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Viewing 331 to 360 of 698
1999-05-10
Technical Paper
1999-01-1626
Edward J. Vinarcik
Structured problem solving methods are utilized in the automotive industry for the efficient resolution of quality issues in manufacturing. Several problem solving methodologies have been developed, each with the same basic philosophy to prevent problem reoccurrence. Numerous barriers inhibit the effectiveness of problem solving. Although some tactical barriers may be overcome by training personnel, the majority of barriers are strategic or cultural in nature. Barriers at these two levels can only be removed by management level personnel. Management must shift its focus from firefighting to problem prevention. This shift can only be realized if problem prevention is addressed during design.
1999-04-06
Technical Paper
1999-01-1368
Martin Klein, Thomas Lytle
The Nickel Metal Hydride Battery system has emerged as the battery of choice for portable computers, cell phones and other small electronic applications. It also is a leading candidate to serve as the energy storage source for electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The Nickel Metal Hydride battery eliminates the use of highly toxic chemicals which is a major consideration for environmental issues. The battery also exhibits higher energy density than Lead-Acid and Nickel-Cadmium batteries along with excellent power capabilities. These features make this battery a viable candidate for aircraft applications and that is the subject of this presentation.
1999-04-06
Technical Paper
1999-01-1386
Robert J. Staniewicz, Louis d'Ussel, Paul Kasztejna, William Gollatz
Very little published data exist for the lithium ion chemistry showing that it will meet the rigors of GEO or LEO satellites. This paper reveals that the graphite/LiNiO2 chemistry has achieved 133,000 discharges at 30% DOD in 18650 cells. Full scale 40 Ah cell data predicts ∼ 4000 cycles for 60% DOD and above 100,000 cycles for 20 and 30% DOD.
1999-04-06
Technical Paper
1999-01-1389
G. M. Ehrlich, R. Gitzendanner, F. Puglia, C. Marsh, B. J. Bragg
Yardney Technical Products is developing a high energy density Li-ion cell tailored for NASA's Extravehicular Mobility Unit battery. The goal of the program is to develop a Li-ion technology which offers long storage and cycle life in a system which provides energy density and exercise performance comparable to the current 6.7kg Zn-AgO battery. The Zinc-Silver Oxide cells which are most commonly used in this application provide 400 Wh/l with a 32 cycle life at 26.6Ah and 1.55V with a rated wet life of 425 days. To improve the energy density of the Li-ion cells we have focused on improving the energy density of its components. In addition to using thin metal foil current collectors, the energy density of the cathode material was improved by utilizing a high capacity Co doped nickel oxide material. Further efforts have focused on developing a more energy dense carbonaceous anode material. The results of this effort are reviewed.
1999-04-06
Technical Paper
1999-01-1388
Margot L. Wasz, Boyd J. Carter
Li-ion cells were cycled as part of a program to assess commercial technologies for space applications. Cells showing capacity loss were disassembled and compared with new cells using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) x-ray diffraction (XRD), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) to determine the underlying cause for the capacity loss. Results indicate a loss of lithium from the cathode and a thicker, non-active, fluorine-rich layer on the surface of the anode.
1999-04-06
Technical Paper
1999-01-1391
M. C. Smart, B. V. Ratnakumar, L. Whitcanack, S. Surampudi, R. Marsh
NASA requires lightweight rechargeable batteries for future missions to Mars and the outer planets that are capable of operating at low temperatures. Due to the attractive performance characteristics, lithium-ion batteries have been identified as the battery chemistry of choice for a number of future applications, including Mars Rovers and Landers. Under an Interagency program, lithium-ion cells of varying capacity are being developed for NASA and DOD applications. JPL, in collaboration with Wright Patterson Laboratory (Air Force), is currently evaluating a number of lithium-ion cells varying in capacity from 3 Ah to 50 Ah for future aerospace applications. The Mars Lander and Rover applications require a rechargeable, high energy density system capable of operation at temperatures as low as -20°C.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0987
Claudia Duranceau, Terry Lindell
The goal of this paper is to define and quantify the contribution of used parts to vehicle recycling. In 1997, this research was stimulated when the Federal Trade Commission opened hearings on the definition of recycling. At this time, general facts about the automotive recycling industry and reuse of automotive parts were hard to find. This study's goal was to produce actual data on the contribution of reuse to vehicle recycling and to answer questions about the industry. Can accurate reuse measurements be calculated with data collected from recyclers? What should be the expected average performance of a company in the recycling industry? What effect can reuse have on landfill avoidance? The results of this study established that the sale and reuse of used parts played a significant role in vehicle recycling. The Automotive Recyclers Association, representing the existing industry, testified at the FTC hearings using preliminary results from this study.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0993
Don Lewis
The cost–effectiveness of using alternative fuels (AF) versus a conventional fuel (gasoline) in light duty vehicles is traditionally presented with a simple analysis on what can best be described as “one sheet of paper.” Unfortunately, oversimplification of the cost analysis can lead to extensive errors in the results and misleading cost and/or benefit conclusions. An extensive model for analyzing the costs and benefits of using alternative fuels has been developed which allows in–depth modeling of major characteristics of a single vehicle (or an entire fleet) which uses alternative fuel. Net present value (NPV) theorem financial modeling has been used to compute a true lifetime cost of ownership. An important output of the model is the required fuel spread needed in order to obtain a NPV of zero dollars, indicating that the savings resulting from using the alternative fuel offset the cost of the additional AF components.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-1307
Greg Ayres
The focus of this paper is short-term policy options to address greenhouse gas emissions from personal automobiles. Primary policies considered include gasoline taxes, carbon taxes, a carbon cap-and-trade program, cost-shifting initiatives, and a pay-at-the-pump auto insurance scheme. Pay-at-the-pump auto insurance is recommended on the basis of cost effectiveness, equity, public appeal, and political feasibility. Also recommended are incentive-based transportation control measures such as congestion pricing, workplace parking subsidy reform, and accelerated vehicle retirement. These short-term policies complement the long-term strategies considered by the President's Policy Dialogue Advisory Committee (Car Talk).
