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Standard
2014-04-01
This SAE Recommended Practice provides the lighting function identification codes for use on all passenger vehicles, trucks, trailers, motorcycles, and emergency vehicles.
Collection
2014-04-01
This technical paper collection contains 23 papers covering the latest advancements in climate control.
Collection
2014-04-01
This technical paper collection focusses on state of the art simulation technologies for modeling thermal systems and their application in the development and optimization of vehicle thermal management and fuel economy. The papers included will range from empirical, 1D modeling methods to three dimensional CFD models as well as coupled methods.
Collection
2014-04-01
This technical paper collection focuses on current developments in the fields of vehicle fire science, statistics, risks, assessment and mitigation. Papers addressing vehicle design, live-fire tests and fire investigation issues applicable to traditional, electric and alternatively fueled vehicles are included.
Collection
2014-04-01
Proper thermal management can significantly contribute to overall system energy efficiency. This technical paper collection highlights the latest developments in thermal management energy efficiency.
Collection
2014-04-01
This technical paper collection features components used for thermal management. The papers address design, application and systems related topics.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Ludwig Brabetz, Mohamed Ayeb
For the prevention of technical risks and the optimum design of an electrical distribution system, considerable efforts have been made to implement thermal models of wires, bundles, and electromechanical components in order to improve thermal analysis. Unfortunately, in most cases, important input parameters such as the position of a wire within a bundle or the profiles of the currents are unknown. This leads to the use of worst-case scenarios, frequently providing unrealistic results and uneconomic over-dimensioning. The proposed approach is based on the thermal simulation of a large number of randomly-generated bundle configurations for given profiles of currents. Thus one gets a temperature distribution, allowing a much more precise analysis compared to a simple worst-case calculation. By applying the same method to various current profiles, one gets temperature distributions for each wire as a function of a normalized total bundle current. The finding is that statistics allow a very good thermal assessment despite unknown bundle configurations and current profiles.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Jason Lisseman, Lisa Diwischek, Stefanie Essers, David Andrews
The last years have seen an increasing amount of innovations in the functionality of car electronics (e.g. advanced driver assistant systems (ADAS) and in-vehicle infotainment systems (IVIS)). These electrical systems are not reserved for premium cars anymore, but additionally reach mid-size, compact, and subcompact cars. The growing number of functionalities in these cars entails increasing amount of interfaces, which may confuse, overload, or annoy the driver. Accompanying this, there is a trend towards the integration of capacitive touchscreens as user interfaces. These touchscreens were implemented first in consumer electronics and had a substantial impact on the way in which users interact with technology. This in turn has led to an increased user driven demand for the technology to be implemented in other domains, even in safety-critical ones like the automotive area. Capacitive touchscreens have certain drawbacks in their distraction potential and their usability, leading to safety-critical situations and negative user feedback.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Lijun Zhang, Hongzheng Cheng, Kun Diao, Cheng Ruan
To accurately and efficiently predict the temperature fields inside a lithium-ion battery is key technology for the enhancement of battery thermal management and the improvement of battery performances. The dimensional analysis method is applied to derive similarity criterions and the similarity coefficients of battery interior temperature fields, based on the governing partial differential equations describing the three dimensional transient temperature field. To verify the correctness of similarity criterions and the similarity coefficients, 3D finite element models of battery temperature field are established with a prototype and scale model, on the assumption that the battery cell has single-layer structure and multi-layers structure separately. The simulation results show that the similarity criterions and the similarity coefficients are correct. The calculation efficiency is checked to be much more efficient compared with FEM model based on the original cell structure in aspect of amount of resources occupied.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Scott Peck, Aditya Velivelli, Wilko Jansen
