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1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0013
Bruce W. Vigon, David P. Evers, Steven W. Pedersen
This paper considers the issues and provides some lessons learned with respect to implementing a life cycle environmental assessment (LCEA) and environmental cost analysis (LCEC) program within a major DoD system acquisition. The latest revision of Directive 5000.2, Mandatory Procedures for Major Defense Acquisition Programs, requires, among other things, that life cycle environmental aspects be considered early in the design process[1]. Further, the 1995 Defense Appropriations Act, Section 815, requires that environmental costs be an integral part of the system life cycle cost analysis. For this effort project personnel, with the guidance of the Office of the Program Manager staff, developed an LCEA/LCEC Program, trained design teams on the elements of the program and prepared a data collection template to assist in the ongoing data collection effort.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0055
Carl D. Tarum
A bathtub equation can be used to model data that exhibits infant mortality, chance failures, and wear out. This technique allows for the simultaneous solution of equation parameters affecting the product’s life. The bathtub equation treats a portion of the population as a competing risk mixture. This allows total failure of the infant mortality population without causing complete failure of the entire population. Chance and wear out failures are included by using a compound competing risk mixture.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0987
Claudia Duranceau, Terry Lindell
The goal of this paper is to define and quantify the contribution of used parts to vehicle recycling. In 1997, this research was stimulated when the Federal Trade Commission opened hearings on the definition of recycling. At this time, general facts about the automotive recycling industry and reuse of automotive parts were hard to find. This study's goal was to produce actual data on the contribution of reuse to vehicle recycling and to answer questions about the industry. Can accurate reuse measurements be calculated with data collected from recyclers? What should be the expected average performance of a company in the recycling industry? What effect can reuse have on landfill avoidance? The results of this study established that the sale and reuse of used parts played a significant role in vehicle recycling. The Automotive Recyclers Association, representing the existing industry, testified at the FTC hearings using preliminary results from this study.
1999-01-13
Technical Paper
990011
Suresh T. Gulati
The stringent emissions standards in the late 1990's like NLEV, ULEV and SULEV have led to major modifications in the composition and design of ceramic substrates. These changes have been necessitated to reduce cold start emissions, meet OBD-II requirements, and to ensure 100,000 mile durability requirement in a cost-effective manner. This paper presents the key advances in ceramic substrates which include lower thermal expansion, lighter weight, higher surface area and improved manufacturing process all of which help meet performance requirements. In addition to above benefits, the compressive and tensile strengths of lightweight substrates, as well as their thermal shock resistance, are found to be adequate following the application of high surface area alumina washcoat. The strength properties are crucial for ensuring safe handling of the substrate during coating and canning and for its long term mechanical durability in service.
1999-01-13
Technical Paper
990009
Charalampos I. Arapatsakos, Panagiotis D. Sparis
It is generally accepted that the process of catalyst deactivation originates from the entrance sections of the converter and gradually progress towards the exit. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the possibility of a catalyst operating life extension via a mounting inversion, when the catalyst is close to its limits in the normal position. The experimental results indicate that under full load conditions at 3000 rpm improvement of catalyst efficiency can be accomplished reaching approximately 30% for CO and HC. This mounting inversion can be easily accomplished by an appropriate symmetric design of the monolith casing and mounting flanges, so that smooth gas flow conditions can be attained in both flow directions.
