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Technical Paper
2014-01-15
Waleed Faris, Hesham Rakha, Salah A.M. Elmoselhy
Climate change due to greenhouse gas emissions has led to new vehicle emissions standards which in turn have led to a call for vehicle technologies to meet these standards. Modeling of vehicle fuel consumption and emissions emerged as an effective tool to help in developing and assessing such technologies, to help in predicting aggregate vehicle fuel consumption and emissions, and to complement traffic simulation models. The paper identifies the current state of the art on vehicle fuel consumption and emissions modeling and its utilization to test the environmental impact of the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS)’ measures and to evaluate transportation network improvements. The study presents the relevant models to ITS in the key classifications of models in this research area. It demonstrates that the trends of vehicle fuel consumption and emissions provided by current models generally do satisfactorily replicate field data trends. It shows as well that microscopic modeling is the most accurate type of vehicle fuel consumption and emissions modeling and macroscopic modeling is most helpful in estimating aggregate emissions inventories.
Technical Paper
2013-10-07
Carlos Bustamante, Eduard Mateu, Jesús Hernández, Álvaro Arrúe
By using telecommunications, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) improve traffic safety and efficiency, facilitating an integral transport of people and goods. Even with the benefits obtained through ITS Systems nowadays, significant innovations will take place in the following years such as the ubiquitous and integral use of computer vision, or the development and future implementation of Cooperative ITS (C-ITS) that will allow a direct communication between vehicles (Vehicle-to-Vehicle, V2V) and with the roadside elements (Vehicle-to-Infrastructure, V2I) by means of mobile and wireless communication. In this context, the INTELVIA project was implemented, with the clear objective of developing ITS technologies and Intelligent Human-Machine Interfaces (HMI) to obtain the advantages of using information and communication technologies in the field of road transport and traffic management.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Tang Xinpeng
Two vehicles non-cooperation differential game model of the vehicle automatic tracking was established and the corresponding optimization control algorithm was proposed using the differential game's theory. Based on this method, the simulation was carried out with high speed ISO Lane Change, Sine Steer and low speed circular motion. The preliminary study result indicated that applied differential game's theory in the vehicles automatic tracking's research was completely feasible; the computation accuracy was also satisfying.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Mohamad Abdul-Hak, Youssef Bazzi, Oliver Cordes, Nizar Alholou, Malok alamir
Vehicles equipped with wireless communication technology, “Dedicated Short Range Communication” are a promising field for fuel optimization navigation applications. This paper presents a vehicle routing methodology modeled as a Petri Net (PN) for optimizing travel time and vehicle emission in a connected roadway network with minimal total traffic capacity to route vehicle in a dynamically changing traffic environment, and in an optimal and predictive manner. The novel unfolded PN model presented in this paper incorporates the essential features in Dynamic Programming (DP) to solve the stochastic traffic routing problem. The effectiveness of the proposed eco-friendly navigation methodology is validated by comparing the performance with conventional travel time based navigation methods.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Jan-Mou Li, Zhiming Gao
It is rare for an attempt towards optimization at the fleet-level when consideration is given to the sheer number of seemingly unpredictable interactions among vehicles and infrastructure in congested urban areas. To close the gap, we introduce a simulation based framework to explore the impact of speed synchronization on fuel economy improvement for fleets in traffic. The framework consists of traffic and vehicle modules. The traffic module is used to simulate driver behavior in urban traffic; and the vehicle module is employed to estimate fuel economy. Driving schedule is the linkage between these two modules. To explore the impact, a connected vehicle technology sharing vehicle speed information is used for better fuel economy of a fleet including six vehicles. In all scenarios analyzed, the leading vehicle operates under the EPA Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS), while the other five vehicles follow the leader consecutively. Every follower in the fleet was governed by a driver behavior model and their desired speeds may be adjusted according to received speed information of the leading vehicle.
Technical Paper
2012-10-08
Eric Chan
Vehicles are increasingly being sold with partially automated systems in order to improve fuel consumption, safety or driver convenience. The SARTRE project is an EU FP7 project which brings together seven companies to explore how road trains, or platoons, can continue the trend of automation to bring benefits to fuel consumption, safety, congestion and driver convenience. In order to enable the introduction of such systems in the near future, the project is assuming that no changes to the road infrastructure will be required, and that any systems added to the vehicles are either already in production or are close to being in production. This paper provides an overview of the project and presents some of the preliminary results.
