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Viewing 1 to 30 of 624
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1462
Haiyan Li, Xin Jin, Hongfei Zhao, Shihai Cui, Binghui Jiang, King H. Yang
Computational human body models, especially detailed finite element models are suitable for investigation of human body kinetic responds and injury mechanisim. A real-world lateral vehicle-tree impact accident was reconstructed by using finite element method according to the accident description in the CIREN database. At first, a baseline vehicle FE model was modified and validated according to the NCAP lateral impact test. The interaction between the car and the tree in the accident was simulated using LS-Dyna software. Patameters that affect the simulation results, such as the initial pre-crash speed, impact direction, and the initial impact location on the vehicle, was analyzed. The parameters were determined by matching the simulated vehicle body deformations and kinematics to the accident reports.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0407
Fei Huo, Huyao Wu
Abstract Biomechanics and biodynamics are increasingly focused on the automotive industry to provide comfortable driving environment, reduce driver fatigue, and improve passenger safety. Man-centered conception is a growing emphasis on the open design of automobile. During the long-term driving, occupational drivers are easily exposed to the neck pain, so it is important to reduce the muscle force load and its fatigue, which are not usually considered quantitatively during traditional ergonomics design, so standards related are not well developed to guide the vehicle design; On the other hand, the head-neck models are always built based on the statics theory, these are not sufficient to predict the instantaneous variation of the muscle force. In this paper, a head-neck model with multi DOFs is created based on multibody dynamics. Firstly, a driver-vehicle-road model considering driver multi-rigid body model, vehicle subsystems, and different ranks of pavement is built.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1562
Junyu Zhou, Chao Liu, Jan Kubenz, Günther Prokop
Abstract This paper describes a new hybrid algorithm for multibody dynamics in vehicle system dynamics which combines the advantages of both embedding technique algorithm and augmented formulation algorithm. An approach to vehicle dynamics modeling based on the hybrid algorithm is presented. Embedding technique algorithm has relatively small number of equations of motion. With help of this technique, an enhanced parametric vehicle dynamics model can be built, representing characteristic curves of suspension comprised in kinematic and compliance. Small number of equations enables the vehicle dynamics model to be simulated very efficiently. In comparison to embedding technique algorithm, the main benefit of augmented formulation algorithm is relatively simple for computer programming. With help of augmented formulation algorithm, the structure of the vehicle dynamic model can be easily extended.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1432
Tadasuke Katsuhara, Yoshiki Takahira, Shigeki Hayashi, Yuichi Kitagawa, Tsuyoshi Yasuki
Abstract This study used finite element (FE) simulations to analyze the injury mechanisms of driver spine fracture during frontal crashes in the World Endurance Championship (WEC) series and possible countermeasures are suggested to help reduce spine fracture risk. This FE model incorporated the Total Human Model for Safety (THUMS) scaled to a driver, a model of the detailed racecar cockpit and a model of the seat/restraint systems. A frontal impact deceleration pulse was applied to the cockpit model. In the simulation, the driver chest moved forward under the shoulder belt and the pelvis was restrained by the crotch belt and the leg hump. The simulation predicted spine fracture at T11 and T12. It was found that a combination of axial compression force and bending moment at the spine caused the fractures. The axial compression force and bending moment were generated by the shoulder belt down force as the driver’s chest moved forward.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1554
Ajith Jogi, Sujatha Chandramohan
Abstract Over the years, commercial vehicles, especially tractor-semitrailer combinations have become larger and longer. With the increasing demand for their accessibility in remote locations, these vehicles face the problem of off-tracking, which is the ensuing difference in path radii between the front and rear axles of a vehicle as it maneuvers a turn. Apart from steering the rear axle of the semitrailer, one of the feasible ways of mitigating off-tracking is to shift the fifth wheel coupling rearwards. However, this is limited by the distribution of the semitrailer’s load between the two axles of the tractor; any rearward shift of the fifth wheel coupling results in the reduction of the total static load on the tractor’s front axle and hence available traction. This may in turn lead to directional instability of the vehicle. In the present work, a new model of the fifth wheel coupling is proposed which the authors call Split fifth wheel coupling (SFWC).
