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Technical Paper
1999-03-01
Marlo Raynolds, M. D. Checkel, R. A. Fraser
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is commonly used to measure the environmental and economic impacts of engineering projects and/or products. However, there is some uncertainty associated with any LCA study. The LCA inventory analysis generally relies on imperfect data in addition to further uncertainties created by the assessment process itself. It is necessary to measure the effects that data and process uncertainty have on the LCA result and to communicate the level of uncertainty to those making decisions based on the LCA. To accomplish this, a systematic and rigorous means to assess the overall uncertainty in LCA results is required. This paper demonstrates the use of Monte Carlo Analysis to track and measure the propagation of uncertainty in LCA studies. The Monte Carlo technique basically consists of running repeated assessments using random input values chosen from a specified probable range. The effect of this input uncertainty can then be measured by variability of the assessment output.
Technical Paper
1999-03-01
R. Le Borgne, P. Feillard
Life Cycle Assessment has now been identified as a tool for the evaluation of potential environmental burdens associated with a product, a process or an activity by identifying and quantifying energy, materials used and wastes released to the environment. In 1996, the European Commission and the OECD sponsored a study on the “Adoption by Industry of Life Cycle Approaches” which pointed out the necessity to develop specific LCA methodologies for the main industrial sectors. Therefore in this paper, the inventory step of LCA is specifically developed for the automotive sector and a particular attention is given to the two major environmental endeavours that the automotive industry is faced with: the use phase (fuel consumption) and the vehicle end of life. Simple and pragmatic rules are defined in this paper reinforcing the efficiency of LCA. Following its environmental commitments, PSA Peugeot Citroën is increasingly involved in the use of LCA, now viewed as one of the few tools available to assess and monitor the environmental impacts of automobiles.
Technical Paper
1999-03-01
Carl D. Tarum
A bathtub equation can be used to model data that exhibits infant mortality, chance failures, and wear out. This technique allows for the simultaneous solution of equation parameters affecting the product’s life. The bathtub equation treats a portion of the population as a competing risk mixture. This allows total failure of the infant mortality population without causing complete failure of the entire population. Chance and wear out failures are included by using a compound competing risk mixture.
Technical Paper
1999-03-01
R.F. Thelen
Calorimetric testing of pulsed power conditioning, as an influence on a battery's electrochemical transfer efficiency, is presented. The experiment used two 300 AH (ampere-hour) electric shuttle bus batteries; alternately charging and discharging at 8 to 14 kW with two charge and three discharge modes. The batteries were thermally insulated and monitored to analyze energy balance differences. The test setup, results, and analyses are reported. While slight trends were seen, improved transfer efficiencies due to pulsed currents could not be confirmed. Benefits under conditions of much higher transfer rates or for battery life cycle improvements are considered but were not tested.
Technical Paper
1999-03-01
Thomas Gloria
This paper presents a dynamic Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach to analyze production activities in order to meet the recycling requirements put forth by the Vehicle End-of-Life (VEOL) Directive proposed by the European Union. Specifically, a dynamic method is used to appropriately examine life-cycle issues that affect future recycling activities. The approach presented here is based sequential interindustry modeling (SIM) theory.
Technical Paper
1999-03-01
Claudia Duranceau, Terry Lindell
The goal of this paper is to define and quantify the contribution of used parts to vehicle recycling. In 1997, this research was stimulated when the Federal Trade Commission opened hearings on the definition of recycling. At this time, general facts about the automotive recycling industry and reuse of automotive parts were hard to find. This study's goal was to produce actual data on the contribution of reuse to vehicle recycling and to answer questions about the industry. Can accurate reuse measurements be calculated with data collected from recyclers? What should be the expected average performance of a company in the recycling industry? What effect can reuse have on landfill avoidance? The results of this study established that the sale and reuse of used parts played a significant role in vehicle recycling. The Automotive Recyclers Association, representing the existing industry, testified at the FTC hearings using preliminary results from this study. On May 1st 1998, the Federal Trade Commission in its report on the hearings recognized and included automotive part reuse as a form of vehicle recycling for the first time1.
