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1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0014
Monica H. Prokopyshen, Karl-Heinz Feuerherd, Andreas Kicherer, David T. Durocher, Daniel C. Steinmetz, Robert R. Patzelt
Life cycle benefits of using polyols, recovered from polyurethanes, for the manufacture of new automotive components are detailed. Design, manufacture, use and end-of-vehicle-life phases are reviewed and presented using a life cycle management approach. This methodology has been found useful to examine complex systems to guide decision makers in optimizing total life cycle costs. This paper discusses the factors, decision process, and path that led to the establishment of an alliance to develop the waste collection infrastructure, chemical recovery process (glycolysis), recyclate polyol product and the resultant vehicle components.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0018
Robert Vaculik, Konrad Saur
Latest developments in oil filtration are moving from the conventional spin-on filter to a filter housing with an exchangeable filter element. This new filter element is designed almost entirely of the actual filter media. The so-called metal-free element can be disposed of easily and completely through incineration and, therefore, provides a great environmental and economical solution. In this paper two principles of metal-free elements are compared using a life cycle assessment. Analysis shows that in all categories the thermoset-cured design has advantages versus the nylon 6 injection molded version, even if 100% post consumer nylon is used.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0945
R.F. Thelen
Calorimetric testing of pulsed power conditioning, as an influence on a battery's electrochemical transfer efficiency, is presented. The experiment used two 300 AH (ampere-hour) electric shuttle bus batteries; alternately charging and discharging at 8 to 14 kW with two charge and three discharge modes. The batteries were thermally insulated and monitored to analyze energy balance differences. The test setup, results, and analyses are reported. While slight trends were seen, improved transfer efficiencies due to pulsed currents could not be confirmed. Benefits under conditions of much higher transfer rates or for battery life cycle improvements are considered but were not tested.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0016
David Shen, Alan Phipps, Gregory Keoleian, Rebecca Messick
This study is a life-cycle assessment (LCA) comparing two types of a powertrain structural component: one made of diecast primary aluminum and another hypothetical part made of semi-solid injection molded primary magnesium (Thixomolded®). The LCA provides an indication of the potential environmental burdens throughout the life-cycles of both parts, ranging from raw material acquisition to product end-of-life. Preliminary results show high sensitivity to selection of primary vs. secondary metals, and to the SF6 emission factor used in the model. Opportunities exist for reducing energy consumption using secondary instead of primary metals for both parts, although the use of such is influenced by market supply and demand
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0353
Jordi Bigorra, Juan Carlos Alonso, Jordi Giró, Francesc Castells
The objective of this paper is to show the results and real benefits and limitations obtained from the application of Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) and Design for Environment (DfE) methodologies in the design of new UT Automotive (UTA) products (electronic and electrical distribution systems for automotive industry). The results from three LCA case studies will be shown: two electrical distribution systems (EDS) and one printed circuit board (PCB) junction box. Some of the major problems encountered during the LCA studies were, among others, the lack of environmental data about some products and gathering necessary information about components from suppliers. The results of a DfE study for another PCB junction box will also be described. The objective of this study is to draft and deploy generic and specific DfE guidelines in order to help design engineers.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0993
Don Lewis
The cost–effectiveness of using alternative fuels (AF) versus a conventional fuel (gasoline) in light duty vehicles is traditionally presented with a simple analysis on what can best be described as “one sheet of paper.” Unfortunately, oversimplification of the cost analysis can lead to extensive errors in the results and misleading cost and/or benefit conclusions. An extensive model for analyzing the costs and benefits of using alternative fuels has been developed which allows in–depth modeling of major characteristics of a single vehicle (or an entire fleet) which uses alternative fuel. Net present value (NPV) theorem financial modeling has been used to compute a true lifetime cost of ownership. An important output of the model is the required fuel spread needed in order to obtain a NPV of zero dollars, indicating that the savings resulting from using the alternative fuel offset the cost of the additional AF components.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0013
