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2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1816
Fernando Ortenzi, Giovanni Pede, Ennio Rossi
Abstract The adoption of composed (hybrid) lead acid battery-supercapacitor (SC) storage systems is able to improve performances (availability, durability, range) of an electric microcar. As a matter of fact, the supercapacitors extend the operation time not only by improving the energy efficiency (thanks to a higher contribution of regenerative braking), but also by reducing the power down caused by voltage drop at higher discharge rates. The integration of battery with supercapacitors requires careful analysis and calculation of the relationship between battery peak power and size of the SC bank, needed to have a balanced composition of the hybrid storage system. For this purpose, the optimization process, summarized here, is based on the combination of a conventional lead-acid battery and a commercial SC, with the vehicle running the ECE15 driving cycle.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1959
Claire Boland, Robb DeKleine, Aditi Moorthy, Gregory Keoleian, Hyung Chul Kim, Ellen Lee, Timothy J. Wallington
Abstract Automakers have the opportunity to utilize bio-based composite materials to lightweight cars while replacing conventional, nonrenewable resource materials. In this study, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is used to understand the potential benefits and tradeoffs associated with the implementation of bio-based composite materials in automotive component production. This cradle-to-grave approach quantifies the fiber and resin production as well as material processing, use, and end of life for both a conventional glass-reinforced polypropylene component as well as a cellulose-reinforced polypropylene component. The comparison is calculated for an exterior component on a high performance vehicle. The life cycle primary energy consumption and global warming potential (GWP) are evaluated.
2013-10-14
Technical Paper
2013-01-2581
Shuhua Li, Jun Li, Nannan LI, Ying Gao
The encouragement for the development of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) has increased in China, especially after the automotive industry planning in 2009. In general, BEVs are associated with a cleaner and more efficient mobility during operation; however the benefits of substituting BEVs for internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs) must be evaluated. Vehicle cycle analyses are important tools that provide a comprehensive approach to compare the environmental effects of advanced and conventional vehicles. The goal of this study is to estimate and compare the vehicle cycle energy and emission impacts of a mid-size passenger BEV with a mid-size passenger ICEV in China. It is found that the material production accounts for the majority of the vehicle cycle energy consumption and emissions for the two vehicle types.
2013-09-17
Journal Article
2013-01-2277
Emily Dallara, Joshua Kusnitz, Marty Bradley
Current methods of life cycle assessment (LCA) include input-output (IO) models and process-based LCA. These methods either require excessive effort and time to reach a conclusion (process LCA) or do not adequately model how a change in a product's design will affect the environmental footprint (IO LCA). A variation of process-based LCA developed specifically for aircraft is presented in this study. A tool implementing this LCA, “qUWick,” is rapid and easily applicable to multi-disciplinary design optimization of aircraft. Models developed for the material production, manufacturing, usage, and end-of-life of an aircraft are examined. Outputs of qUWick are discussed for future air vehicles. When compared to process LCAs with similar boundaries, qUWick gives similar results, however qUWick models several stages of an aircraft's life cycle more accurately than other aircraft process-based LCAs.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1279
Adriana Carvallo, Jean-Pierre L. Birat, Antoine Gauriat, Jean-Sébastien Thomas
Reducing the environmental impact of transport on Climate Change is an important policy target and the European Union has been spearheading legislation in this area. However, the EU has chosen, until now, to focus on tailpipe emissions, which only represent the impact of the use phase of the vehicle and leave aside the impacts of material production and car manufacturing as well as the end of life. Anyway, the corresponding regulations have given the direction for car manufacturer to focus on lightweighting, which is an important part of the solution. It is incomplete, however, as a more holistic approach encompassing all the phases of the Life of a vehicle ought to be taken on board, which is exactly what a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is meant to do. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the advantages and the limitations of LCA in the transport sector.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1280
Fan Yang, Bingbing Li, Chris Yuan
Electric vehicles (EVs) are developed to address the global issues of fossil fuel depletion and environmental deterioration from the transportation sector. While EVs are much more environmentally benign than conventional vehicles, they still generate some environmental impacts throughout their life cycle from raw material extraction to end of life. Among various life cycle phases, the environmental impacts of EVs are mainly generated during their usage phase. Since EVs are driven by rechargeable batteries, the sources of environmental impacts of EVs in usage phase are mainly from the electricity consumed by battery charging. However, different regions in the U.S. employ different energy technologies for electricity generation and accordingly the environmental impacts of EVs in their operations at different regions can be largely different. In this study, we report our preliminary investigations on the geographical factor in evaluating the greenhouse gas emissions from EVs operations.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1281
