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2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1477
Robert Larson, Jeffrey Croteau, Cleve Bare, John Zolock, Daniel Peterson, Jason Skiera, Jason R. Kerrigan, Mark D. Clauser
Abstract Extensive testing has been conducted to evaluate both the dynamic response of vehicle structures and occupant protection systems in rollover collisions though the use of Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs). Rollover test methods that utilize a fixture to initiate the rollover event include the SAE2114 dolly, inverted drop tests, accelerating vehicle body buck on a decelerating sled, ramp-induced rollovers, and Controlled Rollover Impact System (CRIS) Tests. More recently, programmable steering controllers have been used with sedans, vans, pickup trucks, and SUVs to induce a rollover, primarily for studying the vehicle kinematics for accident reconstruction applications. The goal of this study was to create a prototypical rollover crash test for the study of vehicle dynamics and occupant injury risk where the rollover is initiated by a steering input over realistic terrain without the constraints of previously used test methods.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1469
Yan Wang, Taewung Kim, Yibing Li, Jeff Crandall
Abstract Multibody human models are widely used to investigate responses of human during an automotive crash. This study aimed to validate a commercially available multibody human body model against response corridors from volunteer tests conducted by Naval BioDynamics Laboratory (NBDL). The neck model consisted of seven vertebral bodies, and two adjacent bodies were connected by three orthogonal linear springs and dampers and three orthogonal rotational springs and dampers. The stiffness and damping characteristics were scaled up or down to improve the biofidelity of the neck model against NBDL volunteer test data because those characteristics were encrypted due to confidentiality. First, sensitivity analysis was performed to find influential scaling factors among the entire set using a design of experiment.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1478
Michelle Heller, Sarah Sharpe, William Newberry, Alan Dibb, John Zolock, Jeffrey Croteau, Michael Carhart, Jason Kerrigan, Mark Clauser
Abstract Occupant kinematics during rollover motor vehicle collisions have been investigated over the past thirty years utilizing Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) in various test methodologies such as dolly rollover tests, CRIS testing, spin-fixture testing, and ramp-induced rollovers. Recent testing has utilized steer maneuver-induced furrow tripped rollovers to gain further understanding of vehicle kinematics, including the vehicle's pre-trip motion. The current study consisted of two rollover tests utilizing instrumented test vehicles and instrumented ATDs to investigate occupant kinematics and injury response throughout the entire rollover sequences, from pre-trip vehicle motion to the position of rest. The two steer maneuver-induced furrow tripped rollover tests utilized a mid-sized 4-door sedan and a full-sized crew-cab pickup truck. The pickup truck was equipped with seatbelt pretensioners and rollover-activated side curtain airbags (RSCAs).
2014-11-01
Book
This title carries the papers developed for the 2014 Stapp Car Crash Conference, the premier forum for the presentation of research in impact biomechanics, human injury tolerance, and related fields, advancing the knowledge of land-vehicle crash injury protection. The conference provides an opportunity to participate in open discussion the causes and mechanisms of injury, experimental methods and tools for use in impact biomechanics research, and the development of new concepts for reducing injuries and fatalities in automobile crashes. The topics covered this year include: • Head/brain biomechanics • Thorax, spine, and pelvis biomechanics • Overlap/angled frontal crash testing and real-world performance • Pedestrian and cyclist injury factors and testing • Rollover and side-impact crashes and computational modeling
2014-11-01
Book
This title carries the papers developed for the 2014 Stapp Car Crash Conference, the premier forum for the presentation of research in impact biomechanics, human injury tolerance, and related fields, advancing the knowledge of land-vehicle crash injury protection. The conference provides an opportunity to participate in open discussion the causes and mechanisms of injury, experimental methods and tools for use in impact biomechanics research, and the development of new concepts for reducing injuries and fatalities in automobile crashes. The topics covered this year include: • Head/brain biomechanics • Thorax, spine, and pelvis biomechanics • Overlap/angled frontal crash testing and real-world performance • Pedestrian and cyclist injury factors and testing • Rollover and side-impact crashes and computational modeling