1999-01-13
Technical Paper
990043
M. R. Saraf, S. Raju
The duration for the development of a new vehicle model is continuously decreasing. This does not permit adequate time for proving component assemblies and vehicles to be evaluated for durability by conventional measures. However, increasing competition and quality consciousness calls for an assured life with a high degree of confidence. This has forced the test engineers to look for techniques for accelerating the durability evaluation. The technique calls for concepts for compressing the evaluation time. This can be achieved by compression in both time as well as frequency domain. Further, it also calls for correct techniques for the mixing of roads, extrapolation of data acquired over a small distance to the vehicle life, evaluation and elimination of non or less damaging inputs, etc. This paper reviews some of the existing techniques and describes case studies of how accelerated testing can be applied in vehicle development.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982222
J. Gediga, H. Beddies, H. Florin, M. Schuckert, K. Saur, R. Hoffamnn
Cars cause a lot of pollutants during the utilization phase. Within the last years environmental legislation tried to reduce the emissions by the introduction of very tight laws. The results are impressive: Most of the car exhaust emissions like carbonmonoxid and nitrous oxides have been reduced. At this stage new emission reduction limits in Europe as well as in the United States can only be achieved if the formulation of the catalyst system is significantly changed. An increased use of precious metals and rare earth materials is the result of such a modification which succeeds in a more expensive design of the total catalyst systems. More expensive means not only cost aspects but also the environmental burdens related to the increased production of precious metals and other catalyst components. The Life Cycle Engineering (LCE) of the catalyst system which achieves the new legislation is demonstrated as well as the effects to the usage phase.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982211
Holger Beddies, Harald Florin, Johannes Gediga, Manfred Schuckert
One of the problems of a LCA is the complexity of the considered systems. Results depending strongly on the boundary conditions. More appropriate is to parameterise the LCA and enable it for variations. With that, the Life Cycle Modeling and Simulation leads to a deeper understanding of the examined system. Design parameters, like the geometry or the material of the part can be varied as well as the mass and energy flow in the process chain or methodological parameters. This is especially necessary in the early stage of the design process as a tool for sensitivity analysis and optimisation of products. A dominance analysis ensures that the complexity of the model is suitable for goal and scope of the study.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982178
Frans Berkhout
Many industrial applications have been proposed for cradle-to-grave assessment of the environmental burdens of products, including technology design and optimization, technology strategy, marketing and in lobbying regulators. Many industrial firms, including all European automobile producers, have developed life cycle assessment competences during the 1990s, and many have begun applying these to business decisions. In this paper the patterns of adoption of life cycle approaches in car producers are analyzed, together with their impacts on innovation. The paper concludes that while life cycle assessment provides a useful new framework for problem-solving, car producers will face a number of difficulties in extracting value from life cycle-based innovations.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982185
Lynne Ridge
Phase 1 of this LCA project highlighted significant unresolved differences in allocation rules adopted by the partners in the ‘use phase’. Phase 2 updates the LCA guidelines, and achieves consensus for the algorithms adopted for both allocating absolute fuel use to a component, and the fuel reduction for a particular weight reduction. Further examination is made of end of life recycling scenarios, the sensitivity of inventory and assessment results to recycling credits, and a comparison of selected assessment methods. These are made within the context of a typical automotive comparative study. Some comments on the adoption of ‘quick’ LCA methods are also made.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982175
Jongbae Ha, Yeonju Kim, Heewook Cho, Jaehwan Kim, Tak Hur, Kun M. Lee
These days, environmental issues have become more and more of a concern in the automobile industry. Especially, one of the environmental impact evaluation methodologies currently being developed and standardized is the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). LCA is a quantitative method for evaluating the environmental impact of a product throughout its life cycle. Our purpose for studying LCA is to choose environmentally friendly materials. We had used polyurethane (PU) as the material for the bumper fascia. We intended to adopt polypropylene (PP) as a replacement for polyurethane and decided to conduct a comparative LCA for the bumper assembly using PU and PP fascia. In this paper, the total life cycle (raw material, manufacturing, transportation, use and end of life) of the bumper will be studied through inventory analysis, impact assessment and interpretation.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982161