Technical Paper
1999-01-13
Suresh T. Gulati
The stringent emissions standards in the late 1990's like NLEV, ULEV and SULEV have led to major modifications in the composition and design of ceramic substrates. These changes have been necessitated to reduce cold start emissions, meet OBD-II requirements, and to ensure 100,000 mile durability requirement in a cost-effective manner. This paper presents the key advances in ceramic substrates which include lower thermal expansion, lighter weight, higher surface area and improved manufacturing process all of which help meet performance requirements. In addition to above benefits, the compressive and tensile strengths of lightweight substrates, as well as their thermal shock resistance, are found to be adequate following the application of high surface area alumina washcoat. The strength properties are crucial for ensuring safe handling of the substrate during coating and canning and for its long term mechanical durability in service. This paper provides the durability data for thin wall substrates with 600/4 and 400/4 square cell structure and compare them with those of standard substrate with 400/6.5 square cell structure.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Thorsten Volz, Harald Florin, Manfred Schuckert, Jürgen Stichling, Michael Wiedemann, Konrad Saur
Total Life Cycle studies of systems like automotive parts, systems or entire vehicles are characterized by an enormous complexity and amounts of individual data points. A full assessment of this variety of information and data requires suitable and reliable data processing systems. The recently developed software system GaBi 3 allows the flexible modeling of life cycles with parameterized process modules. In this way GaBi 3 provides the basis for parameter variation and scenario analysis. Besides these essential elements for identifying improvement potentials, the system enlarges the environmental calculations by an economic and a technical dimension.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Wulf-Peter Schmidt, Hans-Martin Beyer
A material selection including a natural material is conducted using a Simplified Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA) according to SETAC within the framework of Ford's Design for Environment (DfE) process. The aim has been to check both, the environmental performance of a design option concerning a specific component and the feasibility of methodology. The result of the simplified LCA is the recommendation to substitute glass fibers by hemp fibers in a specific insulation. The methodology provides differentiated environmental information and seems to be feasible. However, a lot of LCA experience is necessary to be enabled to simplify LCA.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Wendy S. White, Laura A. Przekop, John M. Armstrong
This paper presents a case example of the evolution of a Self-Declared Environmental label for a supplier. A comprehensive database system combined with Life Cycle Management (LCM) concepts provided the basis of the label design. Environmental labeling is under intense discussion and debate. Although three types of labels are discussed in the draft ISO 14000 Standards, the Type II Self-Declared Environmental Claim presently appears to be the only realistic choice for many suppliers. The Self-Declared Environmental Claim allows manufacturers to make environmental claims about their products in a practical manner. The Traverse Group Label Management Team uses a standardized data collection methodology and Life Cycle Management (LCM) analysis to produce Type II labels for suppliers. For the manufacturer described in the case example, the Type II label is currently being placed on shipments of plastic seat protectors. The evolution of this label is described in the case example. The definition of “consumer of label information” is discussed and the role of market hierarchy is noted as a complexity in label content determination.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Kerry E. Kelly, Gary A. Davis
The goal of this work is to calculate the lifetime emissions for a 1996 Saturn automobile over its 193,000-km useful life. To do this, the authors developed a vehicle-specific method for calculating nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrous oxide (NOx) emissions. Vehicle-specific emissions data were not available for methane (CH4) sulfur oxides (SOx), dinitrogen oxide (N2O), and particulate matter (PM). The authors selected most applicable emission factors for these compounds. The authors then compared the results of these emission calculations to several other published methods. All methods produced similar results for CO2 emissions. However, the various calculation methods produced significantly different results for NMHC, CO, NOx, CH4, SOx, N2O, and PM emissions. The vehicle-specific emissions tended to be lower than many of the other methods.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
L. B. Lave, S. Joshi, H. L. MacLean, A. Horvath, C. T. Hendrickson, F. C. McMichael, E. Cobas-Flores