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0945
R.F. Thelen
Calorimetric testing of pulsed power conditioning, as an influence on a battery's electrochemical transfer efficiency, is presented. The experiment used two 300 AH (ampere-hour) electric shuttle bus batteries; alternately charging and discharging at 8 to 14 kW with two charge and three discharge modes. The batteries were thermally insulated and monitored to analyze energy balance differences. The test setup, results, and analyses are reported. While slight trends were seen, improved transfer efficiencies due to pulsed currents could not be confirmed. Benefits under conditions of much higher transfer rates or for battery life cycle improvements are considered but were not tested.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0015
D'Lane L. Wisner
Abstract Vinyl (Polyvinyl chloride or PVC) is the second largest plastic sold in the world. Vinyl has been used to make instrument panel (IP) skins in the automotive market for over forty years. Recently, questions have been raised about vinyl's life cycle environmental impact. To address these questions, the Vinyl Institute (VI) and the Chlorine Chemistry Council (CCC) had Ecobalance (life cycle consulting firm) perform a life cycle analysis (LCA) comparison between a flexible Vinyl/ABS IP skin and a Thermoplastic Polyolefin (TPO) IP skin. This paper will review the assumptions, analysis and conclusions of the LCA.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0018
Robert Vaculik, Konrad Saur
Latest developments in oil filtration are moving from the conventional spin-on filter to a filter housing with an exchangeable filter element. This new filter element is designed almost entirely of the actual filter media. The so-called metal-free element can be disposed of easily and completely through incineration and, therefore, provides a great environmental and economical solution. In this paper two principles of metal-free elements are compared using a life cycle assessment. Analysis shows that in all categories the thermoset-cured design has advantages versus the nylon 6 injection molded version, even if 100% post consumer nylon is used.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0010
R. Le Borgne, P. Feillard
Life Cycle Assessment has now been identified as a tool for the evaluation of potential environmental burdens associated with a product, a process or an activity by identifying and quantifying energy, materials used and wastes released to the environment. In 1996, the European Commission and the OECD sponsored a study on the “Adoption by Industry of Life Cycle Approaches” which pointed out the necessity to develop specific LCA methodologies for the main industrial sectors. Therefore in this paper, the inventory step of LCA is specifically developed for the automotive sector and a particular attention is given to the two major environmental endeavours that the automotive industry is faced with: the use phase (fuel consumption) and the vehicle end of life. Simple and pragmatic rules are defined in this paper reinforcing the efficiency of LCA.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0012
Markus Klausner, Wolfgang M. Grimm, Arpad Horvath
In this paper we present a hybrid approach to Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) using the case study of an electronically controlled unit injector (EUI), which is a time-controlled fuel injection system. Using the hybrid approach, we are able to quantify environmental information on upstream production processes preceding manufacture at Bosch without the need to gather all supplier data empirically. Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) data based on “conventional” process models are combined with LCI data from economic input-output relations between different industry sectors and associated pollution discharges and nonrenewable resource consumption. The economic input-output-based LCA (EIO-LCA) allows us to quantify indirect environmental impacts of production processes generally neglected in conventional LCA models.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0013
Bruce W. Vigon, David P. Evers, Steven W. Pedersen
This paper considers the issues and provides some lessons learned with respect to implementing a life cycle environmental assessment (LCEA) and environmental cost analysis (LCEC) program within a major DoD system acquisition. The latest revision of Directive 5000.2, Mandatory Procedures for Major Defense Acquisition Programs, requires, among other things, that life cycle environmental aspects be considered early in the design process[1]. Further, the 1995 Defense Appropriations Act, Section 815, requires that environmental costs be an integral part of the system life cycle cost analysis. For this effort project personnel, with the guidance of the Office of the Program Manager staff, developed an LCEA/LCEC Program, trained design teams on the elements of the program and prepared a data collection template to assist in the ongoing data collection effort.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0014
Monica H. Prokopyshen, Karl-Heinz Feuerherd, Andreas Kicherer, David T. Durocher, Daniel C. Steinmetz, Robert R. Patzelt
