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2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1251
Thomas Bradley, Clinton Knackstedt, Eric jambor
Abstract As the rigor of vehicle pollution regulations increase there is an increasing need to come up with unique and innovative ways of reducing the effective emissions of all vehicles. In this paper, we will describe our development of a carbon capture and sequestration system that can be used in-tandem with existing exhaust treatment used in convention vehicles or be used as a full replacement. This system is based on work done by researchers from NASA who were developing a next generation life support system and has been adapted here for use in a convention vehicle with minimal changes to the existing architecture. A prototype of this system was constructed and data will be presented showing the changes observed in the effective vehicle emissions to the atmosphere. This system has the potential to extract a significant portion of tailpipe emissions and convert them into a form that allows for safe, clean disposal without causing any harm to the environment.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2388
Christine S. Iacomini, Aaron Powers, Heather L. Paul
Metabolic heat regenerated temperature swing adsorption (MTSA) that is incorporated into a Portable Life Support System (PLSS) is being explored as a viable means of removing and rejecting carbon dioxide (CO2) from an astronaut's ventilation loop. Sorbent pellets, which were used in previous work, are inherently difficult to heat and cool quickly. Further, their use in packed beds creates a large, undesirable pressure drop. Work has thus been done to assess the application and performance of aluminum foam that has been washcoated with a layer of sorbent. A to-scale sorbent bed, which is envisioned for use by a Martian PLSS, was designed, built, and tested. Performance of the assembly in regards to CO2 adsorption and pressure drop was assessed, and the results are presented here.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2386
Robert Sompayrac, Bruce Conger, Mateo Chamberlain, Heather L. Paul
As development of the Constellation spacesuit element progresses, designing the most effective and efficient life support systems is critical. The baseline schematic analysis for the Portable Life Support System indicates that the ventilation loop will need some method of heat exchange and humidification prior to entering the helmet. A trade study was initiated to identify the challenges that are associated with conditioning the spacesuit breathing gas stream for temperature and water vapor control; to survey technological literature and resources on heat exchanger and humidifiers to provide solutions to the problems of conditioning the spacesuit breathing gas stream; and to propose potential candidate technologies to perform the heat exchanger and humidifier functions. This paper summarizes the results of this trade study, and also describes the conceptual designs that NASA developed to address these issues.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2387
Sebastian Padilla, Aaron Powers, Tyler Ball, Christine S. Iacomini, Heather L. Paul
Metabolic heat regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) technology is being developed for thermal and carbon dioxide (CO2) control for a Portable Life Support System (PLSS), as well as water recycling. CO2 removal and rejection is accomplished by driving a sorbent through a temperature swing starting at below freezing temperatures. The swing is completed by warming the sorbent with a separate condensing ice heat exchanger (CIHX) using metabolic heat from moist ventilation gas. The condensed humidity in the ventilation gas is recycled at the habitat. Designing a heat exchanger to efficiently transfer this energy to the sorbent bed and allow the collection of the water is a challenge since the CIHX will operate in a temperature range from 210 K to 280 K. The ventilation gas moisture will first freeze and then thaw, sometimes existing in three phases simultaneously.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2382
Robert C. Morrow, Ross W. Remiker
The Deployable Vegetable Production System (VEGGIE) was originally developed as a way to produce fresh vegetables on the ISS with minimal resources. We are reassessing this system for use in lunar habitats to produce palatable, nutritious, and safe fresh food, provide a recreational tool, and provide a platform to support biological life support development by allowing in situ study of crop productivity and air and water revitalization. The VEGGIE system consists of plant growth chambers that can be stowed in a volume less than 10% of their deployed volume, while still providing the light output and root zone capabilities necessary to support high plant productivity rates. The system has significantly reduced logistical and operational requirements compared to other plant growth systems, and is of a modular design to allow logistical flexibility in terms of transport options and placement in a habitat structure.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2401
M. R. Callahan, A. Lubman, K. D. Pickering
Recovery of potable water from wastewater is essential to the success of long-duration human missions to the moon and Mars. Honeywell International and a team from the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) are developing a wastewater processing subsystem that is based on centrifugal vacuum distillation. The wastewater processor, which is referred to as the cascade distillation subsystem (CDS), uses an efficient multistage thermodynamic process to produce purified water. A CDS unit employing a five-stage distiller engine was designed, built, and delivered to the NASA JSC Advanced Water Recovery Systems Development Facility for performance testing; an initial round of testing was completed in fiscal year 2008 (FY08). Based, in part, on FY08 testing, the system is now in development to support an Exploration Life Support Project distillation comparison test that is expected to begin in 2009.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2354