We compare two methods for life cycle analysis: the conventional SETAC-EPA approach and Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Analysis (EIO-LCA). The methods are compared for steel versus plastic fuel tank systems and for the entire life cycle of an automobile, from materials extraction to end of life. The EIO-LCA method gives comparable results for the data common to the two methods. EIO-LCA gives more detailed data, specifies the economy wide implications, and is much quicker and less expensive to implement.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Michael C. Montpetit, Stella Papasovva
The use of regrind acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) for automotive parts and components results in two types of financial savings. The first is the shared monetary savings between General Motors and the molder for the difference in the virgin resin price versus price of the ABS regrind. The second is a societal energy savings seen in the life cycle of virgin ABS versus reground ABS. An added benefit is the preservation of natural resources used to produce virgin ABS.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Walter W. Olson
The framework for environmentally conscious manufacturing in industry is the life cycle assessment structure developed by the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry and incorporated into ISO 14000 Environmental Management Systems. Plant managers subject to this standard have the responsibility for environmental improvement projects. Often, applying these projects creates significant risks, particularly if the project is unsuccessful or requires a new technology that has not been widely applied. Plant managers are inherently risk adverse. Thus plant managers need to know not only how a project will succeed but also what could happen if the project fails or results in a state different than intended. Based on that knowledge, plants managers prepare contingency plans. This paper illustrates a method by which the optimum plan and all possible contingency plans can be selected based upon minimizing project cost while maximizing project success to arrive at an improvement goal.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Lynne Ridge
Phase 1 of this LCA project highlighted significant unresolved differences in allocation rules adopted by the partners in the ‘use phase’. Phase 2 updates the LCA guidelines, and achieves consensus for the algorithms adopted for both allocating absolute fuel use to a component, and the fuel reduction for a particular weight reduction. Further examination is made of end of life recycling scenarios, the sensitivity of inventory and assessment results to recycling credits, and a comparison of selected assessment methods. These are made within the context of a typical automotive comparative study. Some comments on the adoption of ‘quick’ LCA methods are also made.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Anant Vyas, Roy Cuenca, Linda Gaines
A methodology for evaluating life cycle cost of electric vehicles (EVs) to their buyers is presented. The methodology is based on an analysis of conventional vehicle costs, costs of drivetrain and auxiliary components unique to EVs, and battery costs. The conventional vehicle's costs are allocated to such subsystems as body, chassis, and powertrain. In electric vehicles, an electric drive is substituted for the conventional powertrain. The current status of the electric drive components and battery costs is evaluated. Battery costs are estimated by evaluating the material requirements and production costs at different production levels; battery costs are also collected from other sources. Costs of auxiliary components, such as those for heating and cooling the passenger compartment, are also estimated. Here, the methodology is applied to two vehicle types: subcompact car and minivan. A procedure for amortizing purchase price, replacement battery costs, and operating costs over the lifetime usage of the vehicle is a part of the methodology.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Jongbae Ha, Sung K. Min, Tak Hur, Sungjin Kim
As global awareness of environmental concerns associated with automobiles has grown significantly, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has emerged as one of the analytical tools to provide environmental information on automobiles throughout their life cycles. In order to be most efficient in terms of both environmental performance and cost saving, it is necessary to perform LCA studies within a short period of time in the automobile design stage. However, since an automobile consists of a great number of components, a full LCA of an automobile takes too much time and expense. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a practical, systematic LCA methodology for a whole automobile, with which a time and cost effective calculation can be ensured for a highly complex system. First of all, the entire automobile is divided into several modules, each of which is composed of 10-20 submodules. In this process, the concepts of part modularization and platform commonization are incorporated. The life cycle inventory for a whole automobile is obtained based on the ecological data of modules and submodules by using a combination of top-down and bottom-up approaches.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Andreas Patyk, Guido A Reinhardt