2016-11-07
Technical Paper
2016-22-0006
John R. Humm, Narayan Yoganandan, Frank A. Pintar, Richard L. DeWeese, David M. Moorcroft, Amanda M. Taylor, Brian Peterson
The objective of the present exploratory study is to understand occupant responses in oblique and side-facing seats in the aviation environment, which are increasingly installed in modern aircrafts. Sled tests were conducted using intact Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) seated in custom seats approximating standard aircraft geometry. End conditions were selected to represent candidate aviation seat and restraint configurations. Three-dimensional head center-of-gravity linear accelerations, head angular velocities, and linear accelerations of the T1, T6, and T12 spinous processes, and sacrum were obtained. Three-dimensional kinematics relative to the seat were obtained from retroreflective targets attached to the head, T1, T6, T12, and sacrum. All specimens sustained spinal injuries, although variations existed by vertebral level.
2016-11-07
Technical Paper
2016-22-0017
Jason Stammen, Kevin Moorhouse, Brian Suntay, Michael Carlson, Yun-Seok Kang
When the Hybrid III 10-year old (HIII-10C) anthropomorphic test device (ATD) was adopted into Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 49 Part 572 as the best available tool for evaluating large belt-positioning booster seats in Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 213, NHTSA stated that research activities would continue to improve the performance of the HIII-10C to address biofidelity concerns. A significant part of this effort has been NHTSA’s in-house development of the Large Omnidirectional Child (LODC) ATD. This prototype ATD is comprised of (1) a head with pediatric mass properties, (2) a neck that produces head lag with Z-axis rotation at the atlanto-occipital joint, (3) a flexible thoracic spine, (4) multi-point thoracic deflection measurement capability, (5) skeletal anthropometry representative of a seated child, and (6) an abdomen that can directly measure belt loading.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0184
Eduardo Domingo Morales
Abstract The twist-beam suspension is widely used in vehicles due to the simplicity of its construction, less occupied space and its low manufacturing cost in comparison with multi-link suspension. The difficulties related to the design of a twist-beam axle concern the large number of possible configurations for twist-beam profile and the stiffness adjustment of axle beam and suspension arms. However, design process can be done with the aid of multibody dynamics simulations, by testing several configurations in a virtual way. In this work, a simplified twist-beam suspension model is studied, and the influence of variation of its parameters is analyzed in its elastokinematics behavior and in handling performance of a vehicle.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0182
Eduardo Domingo Morales
Abstract There are many variables involved in the design of a front suspension, such as hardpoints' coordinates, steering geometry or even an anti-roll bar, which could make design difficult and time consuming. The MacPherson strut, due to the simplicity of its construction, less occupied space and low manufacturing cost, is widely used in vehicles in contrast to double wishbone and multi-link suspensions. Although its tuning process still demands time, it can be done with the aid of multibody dynamics simulations, by testing several configurations in a virtual way. In this work, a front suspension model with MacPherson strut is studied, so that the influence of variation of its parameters is analyzed in its elastokinematics behavior and in handling performance of a vehicle.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8030
Dai Quoc Vo, Hormoz Marzbani, Mohammad Fard, Reza N. Jazar
Abstract As long as a tire steers about a titled kingpin pivot, the point coming in contact with the road moves along its perimeter. This movement affects the determination of kingpin moments caused by the tire forces, especially for large steering angles. The movement, however, has been neglected in the literature on the steerable-tire-kinematics-related topics. In this investigation, the homogeneous transformation is employed to develop a kinematic model of a steering tire in which the instantaneous ground-contact point on the tire is considered. The moments about the kingpin axis caused by tire forces are then computed based on the kinematics. A four-wheel-car model is constructed for determining the kingpin moment of steering system during the low-speed cornering maneuver. The result shows that the displacement of the ground-contact point along the tire perimeter is significant for large steering angles.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0334
Lucas e Silva, Tennakoon Mudiyanselage Tennakoon, Mairon Marques, Ana M. Djuric