2014-10-28
Standard
J383_201410
This SAE Recommended Practice specifies design recommendations for the location of seat belt assembly anchorages which will promote proper transfer of occupant restraint forces on the strongest parts of the human anatomy to the vehicle or seat structure. Test procedures are specified in SAE J384.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2383
Takahiko Yoshino, Hiromichi Nozaki
Abstract In recent years, the conversion of vehicles to electric power has been accelerating, and if a full conversion to electric power is achieved, further advancements in vehicle kinematic control technology are expected. Therefore, it is thought that kinematic performance in the critical cornering range could be further improved by significantly controlling not only the steering angle but also the camber angle of the tires through the use of electromagnetic actuators. This research focused on a method of ground negative camber angle control that is proportional to the steering angle as a technique to improve maneuverability and stability to support the new era of electric vehicles, and the effectiveness thereof was clarified. As a result, it was found that in the critical cornering range as well, camber angle control can control both the yaw moment and lateral acceleration at the turning limit.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-36-0264
Sueli Kratz, Tarcísio A. H. Coelho, Fernando D. Pereira
Abstract In order to have a windshield wiper system according to wiped area and kinematic behavior requirements since the early phases of vehicle development, this paper makes use of a MATLAB optimization function to optimize the windshield wiper system. The main goal is to achieve the maximum wiped area by optimizing wiper blades lengths and orientations. Parallel to that, constrains make the method finds the optimum kinematic design for the windshield wiper linkage in terms of mobility, available area to fix the linkage on body and the maximum range of the blades oscillatory motion. This optimization is applied on an existent windshield wiper system of a domestic passenger car to present the benefits of the developed model.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2405
Jiaqi Xu, Bradley Thompson, Hwan-Sik Yoon
Abstract Hydraulic excavators perform numerous tasks in the construction and mining industry. Although ground grading is a common task, proper grading cannot easily be achieved. Grading requires an experienced operator to control the boom, arm, and bucket cylinders in a rapid and coordinated manner. Due to this reason, automated grade control is being considered as an effective alternative to conventional human-operated ground grading. In this paper, a path-planning method based on a 2D kinematic model and inverse kinematics is used to determine the desired trajectory of an excavator's boom, arm, and bucket cylinders. Then, the developed path planning method and PI control algorithms for the three cylinders are verified by a simple excavator model developed in Simulink®. The simulation results show that the automated grade control algorithm can grade level or with reduced operation time and error.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0514
Hiroyuki Asanuma, Yukou Takahashi, Miwako Ikeda, Toshiyuki Yanaoka
Abstract Japanese accident statistics show that despite the decreasing trend of the overall traffic fatalities, more than 1,000 pedestrians are still killed annually in Japan. One way to develop further understanding of real-world pedestrian accidents is to reconstruct a variety of accident scenarios dynamically using computational models. Some of the past studies done by the authors' group have used a simplified vehicle model to investigate pedestrian lower limb injuries. However, loadings to the upper body also need to be reproduced to predict damage to the full body of a pedestrian. As a step toward this goal, this study aimed to develop a simplified vehicle model capable of reproducing pedestrian full-body kinematics and pelvis and lower limb injury measures. The simplified vehicle model was comprised of four parts: windshield, hood, bumper and lower part of the bumper. Several different models were developed using different combinations of geometric and stiffness representation.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0493
William R. Bussone, Michael Prange
