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Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Thorsten Volz, Harald Florin, Manfred Schuckert, Jürgen Stichling, Michael Wiedemann, Konrad Saur
Total Life Cycle studies of systems like automotive parts, systems or entire vehicles are characterized by an enormous complexity and amounts of individual data points. A full assessment of this variety of information and data requires suitable and reliable data processing systems. The recently developed software system GaBi 3 allows the flexible modeling of life cycles with parameterized process modules. In this way GaBi 3 provides the basis for parameter variation and scenario analysis. Besides these essential elements for identifying improvement potentials, the system enlarges the environmental calculations by an economic and a technical dimension.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Wulf-Peter Schmidt, Hans-Martin Beyer
A material selection including a natural material is conducted using a Simplified Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA) according to SETAC within the framework of Ford's Design for Environment (DfE) process. The aim has been to check both, the environmental performance of a design option concerning a specific component and the feasibility of methodology. The result of the simplified LCA is the recommendation to substitute glass fibers by hemp fibers in a specific insulation. The methodology provides differentiated environmental information and seems to be feasible. However, a lot of LCA experience is necessary to be enabled to simplify LCA.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
J. Gediga, H. Beddies, H. Florin, R. Loser, M. Schuckert, H. G. Haldenwanger, W. Schneider
For integrating Life Cycle Assessment into the design process it is more and more necessary to generate models of single life cycle steps respectively manufacturing processes. For that reason it is indispensable to develop parametric processes. With such disposed processes the aim could only be to provide a tool where parametric environmental process models are available for a designer. With such a tool and the included models a designer will have the possibility to make an estimation of the probable energy consumption and needed additive materials for the applied manufacturing technology. Likewise if he has from the technical point of view the opportunity, he can shift the applied joining technology in the design phase by changing for instance the design. With that in consideration he is able to avoid higher energy consumption and environmental burdens in the design phase and not just in the serial production, where the shift to another manufacturing technology or design of the product is much more cost intensive.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Wendy S. White, Laura A. Przekop, John M. Armstrong
This paper presents a case example of the evolution of a Self-Declared Environmental label for a supplier. A comprehensive database system combined with Life Cycle Management (LCM) concepts provided the basis of the label design. Environmental labeling is under intense discussion and debate. Although three types of labels are discussed in the draft ISO 14000 Standards, the Type II Self-Declared Environmental Claim presently appears to be the only realistic choice for many suppliers. The Self-Declared Environmental Claim allows manufacturers to make environmental claims about their products in a practical manner. The Traverse Group Label Management Team uses a standardized data collection methodology and Life Cycle Management (LCM) analysis to produce Type II labels for suppliers. For the manufacturer described in the case example, the Type II label is currently being placed on shipments of plastic seat protectors. The evolution of this label is described in the case example. The definition of “consumer of label information” is discussed and the role of market hierarchy is noted as a complexity in label content determination.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Kerry E. Kelly, Gary A. Davis
The goal of this work is to calculate the lifetime emissions for a 1996 Saturn automobile over its 193,000-km useful life. To do this, the authors developed a vehicle-specific method for calculating nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrous oxide (NOx) emissions. Vehicle-specific emissions data were not available for methane (CH4) sulfur oxides (SOx), dinitrogen oxide (N2O), and particulate matter (PM). The authors selected most applicable emission factors for these compounds. The authors then compared the results of these emission calculations to several other published methods. All methods produced similar results for CO2 emissions. However, the various calculation methods produced significantly different results for NMHC, CO, NOx, CH4, SOx, N2O, and PM emissions. The vehicle-specific emissions tended to be lower than many of the other methods.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
L. B. Lave, S. Joshi, H. L. MacLean, A. Horvath, C. T. Hendrickson, F. C. McMichael, E. Cobas-Flores
We compare two methods for life cycle analysis: the conventional SETAC-EPA approach and Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Analysis (EIO-LCA). The methods are compared for steel versus plastic fuel tank systems and for the entire life cycle of an automobile, from materials extraction to end of life. The EIO-LCA method gives comparable results for the data common to the two methods. EIO-LCA gives more detailed data, specifies the economy wide implications, and is much quicker and less expensive to implement.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Michael C. Montpetit, Stella Papasovva
