Abstract This paper focuses on factors that enhance energy efficiency of air conditioning system on mid-sized, standard and premium buses with engine power from 125 to 280 HP. It covers aspects like light weighting of roof air conditioning system, usage of optimized ducting system with minimal resistance to blowers, deployment of rotary scroll compressor with fast idle control in place of reciprocating piston compressor. The scope of this paper covers AC compressors driven by main engine of vehicle/ bus, study related to auxiliary/donkey engine driven AC compressor is not considered. Context- In order to enhance fuel efficiency in buses an energy efficient air conditioning system should be deployed. This will lead to reduced parasitic load on the engine and translate into direct fuel saving.
Abstract Recent trends in vehicle occupant protection have led to renewed interest in the perception of Roominess such as headroom, shoulder room and foot room etc. Occupants head room in vehicles is currently measured using tools, procedures and definitions described in SAE J1052 and J1100. “Head Position Contours” defined in SAE J1052 are useful in establishing accommodation requirements for head space . With respect to the Indian Anthropometry database, the head position contour as per SAE J1052 will not be appropriate with Indian population. With this objective in mind a head movement envelope is generated using the software - RAMSIS Digital manikin. RAMSIS is widely used by Automobile Manufacturers for Digital Human Modeling. The head movement envelope is a collation of different movements of head during driving condition.
Abstract Automotive floor carpet serves the purpose of insulating airborne noises like road-tire noise, transmission noise, fuel pump noise etc. Most commonly used automotive floor carpet structure is- molded sound barrier (PE, vinyl etc.) decoupled from the floor pan with an absorber such as felt. With increasing customer expectations and fuel efficiency requirements, the NVH requirements are increasing as well. The only possible way of increasing acoustic performance (Specifically, Sound Transmission Loss, STL) in the mentioned carpet structure is to increase the barrier material. This solution, however, comes at a great weight penalty. Theoretically, increasing the number of decoupled barrier layers greatly enhances the STL performance of an acoustic packaging for same weight. In practice, however, this solution presents problems like- ineffectiveness at lower frequencies, sudden dip in performance at modal frequencies.
This SAE Recommended Practice describes head position contours and procedures for locating the contours in a vehicle. Head position contours are useful in establishing accommodation requirements for head space and are required for several measures defined in SAE J1100. Separate contours are defined depending on occupant seat location and the desired percentage (95 and 99) of occupant accommodation. This document is primarily focused on application to Class A vehicles (see SAE J1100), which include most personal-use vehicles (passenger cars, sport utility vehicles, pick-up trucks). A procedure for use in Class B vehicles can be found in Appendix B.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) addresses the information content for the electronic presentation of data linked weather Meteorological (MET) information used in the cockpit. It defines guidelines for the electronic presentation of MET information (including text, graphics, textures, icons, and symbology) to the flight crew. This ARP is applicable to certified equipment for the electronic display (whether installed or portable) of MET information in the cockpit. This ARP also provides a set of symbols that illustrate the depiction of data linked MET information on flight deck display systems such as Navigation Displays, Multi-function Displays, and Electronic Flight Bags. These recommendations complement standard symbology guidelines for airborne applications already in existence (see reference section for applicable documents).
This SAE Recommended Practice applies to refrigerant blends (multicomponent refrigerants) intended for use as retrofit refrigerants to replace CFC-12 (R-12) in mobile air-conditioning (A/C) systems. Since the composition of non-azeotropic refrigerant mixtures changes as refrigerant is lost, either through the vapor phase or the liquid phase, the method of charging A/C systems is important. The purpose of this document is to determine the proper refrigerant phase, liquid or vapor, for system charging by relating system performance changes to the charging method. This document is complete only when combined with the requirements of SAE J1657.
This SAE standard applies to self-propelled driver operated sweepers and scrubbers as defined in SAE J2130-1. 1.1 Purpose The purpose of this document is to establish the basic requirements associated with controls and displays for dual position driving controls as depicted in a typical installation shown in Figure 1. The control layout illustrated being of a conventional installation as associated with a normal on-road vehicle having a steering wheel to steer the machine and foot pedals to control the speed and braking functions. The document elaborates the requirements for an originally built machine with two driving positions but also where a proprietary commercial truck chassis is converted from a single driving position, it also advises recommendations in design, construction and safety related elements.
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) indicates those dimensions, deemed critical by the manufacturer to assure proper mating of disconnect hose fittings. The dimensions are critical, but not necessarily complete, in defining these fittings since there are other criteria which must also be met.
