed in fiscal year 2008 (FY08). Based, in part, on FY08 testing, the system is now in development to support an Exploration Life Support Project distillation comparison test that is expected to begin in 2009.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2354
David E. Williams
The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper provides a summary of the Node 1 ECLS ACS subsystem design and a detailed discussion of the ISS ECLS Acceptance Testing methodology utilized for that subsystem.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2360
Robert Heinse, Scott B. Jones, Markus Tuller, Gail E. Bingham, Igor Podolskiy, Dani Or
Management of water, air and nutrients in coarse-textured porous plant-growth substrates relies not only on the relative amounts of fluids but also on their distribution within porous media. Integration of plants in future life support systems for space exploration raises the question of how fluid distributions in porous plant-growth substrates are altered under reduced gravitational conditions. Central to addressing this issue is the behavior of the water retention characteristic (WRC). WRC encapsulates fluid-porous medium interactions and is key for control of water supply to plants. The hysteretic nature of WRC implies non-homogenous water distributions between its primary draining and wetting curves. During dynamic drainage and wetting cycles, considerable water content gradients develop at separations of only a few pore lengths.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2345
Paul Dillon, Gretchen Thomas, Joe Oliver, Felipe Zapata
This paper documents the progress of a conceptual packaging design effort for a Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). The concept discussed is a flexible backpack intended for use on the Constellation Program (CxP) lunar suit, also known as the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE). The goal of this effort is to reduce the weight of the PLSS packaging while also meeting CxP goals to develop systems that are less costly, more adaptable to mission and technology changes, and have more performance capability than that of existing systems or previous lunar systems. This flexible backpack concept relies on a foam protection system to absorb, distribute, and dissipate the energy from falls on the lunar surface. The testing and analysis of the foam protection system concept that took place during this effort indicate that this method of system packaging is a viable solution.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2370
Heather L. Paul, Mallory A. Jennings
Designing the most effective and efficient life support systems is of extreme importance as the United States makes plans to return astronauts to the Moon. The Trace Contaminant Control System (TCCS), which will be located within the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) of the Constellation spacesuit element (CSSE), is responsible for removing contaminants that, at increased levels, can be hazardous to crew member health. These contaminants arise from several sources including metabolic production of the crew member (e.g., breathing, sweating, etc.) and offgassing of the spacesuit material layers. This paper summarizes the results of a trade study that investigated TCC technologies that were used in NASA space-suits and vehicles, as well as commercial and academic applications, to identify the best technology options for the CSSE PLSS.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2585
Gary L. Harris, Pablo de León
The objective of this paper is to detail a proposal for an Androgynous Docking Airlock/Utility Module (ADAM) that would allow extravehicular (EVA) crews, working from the Orion spacecraft, to avoid depressurizing the command module of the Orion vehicle for planned EVA repair, maintenance and interdiction of orbital structures. Unlike the Space Shuttle, Russian Soyuz vehicle or the Chinese Shenzhou manned spacecraft, the proposed Orion space vehicle has no airlock. This necessitates the depressurizing of the entire Command Module cabin during EVA activity. It also means that all crewmembers will have to wear space suits during contingency and planned EVAs. This inordinately dangerous situation will require all crewmembers to be exposed to the space vacuum for as much as seven hours or more if a working EVA becomes necessary.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2582
L. Grizzaffi, M. Lamantea, C. Lobascio, P. Cergna, D. Perrachon, M. Perino, A. Prelle
In the frame of the space food production research activities conducted in the Thales Alenia Space Italia (TAS-I) Advanced Life Support Research and Development laboratory (RecycLAB, [6]), and with the contribution of a degree thesis developed in collaboration with the Politecnico of Torino, a rack-like facility for ground research on Life Support Systems based on Plants has been designed, developed, integrated, verified and tested in TAS-I. The new facility, called EDEN EPISODE 2, is a significant evolution of a previous TAS-I project (EDEN EPISODE 1) and takes benefit from other lower size TAS-I demonstrators (CUBE). It aims at realizing a completely closed and controlled environment for crop production, while a mobile lighting panel allows to maximize the delivered light in each phase of the plant life cycle. Hydroponic and aeroponic techniques have been implemented in the project for nutrient delivery to the plant roots.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2561
Lealem Mulugeta, Steven P. Chappell, Nicholas G. Skytland
