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1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0018
Robert Vaculik, Konrad Saur
Latest developments in oil filtration are moving from the conventional spin-on filter to a filter housing with an exchangeable filter element. This new filter element is designed almost entirely of the actual filter media. The so-called metal-free element can be disposed of easily and completely through incineration and, therefore, provides a great environmental and economical solution. In this paper two principles of metal-free elements are compared using a life cycle assessment. Analysis shows that in all categories the thermoset-cured design has advantages versus the nylon 6 injection molded version, even if 100% post consumer nylon is used.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0987
Claudia Duranceau, Terry Lindell
The goal of this paper is to define and quantify the contribution of used parts to vehicle recycling. In 1997, this research was stimulated when the Federal Trade Commission opened hearings on the definition of recycling. At this time, general facts about the automotive recycling industry and reuse of automotive parts were hard to find. This study's goal was to produce actual data on the contribution of reuse to vehicle recycling and to answer questions about the industry. Can accurate reuse measurements be calculated with data collected from recyclers? What should be the expected average performance of a company in the recycling industry? What effect can reuse have on landfill avoidance? The results of this study established that the sale and reuse of used parts played a significant role in vehicle recycling. The Automotive Recyclers Association, representing the existing industry, testified at the FTC hearings using preliminary results from this study.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0993
Don Lewis
The cost–effectiveness of using alternative fuels (AF) versus a conventional fuel (gasoline) in light duty vehicles is traditionally presented with a simple analysis on what can best be described as “one sheet of paper.” Unfortunately, oversimplification of the cost analysis can lead to extensive errors in the results and misleading cost and/or benefit conclusions. An extensive model for analyzing the costs and benefits of using alternative fuels has been developed which allows in–depth modeling of major characteristics of a single vehicle (or an entire fleet) which uses alternative fuel. Net present value (NPV) theorem financial modeling has been used to compute a true lifetime cost of ownership. An important output of the model is the required fuel spread needed in order to obtain a NPV of zero dollars, indicating that the savings resulting from using the alternative fuel offset the cost of the additional AF components.
1999-01-13
Technical Paper
990043
M. R. Saraf, S. Raju
The duration for the development of a new vehicle model is continuously decreasing. This does not permit adequate time for proving component assemblies and vehicles to be evaluated for durability by conventional measures. However, increasing competition and quality consciousness calls for an assured life with a high degree of confidence. This has forced the test engineers to look for techniques for accelerating the durability evaluation. The technique calls for concepts for compressing the evaluation time. This can be achieved by compression in both time as well as frequency domain. Further, it also calls for correct techniques for the mixing of roads, extrapolation of data acquired over a small distance to the vehicle life, evaluation and elimination of non or less damaging inputs, etc. This paper reviews some of the existing techniques and describes case studies of how accelerated testing can be applied in vehicle development.
1999-01-13
Technical Paper
990011
Suresh T. Gulati
The stringent emissions standards in the late 1990's like NLEV, ULEV and SULEV have led to major modifications in the composition and design of ceramic substrates. These changes have been necessitated to reduce cold start emissions, meet OBD-II requirements, and to ensure 100,000 mile durability requirement in a cost-effective manner. This paper presents the key advances in ceramic substrates which include lower thermal expansion, lighter weight, higher surface area and improved manufacturing process all of which help meet performance requirements. In addition to above benefits, the compressive and tensile strengths of lightweight substrates, as well as their thermal shock resistance, are found to be adequate following the application of high surface area alumina washcoat. The strength properties are crucial for ensuring safe handling of the substrate during coating and canning and for its long term mechanical durability in service.