Scott T. Chubbs
A large life cycle inventory study like the one completed under the banner of the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) can be a complex affair. Apart from the technical requirements of modeling a “generic” North American vehicle, it was necessary to bring a diverse group of stakeholders to the life cycle table and to have the stakeholders work together for a common purpose. This paper identifies six stakeholders that participated in the LCI study of a generic North American automobile and describes how the work was organized. These stakeholders, particularly the auto, steel, plastics, and aluminum industries, each had different experiences with life cycle inventory analysis, held competing interests, and perhaps entered the project with different expectations. Issues that had to be addressed include goal selection, provision of resources, division of the work among stakeholders, scheduling and related project planning, as well as the process for decision making.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982170
Kevin Brady
The Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry has noted that the peer review process is a key feature for the advancement of life cycle assessment. The International Organisation for Standardisation has recently provided further guidance and requirements for conducting such reviews in the ISO standard on life cycle assessment (ISO 14040). This paper outlines the contribution of the peer review process to the Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) of a generic 1500 Kg vehicle that was carried out by United States Automotive Materials Partnership's Life Cycle Assessment Special Topics Group (USAMP/LCA). At the time of writing the final report for this study had not been reviewed, therefore the paper focuses on the overall peer review process, preliminary findings and lessons learned to date. This paper is one of six SAE publications discussing the results and execution of the USCAR AMP Generic Vehicle LCI.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982177
Kenneth J. Martchek, Eden S. Fisher, Diane Klocko
Important opportunities exist to improve the resource and environmental impacts of the automobile over its product life cycle. The use of aluminum in automobile designs is increasing, which offers ways to reduce fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions during vehicle use via light weighting. However, to fully capture lifecycle reductions in environmental loadings and impacts, material suppliers, parts manufacturers and automakers must also understand which of their own operations and facilities offer opportunities for environmental improvements through investments in process or technology advances. Quantifying these opportunities across the comprehensive life cycle of vehicle systems and components can be a challenging task because of the complexity of today's extended supply chain. For instance, even quantifying opportunities from the front end-aluminum material supply-requires gathering, verifying and acting upon information from facilities throughout the world.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982181
Karl-Michael Nigge
A method for the site-dependent Life Cycle Impact Assessment of toxic air pollutants from traffic emissions is presented which classifies emission sites in terms of their radial population density distribution and the annual mean wind speed within a circle of radius 100 kilometers. Taking the emission of particulate matter from vehicles in Germany as an example, estimates for the area-integrated product of population density and incremental pollutant concentration are derived for each class of emission sites. Results show a spread of about a factor 5 between the highest and lowest values caused largely by variations of the population density.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982199
Kerry E. Kelly, Gary A. Davis
The goal of this work is to calculate the lifetime emissions for a 1996 Saturn automobile over its 193,000-km useful life. To do this, the authors developed a vehicle-specific method for calculating nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrous oxide (NOx) emissions. Vehicle-specific emissions data were not available for methane (CH4) sulfur oxides (SOx), dinitrogen oxide (N2O), and particulate matter (PM). The authors selected most applicable emission factors for these compounds. The authors then compared the results of these emission calculations to several other published methods. All methods produced similar results for CO2 emissions. However, the various calculation methods produced significantly different results for NMHC, CO, NOx, CH4, SOx, N2O, and PM emissions. The vehicle-specific emissions tended to be lower than many of the other methods.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982200
L. B. Lave, S. Joshi, H. L. MacLean, A. Horvath, C. T. Hendrickson, F. C. McMichael, E. Cobas-Flores
We compare two methods for life cycle analysis: the conventional SETAC-EPA approach and Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Analysis (EIO-LCA). The methods are compared for steel versus plastic fuel tank systems and for the entire life cycle of an automobile, from materials extraction to end of life. The EIO-LCA method gives comparable results for the data common to the two methods. EIO-LCA gives more detailed data, specifies the economy wide implications, and is much quicker and less expensive to implement.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982166