David E. Williams
The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper provides a summary of the Node 1 ECLS ACS subsystem design and a detailed discussion of the ISS ECLS Acceptance Testing methodology utilized for that subsystem.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2360
Robert Heinse, Scott B. Jones, Markus Tuller, Gail E. Bingham, Igor Podolskiy, Dani Or
Management of water, air and nutrients in coarse-textured porous plant-growth substrates relies not only on the relative amounts of fluids but also on their distribution within porous media. Integration of plants in future life support systems for space exploration raises the question of how fluid distributions in porous plant-growth substrates are altered under reduced gravitational conditions. Central to addressing this issue is the behavior of the water retention characteristic (WRC). WRC encapsulates fluid-porous medium interactions and is key for control of water supply to plants. The hysteretic nature of WRC implies non-homogenous water distributions between its primary draining and wetting curves. During dynamic drainage and wetting cycles, considerable water content gradients develop at separations of only a few pore lengths.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2345
Paul Dillon, Gretchen Thomas, Joe Oliver, Felipe Zapata
This paper documents the progress of a conceptual packaging design effort for a Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). The concept discussed is a flexible backpack intended for use on the Constellation Program (CxP) lunar suit, also known as the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE). The goal of this effort is to reduce the weight of the PLSS packaging while also meeting CxP goals to develop systems that are less costly, more adaptable to mission and technology changes, and have more performance capability than that of existing systems or previous lunar systems. This flexible backpack concept relies on a foam protection system to absorb, distribute, and dissipate the energy from falls on the lunar surface. The testing and analysis of the foam protection system concept that took place during this effort indicate that this method of system packaging is a viable solution.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2370
Heather L. Paul, Mallory A. Jennings
Designing the most effective and efficient life support systems is of extreme importance as the United States makes plans to return astronauts to the Moon. The Trace Contaminant Control System (TCCS), which will be located within the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) of the Constellation spacesuit element (CSSE), is responsible for removing contaminants that, at increased levels, can be hazardous to crew member health. These contaminants arise from several sources including metabolic production of the crew member (e.g., breathing, sweating, etc.) and offgassing of the spacesuit material layers. This paper summarizes the results of a trade study that investigated TCC technologies that were used in NASA space-suits and vehicles, as well as commercial and academic applications, to identify the best technology options for the CSSE PLSS.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2372
D.L. Dietrich, H.L. Paul, B.C. Conger
This paper presents the findings of the trade study to evaluate carbon dioxide (CO2) sensing technologies for the Constellation (Cx) space suit life support system for surface exploration. The trade study found that non-dispersive infrared absorption (NDIR) is the most appropriate high Technology Readiness Level (TRL) technology for the CO2 sensor for the Cx space suit. The maturity of the technology is high, as it is the basis for the CO2 sensor in the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). The study further determined that while there is a range of commercial sensors available, the Cx CO2 sensor should be a new design. Specifically, there are light sources (e.g., infrared light emitting diodes) and detectors (e.g., cooled detectors) that are not in typical commercial sensors due to cost. These advanced technology components offer significant advantages in performance (weight, volume, power, accuracy) to be implemented in the new sensor.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2364
N. V. Coppa, K. V. Chandler
Spray drying is a continuous physical separation process where a solution is sprayed into a hot drying medium. The resulting products are dry solute particles and the drying medium bearing the solvent vapor. Using one of several methods the solvent is recovered from the drying medium. The exact nature of the dried solid and recovered solvent depends on the physical and chemical properties of the feed and the design and operation of the dryer. In this paper we discuss progress made on the development of a prototype for advanced life support applications, and provide data on its purification abilities. A system processing 1 kg hr−1 of aqueous brine solution consumes on the order of 1000 W, but this value was strongly tied to other processing parameters such as dryer inlet and exit temperatures and the heating mode. Analysis of recovered water having an initial concentration of 48000 ppm TDS had between 12 and 134 ppm TDS and strongly depended on the processing conditions.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2368
Ernesto Appella, Emanuele Flesia, Alessandro Quaglia
In a long term vision of space exploration an orbiting station located at Earth Moon Lagrangian Point 1 (EML1), named ECLIPSE should act as a logistic node supporting traffic between Earth, Moon and the future manned and unmanned missions towards Mars. The paper presents the results of the study performed during the SEEDS III Project Work Phase: focusing on the preliminary concepts of the Habitability and the Environmental Control and Life Support System for the ECLIPSE Medical Center (EMC) and ECLIPSE Quarantine Module (EQM), the Cis Lunar Orbiting Shuttle (CLOS) and the Mobile Pressurized Control Module (MPCM).