1999-01-13
Technical Paper
990009
Charalampos I. Arapatsakos, Panagiotis D. Sparis
It is generally accepted that the process of catalyst deactivation originates from the entrance sections of the converter and gradually progress towards the exit. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the possibility of a catalyst operating life extension via a mounting inversion, when the catalyst is close to its limits in the normal position. The experimental results indicate that under full load conditions at 3000 rpm improvement of catalyst efficiency can be accomplished reaching approximately 30% for CO and HC. This mounting inversion can be easily accomplished by an appropriate symmetric design of the monolith casing and mounting flanges, so that smooth gas flow conditions can be attained in both flow directions.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982228
Kai Hockerts, Stephanie Adda, Helene Teulon, David Dowdell, Neil Kirkpatrick, Simon Aumônier
Under constant pressure through both national and EC-wide regulations as well as increased consumer awareness the automotive industry has become more and more concerned with improving the environmental profiles of its products. Namely the end-of-life aspects have been pushed into the center of interest. Trying to minimize disassembly cost and to increase potential revalorisation profits, companies strive to integrate environmental constraints early in the design phase. This paper describes how Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Design for the Environment (DFE) respectively contribute towards the objective of improved environmental profiles of automotives and especially the handling of end-of-life vehicules.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982226
G.W. Schweimer
A product life cycle inventory (LCI) is done by modelling the reality in a flow diagram or map of processes. The map contains simple tree-structures and eventually networks with sophisticated recycling loops. The unit processes are scaled to 1 unit of a selected input or output for better understanding. The map determines the demand of intermediate products of the various unit processes in the whole system. When performing the balance of the map, the unit processes are scaled in such a way that the map complies with the rules and conventions of mapping, e.g. the delivered product quantity of one process should be equal to the amount received by the other process. The final map balance is the vector sum of all scaled unit processes.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982218
Walter M. Kreucher
There is an ongoing debate as to what fuel or fuels should power automobiles. Many analysts look at economics, others look at criteria pollutants, still others make the case based on carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases embodied in the fuel. This study utilizes life cycle inventory techniques to examine the economics, emissions and energy efficiency of automotive fuels as a means to improve the energy utilization efficiency and to better protect the environment. Application of the techniques demonstrates the trade-offs inherent in substitute fuels.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982224
Robert D. Stephens, Ronald L. Williams, Gregory A. Keoleian, Sabrina Spatari, Robb Beal
Federal standards that mandate improved fuel economy have resulted in the increased use of lightweight materials in automotive applications. However, the environmental burdens associated with a product extend well beyond the use phase. Life cycle assessment is the science of determining the environmental burdens associated with the entire life cycle of a given product from cradle-to-grave. This report documents the environmental burdens associated with every phase of the life cycle of two fuel tanks utilized in full-sized 1996 GM vans. These vans are manufactured in two configurations, one which utilizes a steel fuel tank, and the other a multi-layered plastic fuel tank consisting primarily of high density polyethylene (HDPE). This study was a collaborative effort between GM and the University of Michigan's National Pollution Prevention Center, which received funding from EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982225
Bernd Kiefer, Günter Deinzer, Johanna Ö. Haagensen, Konrad Saur
This paper presents some results of the cooperation between Opel and Norsk Hydro for optimizing the life cycle of an automotive structural part using a holistic life cycle assessment approach. The aim of the study presented in this paper was to compare, already in the vehicle development stage, the environmentally relevant parameters of two alternative material applications for a vehicle component with functional equivalence, using the Life Cycle Engineering approach developed by PE Product Engineering GmbH. The comparison of the two alternative part designs made out of steel and magnesium alloy considered the production of materials, the processing of the materials to manufacture the cross beam component, and the use phase as a part applied to the complete vehicle. End-of-life options were also taken into consideration.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982221
Jonathan Swindell, William E. Franklin, Jody Bailiff, David H. Ehlfeldt
