Modeling of Fixed Displacement Swash Plate Compressor: A Mathematical Approach towards Calculation of Shaft Torque and Volumetric Efficiency
Abstract Rapid advent of mobile air conditioning industry has witnessed a wide use of fixed displacement swash plate compressor due to its small size, compact structure and light weight. An accurate prediction of volumetric efficiency and power of compressor at early stages of design serves as a very useful information for designer. No work regarding the power and volumetric efficiency prediction for double headed fixed displacement swash plate compressor is reported in the existing literature. This paper presents a mathematical model for a double acting fixed displacement swash plate compressor with the objective of evaluating the shaft torque and volumetric efficiency of compressor. Shaft torque, in turn is a measure of compressor power. The geometrical description of swash plate yields a kinematic model to obtain the piston displacement as an explicit function of angle of rotation of shaft.
Abstract New generation automobiles are equipped with power windows which eases the passenger’s effort in moving the vehicle windows up and down. Many of them are stuffed with advanced features like automatic up/down option for ensuring functionality with a single press of the switch. Even though it adds comfort to driver & passenger, inadvertent use of power window can be fatal if a person’s body part gets trapped inside. An effective solution for this problem is anti-pinch mechanism, which releases the object safely just when it gets trapped. It detects the object trapped and immediately moves the window down so that trapped object will get released easily. The anti-pinch algorithm used in this project is based on the “Method of Monitoring Movable Element”, method monitor traveling distance of a power window pane. In order to achieve this different from conventional techniques we are using Ultrasonic sensor.
Research on Source of Noise during Adjustment of Automotive Seating Head Restraint and its Countermeasure
Abstract In automotive seating, there are multiple applications wherein parts have relative motions. During the relative motion of parts, noise is generated due to friction which can be irritant to the end user. This paper focuses on, one such application where conventional noise reduction solutions like grease application are not very effective. Typically, Seats can have two types of Head Restraint, a) Adjustable, b) Non Adjustable. In Adjustable type of Head restraint, during adjustment by the end user, head restraint rod rubs against the metal plate inside the locking guide. This creates friction and that in turn results in noise. The paper focuses on understand the phenomenon of noise, identifying the root cause and studying about potential solutions to reduce the noise to acceptable level. In this paper, parameters affecting the noise are studied and evaluated.
Development and Validation of Mini-Channel Evaporator Model Integrated with TXV for R134a Mobile Air-Conditioning System
Abstract This paper presents development and verification of an analytical model for a standalone performance study of mini-channel evaporator controlled with thermostatic expansion valve (TXV) for R134a mobile air-conditioning system. The analytical model was developed and validated using MATLAB program. In the existing literatures, studies of analytical evaporator model integrated with TXV for standalone performance was very limited. Effort has been considered to integrate TXV and evaporator model i.e. when there is a change in air flow rate, TXV adjusts refrigerant mass flow rate based on heat load and operating superheat. The developed analytical model emphasize on prediction of refrigerant mass flow rate, heat transfer and refrigerant side pressure drop characteristics. In-tube refrigerant flow was divided into two-phase region and superheated region, considering both dry and wet condition of effectiveness - NTU method.
Abstract Demand of hybrid vehicle increases more and more due to raise in fossils fuel prices. Automotive OEM’s of worldwide invest their potential in developing automobiles with higher fuel efficiency, light weight, comfortable and low cost as possible without negotiation in quality and safety. Air conditioner systems in buses utilizes 30% of power from engines for functioning of its components which increases the fuel consumption and decreases effective performance. In this project, Organic phase change material (PCM) paraffin 14-carbon with blend of 1.0 %wt of copper oxide (CuO)/titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles dispersed fluid is used to store cooling energy in form of latent thermal heat. This composite material is filled in Aluminium shell of thickness 3mm and fixed in direct contact with refrigerant cycle. The newly developed PCM sample is subjected to differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in order to determine phase change temperature and latent heats.