Abstract A collaborative robot or cobot is a robot that can safely and effectively interact with human workers while performing industrial tasks. The ability to work alongside humans has increased the importance of collaborative robots in the automation industry, as this unique feature is a much needed property among robots nowadays. Rethink Robotics has pioneered this unique discipline by building many robots including the Baxter Robot which is exclusive not only because it has collaborative properties, but because it has two arms working together, each with 7 Degrees Of Freedom. The main goal of this research is to validate the kinematic equations for the Baxter collaborative robot and develop a unified reconfigurable kinematic model for the Left and Right arms so that the calculations can be simplified.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1516
Takahiro Suzaki, Noritaka Takagi, Kosho Kawahara, Tsuyoshi Yasuki
Abstract Approximately 20% of traffic fatalities in United States 2012 were caused by rollover accidents. Mostly injured parts were head, chest, backbone and arms. In order to clarify the injury mechanism of rollover accidents, kinematics of six kinds of Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD) and Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) in the rolling compartment, whose body size is 50th percentile male (AM50), were researched by Zhang et al.(2014) using rollover buck testing system. It was clarified from the research that flexibility of the backbone and thoracic vertebra affected to occupant’s kinematics. On the other hand, the kinematics research of body size except AM50 will be needed in order to decrease traffic fatalities. There were few reports about the researches of occupant kinematics using FE models of body sizes except AM50.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1506
David Poulard, Huipeng Chen, Matthew Panzer
Abstract Pedestrian finite element models (PFEM) are used to investigate and predict the injury outcomes from vehicle-pedestrian impact. As postmortem human surrogates (PMHS) differ in anthropometry across subjects, it is believed that the biofidelity of PFEM cannot be properly evaluated by comparing a generic anthropometry model against the specific PMHS test data. Global geometric personalization can scale the PFEM geometry to match the height and weight of a specific PMHS, while local geometric personalization via morphing can modify the PFEM geometry to match specific PMHS anatomy. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the benefit of morphed PFEM compared to globally-scaled and generic PFEM by comparing the kinematics against PMHS test results. The AM50 THUMS PFEM (v4.01) was used as a baseline for anthropometry, and personalized PFEM were created to the anthropometric specifications of two obese PMHS used in a previous pedestrian impact study using a mid-size sedan.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1487
Zhenhai Gao, Chuzhao Li, Hongyu Hu, Chaoyang Chen, Hui Zhao, Helen Yu
Abstract At the collision moment, a driver’s lower extremity will be in different foot position, which leads to the different posture of the lower extremity with various muscle activations. These will affect the driver’s injury during collision, so it is necessary to investigate further. A simulated collision scene was constructed, and 20 participants (10 male and 10 female) were recruited for the test in a driving simulator. The braking posture and muscle activation of eight major muscles of driver’s lower extremity (both legs) were measured. The muscle activations in different postures were then analyzed. At the collision moment, the right leg was possible to be on the brake (male, 40%; female, 45%), in the air (male, 27.5%; female, 37.5%) or even on the accelerator (male, 25%; female, 12.5%). The left leg was on the floor all along.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1456
Rini Sherony, Renran Tian, Stanley Chien, Li Fu, Yaobin Chen, Hiroyuki Takahashi
Abstract Many vehicles are currently equipped with active safety systems that can detect vulnerable road users like pedestrians and bicyclists, to mitigate associated conflicts with vehicles. With the advancements in technologies and algorithms, detailed motions of these targets, especially the limb motions, are being considered for improving the efficiency and reliability of object detection. Thus, it becomes important to understand these limb motions to support the design and evaluation of many vehicular safety systems. However in current literature, there is no agreement being reached on whether or not and how often these limbs move, especially at the most critical moments for potential crashes. In this study, a total of 832 pedestrian walking or cyclist biking cases were randomly selected from one large-scale naturalistic driving database containing 480,000 video segments with a total size of 94TB, and then the 832 video clips were analyzed focusing on their limb motions.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1486
Qi Zhang, Bronislaw Gepner, Jacek Toczyski, Jason Kerrigan