This document is a guide to the application of magnesium alloys to aircraft interior components including but not limited to aircraft seats. It provides background information on magnesium, its alloys and readily available forms such as extrusions and plate. It also contains guidelines for “enabling technologies” for the application of magnesium to engineering solutions including: machining, joining, forming, cutting, surface treatment, flammability issues, and designing from aluminum to magnesium.
Plastic composite parts outnumber bio-based material vehicle applications, but "green" projects are making inroads by overcoming various hurdles.
This SAE Standard applies only to spark plugs used for ground vehicles and stationary engines. This document is intended to serve as a guide to dimensions common to the majority of current production spark plugs and future applications. It is not the intent of this document to prohibit the manufacture of spark plugs having dimensions differing from those presented. Many applications exist which require specialized or nonstandard spark plugs. It is recommended that this document be used in spark plug design and engine applications wherever possible. Whenever design situations arise that prevent the use of one of these standard spark plugs, a spark plug manufacturer should be contacted for guidance. Figures 1 to 13 and Tables 1A to 6 show typical configurations of unshielded and shielded spark plug designs, their dimensional characteristics, installation, threaded hole, and spark plug thread sizes.
Procedure for Certification that Requirements for Mobile Air Conditioning System Components, Service Equipment, and Service Technician Training Meet SAE J Standards
This SAE Standard provides manufacturers, testing facilities and providers of technician training with a procedure for certifying compliance with the appropriate standards. Manufacturers or seller who advertise their products as Certified to an SAE J standard shall follow this procedure. Certification of a product is voluntary; however, this certification process is mandatory for those advertising meeting SAE Standard(s) requirements. Only certifying to this standard allows those claiming compliance to advertise that their product (unit), component, or service meets all requirements of the specific SAE standard. Certification of compliance to this and the appropriate standard and use of the SAE label on the product shall only be permitted after all the required information has been submitted to SAE International and it has been posted on the SAE web site.
Ford recently unveiled its Sync 3 in-car infotainment system that will launch in select vehicles next year. In this episode of SAE Eye on Engineering, Senior Editor Lindsay Brooke looks at Ford's new system and its improvements over the previous version.
Thermo Pro 90 and Thermo Pro 50 engine-off coolant heating systems from Webasto are designed for use in specialty commercial vehicles and off-highway equipment.
Performance Requirements for R-134a and R-1234yf Refrigerant Diagnostic Identifiers (RDI) for Use with Mobile Air Conditioning Systems
This SAE Standard applies to refrigerant identification equipment to be used for identifying refrigerant HFC-134a (R-134a) and HFO-1234yf (R-1234yf) refrigerant when servicing a mobile A/C system or for identifying refrigerant in a container to be used to charge a mobile A/C system. Identification of other refrigerants is the option of the equipment manufacturer, although it shall not misidentify refrigerants, per 3.2.
This SAE Recommended Practice provides a standardized test procedure for heavy-duty truck sleeper berth restraints to determine whether they meet the FMCSR 393.76(h) requirements.
This SAE Recommended Practice describes two-dimensional 95th percentile truck driver side view, seated stomach contours for horizontally adjustable seats (see Figure 1). There is one contour and three locating lines to accommodate male-to-female ratios of 50:50, 75:25, and 90:10 to 95:5.
This SAE Recommended Practice describes two-dimensional, 95th percentile truck driver, side view, seated shin-knee contours for both the accelerator operating leg and the clutch operating leg for horizontally adjustable seats (see Figure 1). There is one contour for the clutch shin-knee and one contour for the accelerator shin-knee. There are three locating equations for each curve to accommodate male-to-female ratios of 50:50, 75:25, and 90:10 to 95:5.
Toyota today called for a coordinated industry-wide joint initiative to independently test Takata airbag inflators that have been the subject of recent recalls by several automakers. "By combining our collective efforts behind a coordinated, comprehensive testing program, we believe we can achieve greater results.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) will specify what type night vision goggles are required, minimum requirements for compatible crew station lighting, aircraft exterior lighting such as anticollision lights and position/navigation lights that are "NVG compatible." Also, this document is intended to set standards for NVG utilization for aircraft so that special use aircraft such as the Coast Guard, Border Patrol, Air Rescue, Police Department, Medivacs, etc., will be better equipped to chase drug smugglers and catch illegal immigrants, rescue people in distress, reduce high-speed chases through city streets by police, etc. Test programs and pilot operator programs are required. For those people designing or modifying civil aircraft to be NVG compatible, the documents listed in 2.1.3 are essential.