A systematic life cycle management (LCM) approach has been used by Chrysler Corporation to compare existing and alternate hydraulic fluids and lubricating oils in thirteen classifications at a manufacturing facility. The presence of restricted or regulated chemicals, recyclability, and recycled content of the various products were also compared. For ten of the thirteen types of product, an alternate product was identified as more beneficial. This LCM study provided Chrysler personnel with a practical purchasing tool to identify the most cost effective hydraulic fluid or lubricant oil product available for a chosen application on an LCM basis.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982222
J. Gediga, H. Beddies, H. Florin, M. Schuckert, K. Saur, R. Hoffamnn
Cars cause a lot of pollutants during the utilization phase. Within the last years environmental legislation tried to reduce the emissions by the introduction of very tight laws. The results are impressive: Most of the car exhaust emissions like carbonmonoxid and nitrous oxides have been reduced. At this stage new emission reduction limits in Europe as well as in the United States can only be achieved if the formulation of the catalyst system is significantly changed. An increased use of precious metals and rare earth materials is the result of such a modification which succeeds in a more expensive design of the total catalyst systems. More expensive means not only cost aspects but also the environmental burdens related to the increased production of precious metals and other catalyst components. The Life Cycle Engineering (LCE) of the catalyst system which achieves the new legislation is demonstrated as well as the effects to the usage phase.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982210
Konrad Saur, Matthias Finkbeiner, Rüdiger Hoffmann, Peter Eyerer, Hartmut Schöch, Holger Beddies
LCA studies aim at an integrating system assessment as a comprehensive and holistic approach to prevent tradeoffs and guide users and decision makers for better informed decisions. The total life cycle approach aims at informing and supporting decision making and management support. LCA, like other management techniques as well, has inherent limitations, making choices, assumptions etc. inevitable. Before using the findings of life cycle studies, a consideration of those uncertainties, the effects of value choices and assumptions, as well as the inherent data inaccuracies must be examined in more detail. Traditional error and uncertainty analysis failed in practical use due to the specific system modeling, the data availability and the respective data collection procedures in life cycle studies. New approaches to identify and understand the system specific uncertainties are necessary for this purpose.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982211
Holger Beddies, Harald Florin, Johannes Gediga, Manfred Schuckert
One of the problems of a LCA is the complexity of the considered systems. Results depending strongly on the boundary conditions. More appropriate is to parameterise the LCA and enable it for variations. With that, the Life Cycle Modeling and Simulation leads to a deeper understanding of the examined system. Design parameters, like the geometry or the material of the part can be varied as well as the mass and energy flow in the process chain or methodological parameters. This is especially necessary in the early stage of the design process as a tool for sensitivity analysis and optimisation of products. A dominance analysis ensures that the complexity of the model is suitable for goal and scope of the study.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982207
Walter M. Kreucher, Weijian Han, Dennis Schuetzle, Zhu Qiming, Zhang Alin, Zhao Ruilan, Sun Baiming, Malcolm A. Weiss
A life-cycle assessment (LCA) has been developed to help compare the economic, environmental and energy (EEE) impacts of converting coal to automotive fuels in China. This model was used to evaluate the total economic cost to the customer, the effect on the local and global environments, and the energy efficiencies for each fuel option. It provides a total accounting for each step in the life cycle process including the mining and transportation of coal, the conversion of coal to fuel, fuel distribution, all materials and manufacturing processes used to produce a vehicle, and vehicle operation over the life of the vehicle. The seven fuel scenarios evaluated in this study include methanol from coal, byproduct methanol from coal, methanol from methane, methanol from coke oven gas, gasoline from coal, electricity from coal, and petroleum to gasoline and diesel. The LCA results for all fuels were compared to gasoline as a baseline case.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982208
Günter Fleischer, Heiko Kunst, Gerald Rebitzer
There is a broad consensus that the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) framework according to IS0 14040-14043 is very useful for pursuing the vision of sustainable development in product design and optimization. However due to the necessary effort involved, in practice the application of this framework to complex products like automobiles is very limited. This article deals on the one hand with methodological approaches for simplifying LCA in a systematic way. On the other hand it presents the existing method of the Iterative Screening LCA as an already sound and efficient simplifying method, suitable for assessing complex products.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982214
Matthias Finkbeiner, Konrad Saur, Rüdiger Hoffmann, Johannes Gediga, Johannes Kreißig, Peter Eyerer
