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2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0164
Jamy Li, Xuan Zhao, Mu-Jung Cho, Wendy Ju, Bertram F. Malle
Abstract Autonomous vehicles represent a new class of transportation that may be qualitatively different from existing cars. Two online experiments assessed lay perceptions of moral norms and responsibility for traffic accidents involving autonomous vehicles. In Experiment 1, 120 US adults read a narrative describing a traffic incident between a pedestrian and a motorist. In different experimental conditions, the pedestrian, the motorist, or both parties were at fault. Participants assigned less responsibility to a self-driving car that was at fault than to a human driver who was at fault. Participants confronted with a self-driving car at fault allocated greater responsibility to the manufacturer and the government than participants who were confronted with a human driver at fault did.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2016
Mohamed Khalil
In this paper the study is directed to a condition-based predictive maintenance concept as an alternative policy to determine a fleet's health, for increasing the fleet availability and to reduce the operating cost. The concept is based on predicting the system degradation by using an expert system. Therefore, the decision-maker can calculate the remaining lifetime for any mechanical system. These calculations help the decision-maker in making a repair or replacement decision in a suitable time. An application is presented herein on the cylinder kit components (piston, piston rings and liner) to illustrate the effectiveness of this technique. The results indicate that knowing the wear between the cylinder kit components in automotive engines is very important to plan the maintenance for making the repair or replacement decision in a suitable time.
2008-08-19
Technical Paper
2008-01-2257
Mark L. Mattioli, Richard B. Wickersham
Administrative burdens greatly restrict the availability of the FAA to participate fully in the certification process of new aircraft. Recent TC ODA regulations and a corresponding FAA Order authorizing manufacturers to assume a greater role in new aircraft certifications may lead to new and interesting product liability skies ahead for the aircraft industry. This article reviews the legal foundation of product defect lawsuits against the aircraft industry and proposes several risk management strategies to strengthen your litigation defenses.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-0122
Meinhard Erben, Wolf Günther, Tobias Sedlmeier
Defects in Software applications (e.g. driver assistance systems such as steering or braking assistance systems etc.) may have disastrous impacts on the relevant OEM as well as on their suppliers: Defective products may not only cause personal deaths or injuries, but also result in recall actions, producing high costs and causing material damage to the image of all companies involved. If the supplier of automotive software delivers standardized software in source code, the OEM is able to modify and/or extend the software. Then also the OEM may create bugs in the software. We will point out which contractual and organizational measures have to be implemented to deal with these risks. We will also deal with the question if and to what extent it is necessary and/or sufficient to meet the requirements of technical norms, e.g. IEC 61508 or Working Drafts (e.g. ISO/WD 26262 ‘Road vehicles - Functional safety’).
2006-10-16
Technical Paper
2006-21-0062
Paul H. Rubin, Joanna M. Shepherd
Theory is ambiguous as to the effect of tort reform on accidents and accidental deaths. There are factors that might lead such reforms to increase deaths, and factors that might lead to reduced deaths. Previous research on non-automotive accidents from 1980-2000 found that some reforms lead to increased deaths and some to reduced deaths; net, tort reforms led to about 24,000 fewer deaths. Here, we extend that research to examine motor vehicle deaths. There is an additional factor to consider in the case of automobile deaths. Tort reform would be expected to reduce the cost and so increase the incidence of automobile insurance. Other research has found that increased automobile insurance leads to increased deaths, and so tort reform might lead to increased deaths through this channel. As before, we find mixed results.
2004-10-18
Technical Paper
2004-21-0022
Paul Green
Driving workload managers continually assess the difficulty of driving and regulate the flow of information to drivers that could interfere with driving, such as automatically diverting an incoming phone call to an answering machine when a driver is turning at an intersection. This paper summarizes the pertinent crash and human performance literature, identifies the unique nature of telematics tasks, and describes likely workload manager architectures, applicable regulations, and current industry efforts. In addition to promoting telematics system safety and enhancing warning systems, research on workload managers is likely to advance the science of driving and provide many other safety benefits.
2003-11-18
Technical Paper
2003-01-3652
Rogério Martins, Márcio Gonçalves Pinto, Carlos Magno Mendonça, André Ribeiro Morais
NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness) is an important vehicle attribute and focus in every Product Development at OEM'S (Original Equipment Manufacturers). Pass-by Noise is one of these aspects in order to improve noise vehicle as a whole. As a result, this paper will show opportunities that Pass-by Noise test can get in a new development of Commercial Vehicles, presenting the methodology, NVH improvements, Quiet Truck and Frequency Analysis as well as Robustness of Noise Package Development. Moreover, the presentation will consider all the requirements and the advantages that Pass-by Noise can accomplish in a new Sound Package Development to meet a new Conama Resolution. The focus on this topic is to meet a new Governmental Regulation (CONAMA 272/2000) and consequently improve overall noise quality showing procedures that will accomplish targets of NVH.