The main difference between conventional and electric vehicles is between the drive system and the energy storage. Especially the batteries play an important role within the life cycle assessment of electric vehicles. Based on our work within the „Rügen project” /IFEU 1997a/ we now have derived full energy and mass flow analyses for the production, supply, and recycling of four types of batteries: lead/acid, Ni/Cd, Na/NiCl2, and Na/S. The assessments were made in accordance with the present state of the discussion concerning the standardization of life cycle assessments (ISO/DIS 14040 - 14043) and considering the following impact categories: Resource demand, greenhouse effect, ozon depletion, acidification, eutrophication, human and eco toxicity, and photosmog. In a second step also the usage of the batteries has been assessed. The results show that there are significant differences between the batteries if the usage of them is very low. Also it is important to include the disposal or recycling processes of the batteries into the assessment.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Salvatore Di Carlo, Rosanna Serra, Giancarlo Foglia, Davide Diana
In the last century cars have become almost irreplaceable objects in modern society. There are almost half a billion cars circulating around the world while about thirty years ago there were about half this number. Most experts agree that the goal of a billion isn't so far away. Nevertheless one must consider that car production and use environmental impact has been strongly improved. This is mainly due to a greater consciousness of manufacturers and clients towards environmental effects of high living standards. This work not only points out the state of the art of the actual situation but also focuses on the improvements that can be reached in a near future.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Osamu Kobayashi, Helene Teulon, Philippe Osset, Yasuhiko Morita
The Japan Automobile Manufactures Association (JAMA), in pursuit of their goal of “creating products that put a minimum of load on the earth's environment”, have been carrying out an LCA Study related to motor vehicles. At the time of the previous TLC, for a single car taken as a collection of parts, an LCI study of the carbon dioxide emissions and consumption of energy only was carried out. It was based on 17 basic categories of materials and 13 basic manufacturing process categories. At the time of this study, the data obtained was limited to the total material consumption and energy consumption related to the manufacture of a typical 2000cc Japanese passenger car. The current study was focused on a 1500cc gasoline engine 4-door passenger sedan model, and we reclassified into approximately 140 classifications. The production process data was limited to the target model. With regard to the LCI data categories, they included not only factors related to global warming, but also factors concerning other environmental impact, so that a much more detailed LCI was carried out.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Kurt Buxmann, Johannes Gediga
In accordance with ISO 14040 and ISO/FDIS 14041, different recycling scenarios of aluminum car body sheet have been examined by an LCA study, including shredding, sink-float sorting and remelting; dismantling and remelting; combination of both techniques. The study was based on the aluminum car body of an Audi A8. For benchmarking reasons, these different life cycle scenarios were compared with a conventional steel car body fulfilling the same functions and with a lightweight steel body with 25 % weight reduction. It was found that for most of the selected impact categories, the aluminum car body life cycle which ends in shredding, sink-float sorting and remelting compares favourably even with a steel light-weight construction. On the other hand, dismantling and remelting and the more realistic combination of both techniques show advantages in comparison with the shredding and sink-floating technique.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Jongbae Ha, Yeonju Kim, Heewook Cho, Jaehwan Kim, Tak Hur, Kun M. Lee
These days, environmental issues have become more and more of a concern in the automobile industry. Especially, one of the environmental impact evaluation methodologies currently being developed and standardized is the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). LCA is a quantitative method for evaluating the environmental impact of a product throughout its life cycle. Our purpose for studying LCA is to choose environmentally friendly materials. We had used polyurethane (PU) as the material for the bumper fascia. We intended to adopt polypropylene (PP) as a replacement for polyurethane and decided to conduct a comparative LCA for the bumper assembly using PU and PP fascia. In this paper, the total life cycle (raw material, manufacturing, transportation, use and end of life) of the bumper will be studied through inventory analysis, impact assessment and interpretation. The impact assessment was done by the Delphi-like and Index method (Eco-scarcity and Environmental Theme (ET) long term methodologies).