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2585
Gary L. Harris, Pablo de León
The objective of this paper is to detail a proposal for an Androgynous Docking Airlock/Utility Module (ADAM) that would allow extravehicular (EVA) crews, working from the Orion spacecraft, to avoid depressurizing the command module of the Orion vehicle for planned EVA repair, maintenance and interdiction of orbital structures. Unlike the Space Shuttle, Russian Soyuz vehicle or the Chinese Shenzhou manned spacecraft, the proposed Orion space vehicle has no airlock. This necessitates the depressurizing of the entire Command Module cabin during EVA activity. It also means that all crewmembers will have to wear space suits during contingency and planned EVAs. This inordinately dangerous situation will require all crewmembers to be exposed to the space vacuum for as much as seven hours or more if a working EVA becomes necessary.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2582
L. Grizzaffi, M. Lamantea, C. Lobascio, P. Cergna, D. Perrachon, M. Perino, A. Prelle
In the frame of the space food production research activities conducted in the Thales Alenia Space Italia (TAS-I) Advanced Life Support Research and Development laboratory (RecycLAB, [6]), and with the contribution of a degree thesis developed in collaboration with the Politecnico of Torino, a rack-like facility for ground research on Life Support Systems based on Plants has been designed, developed, integrated, verified and tested in TAS-I. The new facility, called EDEN EPISODE 2, is a significant evolution of a previous TAS-I project (EDEN EPISODE 1) and takes benefit from other lower size TAS-I demonstrators (CUBE). It aims at realizing a completely closed and controlled environment for crop production, while a mobile lighting panel allows to maximize the delivered light in each phase of the plant life cycle. Hydroponic and aeroponic techniques have been implemented in the project for nutrient delivery to the plant roots.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2581
G. Boscheri, M. Lavagna, M. Lamantea
This paper describes a multidisciplinary strategy for designing and preliminary sizing of advanced life support systems for space applications, ranging from open-loop solutions to more advanced physico-chemical and bioregenerative systems. The strategy, based on the use of transient simulation, heuristic techniques, and realtime integrated control has been implemented into a Matlab-Simulink tool, letting large numbers of system configurations to be rapidly tested and evaluated. The tool has been built aiming to easy expandability and updating. The optimization approach for selection of design solutions is based on a MOPSO (Multi Objective Particle Swarm Optimization) algorithm, which presented optimum convergence properties. Different test cases have been considered, both to evaluate tool's capacity to select proper life support system configurations, and to verify sizing accuracy.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2579
Yevhen Holubnyak, Vadim Rygalov
This work represents an extended analysis of the mathematical model which was originally developed in an attempt to analyze the process of plant biomass incineration as a source of carbon dioxide for plant photosynthesis and growth and its effects on closed ecological system stability, Mathematical modeling has demonstrated that when the limit value of intensity of production processes and matter turnover specific for every closed ecosystem is exceeded, the gaseous toxic agents destroy the system. In order to illustrate further the performance and application of the proposed model, the hypothetical optimized ecological life support system was investigated, The preliminary results suggest appropriate system parameters for further engineering implementation. The results of the theoretical analysis are verified and supported by quantitative estimates from the Russian Closed Ecosystem (CES) BIOS-3 which was tested for extended life support between 1970 and 1990.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2566
S. S. Guo, Y. K. Tang, W. D. Ai, L. F. Qin
Lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. Youmaicai) was cultivated at higher atmospheric CO2 concentration gradients (0.05∼2.0%), and then some parameters such as comprehensive evaluation of plant growing states, rates of photosynthesis and transpiration were carried out. There were some positive effects of elevated CO2 (0.1% to 1.0%) on the average rates of photosynthesis and transpiration of the collective lettuce leaves and the contents of chlorophyll and carotenoid, but excessive CO2 (1.5% and 2.0%) weakened the effects, and even had some negative impacts; average shoot height and leaf area of lettuce plants treated at 0.1%∼2.0% CO2 all increased, but the numbers of leaves reduced; The contents of nitrogen, potassium and vitamin C in plants decreased, but phosphorus content rose and microelement contents had no obvious change in various CO2 treatments.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2561
Lealem Mulugeta, Steven P. Chappell, Nicholas G. Skytland