Xiaomin Xie, Tingting Zhang, Zhen Huang
This study provides a life cycle assessment (LCA) of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) fuel cycle. PHEVs recharging from the average electricity generation mix of China provide 16%-29% fossil energy consumption reduction, 39%-52% petroleum energy consumption reduction and 5%-26% greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction compared with conventional gasoline vehicle. The range of the results is primarily attributed to the different all electric range (AER) and PHEV types (power-split versus series designs). Impacts of electricity generation mix for battery recharging are studied by six different interprovincial power grids, one prediction electricity scenario, and the average electricity generation mix of China. Fossil energy consumption and GHG emissions of PHEVs recharging from six different interprovincial power grids show 9%-24% and 12%-29% differences respectively.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1285
Suna Erses Yay, Kubilay Yay
This study aims to determine environmental aspects of an end-of-vehicle recycling process through life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Functional unit of the study was an end-of-vehicle with a weight of 1432 kg. System boundaries included transportation of the scrap car to disassembly and shredding facility, disassembly and shredding processes and transportation of the materials to recycling facilities. Data regarding process was gathered from a shredding facility, literature and the libraries of the SimaPro 7.3.2. Gathered data was evaluated through CML 2 baseline 2000 methodology by the means of abiotic depletion, acidification, global warming, ozone depletion, human toxicity, fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity, marine aquatic ecotoxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity and photochemical oxidation. According to results, transportation and diesel consumption are the important factors for ELV recycling.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1286
Bryan Strecker, Christopher Depcik
Software packages including Argonne National Lab's Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model and the EPA's Motor Vehicle Emissions Simulation (MOVES) model are useful in analyzing the emission profiles of light-duty vehicles. In particular, GREET performs a detailed life cycle fuel energy and emissions analysis, while MOVES focuses on energy and emissions during vehicle operation. This study uses MOVES2010b in the creation of emission trends in order to predict future emissions regulations and the subsequent aftertreatment device areas of improvement required to meet these standards. A second objective was to create four time sheet tables in order to update the base vehicle operation emission profiles used in GREET. The simulation results depict the balance between nitrous oxide and hydrocarbon emissions, the dependency upon climate effects, and areas for potential improvement given recent engine design trends.
2012-12-31
Technical Paper
2012-01-2325
Alain Dubreuil, Lindita Bushi, Sujit Das, Ambalavanar Tharumarajah, Xianzheng Gong
The Magnesium Front End Research and Development (MFERD) project under the sponsorship of Canada, China, and USA aims to develop key technologies and a knowledge base for increased use of magnesium in automobiles. The primary goal of this life cycle assessment (LCA) study is to compare the energy and potential environmental impacts of advanced magnesium based front end parts of a North American-built 2007 GM-Cadillac CTS using the current steel structure as a baseline. An aluminium front end is also considered as an alternate light structure scenario. A “cradle-to-grave” LCA is conducted by including primary material production, semi-fabrication production, autoparts manufacturing and assembly, transportation, use phase, and end-of-life processing of autoparts. This LCA study was done in compliance with international standards ISO 14040:2006 [1] and ISO 14044:2006 [2].
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0646
Bert Bras, Francisco Tejada, Jeff Yen, John Zullo, Tina Guldberg
Numerous studies have pointed out the growing need to assess the availability of water sources in numerous regions around the world as future forecasts suggest that water demands will increase significantly while freshwater resources are being depleted. In this paper, we highlight the difference between water use versus consumption and analyze the life-cycle water consumption of a car from material extraction through production, use, and final disposition/end of life and determine a car's water footprint using data from the EcoInvent database as well as data collected from literature sources. Although water use is typically metered at the factory level, water consumption (i.e., water lost through evaporation and/or incorporation into a material, part, and/or product) is much harder to quantify. As shown in this paper, the difference can be an order of magnitude or more.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0650
Anju Baroth, Sreepadaraj karanam, Robert McKay
Global warming and climate change are among the top subjects of growing global concern. According to International Energy Agency (IEA), about 19% of the greenhouse gas emissions from fuel combustion are generated by the transportation sector, and its share is likely to grow. A forecast by US Census Bureau predicts that there will be 3.5 billion cars by 2050 for a population of 9 billion. In this context, numbers in the industrialized world are expected to double from around half a billion to over one billion. An increase in fleet volume will have a direct and major impact on increase of CO₂ emissions. Therefore, reducing vehicle fuel consumption is one of the most critical steps for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and reduction of vehicle weight is one of the best solutions for improving fuel efficiency.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-0647
Parisa Bastani, John B. Heywood, Chris Hope