Technical Paper
2012-10-08
Alberto Broggi
Many successful implementations of intelligent vehicles are using laser based technology to perceive the area around the vehicle, providing a dense 3D point cloud covering an extended range. However, such technology is still too expensive to be a candidate for series production, and its integration requirements are hardly compatible with cost and style constraints dictated by the mainstream automotive market. On the other hand computer vision is reaching close enough results in terms of sensing performance to be a viable alternative. Vision also brings additional advantages such as a much lower price and straighforward integration options. This paper presents a comparison of these two technologies.
Technical Paper
2011-09-11
Pinak Tulpule, Vincenzo Marano, Giorgio Rizzoni
Energy management plays a key role in achieving higher fuel economy for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technology; the state of charge (SOC) profile of the battery during the entire driving trip determines the electric energy usage, thus determining the fuel consumed. The energy management algorithm should be designed to meet all driving scenarios while achieving the best possible fuel economy. The knowledge of the power requirement during a driving trip is necessary to achieve the best fuel economy results; performance of the energy management algorithm is closely related to the amount of information available in the form of road grade, velocity profiles, trip distance, weather characteristics and other exogenous factors. Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) allow vehicles to communicate with one another and the infrastructure to collect data about surrounding, and forecast the expected events, e.g., traffic condition, turns, road grade, and weather forecast. The ability to effectively interpret this traffic and weather data to estimate the power demand is important for the energy management and plays crucial role in the battery utilization.
Technical Paper
2011-05-17
Gaku Sone
Nissan LEAF that is a new model of an Electric Vehicle has dedicated IT system as standard equipment. Concept of this IT system, Services provided to owners and technical solutions to be introduced.
Technical Paper
2010-10-05
Rachana Ashok Gupta, Wesley Snyder, W Shepherd Pitts
This paper develops a novel integrated navigational system for autonomous vehicle motion control. Vehicle control is defined in terms of the required vehicle steering angle, rate of steering change and speed. This paper proposes predictive control in the image plane. The proposed predictive control enables the navigation on the desired path, reduces the control complexity and increases the application space for multiple types of vehicles. The paper investigates vehicle control stability; especially in scenarios containing varying curvature turns and variable vehicle speeds. The primary emphasis of this paper is on vehicle control rather than scene analysis. To demonstrate the proposed vehicle control, a computer vision based multi-lane detection algorithm is introduced. The control strategy is applied such that the vehicle maintains position within the lane boundaries. Stability of the control algorithm is tested and demonstrated in multiple scenarios using 3-D simulation results.
Technical Paper
2009-04-20
Alexander E. Smith
An innovative program is described to improve emergency vehicle deployment by automatically alerting all other nearby vehicles on the road as to the presence and intention of the emergency vehicle. Since the use of audible sirens has somewhat marked effectiveness nowadays, in selecting the most practical automated method to notify most drivers a review is given of the various data-links that are available today, including plans for new standards. The research presented concludes that use of today’s newer vehicle data-links is currently ineffective due to the fragmentation and, in many cases, low adoption rates, including satellite radio, HD and conventional radio, automatic cruise control radar, and vehicle telematics. None of the newer digital data-links in use today are each capable of reaching more than a few percent of all users on the road, so a notification system that relies on breaking through or working on these channels will have very limited effectiveness, practical implementation issues aside.
Technical Paper
2009-04-20
Danny Gangapersaud
Car navigation systems are evolving to support a host of new functions, including vehicle location and navigation capabilities, and are fast becoming the brain of the car, where entertainment, safety and autonomous driving converge. Increased functionalities require higher- performance processors—and studies have shown that as operating frequency increases to provide higher performance, power consumption drastically increases. Further, as semiconductor technologies move to smaller process nodes to achieve higher performance, operating and leakage power also increase due to the low voltage-threshold (VT) transistors and high operating voltages. As a result, the need for thermal dissipation becomes a bottleneck in high-frequency silicon designs. To support the requirements of these emerging navigational hubs, OEMs are requiring electronic components that offer greater functionality while consuming little power. This paper will describe a single-chip system LSI solution optimized with a symmetric multicore processor (SMP) to support the high-performance needs of evolving automotive navigational systems.