Abstract The OEM's aim is to reduce development time and testing cost, hence the objective behind this work is to achieve a flexible stateflow model so that changes in the application during supply chain or development, on adding/deleting any switches, varying timer cycle, changing the logic for future advancements or else using the logic in different application, would end in minimal changes in the chart or in its states which would reflect least changes in the code. This research is about designing state machine architecture for chime/buzzer warning system and wiper/washer motor control system. The chime/buzzer stateflow chart includes various input switches like ignition, parking, seat belt buckle, driver door and speed accompanied with warning in the form of LED, lamp and buzzer. The logic is differentiated according to gentle and strong warning. Various conditions and scenarios of the vehicle and driver are considered for driver door and seat belt which is resolved in the chart.
New Simulation Methodology for Improved Visual Interaction between Physical Test and CAE in Seat Anchorage Test
Abstract For effective occupant protection, automotive vehicle structure needs to be developed for seat anchorage test to prevent the failure of seat anchorages during high speed impacts. Seat anchorages (SA) certification test is mandatory for M & N category vehicles in India. Conventional way of testing automotive vehicle structures for seat anchorage test is using deceleration sled with the help of bungee ropes. Deceleration pulse generated from the physical test is used as a loading input in the current CAE process. With the current CAE method, final deformation of the vehicle structure looks similar to physical test, however, the vehicle visual interactions differ significantly during the deformation event. In the current study, a modified loading methodology is proposed to match both the final deformation as well as vehicle visual interactions. Loading and boundary conditions of physical test were understood in detail with the help of simple free body diagrams.
Abstract The cabin or cab is an enclosed space where the driver and co-driver are seated. Structural parameters such as modal and stiffness characteristics are of key importance for its durability study and driver’s comfort. The desired strength and stiffness value of the cabin have to be met at the development phase itself. In developing new cabin models numerical simulations are used for estimating vehicle performance to reduce the development cycle. But, the conventional method of modeling the cabin using 2-d elements and performing subsequent iteration steps to arrive at the desired stiffness and strength value will be cumbersome and time consuming. Thus, a methodology of FE modeling of the truck cabin using 1-D elements has been proposed in this paper which will reduce the analysis time of successive iterations. For this purpose an existing proven driver’s cabin is modeled using 1-D elements.
pilots, air traffic controllers, dispatchers, aviation meteorologists
VLF Automotive, a partnership of industry veterans Bob Lutz and Henrik Fisker and industrialist Gilbert Villarreal, showed Force 1, a Viper-derived sports coupe, and promises delivery for June. Its V10 engine is tuned to deliver 745 hp.
This SAE Recommended Practice is intended to give information to engineers and designers in order that access to a passenger handgrip, when used, is easily obtained and that such handgrips offer maximum safety for a person at least as large as a 95th percentile adult male during snowmobile operation.
This document presents criteria for flight deck controls and displays for airborne collision avoidance systems providing vertical-only guidance, and provides design guidance for operational, functional, and installation characteristics and requirements for airborne collision avoidance systems in existing and future aircraft.
This document recommends criteria for standardization of flight deck interior doors and their operation which will provide optimum use under normal and emergency conditions.
This standard will be an updated version of SAEJ548/1. It is intended to specify the design requirements and dimensions for spark plugs and their cylinder head mounting. This standard will cover automotive, light duty non-automotive and small engine spark plugs. It does not include aircraft and large industrial engine type spark plugs..
The clean-sheet Pacifica bristles with innovations, including a plug-in hybrid variant featuring FCA's in-house engineered EVT.
Equipment buyers typically focus on factors like horsepower and lifting capability, but human-machine interfaces may be the most important factor for off-highway vehicle operators.
Recommendation for Acceptable Operating Parameters of Heated Automobile Seats in Order to Mitigate Occupant Injury
This recommended practice will promote a temperature and duration guideline that mitigates the risk of thermal injuries to the heated seat user. In addition, recommendations are established to indicate to the user when the heater is operating, and warnings that should be included in the vehicle literature.
This report presents, paraphrased in tabular format, an overview of the Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) and the joint Aviation Regulations (JAR) for aircraft oxygen systems. It is intended as a ready reference for those considering the use of oxygen in aircraft and those wishing to familiarize themselves with the systems requirements for existing aircraft. This document is not intended to replace the oxygen related FAr/JAR but rather to index them in some order. For detailed information, the user is referred to the current issue of the relevant FAR/JAR paragraph referenced in this report.