Transport policy research seeks to predict and substantially reduce the future transport-related greenhouse gas emissions and fuel consumption to prevent negative climate change impacts and protect the environment. However, making such predictions is made difficult due to the uncertainties associated with the anticipated developments of the technology and fuel situation in road transportation, which determine the total fuel use and emissions of the future light-duty vehicle fleet. These include uncertainties in the performance of future vehicles, fuels' emissions, availability of alternative fuels, demand, as well as market deployment of new technologies and fuels. This paper develops a methodology that quantifies the impact of uncertainty on the U.S. transport-related fuel use and emissions by introducing a stochastic technology and fleet assessment model that takes detailed technological and demand inputs.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-0955
Alaa El-Sharkawy, Joshua Kamrad
Time-temperature analysis methods are usually applied to predict the useful life of automotive components. Components life is affected by exposure to heat during vehicle service life. The extent of reduction in component life, which may be caused by material thermal degradation, depends on the component temperature and the time duration at that temperature. The rate of material thermal degradation of automotive components varies widely depending on material thermal stability, vehicle duty cycle, and the thermal environment that the component is exposed to. Thermodynamic properties such as the activation energy of each material are used to determine the rate of thermal degradation [1,2]. In this approach, material thermal degradation models are used to predict component life during the service life of a vehicle. As the rate of thermal degradation increases with increasing material temperature, the useful life of a component will be reduced as the material temperature increases.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0649
Shigeki Nitta, Yoshihisa Moriguchi
In previous Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methods, environmental burden items to be analyzed, prior to a life cycle inventory analysis, were assumed as the main factors of environmental problems regardless of the product category. Next, the life cycle inventory analysis, in which the total amount of environmental burden items emitted during the life cycle of a product was calculated, and an environmental impact assessment were performed. The environmental impact assessment was based on the initially assumed environmental burden items. The process, in other words, was a particular solution based on this assumption. A general solution unconstrained by this assumption was necessary. The purpose of this study was to develop a general method of LCA that did not require such initially assumed environmental burden items, and to make it possible to perform a comprehensive environmental impact assessment and strategically reduce environmental burden of a product.
2012-02-21
Standard
J2185_201202
This SAE Standard applies to lead-acid 12 V heavy-duty storage batteries as described in SAE J537 and SAE J930 for uses in starting, lighting and ignition (SLI) applications on motor vehicles and/or off-road machines. These applications have some of the following characteristics: a. High levels of power are required to start the vehicle’s internal combustion engine. The need to supply this power limits the maximum depth of discharge to a fraction of the total capacity of the battery. The battery must be maintained at a charge level sufficient to perform this primary function by vehicle’s voltage-regulated charging system. b. The vehicle’s engine powers a voltage regulated charging system that limits the charging voltage when spinning at sufficient speed and when total loads do not exceed its output limits. c.
2012-01-09
Technical Paper
2012-28-0030
Pravin H. Kulkarni
In today's scenario the New Product Development has become vital activity for R&D department of any Automotive Company. The typical Product Lifecycle Management needs attention to address some of issues / hurdles faced by the Project teams. This technical paper presents the usage of Product Lifecycle Management for addressing issues generally faced in New Product Development process for deciding matters like project time line for part development, development process involved in product development, red flag items for product validation, homologation requirements, etc. It also serves the purpose in terms of spare part management, implementation of improvements. It also support for over product material cost, raw material management & weight management. This enables the New Product Development for timely, with more clarity on part development with clear separation of carry over & new unique parts, DVP finalization for validation along with red flag items.
2011-11-16
Magazine
Eco-efficient materials for bluer skies Airbus researchers discuss material options to fulfill current and potential environmental requirements over a product's in-service life.
2011-10-18
Journal Article
2011-01-2800
Florian Moliere, Alain Bravaix, Bruno Louis Foucher, Philippe Perdu
Up to now, the reliability achieved by COTS components was largely sufficient for avionics, in terms of failure rate as well as time to failure. With the implementation of new and more integrated technologies (90 nm node, 65 nm and below), the question has arisen of the impact of the new technologies on reliability. It has been stated that the lifetime of these new technologies might decrease. The drift is expected to be technology dependent: integration, technology node, materials, elementary structure choices and process pay a key role. Figures have been published, which gives smaller lifetime than the 30 years generally required for avionics. This would of course impact not only the reliability, but also the maintenance of COTS-based avionics. Hence a new policy should be defined for the whole COTS supply chain. Faced with these impending risks, different methodologies have been developed [1], [2].