Bruce W. Vigon, David P. Evers, Steven W. Pedersen
This paper considers the issues and provides some lessons learned with respect to implementing a life cycle environmental assessment (LCEA) and environmental cost analysis (LCEC) program within a major DoD system acquisition. The latest revision of Directive 5000.2, Mandatory Procedures for Major Defense Acquisition Programs, requires, among other things, that life cycle environmental aspects be considered early in the design process[1]. Further, the 1995 Defense Appropriations Act, Section 815, requires that environmental costs be an integral part of the system life cycle cost analysis. For this effort project personnel, with the guidance of the Office of the Program Manager staff, developed an LCEA/LCEC Program, trained design teams on the elements of the program and prepared a data collection template to assist in the ongoing data collection effort.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0987
Claudia Duranceau, Terry Lindell
The goal of this paper is to define and quantify the contribution of used parts to vehicle recycling. In 1997, this research was stimulated when the Federal Trade Commission opened hearings on the definition of recycling. At this time, general facts about the automotive recycling industry and reuse of automotive parts were hard to find. This study's goal was to produce actual data on the contribution of reuse to vehicle recycling and to answer questions about the industry. Can accurate reuse measurements be calculated with data collected from recyclers? What should be the expected average performance of a company in the recycling industry? What effect can reuse have on landfill avoidance? The results of this study established that the sale and reuse of used parts played a significant role in vehicle recycling. The Automotive Recyclers Association, representing the existing industry, testified at the FTC hearings using preliminary results from this study.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-1307
Greg Ayres
The focus of this paper is short-term policy options to address greenhouse gas emissions from personal automobiles. Primary policies considered include gasoline taxes, carbon taxes, a carbon cap-and-trade program, cost-shifting initiatives, and a pay-at-the-pump auto insurance scheme. Pay-at-the-pump auto insurance is recommended on the basis of cost effectiveness, equity, public appeal, and political feasibility. Also recommended are incentive-based transportation control measures such as congestion pricing, workplace parking subsidy reform, and accelerated vehicle retirement. These short-term policies complement the long-term strategies considered by the President's Policy Dialogue Advisory Committee (Car Talk).
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0055
Carl D. Tarum
A bathtub equation can be used to model data that exhibits infant mortality, chance failures, and wear out. This technique allows for the simultaneous solution of equation parameters affecting the product’s life. The bathtub equation treats a portion of the population as a competing risk mixture. This allows total failure of the infant mortality population without causing complete failure of the entire population. Chance and wear out failures are included by using a compound competing risk mixture.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0010
R. Le Borgne, P. Feillard
Life Cycle Assessment has now been identified as a tool for the evaluation of potential environmental burdens associated with a product, a process or an activity by identifying and quantifying energy, materials used and wastes released to the environment. In 1996, the European Commission and the OECD sponsored a study on the “Adoption by Industry of Life Cycle Approaches” which pointed out the necessity to develop specific LCA methodologies for the main industrial sectors. Therefore in this paper, the inventory step of LCA is specifically developed for the automotive sector and a particular attention is given to the two major environmental endeavours that the automotive industry is faced with: the use phase (fuel consumption) and the vehicle end of life. Simple and pragmatic rules are defined in this paper reinforcing the efficiency of LCA.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0011
Marlo Raynolds, M. D. Checkel, R. A. Fraser
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is commonly used to measure the environmental and economic impacts of engineering projects and/or products. However, there is some uncertainty associated with any LCA study. The LCA inventory analysis generally relies on imperfect data in addition to further uncertainties created by the assessment process itself. It is necessary to measure the effects that data and process uncertainty have on the LCA result and to communicate the level of uncertainty to those making decisions based on the LCA. To accomplish this, a systematic and rigorous means to assess the overall uncertainty in LCA results is required. This paper demonstrates the use of Monte Carlo Analysis to track and measure the propagation of uncertainty in LCA studies. The Monte Carlo technique basically consists of running repeated assessments using random input values chosen from a specified probable range.