The off-nominal center of gravity (CG) induced by the portable life-support system of Apollo astronauts had an impact on crewmembers' stability. Lack of stability is believed to have been a contributor to the falls and reduced performance experienced by the Apollo crewmembers. Work is being conducted at the NASA Johnson Space Center to assess how spacesuit CG location affects human performance in simulated lunar gravity. The results acquired to date have shown correlation between CG location and performance. The preliminary study presented in this paper also shows a correlation between subject trunk-to-height ratio and performance in reduced gravity, suggesting that human performance in reduced gravity may depend more on anthropometric proportions than on body segment lengths and mass/weight. The results of this study were intended to focus future detailed logistic regression analyses on potential anthropometric factors that may affect human performance in reduced gravity.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2551
Eduard A. Kurmazenko, Lev I. Gavrilov, Mikhail Ju. Tomashpolskiy, Aleksey A. Kochetkov, Nicolay N. Khabarovskiy, Ivan V. Dokunin, Guzel P. Kamaletdinova
The problems formation and localization of Off-nominal Situations (OnS) on an Hardware/Software Complex of Crew's Service of the Regeneration Life Support System Operation (HSCCSO) are considered in this paper both at functions separate system and at deviations of crew's inhabitancy controllable parameter values. The HSCCSO is developed for the first ground long-term experiment under ‘Mars - 500’ project. The purpose of this paper is to examine HSCCSO taking into consideration the key of the future mission to Mars (extremely long duration, autonomy, complicated communication peculiarities with the ground Mission Control Center (MCC) because of signal delay, and limited stock of expendables). It is planned to simulate off-nominal and emergency situations caused by failures of on-board LSS and/or the human factor: insufficient crew efficiency, degraded professional reliability and soon.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2405
Thomas O. Leimkuehler, Aaron Powers, Chris Linrud, Chad Bower, Grant Bue
A phase change material (PCM) heat sink using super cooled ice as a non-toxic, non-flammable PCM is being developed for use in a portable life support system (PLSS). The latent heat of fusion for water is approximately 70% larger than most paraffin waxes, which can provide significant mass savings. Further mass reduction is accomplished by super cooling the ice significantly below its freezing temperature for additional sensible heat storage. Expansion and contraction of the water as it freezes and melts is accommodated with the use of flexible bag and foam materials. A demonstrator unit has been designed, built, and tested to demonstrate proof of concept. Both testing and modeling results are presented.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2463
Hiroyuki Miyajima
In recent years, with increased size of the manned space program and systems used in the programs, the role of computer simulations has increased. I have long used and developed independently several simulation tools for the design, operation, analysis, and optimization of the Life Support Systems (LSS). I recognized that the designer makes his/her own idea certain while building a simulation model on a computer. However, conventional simulation tools are not designed so that the interaction between the designer and a model building support environment is dynamically used to bring out a designer's idea. Therefore, in this paper, I consider the development of a conceptual design support tool in the design of the LSS, while focusing attention on the interaction between the simulation tool and the designer.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2457
John F. Lewis, Richard A. Barido, Robyn Carrasquillo, Cynthia D. Cross, Ed Rains, George C. Tuan
The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is the first crew transport vehicle to be developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the last thirty years. The CEV is being developed to transport the crew safely from the Earth to the International Space Station and then later, from the Earth to the Moon . This year, the vehicle continued to go through design refinements to reduce weight, meet requirements, and operate reliably while preparing for Preliminary Design Review in the summer of 2009. The design of the Orion Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system, which includes the life support and active thermal control systems, is progressing through the design stage. This paper covers the Orion ECLS development from April 2008 to April 2009.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2464
B. F. Zaretskiy, L. I. Gavrilov, E. A. Kurmazenko
Interplanetary manned missions will change significantly the requirements imposed upon Life Support Systems (LSS) and specifically the requirements on LSS Automated Control Systems (ACS). During interplanetary manned missions the possibilities to control the operation of a specific system from the Ground Mission Control Center (GMCC) are diminished considerably. Therefore, this demands survivability and intelligent level enhancement LSS ACS.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2416
Dwight E. Link, David E. Williams
The International Space Station (ISS) program is nearing an assembly complete configuration with the addition of the final resource node module in early 2010. The Node 3 module will provide critical functionality in support of permanent long duration crews aboard ISS. The new module will permanently house the regenerative Environment Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and will also provide important habitability functions such as waste management and exercise facilities. The ISS program has selected the Port side of the Node 1 “Unity” module as the permanent location for Node 3 which will necessitate architecture changes to provide the required interfaces. The USOS ECLSS fluid and ventilation systems, Internal Thermal Control Systems, and Avionics Systems require significant modifications in order to support Node 3 interfaces at the Node 1 Port location since it was not initially designed for that configuration.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2415
David E. Williams, Gregory J. Gentry