Abstract Few studies have investigated pediatric head injury mechanics with subjects below the age of 8 years. This paper presents non-injurious head accelerations during various activities for young children (2 to 7 years old). Eight males and five females aged 2-7 years old were equipped with a head sensor package and head kinematics were measured while performing a series of playground-type activities. The maximum peak resultant accelerations were 29.5 G and 2745 rad/s2. The range of peak accelerations was 2.7 G to 29.5 G. The range of peak angular velocities was 4.2 rad/s to 22.4 rad/s. The range of peak angular accelerations was 174 rad/s2 to 2745 rad/s2. Mean peak resultant values across all participants and activities were 13.8 G (range 2.4 G to 13.8 G), 12.8 rad/s (range 4.0 rad/s to 12.8 rad/s), and 1375 rad/s2 (range 105 rad/s2 to 1375 rad/s2) for linear acceleration, angular velocity, and angular acceleration, respectively.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0527
William N. Newberry, Stacy Imler, Michael Carhart, Alan Dibb, Karen Balavich, Jeffrey Croteau, Eddie Cooper
Abstract It is well known from field accident studies and crash testing that seatbelts provide considerable benefit to occupants in rollover crashes; however, a small fraction of belted occupants still sustain serious and severe neck injuries. The mechanism of these neck injuries is generated by torso augmentation (diving), where the head becomes constrained while the torso continues to move toward the constrained head causing injurious compressive neck loading. This type of neck loading can occur in belted occupants when the head is in contact with, or in close proximity to, the roof interior when the inverted vehicle impacts the ground. Consequently, understanding the nature and extent of head excursion has long been an objective of researchers studying the behavior of occupants in rollovers.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0086
Masashi Tsushima, Eiichi Kitahara, Taichi Shiiba, Takumi Motosugi
The adoption of the electronic controlled steering systems with new technologies has been extended in recent years. They have interactions with other complex vehicle subsystems and it is a hard task for the vehicle developer to find the best solution from huge number of the combination of parameter settings with track tests. In order to improve the efficiency of the steering system development, the authors had developed a steering bench test method for steering system using a Hardware-In-the-Loop Simulation (HILS). In the steering HILS system, vehicle dynamics simulation and the tie rod axial force calculation are required at the same time in the real-time simulation environment. The accuracy of the tie rod axial force calculation is one of the key factors to reproduce the vehicle driving condition. But the calculation cannot be realized by a commercial software for the vehicle dynamics simulation.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0522
Chinmoy Pal, Tomosaburo Okabe, Kulothungan Vimalathithan, Jeyabharath Manoharan, Muthukumar Muthanandam, Satheesh Narayanan
Abstract A logistic regression analysis of accident cases in the NASS-PCDS (National Automotive Sampling System-Pedestrian Crash Data Study) database clearly shows that pedestrian pelvis injuries tend to be complex and depend on various factors such as the impact speed, the ratio of the pedestrian height to that of the bonnet leading edge (BLE) of the striking vehicle, and the gender and age of the pedestrian. Adult female models (50th %ile female AF50: 161 cm and 61 kg; 5th %ile female AF05: 154 cm and 50 kg) were developed by morphing the JAMA 50th %ile male AM50 and substituting the pelvis of the GHBMC AM50 model. The fine-meshed pelvis model thus obtained is capable of predicting pelvis fractures. Simulations conducted with these models indicate that the characteristics of pelvis injury patterns in male and female pedestrians are influenced by the hip/BLE height ratio and to some extent by the pelvis bone shape.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0484
Bryan Randles, Daniel Voss, Isaac Ikram, Christopher Furbish, Judson Welcher, Thomas Szabo
Determination of vehicle speed at the time of impact is frequently an important factor in accident reconstruction. In many cases some evidence may indicate that the brake pedal of a striking vehicle was disengaged, and the vehicle was permitted to idle forward prior to impacting the target vehicle. This study was undertaken to analyze the kinematic response of various vehicles equipped with automatic transmissions while idling, with the transmissions in drive and the brake pedals disengaged. An array of sedans, SUV's and pickup trucks were tested under 3 roadway conditions (flat, medium slope and high slope). The vehicle responses are reported and mathematical relationships were developed to model the idle velocity profiles for flat and sloped roadway surfaces.