Abstract While over 30% of US occupant fatalities occur in rollover crashes, no dummy has been developed for such a condition. Currently, an efficient, cost-effective methodology is being implemented to develop a biofidelic rollover dummy. Instead of designing a rollover dummy from scratch, this methodology identifies a baseline dummy and modifies it to improve its response in a rollover crash. Using computational models of the baseline dummy, including both multibody (MB) and finite element (FE) models, the dummy’s structure is continually modified until its response is aligned (using BioRank/CORA metric) with biofidelity targets. A previous study (Part I) identified the THOR dummy as a suitable baseline dummy by comparing the kinematic responses of six existing dummies with PMHS response corridors through laboratory rollover testing.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1507
Jisi Tang, Qing Zhou, Bingbing Nie, Tsuyoshi Yasuki, Yuichi Kitagawa
Abstract Lower extremities are the most frequently injured body regions in vehicle-to-pedestrian collisions and such injuries usually lead to long-term loss of health or permanent disability. However, influence of pre-impact posture on the resultant impact response has not been understood well. This study aims to investigate the effects of preimpact pedestrian posture on the loading and the kinematics of the lower extremity when struck laterally by vehicle. THUMS pedestrian model was modified to consider both standing and mid-stance walking postures. Impact simulations were conducted under three severities, including 25, 33 and 40 kph impact for both postures. Global kinematics of pedestrian was studied. Rotation of the knee joint about the three axes was calculated and pelvic translational and rotational motions were analyzed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1518
Carolyn W. Roberts, Jacek Toczyski, Jack Cochran, Qi Zhang, Patrick Foltz, Bronislaw Gepner, Jason Kerrigan, Mark Clauser
Abstract Multiple laboratory dynamic test methods have been developed to evaluate vehicle crashworthiness in rollover crashes. However, dynamic test methods remove some of the characteristics of actual crashes in order to control testing variables. These simplifications to the test make it difficult to compare laboratory tests to crashes. One dynamic method for evaluating vehicle rollover crashworthiness is the Dynamic Rollover Test System (DRoTS), which simulates translational motion with a moving road surface and constrains the vehicle roll axis to a fixed plane within the laboratory. In this study, five DRoTS vehicle tests were performed and compared to a pair of unconstrained steering-induced rollover tests. The kinematic state of the unconstrained vehicles at the initiation of vehicle-to-ground contact was determined using instrumentation and touchdown parameters were matched in the DRoTS tests.
2015-11-09
Technical Paper
2015-22-0009
Meghan K. Howes, Warren N. Hardy, Amanda M. Agnew, Jason J. Hallman
High-speed biplane x-ray was used to research the kinematics of the small intestine in response to seatbelt loading. Six driver-side 3-point seatbelt simulations were conducted with the lap belt routed superior to the pelvis of six unembalmed human cadavers. Testing was conducted with each cadaver perfused, ventilated, and positioned in a fixed-back configuration with the spine angled 30° from the vertical axis. Four tests were conducted with the cadavers in an inverted position, and two tests were conducted with the cadavers upright. The jejunum was instrumented with radiopaque markers using a minimally-invasive, intraluminal approach without inducing preparation-related damage to the small intestine. Tests were conducted at a target peak lap belt speed of 3 m/s, resulting in peak lap belt loads ranging from 5.4-7.9 kN. Displacement of the radiopaque markers was recorded using high-speed x-ray from two perspectives.
2015-11-09
Technical Paper
2015-22-0003
Masami Iwamoto, Yuko Nakahira
Accurate prediction of occupant head kinematics is critical for better understanding of head/face injury mechanisms in side impacts, especially far-side occupants. In light of the fact that researchers have demonstrated that muscle activations, especially in neck muscles, can affect occupant head kinematics, a human body finite element (FE) model that considers muscle activation is useful for predicting occupant head kinematics in real-world automotive accidents. In this study, we developed a human body FE model called the THUMS (Total HUman Model for Safety) Version 5 that contains 262 one-dimensional (1D) Hill-type muscle models over the entire body. The THUMS was validated against 36 series of PMHS (Post Mortem Human Surrogate) and volunteer test data in this study, and 16 series of PMHS and volunteer test data on side impacts are presented. Validation results with force-time curves were also evaluated quantitatively using the CORA (CORrelation and Analysis) method.