Integration of advanced battery systems into the next generation of hybrid and electric vehicles will require significant design, analysis, and test efforts. One major design issue is the thermal management of the battery pack. Analysis tools are being developed that can assist in the development of battery pack thermal design and system integration. However, the breadth of thermal design issues that must be addressed requires that there are a variety of analysis tools to address them efficiently and effectively. A set of battery modeling tools has been implemented in the thermal modeling software code PowerTHERM. These tools are coupled thermal-electric models of battery behavior during current charge and discharge. In this paper we describe the three models in terms of the physics they capture, and their input data requirements. We discuss where the capabilities and limitations of each model best align with the different issues needed to be addressed by analysis. Model outputs are compared with measured data for various analysis scenarios, including simulation of constant current charge/discharge, and response to charge/discharge profiles derived from a standard drive cycle, for both single cell and multi-cell pack configurations.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Rajiv Mehta, Mark Hadley
With the ever increasing pressure to improve the fuel economy of vehicles, there has been a corresponding interest in reducing the mass and size of vehicles. While mass is easily quantifiable, vehicle size, particularly the notion of “interior space” as perceived by the customer, is not. This paper explores different ways in which vehicle spaciousness can be quantified and explores new metrics based on customer verbatims. A novel ‘spaciousness calculator’ combines individual metrics to provide a singular holistic rating for spaciousness, useful during vehicle development. Beyond spaciousness, the paper discusses techniques to quantify the ‘packaging efficiency’ of a vehicle; this allows engineers to maximize the interior space for a given exterior size.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Mark Scibilia, Tim Giberson
As fuel prices continue to rise automotive manufacturers continue to push their suppliers to provide technology that improves the potential fuel efficiency of their applications. In addition there is an increasing trend towards smaller, lighter and more compact vehicles to mitigate the automotive carbon footprint. These movements necessitated the development of a new compact, low mass, variable displacement compressor to match the requirements for these smaller and more efficient vehicles. The new Delphi MVC, or Miniature Variable Compressor, meets these requirements by integrating the high efficiency of our latest swashplate variable compressor design into a compact and lightweight package. This design can be offered in a range of displacements from 80 to 100cc and can be offered as either internally or externally controlled to support the customer's needs.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Mingyu Wang, Edward Wolfe, Debashis Ghosh, Jeffrey Bozeman, Kuo-huey Chen, Taeyoung Han, Hui Zhang, Edward Arens
Traditional vehicle air conditioning systems condition the entire cabin to a comfortable range of temperature and humidity regardless of the number of passengers in the vehicle. The A/C system is designed to have enough capacity to provide comfort for transient periods when cooling down a soaked car. Similarly for heating, the entire cabin is typically warmed up to achieve comfort. Localized heating and cooling, on the other hand, focuses on keeping the passenger comfortable by forming a micro climate around the passenger. This is more energy efficient since the system only needs to cool the person instead of the entire cabin space and cabin thermal mass. It also provides accelerated comfort for the passenger during the cooling down periods of soaked cars. Additionally, the system adapts to the number of passengers in the car, so as to not purposely condition areas that are not occupied. The present paper reports on a fundamental study of localized cooling to achieve comfort in a vehicle environment.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Tibor Kiss, Jason Lustbader
The operation of air conditioning (A/C) systems is a significant contributor to the total amount of fuel used by light-and heavy-duty vehicles. Therefore, continued improvement of the efficiency of these mobile A/C systems is important. Numerical simulation has been used to reduce the system development time and to improve the electronic controls, but numerical models that include highly detailed physics run slower than desired for carrying out vehicle-focused drive cycle-based system optimization. Therefore, faster models are needed even if some accuracy is sacrificed. In this study, a validated model with highly detailed physics, the “Fully-Detailed” model, and two models with different levels of simplification, the “Quasi-Transient” and the “Mapped-Component” models, are compared. The Quasi-Transient model applies some simplifications compared to the Fully-Detailed model to allow faster model execution speeds. The Mapped-Component model is similar to the Quasi-Transient model except instead of detailed flow and heat transfer calculations in the heat exchangers, it uses lookup tables created with the Quasi-Transient model.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Steve De Vos, Kristian Haehndel, Torsten Frank, Frieder Christel, Sylvester Abanteriba