1999-01-13
Technical Paper
990043
M. R. Saraf, S. Raju
The duration for the development of a new vehicle model is continuously decreasing. This does not permit adequate time for proving component assemblies and vehicles to be evaluated for durability by conventional measures. However, increasing competition and quality consciousness calls for an assured life with a high degree of confidence. This has forced the test engineers to look for techniques for accelerating the durability evaluation. The technique calls for concepts for compressing the evaluation time. This can be achieved by compression in both time as well as frequency domain. Further, it also calls for correct techniques for the mixing of roads, extrapolation of data acquired over a small distance to the vehicle life, evaluation and elimination of non or less damaging inputs, etc. This paper reviews some of the existing techniques and describes case studies of how accelerated testing can be applied in vehicle development.
1999-01-13
Technical Paper
990011
Suresh T. Gulati
The stringent emissions standards in the late 1990's like NLEV, ULEV and SULEV have led to major modifications in the composition and design of ceramic substrates. These changes have been necessitated to reduce cold start emissions, meet OBD-II requirements, and to ensure 100,000 mile durability requirement in a cost-effective manner. This paper presents the key advances in ceramic substrates which include lower thermal expansion, lighter weight, higher surface area and improved manufacturing process all of which help meet performance requirements. In addition to above benefits, the compressive and tensile strengths of lightweight substrates, as well as their thermal shock resistance, are found to be adequate following the application of high surface area alumina washcoat. The strength properties are crucial for ensuring safe handling of the substrate during coating and canning and for its long term mechanical durability in service.
1999-01-13
Technical Paper
990009
Charalampos I. Arapatsakos, Panagiotis D. Sparis
It is generally accepted that the process of catalyst deactivation originates from the entrance sections of the converter and gradually progress towards the exit. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the possibility of a catalyst operating life extension via a mounting inversion, when the catalyst is close to its limits in the normal position. The experimental results indicate that under full load conditions at 3000 rpm improvement of catalyst efficiency can be accomplished reaching approximately 30% for CO and HC. This mounting inversion can be easily accomplished by an appropriate symmetric design of the monolith casing and mounting flanges, so that smooth gas flow conditions can be attained in both flow directions.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982222
J. Gediga, H. Beddies, H. Florin, M. Schuckert, K. Saur, R. Hoffamnn
Cars cause a lot of pollutants during the utilization phase. Within the last years environmental legislation tried to reduce the emissions by the introduction of very tight laws. The results are impressive: Most of the car exhaust emissions like carbonmonoxid and nitrous oxides have been reduced. At this stage new emission reduction limits in Europe as well as in the United States can only be achieved if the formulation of the catalyst system is significantly changed. An increased use of precious metals and rare earth materials is the result of such a modification which succeeds in a more expensive design of the total catalyst systems. More expensive means not only cost aspects but also the environmental burdens related to the increased production of precious metals and other catalyst components. The Life Cycle Engineering (LCE) of the catalyst system which achieves the new legislation is demonstrated as well as the effects to the usage phase.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982226
G.W. Schweimer
A product life cycle inventory (LCI) is done by modelling the reality in a flow diagram or map of processes. The map contains simple tree-structures and eventually networks with sophisticated recycling loops. The unit processes are scaled to 1 unit of a selected input or output for better understanding. The map determines the demand of intermediate products of the various unit processes in the whole system. When performing the balance of the map, the unit processes are scaled in such a way that the map complies with the rules and conventions of mapping, e.g. the delivered product quantity of one process should be equal to the amount received by the other process. The final map balance is the vector sum of all scaled unit processes.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982224
Robert D. Stephens, Ronald L. Williams, Gregory A. Keoleian, Sabrina Spatari, Robb Beal