The use of regrind acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) for automotive parts and components results in two types of financial savings. The first is the shared monetary savings between General Motors and the molder for the difference in the virgin resin price versus price of the ABS regrind. The second is a societal energy savings seen in the life cycle of virgin ABS versus reground ABS. An added benefit is the preservation of natural resources used to produce virgin ABS.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Walter W. Olson
The framework for environmentally conscious manufacturing in industry is the life cycle assessment structure developed by the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry and incorporated into ISO 14000 Environmental Management Systems. Plant managers subject to this standard have the responsibility for environmental improvement projects. Often, applying these projects creates significant risks, particularly if the project is unsuccessful or requires a new technology that has not been widely applied. Plant managers are inherently risk adverse. Thus plant managers need to know not only how a project will succeed but also what could happen if the project fails or results in a state different than intended. Based on that knowledge, plants managers prepare contingency plans. This paper illustrates a method by which the optimum plan and all possible contingency plans can be selected based upon minimizing project cost while maximizing project success to arrive at an improvement goal.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Lynne Ridge
Phase 1 of this LCA project highlighted significant unresolved differences in allocation rules adopted by the partners in the ‘use phase’. Phase 2 updates the LCA guidelines, and achieves consensus for the algorithms adopted for both allocating absolute fuel use to a component, and the fuel reduction for a particular weight reduction. Further examination is made of end of life recycling scenarios, the sensitivity of inventory and assessment results to recycling credits, and a comparison of selected assessment methods. These are made within the context of a typical automotive comparative study. Some comments on the adoption of ‘quick’ LCA methods are also made.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Anant Vyas, Roy Cuenca, Linda Gaines
A methodology for evaluating life cycle cost of electric vehicles (EVs) to their buyers is presented. The methodology is based on an analysis of conventional vehicle costs, costs of drivetrain and auxiliary components unique to EVs, and battery costs. The conventional vehicle's costs are allocated to such subsystems as body, chassis, and powertrain. In electric vehicles, an electric drive is substituted for the conventional powertrain. The current status of the electric drive components and battery costs is evaluated. Battery costs are estimated by evaluating the material requirements and production costs at different production levels; battery costs are also collected from other sources. Costs of auxiliary components, such as those for heating and cooling the passenger compartment, are also estimated. Here, the methodology is applied to two vehicle types: subcompact car and minivan. A procedure for amortizing purchase price, replacement battery costs, and operating costs over the lifetime usage of the vehicle is a part of the methodology.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Jongbae Ha, Sung K. Min, Tak Hur, Sungjin Kim
As global awareness of environmental concerns associated with automobiles has grown significantly, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has emerged as one of the analytical tools to provide environmental information on automobiles throughout their life cycles. In order to be most efficient in terms of both environmental performance and cost saving, it is necessary to perform LCA studies within a short period of time in the automobile design stage. However, since an automobile consists of a great number of components, a full LCA of an automobile takes too much time and expense. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a practical, systematic LCA methodology for a whole automobile, with which a time and cost effective calculation can be ensured for a highly complex system. First of all, the entire automobile is divided into several modules, each of which is composed of 10-20 submodules. In this process, the concepts of part modularization and platform commonization are incorporated. The life cycle inventory for a whole automobile is obtained based on the ecological data of modules and submodules by using a combination of top-down and bottom-up approaches.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Andreas Patyk, Guido A Reinhardt
The main difference between conventional and electric vehicles is between the drive system and the energy storage. Especially the batteries play an important role within the life cycle assessment of electric vehicles. Based on our work within the „Rügen project” /IFEU 1997a/ we now have derived full energy and mass flow analyses for the production, supply, and recycling of four types of batteries: lead/acid, Ni/Cd, Na/NiCl2, and Na/S. The assessments were made in accordance with the present state of the discussion concerning the standardization of life cycle assessments (ISO/DIS 14040 - 14043) and considering the following impact categories: Resource demand, greenhouse effect, ozon depletion, acidification, eutrophication, human and eco toxicity, and photosmog. In a second step also the usage of the batteries has been assessed. The results show that there are significant differences between the batteries if the usage of them is very low. Also it is important to include the disposal or recycling processes of the batteries into the assessment.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Salvatore Di Carlo, Rosanna Serra, Giancarlo Foglia, Davide Diana