Stefan Schmidt
The increased global competition has led to immense interest in the development of new ways of increasing productivity and quality. It is a well known fact that the costs of manufactured products are largely determined at the design stage. It is important to consider manufacturability early in the design. To be able to cut life cycle costs at an early stage the following DFMA-tools have been developed: Design for Manufacture (DFM), Design for Assembly (DFA), Design for Service (DFS) and Design for Environment (DFE). This contribution shows the design for the complete life cycle - with the tools DFM, DFA, DFS, DFE - its present state and some industrial applications. Using an electronic company as an example the implementation of DFMA in an TQM-environment and their integration in the product development process is shown. The value-assessment metric ‘Materials, Energy, Toxicity (MET)’ is also described.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982160
John L. Sullivan, Ronald L. Williams, Susan Yester, Elisa Cobas-Flores, Scott. T. Chubbs, Steven G. Hentges, Steven D. Pomper
The United States Automotive Materials Partnership Life Cycle Assessment Special Topics Group (USAMP/LCA) has conducted a Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) using a suitable set of metrics to benchmark the environmental (not cost) performance of a generic vehicle, namely, the 1995 Intrepid/Lumina/Taurus. This benchmark will serve as a basis of comparison for environmental performance estimates of new and future vehicles (e.g. PNGV). The participants were Chrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company, General Motors, The Aluminum Association, The American Iron and Steel Institute, and the American Plastic Council. The study was strictly a life cycle inventory. The approach was to quantify all suitable material and energy inputs and outputs, including air, water, and solid wastes. The inventory covered the entire life cycle; from raw material extraction from the earth, to material production, parts manufacture, vehicle assembly, use, maintenance, recovery/recycling, and disposal.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982228
Kai Hockerts, Stephanie Adda, Helene Teulon, David Dowdell, Neil Kirkpatrick, Simon Aumônier
Under constant pressure through both national and EC-wide regulations as well as increased consumer awareness the automotive industry has become more and more concerned with improving the environmental profiles of its products. Namely the end-of-life aspects have been pushed into the center of interest. Trying to minimize disassembly cost and to increase potential revalorisation profits, companies strive to integrate environmental constraints early in the design phase. This paper describes how Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Design for the Environment (DFE) respectively contribute towards the objective of improved environmental profiles of automotives and especially the handling of end-of-life vehicules.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982198
Walter W. Olson
The framework for environmentally conscious manufacturing in industry is the life cycle assessment structure developed by the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry and incorporated into ISO 14000 Environmental Management Systems. Plant managers subject to this standard have the responsibility for environmental improvement projects. Often, applying these projects creates significant risks, particularly if the project is unsuccessful or requires a new technology that has not been widely applied. Plant managers are inherently risk adverse. Thus plant managers need to know not only how a project will succeed but also what could happen if the project fails or results in a state different than intended. Based on that knowledge, plants managers prepare contingency plans. This paper illustrates a method by which the optimum plan and all possible contingency plans can be selected based upon minimizing project cost while maximizing project success to arrive at an improvement goal.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982208
Günter Fleischer, Heiko Kunst, Gerald Rebitzer
There is a broad consensus that the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) framework according to IS0 14040-14043 is very useful for pursuing the vision of sustainable development in product design and optimization. However due to the necessary effort involved, in practice the application of this framework to complex products like automobiles is very limited. This article deals on the one hand with methodological approaches for simplifying LCA in a systematic way. On the other hand it presents the existing method of the Iterative Screening LCA as an already sound and efficient simplifying method, suitable for assessing complex products.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982212
Salvatore Di Carlo, Rosanna Serra, Giancarlo Foglia, Davide Diana
LCA. is becoming one of the main instruments for isolating environmentally winning alternatives in industrial decisions. It is also true that in the car industry decisions have to be taken more and more quickly since the time to market in the last years has been strongly reduced. This is one of the reasons that fast LCA. techniques are being taken in consideration. This work illustrates some guidelines for fast LCA. techniques to be used, in well defined situations, for evaluating different recycling opportunities.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982213