Federal standards that mandate improved fuel economy have resulted in the increased use of lightweight materials in automotive applications. However, the environmental burdens associated with a product extend well beyond the use phase. Life cycle assessment is the science of determining the environmental burdens associated with the entire life cycle of a given product from cradle-to-grave. This report documents the environmental burdens associated with every phase of the life cycle of two fuel tanks utilized in full-sized 1996 GM vans. These vans are manufactured in two configurations, one which utilizes a steel fuel tank, and the other a multi-layered plastic fuel tank consisting primarily of high density polyethylene (HDPE). This study was a collaborative effort between GM and the University of Michigan's National Pollution Prevention Center, which received funding from EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982225
Bernd Kiefer, Günter Deinzer, Johanna Ö. Haagensen, Konrad Saur
This paper presents some results of the cooperation between Opel and Norsk Hydro for optimizing the life cycle of an automotive structural part using a holistic life cycle assessment approach. The aim of the study presented in this paper was to compare, already in the vehicle development stage, the environmentally relevant parameters of two alternative material applications for a vehicle component with functional equivalence, using the Life Cycle Engineering approach developed by PE Product Engineering GmbH. The comparison of the two alternative part designs made out of steel and magnesium alloy considered the production of materials, the processing of the materials to manufacture the cross beam component, and the use phase as a part applied to the complete vehicle. End-of-life options were also taken into consideration.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982218
Walter M. Kreucher
There is an ongoing debate as to what fuel or fuels should power automobiles. Many analysts look at economics, others look at criteria pollutants, still others make the case based on carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases embodied in the fuel. This study utilizes life cycle inventory techniques to examine the economics, emissions and energy efficiency of automotive fuels as a means to improve the energy utilization efficiency and to better protect the environment. Application of the techniques demonstrates the trade-offs inherent in substitute fuels.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982221
Jonathan Swindell, William E. Franklin, Jody Bailiff, David H. Ehlfeldt
A systematic life cycle management (LCM) approach has been used by Chrysler Corporation to compare existing and alternate hydraulic fluids and lubricating oils in thirteen classifications at a manufacturing facility. The presence of restricted or regulated chemicals, recyclability, and recycled content of the various products were also compared. For ten of the thirteen types of product, an alternate product was identified as more beneficial. This LCM study provided Chrysler personnel with a practical purchasing tool to identify the most cost effective hydraulic fluid or lubricant oil product available for a chosen application on an LCM basis.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982214
Matthias Finkbeiner, Konrad Saur, Rüdiger Hoffmann, Johannes Gediga, Johannes Kreißig, Peter Eyerer
The total life cycle approach makes use of data for various sub-systems and modules to describe the relevance of a defined system under consideration. The different processes and steps take place in several locations. The life cycle approach is an assessment tool beyond this spatial dimension. Often these basic information is not available any more or never has been considered as valuable. By this, different emission sources and different receiving environments are simply neglected by summing up for the total life cycle contributions. The spatial dimension is of outstanding importance for the determination of relevance and meaning of environmental burdens. A more advanced life cycle concept should cover this. Besides the spatial differentiation within on product system, life cycle consideration are also often used to compare different production sites.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982210
Konrad Saur, Matthias Finkbeiner, Rüdiger Hoffmann, Peter Eyerer, Hartmut Schöch, Holger Beddies
LCA studies aim at an integrating system assessment as a comprehensive and holistic approach to prevent tradeoffs and guide users and decision makers for better informed decisions. The total life cycle approach aims at informing and supporting decision making and management support. LCA, like other management techniques as well, has inherent limitations, making choices, assumptions etc. inevitable. Before using the findings of life cycle studies, a consideration of those uncertainties, the effects of value choices and assumptions, as well as the inherent data inaccuracies must be examined in more detail. Traditional error and uncertainty analysis failed in practical use due to the specific system modeling, the data availability and the respective data collection procedures in life cycle studies. New approaches to identify and understand the system specific uncertainties are necessary for this purpose.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982208
Günter Fleischer, Heiko Kunst, Gerald Rebitzer