The Automotive Seating Systems Report from IHS SupplierBusiness takes an in-depth look at the global seating market including the key changes currently underway in the industry and what the future holds for this sector. The report considers in-house seat manufacture and supply chain developments along with advances in safety, comfort and convenience. Fitment rates for various seat features such as powered and memory functions, lumbar support and massage have been increasing and will continue to do so as vehicle interiors become “smarter”. Much of the technology in today’s seats is electric or electronically driven, and can be remotely controlled via links on the dashboard or controllers located throughout the vehicle. The market is opening up to New Tier 1 suppliers as well as Tier 2 and specialist niche technology players, all of whom will intensify the competition for supplying the world’s leading seating companies.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers combustion heaters used in the following applications: a. Cabin heating (all occupied regions and windshield heating) b. Wing and empennage anti-icing c. Engine and accessory heating (when heater is installed as part of the aircraft) d. Aircraft de-icing
This recommended practice is a source of information for body and trim engineers and represents existing technology in the field of on-highway vehicle seating systems. It provides a more uniform system of nomenclature, definitions of functional requirements, and testing methods of various material components of motor vehicle seating systems.
Define and develop test parameters, test methods, measurements, and acceptable performance criteria for composite aircraft seat structures.
Oil debris monitoring in aero engines In a gas turbine engine, small particles or "chips" are generated at the point of wear, serving as an advanced warning that catastrophic failure will occur if the wear is not addressed. Health monitoring systems, such as oil debris monitoring, are used to find these small particles so that the wear can be resolved before it's too late. Indigenous powertrain development Customer needs and expectations on drivability, fuel economy, and safety has pushed Indian and multinational OEMs to think about the development of powertrains and gearboxes for local needs with global standards. The next wave of crash simulation As computing speed has improved and software itself has made significant speed and performance gains with each release, modeling tools are now quick enough to build high-quality, large, high-detail vehicle models in a very efficient manner.
Among the many premium interior features in the 2015 Hyundai Genesis is a “world-first” safety technology—an in-cabin CO2 sensor control system, located under the glove box, that combats occupant drowsiness.
This document provides guidance concerning the maintenance and serviceability of oxygen cylinders beginning with the quality of oxygen that is required, supplemental oxygen information, handling and cleaning procedures, transfilling and marking of serviced oxygen assemblies. This document attempts to outline in a logical sequence oxygen quality, serviceability and maintenance of oxygen cylinders.
Abstract The Instant Mileage Assistance (IMA), as the name indicates, is a system to guide the vehicle users to realize maximum fuel economy (mileage). This system is targeted to provide users with instantaneous mileage indication depending on the current driving pattern, correct gear operating zone (in case of a geared vehicle) through gear up/down shift assist indication and the accurate distance the vehicle can travel before the fuel tank is empty, thereby assisting the user in harnessing maximum fuel economy the vehicle can deliver and also safely reach the next refilling station. The instantaneous mileage is calculated by mapping the distance travelled by the vehicle and the respective amount of fuel consumed, during a particular period of time, and is displayed using an instrument cluster.
Abstract In this paper, a light-duty exhaust heat recovery heat exchanger prototype is proposed to enhance the heating capacity of an automobile cabin. Even though the prototype is a small and simple structure of offset fins installed on a double tube, it showed a heat recovery capacity of more than 800 W. Therefore, the prototype is expected to be used in vehicles such as recreational vehicles and light utility vehicles with a cabin roof. The prototype was compared with a mass-produced model in tests of heat transfer and pressure drop performance by using hot air and a coolant. The results showed that the overall heat transfer coefficient for the prototype exceeded that for the mass-produced model for a Reynolds number of less than 1500.
Development of Temperature Estimation Method of Whole Engine Considering Heat Balance under Vehicle Running Conditions
Abstract For detailed temperature estimates in the engine of a running motorcycle, newly researches were conducted on the method for calculation of temperature distribution using a three-dimensional (3D) thermal conductivity simulation after calculating the total balance of heat generation and heat dissipation of the engine using a one-dimensional (1D) thermal simulation. This project is targeted at air-cooled engines in which the cooling conditions vary significantly depending on the external shapes of the engines and the airflow around them. The heat balance is calculated using the 1D thermal simulation taking into account all the routes and processes for dissipation to the atmosphere of the heat that is generated by the combustion in the engine. The 1D engine cycle simulation is applied to calculate the heat transmission to the engine from the combustion. For the calculation of heat transfer within the engine, the engine components are converted to a one-dimensional model.