Technical Paper
2009-04-20
Gao Zhenhai, Guo Jian, Deng Guohui
Research of Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) is an important issue of intelligent vehicle (IV). As we all known, a real and experienced driver can control vehicle's speed very well under every traffic environment of ACC working. So a direct and feasible way for establishing ACC controller is to build a human-like longitudinal control algorithm with the simulation of driver behavior of speed control. In this paper, a novel fuzzy self-tuning control algorithm of ACC is established and this controller's parameters can be tuned on-line based on the evaluation indexes that can describe how the driver consider the quality of dynamical characteristic of vehicle longitudinal dynamics. With the advantage of the controller's parameter on-line self-tuning, the computational workload from matching design of ACC controller is also efficiently reduced. The simulation results show that this algorithm can realize traditional ACC function such as following and cut-in and show good adaptable for the strong nonlinear of high-speed vehicle dynamics and robustness for the change of driving condition, such as different wind, load and gear ratio.
Technical Paper
2009-04-20
Keiko Katsuragawa, Daisuke Saitoh, Takeshi Oono, Minoru Tomikashi
Natural speech contains a wide variety of expressions, making it much more difficult to recognize than specified verbal commands. We have developed a method using a language model template to generate language models capable of recognizing manifold expressions. This template method is designed on the basis of the modification structure of keywords. The evaluation results for a language model generated with this method showed that it allowed 630,000 command patterns with a high recognition rate of 96%. The results also revealed that the processing speed and memory used for speech recognition with this language model were at a practical level.
Technical Paper
2009-04-20
Tae-Kyung Moon, Jun-Nam Oh, Hyuck-Min Na, Pal-Joo Yoon
In this paper, we present the integration of C2C communication into IAV. Traditional IAV detects target vehicles only they are in visible area; however this integration makes IAV to sense target vehicles even they are blocked by obstacles. In this system, C2C ECU keeps monitoring the target vehicles on the road and sends a warning to IAV controller when it detects any event or risky situation. Finally IAV avoids the collision with the target vehicle by reducing the moving speed or generating a new path.
Technical Paper
2009-04-20
Gao Zhenhai, Wang Bing
Vehicle lane keeping system is becoming a new research focus of drive assistant system except adaptive cruise control system. As we all known, vehicle lateral dynamics show strong nonlinear and time-varying with the variety of longitudinal velocity, especially tire’s mechanics characteristic will change from linear characteristic under low speed to strong nonlinear under high speed. For this reason, the traditional PID controller and even self-tuning PID controller, which need to know a precise vehicle lateral dynamics model to adjust the control parameter, are too difficult to get enough accuracy and the ideal control quality. Based on neural network’s ability of self-learning, adaptive and approximate to any nonlinear function, an adaptive PID control algorithm with BP neural network self-tuning online was proposed for vehicle lane keeping. The results of the simulation running in different lane curvature under different velocities show this algorithm can effectively control vehicle to keep the target trajectory and has good robustness and adaptability for vehicle lateral nonlinear dynamics during the changing of velocity and path curvature.
Technical Paper
2009-04-20
Eric C. Sauck
At the forefront of intelligent vehicle technologies are vehicle-to-vehicle communication (V2V) and vehicle-infrastructure integration (VII). Their capabilities can be added to currently-available systems, such as adaptive cruise control (ACC), to drastically decrease the number and severity of collisions, to ease traffic flow, and to consequently improve fuel efficiency and environmental friendliness. There has been extensive government, industry, and academic involvement in developing these technologies. This paper explores the capabilities and challenges of vehicle-based technology and examines ways that policymakers can foster implementation at the federal, state, and local levels.
Technical Paper
2009-04-20
David A. Coovert, Gary J. Heydinger, Ronald A. Bixel, Dale Andreatta, Dennis A. Guenther, Anmol S. Sidhu, David R. Mikesell
This paper describes the design and implementation of the SEA, Ltd. Brake and Throttle Robot (BTR). Presented are the criteria used in the initial design and the development and testing of the BTR, as well as some test results achieved with the device. The BTR is designed for use in automobiles and light trucks. It is based on a servomotor driven ballscrew, which in turn operates either the brake or accelerator. It is easily portable from one vehicle to another and compact enough to fit even smaller vehicles. The BTR is light enough so as to have minimal effect on the measurement of vehicle parameters. The BTR is designed for use as a stand-alone unit or as part of a larger control system such as the Automated Test Driver (ATD) yet allows for the use of a test driver for safety, as well as test selection, initiation, and monitoring. Installation in a vehicle will be described, as well as electronic components that support the BTR. Operational modes and controls will be examined, followed by testing and results.