There is a broad consensus that the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) framework according to IS0 14040-14043 is very useful for pursuing the vision of sustainable development in product design and optimization. However due to the necessary effort involved, in practice the application of this framework to complex products like automobiles is very limited. This article deals on the one hand with methodological approaches for simplifying LCA in a systematic way. On the other hand it presents the existing method of the Iterative Screening LCA as an already sound and efficient simplifying method, suitable for assessing complex products.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982211
Holger Beddies, Harald Florin, Johannes Gediga, Manfred Schuckert
One of the problems of a LCA is the complexity of the considered systems. Results depending strongly on the boundary conditions. More appropriate is to parameterise the LCA and enable it for variations. With that, the Life Cycle Modeling and Simulation leads to a deeper understanding of the examined system. Design parameters, like the geometry or the material of the part can be varied as well as the mass and energy flow in the process chain or methodological parameters. This is especially necessary in the early stage of the design process as a tool for sensitivity analysis and optimisation of products. A dominance analysis ensures that the complexity of the model is suitable for goal and scope of the study.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982205
Marlo A. Raynolds, M. David Checkel, Roydon A. Fraser
Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) considers the key environmental impacts for the entire life cycle of alternative products or processes in order to select the best alternative. An ideal LCA would be an expensive and time consuming process because any product or process typically involves many interacting systems and a considerable amount of data must be analysed for each system. Practical LCA methods approximate the results of an ideal analysis by setting limited analysis boundaries and by accepting some uncertainty in the data values for the systems considered. However, there is no consensus in the LCA field on the correct method of selecting boundaries or on the treatment of data set uncertainty. This paper demonstrates a new method of selecting system boundaries for LCA studies and presents a brief discussion on applying Monte Carlo Analysis to treat the uncertainty questions in LCA.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982206
Frank Stodolsky, Linda Gaines, Roy Cuenca, James J. Eberhardt
This paper evaluates the total lifecycle impacts for hauling freight long distances over land in the United States. The dominant modes of surface freight transport in the United States are large motor trucks (tractor-semitrailer combinations) and trains. These vehicles account for a significant portion of the transportation sector's petroleum usage and atmospheric emissions (among which nitrogen oxides and particulate matter are especially important). The objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential for reductions in energy use (in particular, petroleum use) and atmospheric emissions that result from freight transport, possibly as the result of research and development on improved technology or alternative fuels, such as Fischer-Tropsch diesel and natural gas, or from mode shifts in competitive markets. The impacts examined include energy use, both in toto and the petroleum fraction, and emissions of greenhouse gases and nitrogen oxides and particulate matter.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982199
Kerry E. Kelly, Gary A. Davis
The goal of this work is to calculate the lifetime emissions for a 1996 Saturn automobile over its 193,000-km useful life. To do this, the authors developed a vehicle-specific method for calculating nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrous oxide (NOx) emissions. Vehicle-specific emissions data were not available for methane (CH4) sulfur oxides (SOx), dinitrogen oxide (N2O), and particulate matter (PM). The authors selected most applicable emission factors for these compounds. The authors then compared the results of these emission calculations to several other published methods. All methods produced similar results for CO2 emissions. However, the various calculation methods produced significantly different results for NMHC, CO, NOx, CH4, SOx, N2O, and PM emissions. The vehicle-specific emissions tended to be lower than many of the other methods.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982200
L. B. Lave, S. Joshi, H. L. MacLean, A. Horvath, C. T. Hendrickson, F. C. McMichael, E. Cobas-Flores
We compare two methods for life cycle analysis: the conventional SETAC-EPA approach and Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Analysis (EIO-LCA). The methods are compared for steel versus plastic fuel tank systems and for the entire life cycle of an automobile, from materials extraction to end of life. The EIO-LCA method gives comparable results for the data common to the two methods. EIO-LCA gives more detailed data, specifies the economy wide implications, and is much quicker and less expensive to implement.
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