The off-nominal center of gravity (CG) induced by the portable life-support system of Apollo astronauts had an impact on crewmembers' stability. Lack of stability is believed to have been a contributor to the falls and reduced performance experienced by the Apollo crewmembers. Work is being conducted at the NASA Johnson Space Center to assess how spacesuit CG location affects human performance in simulated lunar gravity. The results acquired to date have shown correlation between CG location and performance. The preliminary study presented in this paper also shows a correlation between subject trunk-to-height ratio and performance in reduced gravity, suggesting that human performance in reduced gravity may depend more on anthropometric proportions than on body segment lengths and mass/weight. The results of this study were intended to focus future detailed logistic regression analyses on potential anthropometric factors that may affect human performance in reduced gravity.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2551
Eduard A. Kurmazenko, Lev I. Gavrilov, Mikhail Ju. Tomashpolskiy, Aleksey A. Kochetkov, Nicolay N. Khabarovskiy, Ivan V. Dokunin, Guzel P. Kamaletdinova
The problems formation and localization of Off-nominal Situations (OnS) on an Hardware/Software Complex of Crew's Service of the Regeneration Life Support System Operation (HSCCSO) are considered in this paper both at functions separate system and at deviations of crew's inhabitancy controllable parameter values. The HSCCSO is developed for the first ground long-term experiment under ‘Mars - 500’ project. The purpose of this paper is to examine HSCCSO taking into consideration the key of the future mission to Mars (extremely long duration, autonomy, complicated communication peculiarities with the ground Mission Control Center (MCC) because of signal delay, and limited stock of expendables). It is planned to simulate off-nominal and emergency situations caused by failures of on-board LSS and/or the human factor: insufficient crew efficiency, degraded professional reliability and soon.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2405
Thomas O. Leimkuehler, Aaron Powers, Chris Linrud, Chad Bower, Grant Bue
A phase change material (PCM) heat sink using super cooled ice as a non-toxic, non-flammable PCM is being developed for use in a portable life support system (PLSS). The latent heat of fusion for water is approximately 70% larger than most paraffin waxes, which can provide significant mass savings. Further mass reduction is accomplished by super cooling the ice significantly below its freezing temperature for additional sensible heat storage. Expansion and contraction of the water as it freezes and melts is accommodated with the use of flexible bag and foam materials. A demonstrator unit has been designed, built, and tested to demonstrate proof of concept. Both testing and modeling results are presented.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2408
Robert Sompayrac, Bruce Conger, Luis Trevino
Performing extravehicular activity at various locations on the lunar surface presents thermal challenges that exceed those that have been experienced in space flight to date. The lunar Portable Life Support System (PLSS) cooling unit must maintain thermal conditions within the spacesuit (SS) and reject heat loads that are generated by both the crew member and the PLSS equipment. The amount of cooling that will be required varies based on lunar location and terrain due to the heat that is transferred between the suit and its surroundings, A study, which assumes three different thermal technology categories, has been completed that studied the resources that are required to provide cooling under various lunar conditions as follows: 1. SS water membrane evaporator 2. Sub-cooled phase change material (SPCM) 3.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2407
C. Silva, M. Schuller, E. Marotta
The study of conceptual designs for a space suit Personal Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) at the Texas Engineering Experiment Station resulted in the recommendation to NASA of an evolution path from the existing PLSS to a long duration, low mass PLSS suitable for Martian missions. The replacement of the water sublimator cooling unit by a radiator-mechanical heat pump subsystem was one of the key technology upgrades for this evolution. The assessment was based on using a carbon radiator and mechanical heat pump. The “Lunar Noon” environment was used for sizing the system. The effect of lunar dust on the radiator and choice of refrigerant fluid were considered. A survey of previous work on high temperature heat pumps was made in order to estimate the maturation time for the heat pump technology. We concluded that a heat pump radiator using water as its cooling fluid was the best alternative.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2451
Roger van Boeyen, Jonathan Reeh, Luis Trevino
A compact, low-power, electrochemically driven fluid cooling pump is currently being developed by Lynntech. With no electric motor and lightweight components, the pump is significantly lighter than conventional rotodynamic and displacement pumps. Reliability and robustness are achieved with the absence of rotating or moving components (apart from the bellows). By employing sulfonated polystyrene-based proton exchange membranes rather than conventional Nafion® membranes, a significant reduction in the actuator power consumption was demonstrated. Lynntech designers also demonstrated that these membranes possess the mechanical strength, durability, and temperature range that are necessary for long-life space operation. The preliminary design for a prototype pump compares very favorably to the design targets of the next generation spacesuit Portable Life Support Systems cooling pump.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2450