In the last century cars have become almost irreplaceable objects in modern society. There are almost half a billion cars circulating around the world while about thirty years ago there were about half this number. Most experts agree that the goal of a billion isn't so far away. Nevertheless one must consider that car production and use environmental impact has been strongly improved. This is mainly due to a greater consciousness of manufacturers and clients towards environmental effects of high living standards. This work not only points out the state of the art of the actual situation but also focuses on the improvements that can be reached in a near future.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Osamu Kobayashi, Helene Teulon, Philippe Osset, Yasuhiko Morita
The Japan Automobile Manufactures Association (JAMA), in pursuit of their goal of “creating products that put a minimum of load on the earth's environment”, have been carrying out an LCA Study related to motor vehicles. At the time of the previous TLC, for a single car taken as a collection of parts, an LCI study of the carbon dioxide emissions and consumption of energy only was carried out. It was based on 17 basic categories of materials and 13 basic manufacturing process categories. At the time of this study, the data obtained was limited to the total material consumption and energy consumption related to the manufacture of a typical 2000cc Japanese passenger car. The current study was focused on a 1500cc gasoline engine 4-door passenger sedan model, and we reclassified into approximately 140 classifications. The production process data was limited to the target model. With regard to the LCI data categories, they included not only factors related to global warming, but also factors concerning other environmental impact, so that a much more detailed LCI was carried out.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Kurt Buxmann, Johannes Gediga
In accordance with ISO 14040 and ISO/FDIS 14041, different recycling scenarios of aluminum car body sheet have been examined by an LCA study, including shredding, sink-float sorting and remelting; dismantling and remelting; combination of both techniques. The study was based on the aluminum car body of an Audi A8. For benchmarking reasons, these different life cycle scenarios were compared with a conventional steel car body fulfilling the same functions and with a lightweight steel body with 25 % weight reduction. It was found that for most of the selected impact categories, the aluminum car body life cycle which ends in shredding, sink-float sorting and remelting compares favourably even with a steel light-weight construction. On the other hand, dismantling and remelting and the more realistic combination of both techniques show advantages in comparison with the shredding and sink-floating technique.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Matthias Harsch, Matthias Finkbeiner, Dirk Piwowarczyk, Konrad Saur, Peter Eyerer
The automobile painting is a very energy and emission (solvents) intensive process step in the production of automobiles with regard to the small amount of paint applied to the car body. The awareness has risen that cleaner production technologies must substitute end-of-pipe control technologies. If these technologies strive for being a competitive option in corporate decision-making process, not only their environmental but also their technical and economical performance has to be on the same or better level compared to conventional technologies. The approach of Life-Cycle Engineering (LCE) by PE and IKP investigates technical, environmental and economical aspects of products and technologies. It is developed to a simulation tool to analyse weak points and optimisation potentials as well as to support product and technology development in the painting industry. Life-Cycle Simulation (LCS) changes the „snap-shot” character of Life-Cycle Inventories (LCI) to a flexible tool which enables predictions about product and technology developments.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Jongbae Ha, Yeonju Kim, Heewook Cho, Jaehwan Kim, Tak Hur, Kun M. Lee
These days, environmental issues have become more and more of a concern in the automobile industry. Especially, one of the environmental impact evaluation methodologies currently being developed and standardized is the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). LCA is a quantitative method for evaluating the environmental impact of a product throughout its life cycle. Our purpose for studying LCA is to choose environmentally friendly materials. We had used polyurethane (PU) as the material for the bumper fascia. We intended to adopt polypropylene (PP) as a replacement for polyurethane and decided to conduct a comparative LCA for the bumper assembly using PU and PP fascia. In this paper, the total life cycle (raw material, manufacturing, transportation, use and end of life) of the bumper will be studied through inventory analysis, impact assessment and interpretation. The impact assessment was done by the Delphi-like and Index method (Eco-scarcity and Environmental Theme (ET) long term methodologies).
