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Technical Paper
1999-03-01
Greg Ayres
The focus of this paper is short-term policy options to address greenhouse gas emissions from personal automobiles. Primary policies considered include gasoline taxes, carbon taxes, a carbon cap-and-trade program, cost-shifting initiatives, and a pay-at-the-pump auto insurance scheme. Pay-at-the-pump auto insurance is recommended on the basis of cost effectiveness, equity, public appeal, and political feasibility. Also recommended are incentive-based transportation control measures such as congestion pricing, workplace parking subsidy reform, and accelerated vehicle retirement. These short-term policies complement the long-term strategies considered by the President's Policy Dialogue Advisory Committee (Car Talk).
Technical Paper
1999-03-01
Carl D. Tarum
A bathtub equation can be used to model data that exhibits infant mortality, chance failures, and wear out. This technique allows for the simultaneous solution of equation parameters affecting the product’s life. The bathtub equation treats a portion of the population as a competing risk mixture. This allows total failure of the infant mortality population without causing complete failure of the entire population. Chance and wear out failures are included by using a compound competing risk mixture.
Technical Paper
1999-03-01
R.F. Thelen
Calorimetric testing of pulsed power conditioning, as an influence on a battery's electrochemical transfer efficiency, is presented. The experiment used two 300 AH (ampere-hour) electric shuttle bus batteries; alternately charging and discharging at 8 to 14 kW with two charge and three discharge modes. The batteries were thermally insulated and monitored to analyze energy balance differences. The test setup, results, and analyses are reported. While slight trends were seen, improved transfer efficiencies due to pulsed currents could not be confirmed. Benefits under conditions of much higher transfer rates or for battery life cycle improvements are considered but were not tested.
Technical Paper
1999-01-13
Suresh T. Gulati
The stringent emissions standards in the late 1990's like NLEV, ULEV and SULEV have led to major modifications in the composition and design of ceramic substrates. These changes have been necessitated to reduce cold start emissions, meet OBD-II requirements, and to ensure 100,000 mile durability requirement in a cost-effective manner. This paper presents the key advances in ceramic substrates which include lower thermal expansion, lighter weight, higher surface area and improved manufacturing process all of which help meet performance requirements. In addition to above benefits, the compressive and tensile strengths of lightweight substrates, as well as their thermal shock resistance, are found to be adequate following the application of high surface area alumina washcoat. The strength properties are crucial for ensuring safe handling of the substrate during coating and canning and for its long term mechanical durability in service. This paper provides the durability data for thin wall substrates with 600/4 and 400/4 square cell structure and compare them with those of standard substrate with 400/6.5 square cell structure.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Kerry E. Kelly, Gary A. Davis
The goal of this work is to calculate the lifetime emissions for a 1996 Saturn automobile over its 193,000-km useful life. To do this, the authors developed a vehicle-specific method for calculating nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrous oxide (NOx) emissions. Vehicle-specific emissions data were not available for methane (CH4) sulfur oxides (SOx), dinitrogen oxide (N2O), and particulate matter (PM). The authors selected most applicable emission factors for these compounds. The authors then compared the results of these emission calculations to several other published methods. All methods produced similar results for CO2 emissions. However, the various calculation methods produced significantly different results for NMHC, CO, NOx, CH4, SOx, N2O, and PM emissions. The vehicle-specific emissions tended to be lower than many of the other methods.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Torsten Marheineke, Rainer Friedrich, Wolfram Krewitt
Streamlining Life Cycle Inventory Analysis is an indispensable condition to make Life Cycle Assessment cost effective and therefore applicable to a wide spectrum of users. This paper presents a Hybrid-Approach which completes the generally used Process Chain Analysis by a model based on economic Input-Output-Tables and data on sector specific elementary flows. The additional use of Input-Output-Analysis allows a quick and easy estimation of the elementary flows of processes not included in the process chain and therefore serves to check whether the existing process chain has a satisfactory degree of accuracy or should be more detailed.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
L. B. Lave, S. Joshi, H. L. MacLean, A. Horvath, C. T. Hendrickson, F. C. McMichael, E. Cobas-Flores
We compare two methods for life cycle analysis: the conventional SETAC-EPA approach and Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Analysis (EIO-LCA). The methods are compared for steel versus plastic fuel tank systems and for the entire life cycle of an automobile, from materials extraction to end of life. The EIO-LCA method gives comparable results for the data common to the two methods. EIO-LCA gives more detailed data, specifies the economy wide implications, and is much quicker and less expensive to implement.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Thorsten Volz, Harald Florin, Manfred Schuckert, Jürgen Stichling, Michael Wiedemann, Konrad Saur