2011-10-18
Technical Paper
2011-01-2742
Hubertus Lohner, Isabelle Delay-Saunders, Karsten Hesse, Alexis Martinet, Martin Beneke, Pawandeep Kalyan, Benedikt Langer
Due to the importance of fulfilling the actual and upcoming environmental legislation, it is an Airbus main target to develop eco-efficient materials. Under consideration of the economical effects, these processes will be implemented into the production line. This paper gives an overview of Airbus and its partners research work, the results obtained within the frame of the European funded, integrated technology demonstrator (ITD) ECO Design for Airframe. This ITD is part of the joint technology initiative Clean Sky. Developments with different grade of maturity from “upstream” as the investigation of materials from renewable recourses up to materials now in use in production as low volatile organic compounds cleaner are under investigation. As a basis for future eco-efficient developments an approach for a quantitative life cycle assessment will be demonstrated.
2011-10-04
Technical Paper
2011-36-0279
Carlos Eduardo Viana Ribeiro, Marcelo Lopes de Oliveira e Souza
Life-critical aeronautical projects are increasing their lifecycle up to the point where a product is developed to be available in the market for more than 70 years, but requiring daily service support and replacement parts. Therefore, unavailability of components or services can have a severe impact over the product through its lifecycle. In this work we study some causes of unavailability of components and services and their effects over the lifecycle of an aeronautical project, to propose recommendations, alternatives and actions to be taken in the early phases of project development to help mitigate such effects over the product lifecycle. To do that, we initially present the causes of unavailability of components and services. Then, we discuss some of their effects over the lifecycle of an aeronautical project.
2011-10-04
Technical Paper
2011-36-0065
Erika Christiane C. de Lima, Efrain Pantaleon Matamoros, Joao Telésforo N. de Medeiros
There are increased demands for ever more efficient and friendly environmental automotive and model airplane engines. The burning parameters have still an insufficient reliability to describe the complexity of a flame, their mass and energy flows in an internal combustion engine. The aim of this paper is to furnish a visualization by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) images for the development of oxides in specific orthogonal locii of two sets of chamber walls of Al-Si alloys that confine the flame (piston crown and engine head in the zone around its spark plug). They give a real description of the end of combustion and by means of the oxides generated they rescue some information on the flame combustion and oxidizing zone preferential directions during the engine life.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-1959
Xiaomin Xie, Zhen Huang
This study provides an LCA of coal derived DME vehicle fuel cycle. Two DME production systems were evaluated, one is single DME production system, and the other is DME/IGCC cogeneration (polygeneration) system. The effects of CCS technology on energy use and GHG emissions were analyzed. For single DME production design, WTW total energy use and fossil energy is about 80% larger than that for petroleum diesel production, and increases life-cycle GHG emissions by more 200% relative to petroleum diesel. Results for DME/IGCC production design pathway from displacement method are almost the same with the petroleum diesel pathway. CCS incurs an energy penalty of 7-16%.
2011-04-15
WIP Standard
J2766
This recommended best practice outlines a method for estimating CO₂-Equivalent emissions using the GREEN-MAC-LCCP© (Global Refrigerants Energy and ENvironmental - Mobile Air Conditioning - Life Cycle Climate Performance) model (also referred to as "the model" in this standard).
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0797
Haitao Liao, Dan Zhang
The basic idea of accelerated life testing (ALT) is to expose test units of a product to harsher-than-normal operating conditions to expedite failures so that the failure time distribution of the product and the associated life-stress relationship can be determined in a short time period. However, ALT often consumes significant amounts of energy. To avoid waste of energy in a wide spectrum of product development processes, we explore a new experimental design methodology that improves the reliability estimation precision of an ALT experiment while minimizing the total energy consumption of the experiment. The resulting optimally designed ALT experiment depends not only on the reliability of the product to be tested but also on the characteristics of the test equipment and the capability of its controller. A numerical example is provided to demonstrate the use of the methodology in practice.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0796
D. Gary Harlow
Time dependent mechanical breakdown of materials has been a long-standing concern for structural components, and it is especially exacerbated by randomness in material properties, loading conditions, and other sources of uncertainty. A generalized phenomenological cumulative distribution function for lifetime, which is consistent with fundamentals of reliability theory, is presented. The form of the cdf includes a kernel that incorporates functions for time dependent loading, mechanical breakdown, and statistical behavior. The formalism is applicable for a variety of loading conditions including creep rupture, rate dependent tensile loading, and fatigue. Analysis of failure under stress histories such as variable stress amplitude or step-stress loadings is manageable as well. The model is a generalization of the classical accelerated life model in which covariates are included to account for physical attributes that directly influence component lifetime.
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