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Marc Binder, Claudius Kaniut, Halil Cetiner, Hartmut Schröter, Klaus Schmitt
In the past there has been a concentration on performing LCAs of car components. Based on the increasing experience and know-how gained in the past by performing LCAs of car components truck designers get the chance to make a statement about the ecological impact of each alternative. The most significant difference between LCAs of car and truck components is the use phase. This paper describes a Life-Cycle-Assessment (LCA) of different air deflection systems made of composite materials. The actually used system is produced by Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) while a possible alternative could be made out of Sheet Molding Compound (SMC). The calculations have shown that there exists a potential to improve the ecological profiles of composite components by replacing glass fibers with natural fibers.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Karl-Michael Nigge
A method for the site-dependent Life Cycle Impact Assessment of toxic air pollutants from traffic emissions is presented which classifies emission sites in terms of their radial population density distribution and the annual mean wind speed within a circle of radius 100 kilometers. Taking the emission of particulate matter from vehicles in Germany as an example, estimates for the area-integrated product of population density and incremental pollutant concentration are derived for each class of emission sites. Results show a spread of about a factor 5 between the highest and lowest values caused largely by variations of the population density.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Reinhard Eberle, Harald A. Franze
The results of previous Life Cycle Assessments indicate the ecological dominance of the vehicle's use phase compared to its production and recycling phase. Particularly the so-called weight-induced fuel saving coefficients point out the great spectrum (0.15 to 1.0 l/(100 kg · 100 km)) that affects the total result of the LCA significantly. The objective of this article, therefore, is to derive a physical based, i.e. scientific chargeable and practical approved, concept to determine the significant parameters of a vehicle's use phase for the Life Cycle Inventory. It turns out that - besides the aerodynamic and rolling resistance parameters and the efficiencies of the power train - the vehicle's weight, the rear axle's transmission ratio and the driven velocity profile have an important influence on a vehicle's fuel consumption. The coefficient for the reduction of fuel consumption on gasoline powered vehicles ranges from 0.34 to 0.48 ltr/(100 kg × 100 km) in the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC), while the saving on diesel vehicles is somewhat lower at 0.29 to 0.33 ltr/(100 kg × 100 km) in the NEDC.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Frans Berkhout
Many industrial applications have been proposed for cradle-to-grave assessment of the environmental burdens of products, including technology design and optimization, technology strategy, marketing and in lobbying regulators. Many industrial firms, including all European automobile producers, have developed life cycle assessment competences during the 1990s, and many have begun applying these to business decisions. In this paper the patterns of adoption of life cycle approaches in car producers are analyzed, together with their impacts on innovation. The paper concludes that while life cycle assessment provides a useful new framework for problem-solving, car producers will face a number of difficulties in extracting value from life cycle-based innovations.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Kenneth J. Martchek, Eden S. Fisher, Diane Klocko
Important opportunities exist to improve the resource and environmental impacts of the automobile over its product life cycle. The use of aluminum in automobile designs is increasing, which offers ways to reduce fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions during vehicle use via light weighting. However, to fully capture lifecycle reductions in environmental loadings and impacts, material suppliers, parts manufacturers and automakers must also understand which of their own operations and facilities offer opportunities for environmental improvements through investments in process or technology advances. Quantifying these opportunities across the comprehensive life cycle of vehicle systems and components can be a challenging task because of the complexity of today's extended supply chain. For instance, even quantifying opportunities from the front end-aluminum material supply-requires gathering, verifying and acting upon information from facilities throughout the world. For instance: bauxite mining in Australia, Africa, Brazil and the Caribbean, smelting of aluminum metal in North America, Europe, the Middle East and South America, and aluminum parts fabrication and assembly in North America, Asia, Europe and throughout the world.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Parveen S. Goel, Nanua Singh
This paper introduces the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) optimization model, where LCC is expressed as a function of controllable design parameters. The LCC model is enhanced with the novel concept of considering the target value of the functional characteristic as a decision variable so that it is optimized on the basis of life-cycle considerations. Most of the LCC model in literature considers only one objective at a time. This paper proposes a comprehensive model, which is capable of considering multiple objectives simultaneously. This model, is solved with the help of Goal Programming.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Stefan Schmidt