Elisa Cobas-Flores, Alberto Bustani, Patrick W. Mackay, Berenice Ramirez, Susan G. Yester, John L. Sullivan, Ronald L. Williams
This paper presents an analysis of the Vehicle End of Life (VEOL) trends in the United States based on the VEOL model developed by the Vehicle Recycling Partnership (VRP), a consortium between Chrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company and General Motors. The model, developed interactively with the VRP by the Center for Environmental Quality (CEQ) at the Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (ITESM), accounts for the economic and the material transfer interactions of stakeholders involved in the VEOL process; the insurance valuation, salvage pool, dismantling, rebuilding, maintenance and repair, shredding, and landfilling [Bustani, et al., 1998]. The scenarios analyzed using the VEOL model consider regulations from Europe as well as the U.S. market factors and business policies.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982221
Jonathan Swindell, William E. Franklin, Jody Bailiff, David H. Ehlfeldt
A systematic life cycle management (LCM) approach has been used by Chrysler Corporation to compare existing and alternate hydraulic fluids and lubricating oils in thirteen classifications at a manufacturing facility. The presence of restricted or regulated chemicals, recyclability, and recycled content of the various products were also compared. For ten of the thirteen types of product, an alternate product was identified as more beneficial. This LCM study provided Chrysler personnel with a practical purchasing tool to identify the most cost effective hydraulic fluid or lubricant oil product available for a chosen application on an LCM basis.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982162
Steven G. Hentges
This paper discusses in detail how data categories, data quality and allocation procedures were defined and implemented in the USAMP LCI analysis of a generic automobile. These data-related parameters are important for all LCI analyses but are especially important for the USAMP LCI analysis of a complete automobile. Whereas most LCI analyses have been conducted on relatively simple product systems consisting of a single material made with a single manufacturing process, the USAMP product system consists of a vast, interconnected array of dissimilar materials, products and manufacturing processes coupled with complex use, maintenance and disposition life cycle stages. As a result of this complexity, data is necessarily collected from an equally wide range of potentially incompatible sources.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982176
Kurt Buxmann, Johannes Gediga
In accordance with ISO 14040 and ISO/FDIS 14041, different recycling scenarios of aluminum car body sheet have been examined by an LCA study, including shredding, sink-float sorting and remelting; dismantling and remelting; combination of both techniques. The study was based on the aluminum car body of an Audi A8. For benchmarking reasons, these different life cycle scenarios were compared with a conventional steel car body fulfilling the same functions and with a lightweight steel body with 25 % weight reduction. It was found that for most of the selected impact categories, the aluminum car body life cycle which ends in shredding, sink-float sorting and remelting compares favourably even with a steel light-weight construction. On the other hand, dismantling and remelting and the more realistic combination of both techniques show advantages in comparison with the shredding and sink-floating technique.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982224
Robert D. Stephens, Ronald L. Williams, Gregory A. Keoleian, Sabrina Spatari, Robb Beal
Federal standards that mandate improved fuel economy have resulted in the increased use of lightweight materials in automotive applications. However, the environmental burdens associated with a product extend well beyond the use phase. Life cycle assessment is the science of determining the environmental burdens associated with the entire life cycle of a given product from cradle-to-grave. This report documents the environmental burdens associated with every phase of the life cycle of two fuel tanks utilized in full-sized 1996 GM vans. These vans are manufactured in two configurations, one which utilizes a steel fuel tank, and the other a multi-layered plastic fuel tank consisting primarily of high density polyethylene (HDPE). This study was a collaborative effort between GM and the University of Michigan's National Pollution Prevention Center, which received funding from EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982195
Wulf-Peter Schmidt, Hans-Martin Beyer
A material selection including a natural material is conducted using a Simplified Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA) according to SETAC within the framework of Ford's Design for Environment (DfE) process. The aim has been to check both, the environmental performance of a design option concerning a specific component and the feasibility of methodology. The result of the simplified LCA is the recommendation to substitute glass fibers by hemp fibers in a specific insulation. The methodology provides differentiated environmental information and seems to be feasible. However, a lot of LCA experience is necessary to be enabled to simplify LCA.
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