David Hartman, Edward Hodgson, Steven Dionne, Edward Gervais, Luis Trevino
NASA's next generation of space suit systems will place new demands on the pump used to circulate cooling water through the life support system and the crew's liquid cooling garment. Long duration missions and frequent EVA require increased durability and reliability; limited resupply mass requirements demand compatibility with recycled water, and changing system design concepts demand increased tolerance for dissolved and free gas and the ability to operate over a broader range of flow rates and discharge pressure conditions. This paper describes the development of a positive displacement prototype pump to meet these needs. A gerotor based design has been adapted to meet pump performance, gas tolerance, and durability requirements while providing a small, lightweight pump assembly. This design has been detailed and implemented using materials selected to address anticipated water quality and mission needs as a prototype unit for testing in NASA laboratories.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2448
Heather L. Paul, Mallory A. Jennings, Matthew Vogel
An advanced Portable Life Support System for a future space suit will require a small, robust, and energy-efficient system to transport ventilation gas through the space suit for lunar Extravehicular Activity (EVA) operations. A trade study identified and compared ventilation transport technologies in commercial, military, and space applications to determine which technologies could be adapted for EVA use. Based on these trade study results, five commercially available, 24-V fans were selected for performance testing at various pressures and flow rates. Measured fan parameters included: fan delta-pressures, input voltages, input electrical currents, and, in some cases, motor windings electrical voltages and currents. A follow-on trade study was also performed to identify oxygen compatibility issues and assess their impact on fan design. This paper outlines the results of the fan performance characterization testing, as well as the results from the oxygen compatibility assessment.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2463
Hiroyuki Miyajima
In recent years, with increased size of the manned space program and systems used in the programs, the role of computer simulations has increased. I have long used and developed independently several simulation tools for the design, operation, analysis, and optimization of the Life Support Systems (LSS). I recognized that the designer makes his/her own idea certain while building a simulation model on a computer. However, conventional simulation tools are not designed so that the interaction between the designer and a model building support environment is dynamically used to bring out a designer's idea. Therefore, in this paper, I consider the development of a conceptual design support tool in the design of the LSS, while focusing attention on the interaction between the simulation tool and the designer.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2457
John F. Lewis, Richard A. Barido, Robyn Carrasquillo, Cynthia D. Cross, Ed Rains, George C. Tuan
The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is the first crew transport vehicle to be developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the last thirty years. The CEV is being developed to transport the crew safely from the Earth to the International Space Station and then later, from the Earth to the Moon . This year, the vehicle continued to go through design refinements to reduce weight, meet requirements, and operate reliably while preparing for Preliminary Design Review in the summer of 2009. The design of the Orion Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system, which includes the life support and active thermal control systems, is progressing through the design stage. This paper covers the Orion ECLS development from April 2008 to April 2009.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2466
Harry Jones
The design and mass cost of a starship and its life support system are investigated. The mission plan for a multigenerationai interstellar voyage to colonize a new planet is used to describe the starship design, including the crew habitat, accommodations, and life support. Cost is reduced if a small crew travels slowly and lands with minimal equipment. The first human interstellar colonization voyage will probably travel about 10 light years and last hundreds of years. The required travel velocity is achievable by nuclear propulsion using near future technology. To minimize mission mass, the entire starship would not decelerate at the destination. Only small descent vehicles would land on the destination planet. The most mass efficient colonization program would use colonizing crews of only a few dozen. Highly reliable life support can be achieved by providing selected spares and full replacement systems.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2464
B. F. Zaretskiy, L. I. Gavrilov, E. A. Kurmazenko
Interplanetary manned missions will change significantly the requirements imposed upon Life Support Systems (LSS) and specifically the requirements on LSS Automated Control Systems (ACS). During interplanetary manned missions the possibilities to control the operation of a specific system from the Ground Mission Control Center (GMCC) are diminished considerably. Therefore, this demands survivability and intelligent level enhancement LSS ACS.
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