Modern exhaust systems contain not only a piping network to transport hot gas from the engine to the atmosphere, but also functional components such as the catalytic converter and turbocharger. The turbocharger is common place in the automotive industry due to their capability to increase the specific power output of reciprocating engines. As the exhaust system is a main heat source for the under body of the vehicle and the turbocharger is located within the engine bay, it is imperative that accurate surface temperatures are achieved. A study by K. Haehndel [1] implemented a 1D fluid stream as a replacement to solving 3D fluid dynamics of the internal exhaust flow. To incorporate the 3D effects of internal fluid flow, augmented Nusselt correlations were used to produce heat transfer coefficients. It was found that the developed correlations for the exhaust system did not adequately represent the heat transfer of the turbocharger. This paper addresses the fluid flow phenomena present in the turbine volute and applies augmented Nusselt correlations to accurately represent the heat transfer coefficients of the internal volute surface.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Alaa El-Sharkawy, Ahmed Uddin
In this paper, thermal models are developed based on experimental test data, and the physics of thermal systems. If experimental data is available, the data can be fitted to mathematical models that represent the system response to changes in its input parameters. Therefore, empirical models which are based on test data are developed. The concept of time constant is presented and applied to development of transient models. Mathematical models for component temperature changes during transient vehicle driving conditions are also presented. Mathematical models for climate control system warm up and cool-down are also discussed. The results show the significance of adopting this concept in analysis of vehicle test data, and in development of analytical models. The developed models can be applied to simulate the system or component response to variety of changes in input parameters. As a result, significant testing and simulation time can be saved during the vehicle development process.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Shenghan Jin, Predrag Hrnjak
The paper presents a semi-empirical model to predict refrigerant and lubricant inventory in both evaporator and condenser of an automotive air conditioning (MAC) system. In the model, heat exchanger is discretized into small volumes. Temperature, pressure and mass inventory are calculated by applying heat transfer, pressure drop and void fraction correlations to these volumes respectively. Refrigerant and lubricant are treated as a zeotropic mixture with a temperature glide. As refrigerant evaporates or condenses, thermophysical properties are evaluated accordingly with the change of lubricant concentration. Experimental data is used to validate the model. As a result, refrigerant and lubricant mass is predicted within 20% in the evaporator. However, in the condenser, lubricant mass was consistently under-predicted while refrigerant mass was predicted within 15% error. Moreover, the lubricant under-prediction becomes more significant at higher Oil Circulation Ratio (OCR). The analysis showed that the lubricant is separated from the flow in the condenser header and starts to accumulate in the bottom channels.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Rupesh Sonu Kakade
We propose a composite thermal model of the vehicle passenger compartment that can be used to predict and analyze thermal comfort of the occupants of a vehicle. Physical model is developed using heat flow in and out of the passenger compartment space, comprised of glasses, roof, seats, dashboard, etc. Use of a model under a wide variety of test conditions have shown high sensitivity of compartment air temperature to changes in the outside air temperature, solar heat load, temperature and mass flow of duct outlet air from the climate control system of a vehicle. Use of this model has subsequently reduced empiricism and extensive experimental tests for design and tuning of the automatic climate control system. Simulation of the model allowed several changes to the designs well before the prototype hardware is available. In addition to the reduced vehicle field tests and wind tunnel tests man hours and the cost associated with them, simulation of the model allowed for the greater potential benefits of increased accuracy and optimized heating and cooling of the passenger compartment to be achieved.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Yousof Azizi, Vaidyanadan Sundaram, Patricia Davies, Anil Bajaj