The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2008 and February 2009. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the continuation of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements and the continued manufacturing and testing of the regenerative ECLS equipment.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2417
David W. Plachta, Mohammad M. Hasan
Oxygen storage and delivery systems for advanced Lunar Exploration Missions are substantially different than those of the International Space Station (ISS) or Apollo missions. The oxygen must be stored without venting for durations of 180 to 210 days prior to use and then used to supply both the steady, low pressure oxygen for the crew, and the higher-pressure oxygen for the extra-vehicular mobility unit. The baseline design is a high pressure gaseous oxygen storage system. Alternate technologies that may offer substantial advantages in terms of the equivalent system mass over the baseline design are being currently evaluated. This study examines both the supercritical and subcritical liquid oxygen storage options, including one with active cooling using a cryocooler. It is found that an actively cooled sub-critical storage system offered the lowest mass system that could satisfy the requirements.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2421
Michele Birmele, LaShelle McCoy, Monsi Roman, Michael S. Roberts
With the installation of the Water Recovery System (WRS) during mission STS-126 in 2008, the International Space Station (ISS) added the capability to recover clean water for reuse from crewmember urine and atmospheric humidity condensate, including EVA (Extravehicular Activity) wastes. The ability to collect, store and process these waste streams is required to increase potable water recovery and support the ISS crew augmentation planned for 2009. During ground testing of the Urine Processing Assembly (UPA), one of two primary component subsystems that comprise the WRS, significant fouling was repeatedly observed in stored urine pretreated with 0.56% of chromium trioxide and sulfuric acid. During initial observation, presumptive microbiological growth clogged and damaged flight-rated hardware under test as part of a risk-mitigation Flight Experiment (FE).
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2521
David E. Burchfield, Wai Tak Lee, William Niu, Andrew Pargellis, George Steiner, William O'Hara, John F. Lewis
The Orion Air Monitor (OAM), a derivative of the International Space Station's Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA) (1–3) and the Skylab Mass Spectrometer (4, 5), is a mass spectrometer-based system designed to monitor nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. In the Crew Exploration Vehicle, the instrument will serve two primary functions: 1) provide Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) data to control nitrogen and oxygen pressure, and 2) provide feedback the ECLSS water vapor and CO2 removal system for swing-bed control. The control bands for these ECLSS systems affect consumables use, and therefore launch mass, putting a premium on a highly accurate, fast-response, analyzer subsystem. This paper describes a dynamic analytical model for the OAM, relating the findings of that model to design features required for accuracies and response times important to the CEV application.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2533
H. Y.(Jannivine) Yeh, Cheryl B. Brown, Molly S. Anderson, Michael K. Ewert, Frank F. Jeng
The development of the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Sizing Analysis Tool (ALSSAT) using Microsoft® Excel was initiated by the Crew and Thermal Systems Division of the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in 1997 to support the ALS and Exploration Offices in Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) design and studies. It aids the user in performing detailed sizing of the ECLSS for different combinations of Exploration Life Support (ELS) regenerative system technologies. This analysis tool will assist the user in performing ECLSS preliminary design and trade studies as well as system optimization efficiently and economically.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2534
Frank F. Jeng, Bruce Conger, Michael K. Ewert, Molly S. Anderson
The amount of oxygen consumption for crew extravehicular activity (EVA) in future lunar exploration missions will be significant. Eight technologies to provide high pressure EVA O2 were investigated. They are: high pressure O2 storage, liquid oxygen (LOX) storage followed by vaporization, scavenging LOX from Lander followed by vaporization, LOX delivery followed by sorption compression, water electrolysis followed by compression, stand-alone high pressure water electrolyzer, Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) and Power Elements sharing a high pressure water electrolyzer, and ECLSS and In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Elements sharing a high pressure electrolyzer. A trade analysis was conducted comparing launch mass and equivalent system mass (ESM) of the eight technologies in open and closed ECLSS architectures. Technologies considered appropriate for the two architectures were selected and suggested for development.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2481
Robert M. Bagdigian
Visions of lunar outposts often depict a collection of fixed elements such as pressurized habitats, in and around which human inhabitants spend the large majority of their surface stay time. In such an outpost, an efficient deployment of environmental control and life support equipment can be achieved by centralizing certain functions within one or a minimum number of habitable elements and relying on the exchange of gases and liquids between elements via atmosphere ventilation and plumbed interfaces. However, a rigidly fixed outpost can constrain the degree to which the total lunar landscape can be explored. The capability to enable widespread access across the landscape makes a lunar architecture with a high degree of surface mobility attractive. Such mobility presents unique challenges to the efficient deployment of environmental control and life support functions in multiple elements that may for long periods of time be operated independently.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2484