Technical Paper
2009-04-20
Shunji Miyahara, Kenneth Freeman, Anatoli Koulinitch, Kevin Tiedje
A practical and low cost Blind Spot Monitoring system is proposed. By using a single camera, the range and azimuth position of a vehicle in a blind spot are measured. The algorithm is based on the proposed RWA (Range Window Algorithm). The camera is installed on the door mirror and monitoring the side and rear of the host vehicle. The algorithm processes the image and identifies range and azimuth angle of the vehicle in the adjacent lane. This algorithm is applied to real situations. The 388 images including several kinds of vehicles are analyzed. The detection rate is 86% and the range accuracy is 1.6[m]. The maximum detection range is about 30[m].
Technical Paper
2009-04-20
Christian Lundquist, Thomas B. Schön
There are more and more systems emerging making use of measurements from a forward looking radar and a forward looking camera. It is by now well known how to exploit this data in order to compute estimates of the road geometry, tracking leading vehicles, etc. However, there is valuable information present in the radar concerning stationary objects, that is typically not used. The present work shows how radar measurements of stationary objects can be used to obtain a reliable estimate of the free space in front of a moving vehicle. The approach has been evaluated on real data from highways and rural roads in Sweden.
Technical Paper
2009-04-20
Azim Eskandarian, Damoon Soudbakhsh, Johann Moreau, Julien Karcher
An active torque control steering system is developed and implemented in a car simulator. The simulator has a comprehensive and accurate full vehicle dynamics and road/environment models. A simple model of the driving simulator’s vehicle was developed and a PID controller, which uses the vehicle’s yaw angle, and position, was designed to control vehicle steering torque. The controller is then integrated with the driving simulator program, emulating the real world conditions. The developed system was tested in various obstacle avoidance and lane change scenarios in the car simulator, and the vehicle was able to avoid the stationary obstacles autonomously.
Technical Paper
2009-04-20
Yilu Zhang, William C. Lin, Yuen-Kwok Steve Chin
By adapting vehicle control systems to the skill level of the driver, the overall vehicle active safety provided to the driver can be further enhanced for the existing active vehicle controls, such as ABS, Traction Control, Vehicle Stability Enhancement Systems. As a follow-up to the feasibility study in [1], this paper provides some recent results on data-driven driving skill characterization. In particular, the paper presents an enhancement of discriminant features, the comparison of three different learning algorithms for recognizer design, and the performance enhancement with decision fusion. The paper concludes with the discussions of the experimental results and some of the future work.
Technical Paper
2009-04-20
King Tin Leung, James Whidborne, David Purdy, Alain Dunoyer
This paper uses data from a GPS/INS integrated device to investigate the feasibility of estimating vehicle states using a consumer grade GPS and INS. The GPS data is sampled at 1Hz to represent a consumer grade GPS. This data is then fused with INS data in a dual Kinematic Kalman Filter (KKF). The first KKF (yaw KKF) predicts heading angle, bias in gyroscope and sideslip angle. The second KKF (velocity KKF) predicts longitudinal and lateral velocities as well as the accelerometer biases. Due to the multirate sampling, discontinuities in the estimated states occur, hence, a line interpolation algorithm of two different orders (i.e. linear and quadratic) are implemented into the KKF. Results show that the algorithm is able to reduce the discontinuities in the velocity predictions but with an increase in error when the sideslip saturates.
Technical Paper
2008-10-20
Patrick Curley
Market forces are in place for widespread inclusion of features that make automobiles more aware of their surroundings, and take various degrees of action depending upon the situation, to become common in the next five to ten years. Technology is in place: digital maps with slope, curvature, and lane information; sensors and cameras found on more and more vehicles and on more and more roadways; and the demands of consumers themselves, grappling with high fuel prices, traffic congestion and high accident rates, are beginning to realize the role technology can play to make both them and the vehicle better aware of their surroundings, and how that information can contribute to both safety and fuel efficiency.