The total life cycle approach makes use of data for various sub-systems and modules to describe the relevance of a defined system under consideration. The different processes and steps take place in several locations. The life cycle approach is an assessment tool beyond this spatial dimension. Often these basic information is not available any more or never has been considered as valuable. By this, different emission sources and different receiving environments are simply neglected by summing up for the total life cycle contributions. The spatial dimension is of outstanding importance for the determination of relevance and meaning of environmental burdens. A more advanced life cycle concept should cover this. Besides the spatial differentiation within on product system, life cycle consideration are also often used to compare different production sites.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982212
Salvatore Di Carlo, Rosanna Serra, Giancarlo Foglia, Davide Diana
LCA. is becoming one of the main instruments for isolating environmentally winning alternatives in industrial decisions. It is also true that in the car industry decisions have to be taken more and more quickly since the time to market in the last years has been strongly reduced. This is one of the reasons that fast LCA. techniques are being taken in consideration. This work illustrates some guidelines for fast LCA. techniques to be used, in well defined situations, for evaluating different recycling opportunities.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982213
Elisa Cobas-Flores, Alberto Bustani, Patrick W. Mackay, Berenice Ramirez, Susan G. Yester, John L. Sullivan, Ronald L. Williams
This paper presents an analysis of the Vehicle End of Life (VEOL) trends in the United States based on the VEOL model developed by the Vehicle Recycling Partnership (VRP), a consortium between Chrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company and General Motors. The model, developed interactively with the VRP by the Center for Environmental Quality (CEQ) at the Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (ITESM), accounts for the economic and the material transfer interactions of stakeholders involved in the VEOL process; the insurance valuation, salvage pool, dismantling, rebuilding, maintenance and repair, shredding, and landfilling [Bustani, et al., 1998]. The scenarios analyzed using the VEOL model consider regulations from Europe as well as the U.S. market factors and business policies.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982160
John L. Sullivan, Ronald L. Williams, Susan Yester, Elisa Cobas-Flores, Scott. T. Chubbs, Steven G. Hentges, Steven D. Pomper
The United States Automotive Materials Partnership Life Cycle Assessment Special Topics Group (USAMP/LCA) has conducted a Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) using a suitable set of metrics to benchmark the environmental (not cost) performance of a generic vehicle, namely, the 1995 Intrepid/Lumina/Taurus. This benchmark will serve as a basis of comparison for environmental performance estimates of new and future vehicles (e.g. PNGV). The participants were Chrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company, General Motors, The Aluminum Association, The American Iron and Steel Institute, and the American Plastic Council. The study was strictly a life cycle inventory. The approach was to quantify all suitable material and energy inputs and outputs, including air, water, and solid wastes. The inventory covered the entire life cycle; from raw material extraction from the earth, to material production, parts manufacture, vehicle assembly, use, maintenance, recovery/recycling, and disposal.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982167
Parveen S. Goel, Nanua Singh
This paper introduces the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) optimization model, where LCC is expressed as a function of controllable design parameters. The LCC model is enhanced with the novel concept of considering the target value of the functional characteristic as a decision variable so that it is optimized on the basis of life-cycle considerations. Most of the LCC model in literature considers only one objective at a time. This paper proposes a comprehensive model, which is capable of considering multiple objectives simultaneously. This model, is solved with the help of Goal Programming.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982168
Steven D. Pomper
Fulfilling the goal and scope of a life cycle inventory (LCI) requires hundreds of thousands of discrete data inputs to be consolidated into a useful form. The planning and execution of data collection activities is therefore a critical aspect of ensuring the quality of an LCI study. This paper highlights how the members of The Aluminum Association and the Aluminum Association of Canada managed the data collection process for the United States Automotive Materials Partnership's Life Cycle Assessment Special Topics Group (USAMP/LCA). Overcoming the challenge of meeting the USAMP data quality requirements with inputs from over 200 reporting locations in nine countries on five continents is examined. This paper is one of six SAE publications discussing the results and execution of the USCAR AMP Generic Vehicle LCI. The papers in this series are (Overview of results 982160, 982161, 982162, 982168, 982169, 982170).