Phil Sadler, Gene Giacomelli, Roberto Furfaro, Randy Patterson, Murat Kacira
The Prototype BLSS Lunar Greenhouse currently in operation at the University of Arizona - Controlled Environment Agriculture Center in Tucson, Arizona is an Advanced Life Support technology demonstration for supporting a sustained human presence at the future lunar science outpost. The focus of the investigation is to demonstrate water recycling, air revitalization, and food production using NASA targeted crops within a semi-closed system utilizing a scaled prototype lunar greenhouse design.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2483
Daniel J. Barta, Michael K. Ewert
With the Preliminary Design Review (PDR) for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle planned to be completed in 2009, Exploration Life Support (ELS), a technology development project under the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Exploration Technology Development Program, is focusing its efforts on needs for human lunar missions. The ELS Project's goal is to develop and mature a suite of Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) technologies for potential use on human spacecraft under development in support of U.S. Space Exploration Policy. ELS technology development is directed at three major vehicle projects within NASA's Constellation Program (CxP): the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the Altair Lunar Lander and Lunar Surface Systems, including habitats and pressurized rovers.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2494
Yevhen Holubnyak, Vadim Rygalov
Space is characterized by many uncertainties, natural and human induced, for manned missions in hostile environments. Therefore, human operations in space require reliable Life Support Systems (LSS) capable to maintain functionality for long durations. However, the ultimate theoretical analysis of LSS reliability for space applications is very difficult due to many unknown and possibly undiscovered factors which might affect system functional performance. In this work the conceptual approach for a complex LSS reliability analysis is reviewed. Methodology based on Fokker-Planck statistical equation is proposed and investigated. According to these preliminary considerations, a few critical variables are identified and determined: 1) average rate of material recirculation in LSS; 2) LSS and environment uncertainty level (level of material circulation rate fluctuations); and 3) human control level and its limitations.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2493
Harry Jones
Dynamic modeling and simulation of recycling space life support is necessary to determine processing rates, buffer sizes, controls, and other aspects of systems design. A common approach is to develop an overall inclusive model that reflects nominal system operation. A full dynamic simulation of space life support represents many system elements in an inclusive model, but it cannot and should not include everything possible. A model is a simplified, partial, mathematical representation of reality. Including unnecessary elements makes the model complex, costly, and confusing. Models are built to help understand a system and to make predictions and decisions about it. The best and most useful models are developed to answer specific important questions. There are many possible questions about life support design and performance. Different questions are best answered by different models. Static spreadsheet analysis is a good starting point.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2495
Haibei Jiang, Luis F. Rodríguez, Scott Bell, David Kortenkamp
Environmental control and life support systems are usually associated with high demands for performance robustness and cost efficiency. However, considering the complexity of such systems, determining the balance between those two design factors is nontrivial for even the simplest space missions. Redundant design is considered as a design optimization dilemma since it usually means higher system reliability as well as system cost. Two coupled fundamental questions need to be answered. First, to achieve certain level of system reliability, what is the corresponding system cost? Secondly, given a budget to improve system reliability, what is the most efficient design for component or subsystem redundancy? The proposed analysis will continue from previous work performed on series systems by expanding the scope of the analysis and testing parallel systems. Namely, the online and offline redundancy designs for a Lunar Outpost Mission are under consideration.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2505
Syed-Ali A. Husain, David L. Akin
The Terrapin Undergraduate Rover for Terrestrial Lunar Exploration (TURTLE) system was developed as part of a senior design course at the University of Maryland; it has since become a test bed for habitability and life support studies. The design requirements for the project dictated a 2,500 kg pressurized lunar rover to sustain two crew members for eight days with a range of 100 km. Part of the design effort included a full-scale mock-up populated with volumetric representations of interior elements. This research proposes a solution to the life support requirements for spacecraft as well as design requirements for other habitat elements. An analysis of relevant technologies and their application to small rovers is presented. Habitability issues (with respect to interior layout of life support hardware) are also considered. Testing was done with the full-scale TURTLE mockup to determine suitable configuration of life support equipment.
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