Flexible polyurethane foam is the main cushioning element used in car seats. Optimization of an occupied seat's static and dynamic behavior requires models of foam that are accurate over a wide range of excitation and pre-compression conditions. In this research, a method is described to estimate the parameters of a global model of the foam behavior from data gathered in a series of impulse tests at different settling points. The estimated model is capable of describing the responses gathered from all the impulse tests using a unique set of parameters. The global model structure includes a nonlinear elastic term and a hereditary viscoelastic term. The model can be used to predict the settling point for each mass used and, by expanding the model about that settling point, local linear models of the response to impulsive excitation can be derived. From this analysis the relationship between the local linear model parameters and the global model parameters is defined. A series of experiments are conducted using different sized masses on the foam block.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Mohammed K Billal, B V Moorthy, Dan Aquilina, Steven Schenten
Abstract A snap-fit is a form-fitting joint, which is used to assemble plastic parts together. Snap-fits are available in different forms like a projecting clip, thicker section or legs in one part, and it is assembled to another part through holes, undercuts or recesses. The main function of the snap-fit is to hold the mating components, and it should withstand the vibration and durability loads. Snap-fits are easy to assemble, and should not fail during the assembling process. Based on the design, these joints may be separable or non-separable. The non- separable joints will withstand the loads till failure, while separable joints will withstand only for the design load. The insertion and the retention force calculation for the snaps are very essential for snap-fit design. The finite element analysis plays a very important role in finding the insertion and the retention force values, and also to predict the failure of the snaps and the mating components during this process. The snap insertion and retention simulation is highly non-linear, due to the non-linear material behavior and contact between the mating components.
Article
2014-03-31
Southco expands its tilt display mount (T Series) product line with the AV-D25 mount basic that provides proven tilt positioning and offers a solution for moving heavy panels and displays.
Article
2014-03-31
Maximatecc introduces the CCpilot VC product platform featuring an efficient ARM core, advanced software platform and readable 5-in (127-mm) display.
Article
2014-03-31
A comprehensive range of Isobus virtual terminal designs from American Industrial Systems are suitable for special applications on off-highway vehicles.
Standard
2014-03-31
This Information Report contains a definition of road vehicle hands-free operation. This definition applies to driver inputs to a wireless communications device used for person-to-person wireless communications while driving. This report applies to both original equipment manufacturers’ and aftermarket devices. The definition does not apply to outputs, e.g., visual or haptic feedback, from a communication system or device, regardless of the modality of human-machine interface. It also does not apply to parallel or redundant manual control operating modes.
Article
2014-03-27
TRW Automotive's second-generation active control retractor system (ACR2) has started production on the 2014 Cadillac CTS.
WIP Standard
2014-03-27
This SAE Standard covers the Mini-Shed testing methodology to measure the rate of refrigerant loss from an automotive air conditioning (A/C) system. This SAE procedure encompasses both front and rear air conditioning systems utilizing refrigerants operating under sub-critical conditions.
WIP Standard
2014-03-25
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes the test procedure, environment, instrumentation, and data analyses for comparing interior sound level of passenger cars, multipurpose vehicles, and light trucks having gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of 4540 kg (10 000 lb) or less. The test procedure is characterized by having fixed initial conditions (specified initial vehicle speed and gear selection at the starting point on the test site) to obtain vehicle interior sound measurement during road load operation over various road surfaces at specified constant speeds. The measurement data so derived is useful for vehicle engineering development and analysis.
Article
2014-03-24
The technology organization has developed an innovative process to help reduce the cost of composite component use. Features normally added in a separate operation, such as clips and inserts for threaded fasteners, can now be molded directly onto the back of high-quality composite panels, producing a more cost-effective part than a conventional bonded assembly.
Article
2014-03-19
Vishay Intertechnology, Inc. offers a new series of power MiniLEDs in ultra-compact surface-mount device packages.
Article
2014-03-12
DGE Inc.'s HMIts, which simulates a user’s speech and touch and then validates the response of the infotainment system, enables OEMs and Tier suppliers to perform repetitive testing on any HMI/infotainment system in a controlled environment, ensuring accurate results and eliminating the need for time-consuming and labor-intensive manual test plans.
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