2003-11-18
Technical Paper
2003-01-3649
Eugênio P. D. Coelho, Armin Von Der Haar, Ralf P. Schulz, Laércio Parro, Frank Casimir
Becoming a truly global company means more than becoming global in product offerings and sales. It requires even more than establishing and integrating global manufacturing operations. The truly global company in today's business environment must establish an integrated, global research and development activity, which has to be closely linked to global manufacturing and purchasing. This is required both to resource technologies effectively on a global basis and to respond to diverse customer needs in highly differentiated markets around the globe (1). This paper describes the steps of the Zetec RoCam engine, developed for markets around the globe. This product was introduced with specific features to the South American market in 1999 utilizing global engineering and manufacturing concepts.
2003-11-18
Technical Paper
2003-01-3582
Mauricio Kenji Yamamoto, Carlos Aurelio B. Gonçalves, Hugo Leonardo Konda, Luiz Henrique Borges, Helcio Onusic
In order to attend the more demanding expectations of the commercial vehicles customers, it is being looked for improvements in order to reach better comfort on driving. Among the systems that interact with the driver, the shifting system can be distinguished. The development of a commercial vehicle shifting system is getting complex, because besides making possible the gear changes, it should follow comfort, ergonomics and durability parameters, balancing the necessary robustness for heavy applications with the shift smoothness desired by the user. At the start of the development of commercial vehicles shifting systems, the concept to be applied is analyzed, defining the model. Then it starts the study of the system construction, according to layout parameters of the vehicle project. This stage is predominantly accomplished by computer models. Then the prototypes are manufactured, in which functional tests are made for refinement.
2003-11-18
Technical Paper
2003-01-3598
Joaquim A. De Arruda Pereira
To develop a Brake System focused on Customer Wants (and assure a good Customer Satisfaction Index), the New Fiesta development was based on benchmarking databank regarding Brake System. All Ford Competitors were measured to verify the main characteristics of Brake System for “B”segment vehicles, and the results were correlated with Customer Satisfaction Index. The main wants were good modulation, low pedal efforts, short pedal travels, high deceleration capability and high fading resistance. After analyzing all tests results and also considering the FORD DNA(for Braking), the objetive of the performance and feeling for the Brake system were cascaded to sub-systems and components. This allowed us to develop the components meeting our objectives, and finding the best compromise for pedal feeling and performance vs pads/linings durability.
2003-11-18
Technical Paper
2003-01-3610
Fabio Guilherme Ferraz, André Luis Cherman, Davi Silveira De Abreu, Rodrigo Soares
In the last years, vehicle vibroacoustics has expanded as a basic and applied research area. Structural dynamic methods and technologies have been used with great success by the automotive industry. Experimental modal analysis is the process of determining the modal parameters (modes, frequencies and damping factors) of a linear system. This work presents the modal analysis of the Amazon family cars in full vehicle configuration (drivable units). A full vehicle represents a more complex system when compared to the body only, due to the systems attached to it, increasing its damping and measurable noise, and including coupled local and global modes.
2003-11-18
Technical Paper
2003-01-3619
Edson Maldonado Peres
ARTICLE SUMMARY This article is the sintezis of vehicle development process, starting from its characteristics and included in a competitive market, and shows the dimensional optimization process application and validation using the GD&T by ASME 14.5 M. INDEX KEY WORDS INTRODUTION TECHNICAL GROUNDING STUDY EXAMPLE CHOICE PROCESS STUDY EXAMPLE APPLYING AND VALIDATING GD&T BY ASME 14.5M STANDARD STUDY EXAMPLE RESULTS FINAL CONSIDERATION APPENDIX BIBLIOGRAPHY
2003-11-18
Technical Paper
2003-01-3690
Ciro Batista Rosa
This paper is a discussion of the requirements for product qualification at the automotive sector, and presents a more specific methodology to the current version of ISO/TS-16949 specification. A tool known as Value Analysis/Value Engineering (VA/VE) is used to determine the essential functions of the product qualification process.
2003-11-18
Technical Paper
2003-01-3659
Marcelo da Silva Rocha, José Roberto Simões Moreira
In this work is presented an electric impedance sensor for measurement of the mass ratio of ethanol and regular gasoline blends. It was carried out a quantitative evaluation of the electric bulk conductivity of mixtures at several liquid-liquid mass ratios, with the goal of applications to automotive flexible-fuel injection systems. There is an apparent relationship between a non-dimensional conductivity parameter and the corresponding fuel mass ratio, which can be used for fuel mixture composition detection in real time, during the injection process. This work is following the Brazilian automotive industry trend of using flexible-fuel in automobiles.