Technical Paper
2008-10-20
Toyohei (Tony) Nakajima
As demand for an accident free society intensifies, people have come to look to new technologies for solutions. This has facilitated development of a variety of advanced driver assist systems (ADAS). However, despite existing technologies, due to lack of standardizations and inability to asses the value of a system which cannot be understood without test driving, customers are left unable to make appropriate decisions when determining what kind of features to purchase. Furthermore, not all vehicles offer the same options. If we are to tackle the challenges from the customer's point of view, we must establish a standardized performance criterion that will help customers and furthermore challenge the auto industry to healthy competition by establishing clear playing fields. This paper will discuss possible solutions and suggestions for the industry to create an accident free society.
Technical Paper
2008-10-20
William B. Hanna, Glenn R. Widmann
Both Crash-Avoidance and Pre-Crash active safety technologies are being developed to help reduce the number of crashes and minimize the severity of crashes. The root basis in the development of new and improved active safety technologies always begins with gaining further knowledge about crash kinds and causes. The dynamics of crashes are quite complex. The evolving precursor crash situation initiated in the Crash-Avoidance time-period will vary from the imminent crash situation in the Pre-Crash time-period. As such, in order to develop the appropriate requirements for both crash-avoidance and pre-crash technologies, they must be analyzed from their respective crash data. A data-driven methodology process has been developed which partitions the field data with a perspective to crash-avoidance and pre-crash. To support this methodology, a unique set of limited number of “fundamental” crash categories will be defined, in which the field data can be sorted to quantify the respective crash frequency rates and associated crash conditions.
Technical Paper
2008-10-20
Masao Fukushima
In order to reduce traffic accidents and ease traffic congestion utilizing ITS (Intelligent Transportation System), a large-scale FOT (Field Operational Test) involving 2,000 ordinary drivers was launched in October 2006 in the city of Yokohama in Kanagawa, Japan. The test is slated to continue through March 2009. Target applications include Intersection Collision Avoidance using V-I (Vehicle-to-Infrastructure) communication, ISA (Intelligent Speed Advisory) using digital maps in the vehicle navigation system, and the probe system, which provides detailed traffic information. In this paper, the progress of this FOT will be introduced.
Technical Paper
2008-10-20
James A. Misener
The VII California testbed and proof of concept development is an emerging collaborative testbed with partners drawn from public, private and academic sectors. The goals are multiple and evolving: first, to inform Statewide and regional stakeholders and research participants on the value of Vehicle-Infrastructure Integration (VII) mobility and safety applications in the San Francisco Bay Area context, then progressively, to serve as a VII Development Test Environment (DTE) for unique elements of the Proof of Concept (POC) experiments for the viability assessment and finally, to serve as a launching point for applications development and testing for selected VII services. A consistent goal, however, is use of the testbed to develop and eventually enact safety services using Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC). It was at this testbed that intersection signal phase and timing interfaces for multiple controller types were developed and intersection geometry description messages were first tested; moreover, it is at this testbed that DSRC-enabled curve overspeed warning concept was first tested.
Technical Paper
2008-10-20
Yukinobu Nakamura
The paper describes the main topics of the new guideline, which we call “3.0 version”. We executed the road tests to analyze driver's workload of various operations to the navigation system. As a result, the guideline regulated the upper limit of the Total Glance Time (TGT) 8 seconds. And we proposed a bench test which is called the Occlusion method using a LCD shutter goggle instead of road tests. In the occlusion method, 7.5 seconds of the Total Shutter Open Time (TSOT) corresponds to 8 seconds of the TGT. This is the first step of JAMA in achieving numerical criteria for in-Vehicle Display Systems. JAMA will continue to work towards the optimal guideline.
Technical Paper
2008-10-20
Ralph Bruder, Bettina Abendroth, Muriel Didier, Michael Schreiber, Margeritta von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff
As a consequence of the integration of additional systems to support and entertain drivers and passengers the interactions with those systems become more and more time consuming and distracting. It is therefore a basic requirement for the design of Human Machine-Interfaces to minimize the distraction from driving when interacting with those new assistance and entertainment systems. Whereas the safety is a Must-be for the design of HMI for automobiles the joy-of-use is an important aspect for the excitement of drivers. To fulfil the sometimes conflicting demands for safety and pleasure a human centred design approach for HMI design is needed.
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