Total Life Cycle studies of systems like automotive parts, systems or entire vehicles are characterized by an enormous complexity and amounts of individual data points. A full assessment of this variety of information and data requires suitable and reliable data processing systems. The recently developed software system GaBi 3 allows the flexible modeling of life cycles with parameterized process modules. In this way GaBi 3 provides the basis for parameter variation and scenario analysis. Besides these essential elements for identifying improvement potentials, the system enlarges the environmental calculations by an economic and a technical dimension.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Wendy S. White, Laura A. Przekop, John M. Armstrong
This paper presents a case example of the evolution of a Self-Declared Environmental label for a supplier. A comprehensive database system combined with Life Cycle Management (LCM) concepts provided the basis of the label design. Environmental labeling is under intense discussion and debate. Although three types of labels are discussed in the draft ISO 14000 Standards, the Type II Self-Declared Environmental Claim presently appears to be the only realistic choice for many suppliers. The Self-Declared Environmental Claim allows manufacturers to make environmental claims about their products in a practical manner. The Traverse Group Label Management Team uses a standardized data collection methodology and Life Cycle Management (LCM) analysis to produce Type II labels for suppliers. For the manufacturer described in the case example, the Type II label is currently being placed on shipments of plastic seat protectors. The evolution of this label is described in the case example. The definition of “consumer of label information” is discussed and the role of market hierarchy is noted as a complexity in label content determination.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Michael C. Montpetit, Stella Papasovva
The use of regrind acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) for automotive parts and components results in two types of financial savings. The first is the shared monetary savings between General Motors and the molder for the difference in the virgin resin price versus price of the ABS regrind. The second is a societal energy savings seen in the life cycle of virgin ABS versus reground ABS. An added benefit is the preservation of natural resources used to produce virgin ABS.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Wulf-Peter Schmidt, Hans-Martin Beyer
A material selection including a natural material is conducted using a Simplified Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA) according to SETAC within the framework of Ford's Design for Environment (DfE) process. The aim has been to check both, the environmental performance of a design option concerning a specific component and the feasibility of methodology. The result of the simplified LCA is the recommendation to substitute glass fibers by hemp fibers in a specific insulation. The methodology provides differentiated environmental information and seems to be feasible. However, a lot of LCA experience is necessary to be enabled to simplify LCA.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Günter Fleischer, Heiko Kunst, Gerald Rebitzer
There is a broad consensus that the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) framework according to IS0 14040-14043 is very useful for pursuing the vision of sustainable development in product design and optimization. However due to the necessary effort involved, in practice the application of this framework to complex products like automobiles is very limited. This article deals on the one hand with methodological approaches for simplifying LCA in a systematic way. On the other hand it presents the existing method of the Iterative Screening LCA as an already sound and efficient simplifying method, suitable for assessing complex products.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Walter M. Kreucher, Weijian Han, Dennis Schuetzle, Zhu Qiming, Zhang Alin, Zhao Ruilan, Sun Baiming, Malcolm A. Weiss
A life-cycle assessment (LCA) has been developed to help compare the economic, environmental and energy (EEE) impacts of converting coal to automotive fuels in China. This model was used to evaluate the total economic cost to the customer, the effect on the local and global environments, and the energy efficiencies for each fuel option. It provides a total accounting for each step in the life cycle process including the mining and transportation of coal, the conversion of coal to fuel, fuel distribution, all materials and manufacturing processes used to produce a vehicle, and vehicle operation over the life of the vehicle. The seven fuel scenarios evaluated in this study include methanol from coal, byproduct methanol from coal, methanol from methane, methanol from coke oven gas, gasoline from coal, electricity from coal, and petroleum to gasoline and diesel. The LCA results for all fuels were compared to gasoline as a baseline case. Gasoline and diesel fuels derived from petroleum are the lowest cost options.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Holger Beddies, Harald Florin, Johannes Gediga, Manfred Schuckert