Life cycle benefits of using polyols, recovered from polyurethanes, for the manufacture of new automotive components are detailed. Design, manufacture, use and end-of-vehicle-life phases are reviewed and presented using a life cycle management approach. This methodology has been found useful to examine complex systems to guide decision makers in optimizing total life cycle costs. This paper discusses the factors, decision process, and path that led to the establishment of an alliance to develop the waste collection infrastructure, chemical recovery process (glycolysis), recyclate polyol product and the resultant vehicle components.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0011
Marlo Raynolds, M. D. Checkel, R. A. Fraser
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is commonly used to measure the environmental and economic impacts of engineering projects and/or products. However, there is some uncertainty associated with any LCA study. The LCA inventory analysis generally relies on imperfect data in addition to further uncertainties created by the assessment process itself. It is necessary to measure the effects that data and process uncertainty have on the LCA result and to communicate the level of uncertainty to those making decisions based on the LCA. To accomplish this, a systematic and rigorous means to assess the overall uncertainty in LCA results is required. This paper demonstrates the use of Monte Carlo Analysis to track and measure the propagation of uncertainty in LCA studies. The Monte Carlo technique basically consists of running repeated assessments using random input values chosen from a specified probable range.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0016
David Shen, Alan Phipps, Gregory Keoleian, Rebecca Messick
This study is a life-cycle assessment (LCA) comparing two types of a powertrain structural component: one made of diecast primary aluminum and another hypothetical part made of semi-solid injection molded primary magnesium (Thixomolded®). The LCA provides an indication of the potential environmental burdens throughout the life-cycles of both parts, ranging from raw material acquisition to product end-of-life. Preliminary results show high sensitivity to selection of primary vs. secondary metals, and to the SF6 emission factor used in the model. Opportunities exist for reducing energy consumption using secondary instead of primary metals for both parts, although the use of such is influenced by market supply and demand
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0055
Carl D. Tarum
A bathtub equation can be used to model data that exhibits infant mortality, chance failures, and wear out. This technique allows for the simultaneous solution of equation parameters affecting the product’s life. The bathtub equation treats a portion of the population as a competing risk mixture. This allows total failure of the infant mortality population without causing complete failure of the entire population. Chance and wear out failures are included by using a compound competing risk mixture.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0353
Jordi Bigorra, Juan Carlos Alonso, Jordi Giró, Francesc Castells
The objective of this paper is to show the results and real benefits and limitations obtained from the application of Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) and Design for Environment (DfE) methodologies in the design of new UT Automotive (UTA) products (electronic and electrical distribution systems for automotive industry). The results from three LCA case studies will be shown: two electrical distribution systems (EDS) and one printed circuit board (PCB) junction box. Some of the major problems encountered during the LCA studies were, among others, the lack of environmental data about some products and gathering necessary information about components from suppliers. The results of a DfE study for another PCB junction box will also be described. The objective of this study is to draft and deploy generic and specific DfE guidelines in order to help design engineers.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0358
Thomas Gloria
This paper presents a dynamic Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach to analyze production activities in order to meet the recycling requirements put forth by the Vehicle End-of-Life (VEOL) Directive proposed by the European Union. Specifically, a dynamic method is used to appropriately examine life-cycle issues that affect future recycling activities. The approach presented here is based sequential interindustry modeling (SIM) theory.
1999-01-13
Technical Paper
990043
M. R. Saraf, S. Raju
The duration for the development of a new vehicle model is continuously decreasing. This does not permit adequate time for proving component assemblies and vehicles to be evaluated for durability by conventional measures. However, increasing competition and quality consciousness calls for an assured life with a high degree of confidence. This has forced the test engineers to look for techniques for accelerating the durability evaluation. The technique calls for concepts for compressing the evaluation time. This can be achieved by compression in both time as well as frequency domain. Further, it also calls for correct techniques for the mixing of roads, extrapolation of data acquired over a small distance to the vehicle life, evaluation and elimination of non or less damaging inputs, etc. This paper reviews some of the existing techniques and describes case studies of how accelerated testing can be applied in vehicle development.