2015-11-09
Technical Paper
2015-22-0008
Jérôme Uriot, Pascal Potier, Pascal Baudrit, Xavier Trosseille, Philippe Petit, Olivier Richard, Sabine Compigne, Mitsutoshi Masuda, Richard Douard
Sled tests focused on pelvis behavior and submarining can be found in the literature. However, they were performed either with rigid seats or with commercial seats. The objective of this study was to get reference tests to assess the submarining ability of dummies in more realistic conditions than on rigid seat, but still in a repeatable and reproducible setup. For this purpose, a semi-rigid seat was developed, which mimics the behavior of real seats, although it is made of rigid plates and springs that are easy to reproduce and simulate with an FE model. In total, eight PMHS sled tests were performed on this semi-rigid seat to get data in two different configurations: first in a front seat configuration that was designed to prevent submarining, then in a rear seat configuration with adjusted spring stiffness to generate submarining. All subjects sustained extensive rib fractures from the shoulder belt loading.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1469
Yan Wang, Taewung Kim, Yibing Li, Jeff Crandall
Abstract Multibody human models are widely used to investigate responses of human during an automotive crash. This study aimed to validate a commercially available multibody human body model against response corridors from volunteer tests conducted by Naval BioDynamics Laboratory (NBDL). The neck model consisted of seven vertebral bodies, and two adjacent bodies were connected by three orthogonal linear springs and dampers and three orthogonal rotational springs and dampers. The stiffness and damping characteristics were scaled up or down to improve the biofidelity of the neck model against NBDL volunteer test data because those characteristics were encrypted due to confidentiality. First, sensitivity analysis was performed to find influential scaling factors among the entire set using a design of experiment.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1477
Robert Larson, Jeffrey Croteau, Cleve Bare, John Zolock, Daniel Peterson, Jason Skiera, Jason R. Kerrigan, Mark D. Clauser
Abstract Extensive testing has been conducted to evaluate both the dynamic response of vehicle structures and occupant protection systems in rollover collisions though the use of Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs). Rollover test methods that utilize a fixture to initiate the rollover event include the SAE2114 dolly, inverted drop tests, accelerating vehicle body buck on a decelerating sled, ramp-induced rollovers, and Controlled Rollover Impact System (CRIS) Tests. More recently, programmable steering controllers have been used with sedans, vans, pickup trucks, and SUVs to induce a rollover, primarily for studying the vehicle kinematics for accident reconstruction applications. The goal of this study was to create a prototypical rollover crash test for the study of vehicle dynamics and occupant injury risk where the rollover is initiated by a steering input over realistic terrain without the constraints of previously used test methods.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1478
Michelle Heller, Sarah Sharpe, William Newberry, Alan Dibb, John Zolock, Jeffrey Croteau, Michael Carhart, Jason Kerrigan, Mark Clauser
Abstract Occupant kinematics during rollover motor vehicle collisions have been investigated over the past thirty years utilizing Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) in various test methodologies such as dolly rollover tests, CRIS testing, spin-fixture testing, and ramp-induced rollovers. Recent testing has utilized steer maneuver-induced furrow tripped rollovers to gain further understanding of vehicle kinematics, including the vehicle's pre-trip motion. The current study consisted of two rollover tests utilizing instrumented test vehicles and instrumented ATDs to investigate occupant kinematics and injury response throughout the entire rollover sequences, from pre-trip vehicle motion to the position of rest. The two steer maneuver-induced furrow tripped rollover tests utilized a mid-sized 4-door sedan and a full-sized crew-cab pickup truck. The pickup truck was equipped with seatbelt pretensioners and rollover-activated side curtain airbags (RSCAs).
2014-11-10
Technical Paper
2014-22-0014
David Poulard, Damien Subit, John-Paul Donlon, David J. Lessley, Taewung Kim, Gwansik Park, Richard W. Kent
The objective of the study was to analyze independently the contribution of pre-impact spine posture on impact response by subjecting a finite element human body model (HBM) to whole-body, lateral impacts. Seven postured models were created from the original HBM: one matching the standard driving posture and six matching pre-impact posture measured for each of six subjects tested in previously published experiments. The same measurements as those obtained during the experiments were calculated from the simulations, and biofidelity metrics based on signals correlation were established to compare the response of HBM to that of the cadavers. HBM responses showed good correlation with the subject response for the reaction forces, the rib strain (correlation score=0.8) and the overall kinematics. The pre-impact posture was found to greatly alter the reaction forces, deflections and the strain time histories mainly in terms of time delay.