One of the problems of a LCA is the complexity of the considered systems. Results depending strongly on the boundary conditions. More appropriate is to parameterise the LCA and enable it for variations. With that, the Life Cycle Modeling and Simulation leads to a deeper understanding of the examined system. Design parameters, like the geometry or the material of the part can be varied as well as the mass and energy flow in the process chain or methodological parameters. This is especially necessary in the early stage of the design process as a tool for sensitivity analysis and optimisation of products. A dominance analysis ensures that the complexity of the model is suitable for goal and scope of the study.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Konrad Saur, Matthias Finkbeiner, Rüdiger Hoffmann, Peter Eyerer, Hartmut Schöch, Holger Beddies
LCA studies aim at an integrating system assessment as a comprehensive and holistic approach to prevent tradeoffs and guide users and decision makers for better informed decisions. The total life cycle approach aims at informing and supporting decision making and management support. LCA, like other management techniques as well, has inherent limitations, making choices, assumptions etc. inevitable. Before using the findings of life cycle studies, a consideration of those uncertainties, the effects of value choices and assumptions, as well as the inherent data inaccuracies must be examined in more detail. Traditional error and uncertainty analysis failed in practical use due to the specific system modeling, the data availability and the respective data collection procedures in life cycle studies. New approaches to identify and understand the system specific uncertainties are necessary for this purpose. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate a methodological approach reflecting the need for the inclusion of uncertainty.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Masako Yamato
Presently, the international standardization of environmental management tools is being studied as part of the ISO14000 series. Because these tools are used for sustainable developments, we believe they should be positively incorporated in the design and development of automobiles. Among them, the environmental management system (EMS) is used for establishing and managing the environmental policies and environmental objectives/targets in terms of the influences exerted on the environment by every possible activity, product, and service of a given organization. We are certain that the adoption of the EMS and the advancement of the system's continuous improvements will lead to improving the environmental performance of our activities and products. Starting in 1996, we adopted the EMS that meet with ISO14001, primarily in our production sites. So far, four of our major vehicle plants have completed their certification registration. Within its total life cycle, the use phase of the automobile is extremely long.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Frank Stodolsky, Linda Gaines, Roy Cuenca, James J. Eberhardt
This paper evaluates the total lifecycle impacts for hauling freight long distances over land in the United States. The dominant modes of surface freight transport in the United States are large motor trucks (tractor-semitrailer combinations) and trains. These vehicles account for a significant portion of the transportation sector's petroleum usage and atmospheric emissions (among which nitrogen oxides and particulate matter are especially important). The objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential for reductions in energy use (in particular, petroleum use) and atmospheric emissions that result from freight transport, possibly as the result of research and development on improved technology or alternative fuels, such as Fischer-Tropsch diesel and natural gas, or from mode shifts in competitive markets. The impacts examined include energy use, both in toto and the petroleum fraction, and emissions of greenhouse gases and nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. The lifecycle starts with extraction of the raw materials for vehicle and fuel production, continues with production of the vehicle and its fuel, and concludes with combustion of the fuel during vehicle operation.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Marlo A. Raynolds, M. David Checkel, Roydon A. Fraser
Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) considers the key environmental impacts for the entire life cycle of alternative products or processes in order to select the best alternative. An ideal LCA would be an expensive and time consuming process because any product or process typically involves many interacting systems and a considerable amount of data must be analysed for each system. Practical LCA methods approximate the results of an ideal analysis by setting limited analysis boundaries and by accepting some uncertainty in the data values for the systems considered. However, there is no consensus in the LCA field on the correct method of selecting boundaries or on the treatment of data set uncertainty. This paper demonstrates a new method of selecting system boundaries for LCA studies and presents a brief discussion on applying Monte Carlo Analysis to treat the uncertainty questions in LCA. These techniques are demonstrated using an LCA which compares ethanol fuel produced from three different biological feedstocks.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Walter M. Kreucher