2003-11-18
Technical Paper
2003-01-3672
Edgar Silva Mattos, Rubens Gehlen
The automotive industry suppliers are constantly looking forward to adapting their projects management system (new developments) to the quality management systems requirements, such as the standards QS 9000, ISO/TS 16949 e ISO 9000:2000 and specific requirements related to customers reference manuals. As these quality systems are always getting updated, to attend the ISO/TS 16949 (1st edition - 1999) technical specification requirements was defined as main purpose. It was necessary to undertake a comparison between ISO/TS 16949 and the common system used by GKN Driveline in its 46 Operations located in 20 countries to manage product launch on customer vehicle programmes; this system has the title Customer Application Programme Management - (CAPM). In order to reduce the amount of documentation to be fulfilled, a global investigation regarding the documentation used by CAPM management system and ISO/TS 16949 technical specifications was done.
2000-11-01
Technical Paper
2000-01-C006
K. A. P. C. van Wees
Especially in the United States, but also in Europe, product liability has often been identified as a possible constraint for the successful implementation of electronic driver support systems. This paper broadly examines product liability law in the United States and in Europe. There is a clear and striking difference in the level of litigation against producers, which is much higher in the United States than in Europe. Briefly assessing the concept of a defective product in both European and American law in relation to electronic driver support systems, it is concluded that the most important differences are probably not caused by diverging substantive product liability law rules but rather by other differences between the legal system in the US and in Europe.
1997-09-08
Technical Paper
972700
Anne M. Morgan
I suppose I should warn you that this is not a scholarly treatise on the merits of United States intellectual property law. The purpose of this article is to help you in your day-to-day work to understand the benefits of registering your intellectual property. Much of the basic work involved with registering copyrights can be done by a literate person with typing skills. Trademark law is more complex, and a good attorney can be very useful in the registration process. Of course, there may be other points in your life where an attorney could be useful, ie., if your situation is complicated or litigation is involved, but if everyone follows the rules, these instances can be greatly reduced.
1996-08-01
Technical Paper
961783
Stephen Acker
This paper describes subjects manufacturers should consider and procedures they can implement to document the design, production and modification of their products to improve the effectiveness of the defense of injury lawsuits arising from use of those products. These subjects include the product's design characteristics, safety devices, warnings, accompanying product literature, utility and cost. Documentation procedures include the choice of documents to be maintained, and their control and retrieval. Once lawsuits arise, there are also steps that defendant manufacturers should take to work most effectively with experts and claims personnel to successfully respond to such claims.
1993-10-01
Technical Paper
932350
Staffan Hedlund
In the sample test accounted for in this article, 650 cars of 18 different makes were inspected with respect to resistance against perforation corrosion. The method applied - that of sawing out body parts from collision-damaged cars and inspecting internal open surfaces and crevice surfaces - allows corrosion attack to be discovered at an early stage. The results show great differences in corrosion resistance between different makes of car. For some makes, severe crevice corrosion was found on three-year-old vehicles, whereas other makes included six-year-old vehicles without any severe attacks. The results also show that the makes with the best corrosion resistance had a favorable construction, combined with the use of precoated material with a certain thickness of the zinc or zinc-alloy layer and the use of anti-rust agents with good penetration properties.
1993-10-01
Technical Paper
932351
George Z. Libertiny
Vehicle corrosion costs the public billions of dollars each year. The severity of vehicle corrosion is strongly affected by the amount of salt to which the vehicles are exposed. The main sources of the salt causing vehicle corrosion are the atmosphere and road salting. Some geographical areas experience minimal corrosion problems, but in other areas the corrosion problems are more severe. Knowledge of the severity of corrosion in a given geographical area is important when decisions are made about corrosion prevention and when corrosion related recalls/modifications are initiated. The object of this paper is to review the existing literature on corrosiveness in various geographical areas and propose a rational corrosion severity map.
1993-03-01
Technical Paper
931016
Daniel G. Goodrich
The U.S. general aviation manufacturing industry has deteriorated almost to the point of extinction within the past decade. There are several factors potentially contributing to this deterioration; however, the escalation and unpredictability of product-liability costs are claimed to be the most significant. General aviation manufacturers are subject to the product-liability laws of each state. Efforts to reform this system have been underway since 1986. However, these efforts have been stymied by opponents whose primary concern is that the reform will not allow some accident victims to be properly compensated for their damages. There are immediate policy alternatives that will potentially alleviate the product-liability problem of the industry: General Aviation Accident Liability Standards Act, Product Liability Fairness Act, and state reform. Other alternatives that require further investigation include increased safety regulation and mandatory pilot liability insurance.