2013-12-20
Journal Article
2013-01-9003
Gaurav Bindal, Sparsh Sharma, Frank Janser, Eugen Neu
Body motions of flying animals can be very complex, especially when the body parts are greatly flexible and they interact with the surrounding fluid. The wing kinematics of an animal flight is governed by a large number of variables and thus the measurement of complete flapping flight is not so simple, making it very complex to understand the contribution of each parameter to the performance and hence, to decide the important parameters for constructing the kinematic model of a bat is nearly impossible. In this paper, the influence of each parameter is uncovered and the variables that a specified reconstruction of bat flight should include in order to maximally reconstruct actual dimensional complexity, have been presented in detail. The effects of the different kinematic parameters on the lift coefficient are being resulted.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1242
Yasuhiro Dokko, Toshiyuki Yanaoka, Kazuki Ohashi
Corresponding to the increasing need for the protection of elderly people from traffic accidents, the authors have been developing age-specific human FE models capable of predicting body kinematics and skeletal injuries for younger adult (35y.o.) and the elderly (75y.o.). The models have been developed and validated part by part referring to the literature and then integrated into whole bodies. Validation had been conducted in order of single bones, components and whole body. Whole body kinematics in frontal impact had been validated against the PMHS frontal belt restrained sled tests series, resulting in good biofidelity scores. In this study, the models were validated for lateral impact. The models were validated against several impact tests of body regions from ISO-TR9790 and against recently published full scale lateral sled tests for whole body kinematics. In most cases, the results showed good biofidelity of the models.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0683
Scott Zagorski, Dennis A. Guenther, Gary J. Heydinger
This paper presents a feedback linearization control technique as applied to a Roll Simulator. The purpose of the Roll Simulator is to reproduce in-field rollovers of ROVs and study occupant kinematics in a laboratory setting. For a system with known parameters, non-linear dynamics and trajectories, the feedback linearization algorithm cancels out the non-linearities such that the closed-loop dynamics behave in a linear fashion. The control inputs are computed values that are needed to attain certain desired motions. The computed values are a form of inverse dynamics or feed-forward calculation. With increasing system eigenvalue, the controller exhibits greater response time. This, however, puts a greater demand on the translational actuator. The controller also demonstrates that it is able to compensate for and reject a disturbance in force level.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0215
Yoshiko Kawabe, Chinmoy Pal, Hiroyuki Okuyama, Tomosaburo Okabe
The Flexible Pedestrian Legform Impactor (Flex-PLI) was developed to evaluate the risk of pedestrian lower extremity injuries. However, it has been pointed out that the post-crash kinematics of the Flex-PLI differs from those of a human body when it is hit by high-bumper vehicles. This paper describes the feasibility of applying the Flex-PLI to a wide range of vehicle types by adding a supplemental weight. The following aspects are discussed in this regard: A human body finite element (FE) model analysis shows that the upper body of the Flex-PLI is not involved in tibia and knee ligament injury indexes in the first contact with a high-bumper vehicle. A rigid bar model is introduced and its rotational energy ratio is formulated. The rotational energy ratio is employed to evaluate the post-crash kinematics of the Flex-PLI and a human leg model. The feasibility of adding a supplemental weight to the Flex-PLI with regard to the bumper height is discussed.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0216
Bingbing Nie, Yong Xia, Qing Zhou, Jun Huang, Bing Deng, Mark Neal
This study concerns the generation of response surfaces for kinematics and injury prediction in pedestrian impact simulations using human body model. A 1000-case DOE (Design of Experiments) study with a Latin Hypercube sampling scheme is conducted using a finite element pedestrian human body model and a simplified parametric vehicle front-end model. The Kriging method is taken as the approach to construct global approximations to system behavior based on results calculated at various points in the design space. Using the response surface models, human lower limb kinematics and injuries, including impact posture, lateral bending angle, ligament elongation and bone fractures, can be quickly assessed when either the structural dimensions or the structural behavior of the vehicle front-end design change. This will aid in vehicle front-end design to enhance protection of pedestrian lower limbs.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0599
Kazuya Iwata, Kaoru Tatsu, Hidetsugu Saeki, Tomosaburo Okabe
A new highly biofidelic side impact dummy, the WorldSID 50th percentile male, has been developed under the supervision of the International Organization for Standardization in order to harmonize a number of existing side impact dummies in one single dummy. Momentum is growing for using the WorldSID in safety tests in the EU and the US. In the present study, two Euro-NCAP pole side impact tests were conducted to compare ES-2 and WorldSID responses in a mid-size SUV with respective seating positions as stipulated in the Euro-NCAP test conditions and fitted with the same side airbag. It was found that, compared with ES-2, the chest, abdomen and pelvis accelerations of WorldSID are more sensitive to variation in the applied external load transmitted by the deployed side airbag and door intrusion.