There is an ongoing debate as to what fuel or fuels should power automobiles. Many analysts look at economics, others look at criteria pollutants, still others make the case based on carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases embodied in the fuel. This study utilizes life cycle inventory techniques to examine the economics, emissions and energy efficiency of automotive fuels as a means to improve the energy utilization efficiency and to better protect the environment. Application of the techniques demonstrates the trade-offs inherent in substitute fuels.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Salvatore Di Carlo, Rosanna Serra, Giancarlo Foglia, Davide Diana
LCA. is becoming one of the main instruments for isolating environmentally winning alternatives in industrial decisions. It is also true that in the car industry decisions have to be taken more and more quickly since the time to market in the last years has been strongly reduced. This is one of the reasons that fast LCA. techniques are being taken in consideration. This work illustrates some guidelines for fast LCA. techniques to be used, in well defined situations, for evaluating different recycling opportunities.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Elisa Cobas-Flores, Alberto Bustani, Patrick W. Mackay, Berenice Ramirez, Susan G. Yester, John L. Sullivan, Ronald L. Williams
This paper presents an analysis of the Vehicle End of Life (VEOL) trends in the United States based on the VEOL model developed by the Vehicle Recycling Partnership (VRP), a consortium between Chrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company and General Motors. The model, developed interactively with the VRP by the Center for Environmental Quality (CEQ) at the Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (ITESM), accounts for the economic and the material transfer interactions of stakeholders involved in the VEOL process; the insurance valuation, salvage pool, dismantling, rebuilding, maintenance and repair, shredding, and landfilling [Bustani, et al., 1998]. The scenarios analyzed using the VEOL model consider regulations from Europe as well as the U.S. market factors and business policies. The model recognizes the importance of materials choices during vehicle design by tracking twenty-four different materials, classified as plastics, non ferrous metals, ferrous metals and other materials, and twenty six assemblies such as base engine, transmission, fuel tank and body shell.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Matthias Finkbeiner, Konrad Saur, Rüdiger Hoffmann, Johannes Gediga, Johannes Kreißig, Peter Eyerer
The total life cycle approach makes use of data for various sub-systems and modules to describe the relevance of a defined system under consideration. The different processes and steps take place in several locations. The life cycle approach is an assessment tool beyond this spatial dimension. Often these basic information is not available any more or never has been considered as valuable. By this, different emission sources and different receiving environments are simply neglected by summing up for the total life cycle contributions. The spatial dimension is of outstanding importance for the determination of relevance and meaning of environmental burdens. A more advanced life cycle concept should cover this. Besides the spatial differentiation within on product system, life cycle consideration are also often used to compare different production sites. On the example of an automotive heat exchanger, produced in several places all over the world, a comparison of the environmental burdens of the different manufacturing locations is demonstrated.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
G.W. Schweimer
A product life cycle inventory (LCI) is done by modelling the reality in a flow diagram or map of processes. The map contains simple tree-structures and eventually networks with sophisticated recycling loops. The unit processes are scaled to 1 unit of a selected input or output for better understanding. The map determines the demand of intermediate products of the various unit processes in the whole system. When performing the balance of the map, the unit processes are scaled in such a way that the map complies with the rules and conventions of mapping, e.g. the delivered product quantity of one process should be equal to the amount received by the other process. The final map balance is the vector sum of all scaled unit processes.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Kai Hockerts, Stephanie Adda, Helene Teulon, David Dowdell, Neil Kirkpatrick, Simon Aumônier
Under constant pressure through both national and EC-wide regulations as well as increased consumer awareness the automotive industry has become more and more concerned with improving the environmental profiles of its products. Namely the end-of-life aspects have been pushed into the center of interest. Trying to minimize disassembly cost and to increase potential revalorisation profits, companies strive to integrate environmental constraints early in the design phase. This paper describes how Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Design for the Environment (DFE) respectively contribute towards the objective of improved environmental profiles of automotives and especially the handling of end-of-life vehicules.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Jonathan Swindell, William E. Franklin, Jody Bailiff, David H. Ehlfeldt