1992-09-01
Technical Paper
921712
Thomas J. Ayres, Madeleine M. Gross, Christine T. Wood, Roger L. McCarthy, JoAnn Weiss
Analysis of accident data can provide important information for product design and regulatory policy. This paper will identify and describe some major sources of data for off-highway vehicle accidents and will discuss the methods for handling those data. Several examples of risk analysis will be described in detail, including an accident mode analysis for tractors and a comparative risk analysis for occupational injuries.
1992-09-01
Technical Paper
921711
Kevin C. Breen, Zdenek Hejzlar
Accidents and injuries associated with the use of utility oriented equipment, by both commercial and consumer users, involve a broad range of factors. Analysis of these factors and their role in the risk of those activities can be useful to develop effective risk reduction strategies. Generally, these can be identified as mechanism (equipment), human (operator), and environmental factors. This paper briefly looks at the human factors and the human/environmental aspects of these systems. The human/environmental aspects deal with both the mechanical operating, and chemical related environments. Both are associated with certain types of risk.
1990-08-01
Technical Paper
901507
Kent Syverud
Intelligent Vehicle-Highway Systems (IVHS) may change the character of automobile accidents and of automobile accident lawsuits in the United States. Successful implementation of IVHS technology will require significant capital investment by manufacturers and highway departments. Investment may be deterred by concern about potential legal liability and the cost of liability insurance. Liability and insurance experience with other pathbreaking technologies -- commercial air transportation, nuclear power, and satellites -- suggests that the liability risks of advanced stages of IVHS technology should be managed through federal or state legislation.
1989-02-01
Technical Paper
890772
Laszlo Demeter
Due to the wide range of application of Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD & T) Standards, the present industry standard method of calculating Gauge Repeatability and Reproducibility (GR & R) error on gauges and fixtures providing variable data exhibiting two or three dimensional variation is no longer valid. The current R & R process, when applied to circular and/or spherical zones, creates a positional tolerancing error of up to 73% of the allowable upper to lower tolerance limits. This paper presents an analysis of current methods and demonstrates through example an improved approach that takes into account variation in three dimensions, departing from single axis positional tolerancing and moving to two axis representation and, for positional tolerances, circular and/or spherical zones.
1989-02-01
Technical Paper
890773
Donald W. Marquardt
The role of quality management is extremely broad, and within it falls the role of quality technology and statistical methods. This paper highlights four specific quality technologies that we employ widely far our process industry products at Du Pont. These technologies are relevant in the automotive industry. They are an extended concept of the quality loop process control using CUSUM the concept of a standard process o experimental strategy in relation to one key emphasis of Taguchi. A main theme is the relation of these technologies to the product life span and to several other quality technologies of current interest. It is timely to take advantage of the opportunities to cross-fertilize recent quality technology advances occurring in the automotive and the process industries.
1989-02-01
Technical Paper
890811
J. Nirdosh Reddy
In order to maximize customer satisfaction in today's global market place, the quality of products and services need to be improved continually. Increased focus on quality, with the attendant proliferation of methods and tools, has created the need for a comprehensive framework to guide the selection of the tools. Individuals within an organization need to know what tools are appropriate in a given situation, and when, where and how the knowledge gained from an effort should be documented. In addition, a common nomenclature to convey quality related information to each other would avoid confusion and improve the communication process thus improving the effectiveness and productivity of the organization. This paper integrates tools that have evolved recently with the old tools that have been in use for a number of years.
1988-11-01
Technical Paper
881575
Michael D. Kastensmidt
Product liability has been a federal congressional issue for over a decade. One major goal of federal legislation is to achieve national uniformity of product liability laws, which are currently determined by the individual states. Legislation is being considered in the light of increased litigation, higher costs, reduced insurance availability, and the adverse effect of liability on businesses. However, due to no decisive majority viewpoint, progress on national legislation has been slow. Manufacturers, insurers, and the executive branch support federal legislation-believing it will provide greater predictability and equity for the system. Consumer groups, plaintiffs' attorneys, and justices oppose federal legislation-believing it will take away rights of consumers, confuse a well established legal system, and undermine judicial authority. No significant progress is expected to be made at the federal level until congress sees an increased need for reform.
1987-10-01
Technical Paper
871937
R. W. Landgraf
An overview of the current status and emerging trends in durability-related technologies is presented as an introduction to a series of papers covering applications of durability analysis in design. Problems of information management associated with technology integration are discussed along with the probable impact of new design tools on product development and validation.
1987-10-01
Technical Paper
871941
Stephen A. Nolan, Nigel A. Linden
Simulation technology for physical testing of structures with real-time servo-hydraulic test systems is used widely in the automotive industry. This paper presents a practical approach to shorten product development duration by integrating laboratory simulation technology into vehicle development methodology. The approach is applied to automotive body and suspension development, to provide design feedback and confidence at a very early stage in the development process. The paper includes an assessment of current and emerging simulation technologies in relevant areas.
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