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Marc Binder, Claudius Kaniut, Halil Cetiner, Hartmut Schröter, Klaus Schmitt
In the past there has been a concentration on performing LCAs of car components. Based on the increasing experience and know-how gained in the past by performing LCAs of car components truck designers get the chance to make a statement about the ecological impact of each alternative. The most significant difference between LCAs of car and truck components is the use phase. This paper describes a Life-Cycle-Assessment (LCA) of different air deflection systems made of composite materials. The actually used system is produced by Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) while a possible alternative could be made out of Sheet Molding Compound (SMC). The calculations have shown that there exists a potential to improve the ecological profiles of composite components by replacing glass fibers with natural fibers.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Karl-Michael Nigge
A method for the site-dependent Life Cycle Impact Assessment of toxic air pollutants from traffic emissions is presented which classifies emission sites in terms of their radial population density distribution and the annual mean wind speed within a circle of radius 100 kilometers. Taking the emission of particulate matter from vehicles in Germany as an example, estimates for the area-integrated product of population density and incremental pollutant concentration are derived for each class of emission sites. Results show a spread of about a factor 5 between the highest and lowest values caused largely by variations of the population density.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Reinhard Eberle, Harald A. Franze
The results of previous Life Cycle Assessments indicate the ecological dominance of the vehicle's use phase compared to its production and recycling phase. Particularly the so-called weight-induced fuel saving coefficients point out the great spectrum (0.15 to 1.0 l/(100 kg · 100 km)) that affects the total result of the LCA significantly. The objective of this article, therefore, is to derive a physical based, i.e. scientific chargeable and practical approved, concept to determine the significant parameters of a vehicle's use phase for the Life Cycle Inventory. It turns out that - besides the aerodynamic and rolling resistance parameters and the efficiencies of the power train - the vehicle's weight, the rear axle's transmission ratio and the driven velocity profile have an important influence on a vehicle's fuel consumption. The coefficient for the reduction of fuel consumption on gasoline powered vehicles ranges from 0.34 to 0.48 ltr/(100 kg × 100 km) in the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC), while the saving on diesel vehicles is somewhat lower at 0.29 to 0.33 ltr/(100 kg × 100 km) in the NEDC.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Frans Berkhout
Many industrial applications have been proposed for cradle-to-grave assessment of the environmental burdens of products, including technology design and optimization, technology strategy, marketing and in lobbying regulators. Many industrial firms, including all European automobile producers, have developed life cycle assessment competences during the 1990s, and many have begun applying these to business decisions. In this paper the patterns of adoption of life cycle approaches in car producers are analyzed, together with their impacts on innovation. The paper concludes that while life cycle assessment provides a useful new framework for problem-solving, car producers will face a number of difficulties in extracting value from life cycle-based innovations.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Kenneth J. Martchek, Eden S. Fisher, Diane Klocko
Important opportunities exist to improve the resource and environmental impacts of the automobile over its product life cycle. The use of aluminum in automobile designs is increasing, which offers ways to reduce fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions during vehicle use via light weighting. However, to fully capture lifecycle reductions in environmental loadings and impacts, material suppliers, parts manufacturers and automakers must also understand which of their own operations and facilities offer opportunities for environmental improvements through investments in process or technology advances. Quantifying these opportunities across the comprehensive life cycle of vehicle systems and components can be a challenging task because of the complexity of today's extended supply chain. For instance, even quantifying opportunities from the front end-aluminum material supply-requires gathering, verifying and acting upon information from facilities throughout the world. For instance: bauxite mining in Australia, Africa, Brazil and the Caribbean, smelting of aluminum metal in North America, Europe, the Middle East and South America, and aluminum parts fabrication and assembly in North America, Asia, Europe and throughout the world.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Parveen S. Goel, Nanua Singh
This paper introduces the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) optimization model, where LCC is expressed as a function of controllable design parameters. The LCC model is enhanced with the novel concept of considering the target value of the functional characteristic as a decision variable so that it is optimized on the basis of life-cycle considerations. Most of the LCC model in literature considers only one objective at a time. This paper proposes a comprehensive model, which is capable of considering multiple objectives simultaneously. This model, is solved with the help of Goal Programming.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Stefan Schmidt
The increased global competition has led to immense interest in the development of new ways of increasing productivity and quality. It is a well known fact that the costs of manufactured products are largely determined at the design stage. It is important to consider manufacturability early in the design. To be able to cut life cycle costs at an early stage the following DFMA-tools have been developed: Design for Manufacture (DFM), Design for Assembly (DFA), Design for Service (DFS) and Design for Environment (DFE). This contribution shows the design for the complete life cycle - with the tools DFM, DFA, DFS, DFE - its present state and some industrial applications. Using an electronic company as an example the implementation of DFMA in an TQM-environment and their integration in the product development process is shown. The value-assessment metric ‘Materials, Energy, Toxicity (MET)’ is also described.
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