A systematic life cycle management (LCM) approach has been used by Chrysler Corporation to compare existing and alternate hydraulic fluids and lubricating oils in thirteen classifications at a manufacturing facility. The presence of restricted or regulated chemicals, recyclability, and recycled content of the various products were also compared. For ten of the thirteen types of product, an alternate product was identified as more beneficial. This LCM study provided Chrysler personnel with a practical purchasing tool to identify the most cost effective hydraulic fluid or lubricant oil product available for a chosen application on an LCM basis.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
J. Gediga, H. Beddies, H. Florin, M. Schuckert, K. Saur, R. Hoffamnn
Cars cause a lot of pollutants during the utilization phase. Within the last years environmental legislation tried to reduce the emissions by the introduction of very tight laws. The results are impressive: Most of the car exhaust emissions like carbonmonoxid and nitrous oxides have been reduced. At this stage new emission reduction limits in Europe as well as in the United States can only be achieved if the formulation of the catalyst system is significantly changed. An increased use of precious metals and rare earth materials is the result of such a modification which succeeds in a more expensive design of the total catalyst systems. More expensive means not only cost aspects but also the environmental burdens related to the increased production of precious metals and other catalyst components. The Life Cycle Engineering (LCE) of the catalyst system which achieves the new legislation is demonstrated as well as the effects to the usage phase. The aspects of sustainability and economic issues are shown as well.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Robert D. Stephens, Ronald L. Williams, Gregory A. Keoleian, Sabrina Spatari, Robb Beal
Federal standards that mandate improved fuel economy have resulted in the increased use of lightweight materials in automotive applications. However, the environmental burdens associated with a product extend well beyond the use phase. Life cycle assessment is the science of determining the environmental burdens associated with the entire life cycle of a given product from cradle-to-grave. This report documents the environmental burdens associated with every phase of the life cycle of two fuel tanks utilized in full-sized 1996 GM vans. These vans are manufactured in two configurations, one which utilizes a steel fuel tank, and the other a multi-layered plastic fuel tank consisting primarily of high density polyethylene (HDPE). This study was a collaborative effort between GM and the University of Michigan's National Pollution Prevention Center, which received funding from EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory. Findings from this study include: Material production phase solid waste production for steel greatly exceeds that for HDPE, however, material production phase energy consumption is much higher for HDPE than steel.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Bernd Kiefer, Günter Deinzer, Johanna Ö. Haagensen, Konrad Saur
This paper presents some results of the cooperation between Opel and Norsk Hydro for optimizing the life cycle of an automotive structural part using a holistic life cycle assessment approach. The aim of the study presented in this paper was to compare, already in the vehicle development stage, the environmentally relevant parameters of two alternative material applications for a vehicle component with functional equivalence, using the Life Cycle Engineering approach developed by PE Product Engineering GmbH. The comparison of the two alternative part designs made out of steel and magnesium alloy considered the production of materials, the processing of the materials to manufacture the cross beam component, and the use phase as a part applied to the complete vehicle. End-of-life options were also taken into consideration. Regarding production and processing emissions, particular importance was attached to the environmental impact of Sulphurhexafluoride (SF6) which is used for oxidation prevention of the molten magnesium.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
John L. Sullivan, Ronald L. Williams, Susan Yester, Elisa Cobas-Flores, Scott. T. Chubbs, Steven G. Hentges, Steven D. Pomper
The United States Automotive Materials Partnership Life Cycle Assessment Special Topics Group (USAMP/LCA) has conducted a Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) using a suitable set of metrics to benchmark the environmental (not cost) performance of a generic vehicle, namely, the 1995 Intrepid/Lumina/Taurus. This benchmark will serve as a basis of comparison for environmental performance estimates of new and future vehicles (e.g. PNGV). The participants were Chrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company, General Motors, The Aluminum Association, The American Iron and Steel Institute, and the American Plastic Council. The study was strictly a life cycle inventory. The approach was to quantify all suitable material and energy inputs and outputs, including air, water, and solid wastes. The inventory covered the entire life cycle; from raw material extraction from the earth, to material production, parts manufacture, vehicle assembly, use, maintenance, recovery/recycling, and disposal. For credibility purposes, the inventory was independently peer reviewed.
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