2012-10-05
Standard
J1574/1_201210
The parameters measured according to this SAE Recommended Practice will generally be used in simulating directional control performance in the linear range. (The “linear range” is the steady-state lateral acceleration below which steering wheel angle can generally be considered to be linearly related to lateral acceleration.) But they may be used for certain other simulations (such as primary ride motions), vehicle and suspension characterization and comparison, suspension development and optimization, and processing of road test data. This document is intended to apply to passenger cars, light trucks, and on-highway recreational and commercial vehicles, both non-articulated and articulated. Measurement techniques are intended to apply to these vehicles, with alterations primarily in the scale of facilities required.
2012-05-11
Standard
J1460/1_201205
This series of reports provides response characteristics of the head, face, neck, shoulder, thorax, lumbar spine, abdomen, pelvis, and lower extremities. In each report, the descriptions of human impact response are based on data judged by the subcommittee to provide the most appropriate information for the development of human surrogates.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0570
Mark S. Erickson
Dynamic simulation is routinely used to analyze the occupant response to motor vehicle impact. That said, while commercially-available models have been subjected to numerous high-severity level validation studies, little attention has been given to lower severity crashes. While high severity crashes typically result in more severe injury, the vast numbers of lower severity “fender bender” type crashes and the ensuing high medical costs warrant study related to biomechanics and vehicle design. The scope of this study is directed at addressing the validity of these models for analyzing occupant response to collinear rear impact involving delta-V less than 5 mph. As part of this study, a series of five vehicle-to-vehicle collisions with instrumented volunteer occupants were performed with closing speeds of 1.1, 1.9, 2.9, 4.0 and 5.1 mph. These impacts produced delta-V, for the target vehicle, of 0.6, 1.8, 2.5, 3.1 and 3.2 mph, respectively.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0565
Yuichi Ito, Yasuhiro Dokko, Yasuki Motozawa, Fumie Mori, Kazuki Ohashi
Recently, the global increase of elderly vehicle users has become an issue to be considered in the effort of enhancing safety performance of vehicle restraint system. It is thought that an evaluation tool for the system representing properties of age-specific human body will play a major role for that. In previous research, the authors had developed age-specific component finite element (FE) models for the lower limb, lumbar spine, and thorax representing the adult and elderly occupants. However, the models have not been validated in terms of full body kinematics. It is essential for such models to be validated in terms of full body kinematics in order to ensure validity of the results of the assessment of the safety performance of restraint systems. In the present research, the adult and elderly occupant full body FE models were developed by incorporating the lower limb, lumbar spine and thorax of the adult and elderly FE models established in previous research.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0080
Takashi Deguchi, Akira Yamaguchi, Kaoru Tatsu, Tomosaburo Okabe
Occupant protection performance in frontal crashes has been developed and assessed for mainly front seat occupants over many years, and in recent years protection of rear seat occupants has also been extensively discussed. Unlike the front seats, the rear seats are often occupied by children seated in rear- facing or forward - facing child restraint systems, or booster seats. In the European New Car Assessment Program (NCAP), child occupant protection assessments using 18-month-old and 3-year-old test dummies in the rear seat are already being conducted. In addition, studies are under way concerning the development and introduction of test dummies of 6-year-old (6YO) and 10.5-year-old children. In this study, we focused on 6-year-old children sitting in belt-positioning booster seats. Offset frontal crash tests were conducted using two types of test dummies, a Hybrid III 6YO and a 6YO Q-series dummy (Q6), positioned in the rear seat.
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