2014-11-10
Technical Paper
2014-22-0003
Victor S. Alvarez, Peter Halldin, Svein Kleiven
Pedestrians are one of the least protected groups in urban traffic and frequently suffer fatal head injuries. An important boundary condition for the head is the cervical spine, and it has previously been demonstrated that neck muscle activation is important for head kinematics during inertial loading. It has also been shown in a recent numerical study that a tensed neck musculature also has some influence on head kinematics during a pedestrian impact situation. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence on head kinematics and injury metrics during the isolated time of head impact by comparing a pedestrian with relaxed neck and a pedestrian with increased tonus. The human body Finite Element model THUMS Version 1.4 was connected to head and neck models developed at KTH and used in pedestrian-to-vehicle impact simulations with a generalized hood, so that the head would impact a surface with an identical impact response in all simulations.
2014-11-10
Technical Paper
2014-22-0012
Qi Zhang, David J. Lessley, Patrick Riley, Jacek Toczyski, Jack Lockerby, Patrick Foltz, Brian Overby, Jeremy Seppi, Jeff R. Crandall, Jason R. Kerrigan
Rollover crashes are a serious public health problem in United States, with one third of traffic fatalities occurring in crashes where rollover occurred. While it has been shown that occupant kinematics affect the injury risk in rollover crashes, no anthropomorphic test device (ATD) has yet demonstrated kinematic biofidelity in rollover crashes. Therefore, the primary goal of this study was to assess the kinematic response biofidelity of six ATDs (Hybrid III, Hybrid III Pedestrian, Hybrid III with Pedestrian Pelvis, WorldSID, Polar II and THOR) by comparing them to post mortem human surrogate (PMHS) kinematic response targets published concurrently; and the secondary goal was to evaluate and compare the kinematic response differences among these ATDs.
2014-11-10
Technical Paper
2014-22-0011
David J. Lessley, Patrick Riley, Qi Zhang, Patrick Foltz, Brian Overby, Sara Heltzel, Mark Sochor, Jeff Crandall, Jason R. Kerrigan
The objective of the current study was to characterize the whole-body kinematic response of restrained PMHS in controlled laboratory rollover tests. A dynamic rollover test system (DRoTS) and a parametric vehicle buck were used to conduct 36 rollover tests on four adult male PMHS with varied test conditions to study occupant kinematics during the rollover event. The DRoTS was used to drop/catch and rotate the test buck, which replicated the occupant compartment of a typical mid-sized SUV, around its center of gravity without roof-to-ground contact. The studied test conditions included a quasi-static inversion (4 tests), an inverted drop and catch that produced a 3 g vertical deceleration (4 tests), a pure dynamic roll at 360 degrees/second (11 tests), and a roll with a superimposed drop and catch produced vertical deceleration (17 tests). Each PMHS was restrained with a three-point belt and was tested in both leading-side and trailing-side front-row seating positions.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2405
Jiaqi Xu, Bradley Thompson, Hwan-Sik Yoon
Abstract Hydraulic excavators perform numerous tasks in the construction and mining industry. Although ground grading is a common task, proper grading cannot easily be achieved. Grading requires an experienced operator to control the boom, arm, and bucket cylinders in a rapid and coordinated manner. Due to this reason, automated grade control is being considered as an effective alternative to conventional human-operated ground grading. In this paper, a path-planning method based on a 2D kinematic model and inverse kinematics is used to determine the desired trajectory of an excavator's boom, arm, and bucket cylinders. Then, the developed path planning method and PI control algorithms for the three cylinders are verified by a simple excavator model developed in Simulink®. The simulation results show that the automated grade control algorithm can grade level or with reduced operation time and error.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2383
Takahiko Yoshino, Hiromichi Nozaki
Abstract In recent years, the conversion of vehicles to electric power has been accelerating, and if a full conversion to electric power is achieved, further advancements in vehicle kinematic control technology are expected. Therefore, it is thought that kinematic performance in the critical cornering range could be further improved by significantly controlling not only the steering angle but also the camber angle of the tires through the use of electromagnetic actuators. This research focused on a method of ground negative camber angle control that is proportional to the steering angle as a technique to improve maneuverability and stability to support the new era of electric vehicles, and the effectiveness thereof was clarified. As a result, it was found that in the critical cornering range as well, camber angle control can control both the yaw moment and lateral acceleration at the turning limit.
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