1999-01-13
Technical Paper
990009
Charalampos I. Arapatsakos, Panagiotis D. Sparis
It is generally accepted that the process of catalyst deactivation originates from the entrance sections of the converter and gradually progress towards the exit. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the possibility of a catalyst operating life extension via a mounting inversion, when the catalyst is close to its limits in the normal position. The experimental results indicate that under full load conditions at 3000 rpm improvement of catalyst efficiency can be accomplished reaching approximately 30% for CO and HC. This mounting inversion can be easily accomplished by an appropriate symmetric design of the monolith casing and mounting flanges, so that smooth gas flow conditions can be attained in both flow directions.
1999-01-13
Technical Paper
990011
Suresh T. Gulati
The stringent emissions standards in the late 1990's like NLEV, ULEV and SULEV have led to major modifications in the composition and design of ceramic substrates. These changes have been necessitated to reduce cold start emissions, meet OBD-II requirements, and to ensure 100,000 mile durability requirement in a cost-effective manner. This paper presents the key advances in ceramic substrates which include lower thermal expansion, lighter weight, higher surface area and improved manufacturing process all of which help meet performance requirements. In addition to above benefits, the compressive and tensile strengths of lightweight substrates, as well as their thermal shock resistance, are found to be adequate following the application of high surface area alumina washcoat. The strength properties are crucial for ensuring safe handling of the substrate during coating and canning and for its long term mechanical durability in service.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982186
Salvatore Di Carlo, Rosanna Serra, Giancarlo Foglia, Davide Diana
In the last century cars have become almost irreplaceable objects in modern society. There are almost half a billion cars circulating around the world while about thirty years ago there were about half this number. Most experts agree that the goal of a billion isn't so far away. Nevertheless one must consider that car production and use environmental impact has been strongly improved. This is mainly due to a greater consciousness of manufacturers and clients towards environmental effects of high living standards. This work not only points out the state of the art of the actual situation but also focuses on the improvements that can be reached in a near future.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982187
Osamu Kobayashi, Helene Teulon, Philippe Osset, Yasuhiko Morita
The Japan Automobile Manufactures Association (JAMA), in pursuit of their goal of “creating products that put a minimum of load on the earth's environment”, have been carrying out an LCA Study related to motor vehicles. At the time of the previous TLC, for a single car taken as a collection of parts, an LCI study of the carbon dioxide emissions and consumption of energy only was carried out. It was based on 17 basic categories of materials and 13 basic manufacturing process categories. At the time of this study, the data obtained was limited to the total material consumption and energy consumption related to the manufacture of a typical 2000cc Japanese passenger car. The current study was focused on a 1500cc gasoline engine 4-door passenger sedan model, and we reclassified into approximately 140 classifications. The production process data was limited to the target model.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982185
Lynne Ridge
Phase 1 of this LCA project highlighted significant unresolved differences in allocation rules adopted by the partners in the ‘use phase’. Phase 2 updates the LCA guidelines, and achieves consensus for the algorithms adopted for both allocating absolute fuel use to a component, and the fuel reduction for a particular weight reduction. Further examination is made of end of life recycling scenarios, the sensitivity of inventory and assessment results to recycling credits, and a comparison of selected assessment methods. These are made within the context of a typical automotive comparative study. Some comments on the adoption of ‘quick’ LCA methods are also made.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982191
Wendy S. White, Laura A. Przekop, John M. Armstrong
This paper presents a case example of the evolution of a Self-Declared Environmental label for a supplier. A comprehensive database system combined with Life Cycle Management (LCM) concepts provided the basis of the label design. Environmental labeling is under intense discussion and debate. Although three types of labels are discussed in the draft ISO 14000 Standards, the Type II Self-Declared Environmental Claim presently appears to be the only realistic choice for many suppliers. The Self-Declared Environmental Claim allows manufacturers to make environmental claims about their products in a practical manner. The Traverse Group Label Management Team uses a standardized data collection methodology and Life Cycle Management (LCM) analysis to produce Type II labels for suppliers. For the manufacturer described in the case example, the Type II label is currently being placed on shipments of plastic seat protectors. The evolution of this label is described in the case example.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982190
J. Gediga, H. Beddies, H. Florin, R. Loser, M. Schuckert, H. G. Haldenwanger, W. Schneider
For integrating Life Cycle Assessment into the design process it is more and more necessary to generate models of single life cycle steps respectively manufacturing processes. For that reason it is indispensable to develop parametric processes. With such disposed processes the aim could only be to provide a tool where parametric environmental process models are available for a designer. With such a tool and the included models a designer will have the possibility to make an estimation of the probable energy consumption and needed additive materials for the applied manufacturing technology. Likewise if he has from the technical point of view the opportunity, he can shift the applied joining technology in the design phase by changing for instance the design.
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