The increased global competition has led to immense interest in the development of new ways of increasing productivity and quality. It is a well known fact that the costs of manufactured products are largely determined at the design stage. It is important to consider manufacturability early in the design. To be able to cut life cycle costs at an early stage the following DFMA-tools have been developed: Design for Manufacture (DFM), Design for Assembly (DFA), Design for Service (DFS) and Design for Environment (DFE). This contribution shows the design for the complete life cycle - with the tools DFM, DFA, DFS, DFE - its present state and some industrial applications. Using an electronic company as an example the implementation of DFMA in an TQM-environment and their integration in the product development process is shown. The value-assessment metric ‘Materials, Energy, Toxicity (MET)’ is also described.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
William E. Franklin
Business decisions are based on carefully developed target costs and profits for autos or any other manufactured products. However, when it comes to environmental management, occupational health and safety, recycling and end of life of vehicles, significant costs associated with these activities are typically hidden in overhead, or are undocumented, including costs that may come back to a company at the end of the vehicle's life. Life Cycle Cost Management (LCCM) is a business decision process that integrates any or all of the environmental, health, safety and recycling (EHS&R) phases of product life with a full range of functional costs to provide a business focus on design decisions. The concept of the extended enterprise is now a reality. LCCM is a process for identifying true environmental, health and safety (EHS) costs as they relate to automobile parts, materials, and manufacturing processes. Coupled with customer requirements and end-of-life recycling and disposal goals, the auto industry and its component makers and suppliers can drive down costs and increase profits while truly benefiting the environment.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Alessandro Levizzari, Massimo Debenedetti, Eugenia Accusani
The complexity of environmental problem is characterised by the typical difficulty to find an unique quantitative measure for “being green”. Environmental damage cannot easily be compared with parameters such as cost or time that are “hard” metrics. However, techniques like Life Cycle Assessment should make it possible comparing products based on the basis of their environmental profile. In this study a modelled approach that allows to integrate Life Cycle Assessment considerations within multi-criteria analysis methodology is described: this integration is clearly exemplified by a simple software tool called ECOCOST. ECOCOST represents an effort to join different field of evaluation, other than environmental, to the Life Cycle Assessment: then environmental results emerged from LCA can be matched with other kind of evaluation, economical and technical in particular.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
H. Florin, M. Schuckert, J. Gediga, Th. Volz, P. Eyerer
1.0 ABSTRACT The Institute for Polymer Testing and Polymer Science of the University of Stuttgart has been investigating automotive parts, structures and cars during their life cycle in plenty cooperation with the European automobile producers and their suppliers for the last 9 years. Therefore a holistic approach has been developed to combine tasks from technique, economic and environment in a methodology called Life Cycle Engineering (LCE). The goal is to find a way to support designer and engineers as well as police makers and public with this three-dimensional interrelated information to have the possibility to manufacture future products in a more sustainable way without loosing contact two the traditional parameters technique and costs. During the case study the methodology of LCE will be explained in theory and parallel different examples demonstrate the consequent application of the methodology to solve different problems; ranging from material choice, process comparison, analysis and improvement of whole systems till dealing complete life cycles.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Kevin Brady
The Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry has noted that the peer review process is a key feature for the advancement of life cycle assessment. The International Organisation for Standardisation has recently provided further guidance and requirements for conducting such reviews in the ISO standard on life cycle assessment (ISO 14040). This paper outlines the contribution of the peer review process to the Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) of a generic 1500 Kg vehicle that was carried out by United States Automotive Materials Partnership's Life Cycle Assessment Special Topics Group (USAMP/LCA). At the time of writing the final report for this study had not been reviewed, therefore the paper focuses on the overall peer review process, preliminary findings and lessons learned to date. This paper is one of six SAE publications discussing the results and execution of the USCAR AMP Generic Vehicle LCI. The papers in this series are (Overview of results 982160, 982161, 982162, 982168, 982169, 982170)1.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Gregory A. Keoleian, Geoffrey McD. Lewis, Remi B. Coulon, Vincent J. Camobreco, Helene P. Teulon
While the results are generally the most exciting aspects of an LCI study, the details of the LCI model that generates the results are equally significant; particularly when modeling the life cycle of an automobile. The modeling challenges faced in conducting the US AMP LCI of a mid-sized vehicle based on the 1995 Lumina, Intrepid and Taurus are highlighted. The number of parts (over 20,000), supply chain complexity, materials composition, and the demanding set of OEM requirements for model features required special LCI methods and solutions. The LCI model and selected results are compared with previous studies, and recommendations for improvements in the USAMP LCI model are also provided. This paper is one of six SAE publications discussing the results and execution of the USCAR AMP Generic Vehicle LCI. The papers in this series are (Overview of results 982160, 982161, 982162, 982168, 982169, 982170).
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