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982165
William E. Franklin
Business decisions are based on carefully developed target costs and profits for autos or any other manufactured products. However, when it comes to environmental management, occupational health and safety, recycling and end of life of vehicles, significant costs associated with these activities are typically hidden in overhead, or are undocumented, including costs that may come back to a company at the end of the vehicle's life. Life Cycle Cost Management (LCCM) is a business decision process that integrates any or all of the environmental, health, safety and recycling (EHS&R) phases of product life with a full range of functional costs to provide a business focus on design decisions. The concept of the extended enterprise is now a reality. LCCM is a process for identifying true environmental, health and safety (EHS) costs as they relate to automobile parts, materials, and manufacturing processes.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982166
Stefan Schmidt
The increased global competition has led to immense interest in the development of new ways of increasing productivity and quality. It is a well known fact that the costs of manufactured products are largely determined at the design stage. It is important to consider manufacturability early in the design. To be able to cut life cycle costs at an early stage the following DFMA-tools have been developed: Design for Manufacture (DFM), Design for Assembly (DFA), Design for Service (DFS) and Design for Environment (DFE). This contribution shows the design for the complete life cycle - with the tools DFM, DFA, DFS, DFE - its present state and some industrial applications. Using an electronic company as an example the implementation of DFMA in an TQM-environment and their integration in the product development process is shown. The value-assessment metric ‘Materials, Energy, Toxicity (MET)’ is also described.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982163
Wendy S. White, Laura A. Przekop, Lynette M. Hogan, John M. Armstrong
A Life Cycle Management (LCM) model was used to compare two plastic protective seat cover alternatives for a vehicle. Protective seat covers are temporary plastic covers placed over the seats of a vehicle to protect them from soiling during the assembly process. A contoured all-plastic seat cover was compared to a plastic seat cover with elastic. The results indicate that use of the contoured seat cover results in cost savings of $136,000 annually for this particular model year vehicle. In addition, the contoured seat protector contains at least 25 percent post-consumer recycled (PCR) content and is recyclable, while the alternative cover contains no PCR and is not recycled. This case study concludes that cost savings can be achieved while increasing the recycled content and recyclability of an item necessary in the production of vehicles. By using the all-plastic seat protector, 90,000 pounds of waste can be diverted from landfills annually.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982164
Alessandro Levizzari, Massimo Debenedetti, Eugenia Accusani
The complexity of environmental problem is characterised by the typical difficulty to find an unique quantitative measure for “being green”. Environmental damage cannot easily be compared with parameters such as cost or time that are “hard” metrics. However, techniques like Life Cycle Assessment should make it possible comparing products based on the basis of their environmental profile. In this study a modelled approach that allows to integrate Life Cycle Assessment considerations within multi-criteria analysis methodology is described: this integration is clearly exemplified by a simple software tool called ECOCOST. ECOCOST represents an effort to join different field of evaluation, other than environmental, to the Life Cycle Assessment: then environmental results emerged from LCA can be matched with other kind of evaluation, economical and technical in particular.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982161
Scott T. Chubbs
A large life cycle inventory study like the one completed under the banner of the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) can be a complex affair. Apart from the technical requirements of modeling a “generic” North American vehicle, it was necessary to bring a diverse group of stakeholders to the life cycle table and to have the stakeholders work together for a common purpose. This paper identifies six stakeholders that participated in the LCI study of a generic North American automobile and describes how the work was organized. These stakeholders, particularly the auto, steel, plastics, and aluminum industries, each had different experiences with life cycle inventory analysis, held competing interests, and perhaps entered the project with different expectations. Issues that had to be addressed include goal selection, provision of resources, division of the work among stakeholders, scheduling and related project planning, as well as the process for decision making.
1998-11-30
Technical Paper
982162
Steven G. Hentges
This paper discusses in detail how data categories, data quality and allocation procedures were defined and implemented in the USAMP LCI analysis of a generic automobile. These data-related parameters are important for all LCI analyses but are especially important for the USAMP LCI analysis of a complete automobile. Whereas most LCI analyses have been conducted on relatively simple product systems consisting of a single material made with a single manufacturing process, the USAMP product system consists of a vast, interconnected array of dissimilar materials, products and manufacturing processes coupled with complex use, maintenance and disposition life cycle stages. As a result of this complexity, data is necessarily collected from an equally wide range of potentially incompatible sources.
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