This SAE Recommended Practice applies to parts and materials used in vehicle manufacture which are intended to be acceptable color matches to a specified standard. This document is intended for use with parts or materials which are opaque or nearly so. Materials covered by this document include topcoat paint finishes, interior soft trim, interior and exterior hard trim, and exterior film and flexible trim. The intent of this document is to precisely specify procedures for the visual evaluation of appearance of colored materials or parts incorporated in the manufacture of vehicles. The document provides a consistent engineering practice for the determination of visual color difference between materials or parts of the same or like materials. A suitable fixture providing daylight, fluorescent, and horizon lighting conditions is necessary for this evaluation.
Mentor Automotive has introduced its A²B Analyzer, which the company claims is the industry's first third-party development platform supporting the Automotive Audio Bus—or A²B—technology developed by Analog Devices.
Accelerated Exposure of Automotive Interior Trim Components Using a Controlled Irradiance Xenon-Arc Apparatus
This test method specifies the operating procedures for a controlled irradiance, xenon arc apparatus used for the accelerated exposure of various automotive interior trim components. Test duration as well as any exceptions to the specimen preparation and performance evaluation procedures contained in this document, are covered in material specifications of the different automotive manufacturers. Any deviation to this test method, such as filter combinations, is to be agreed upon by contractual parties.
Secondary loop system shows promise for areas with long A/C cooling seasons, by providing thermal storage for idle stop and on acceleration. Reversible heat pump also fits into picture with higher heating efficiency for EVs.
This Aerospace Standard will provide the basis for a certification approach and contain the methods or criteria for verification of performance required for Oxygen Dispensing Units to be used by Cabin Crew up to 25,000 ft. cabin altitude.
The information provided in AIR825/6 applies to On Board Oxygen Generating Systems (OBOGS) - Molecular Sieve, that utilize the ability of molecular sieve materials by using Pressure Swing Adsorption Process (PSA) to separate and concentrate oxygen in the product gas from the surrounding air, respectively air provided by any compressor or by the aircraft engine (so called: Bleed Air), and to provide this oxygen enriched air or product gas as supplemental oxygen for breathing gas supply of crew and passengers onboard aircraft. The distribution system and the provided oxygen concentration have to fulfill the respective airworthiness regulations.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides criteria for design and location of power supplies, controls, light fixtures, and associated equipment which are used to provide emergency illumination in transport aircraft, designed to comply with 14 CFR part 25 (Reference 1) for operation under 14 CFR part 91 (Reference 11) and 14 CFR part 121 (Reference 2), and also in compliance with FAA Advisory Circulars AC25.812-1A (Reference 3) and AC25.812-2 (Reference 10). It is not the purpose of an ARP to specify design methods to be followed in the accomplishment of the stated objectives.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) defines a means of assessing the credibility of computer models of aircraft seating systems used to simulate dynamic impact conditions set forth in Federal Regulations §14 CFR Part 23.562, 25.562, 27.562, and 29.562. The ARP is applicable to lumped mass and detailed finite element seat models. This includes specifications and performance criteria for aviation specific virtual anthropomorphic test devices (v-ATDs). A methodology to evaluate the degree of correlation between a seat model and dynamic impact tests is recommended. This ARP also provides testing and modeling best practices specific to support the implementation of analytical models of aircraft seat systems. Supporting information within this document includes procedures for the quantitative comparison of test and simulation results, as well as test reports for data generated to support the development of v-ATDs and a sample v-ATD calibration report.
Set-up a consistent geometry and requirements for measuring the Vehicles HUD, covering the AR-HUD performance.
History of SAE Committee A-10.
Abstract In recent years fuel consumption of passenger vehicles has received increasing attention by customers, the automotive industry, regulatory agencies and academia. However, some areas which affect the fuel consumption have received relatively small interest. One of these areas is the total energy used for vehicle interior climate which can have a large effect on real-world fuel consumption. Although there are several methods described in the literature for analyzing fuel consumption for parts of the climate control system, especially the Air-Condition (AC) system, the total fuel consumption including the vehicle interior climate has often been ignored, both in complete vehicle testing and simulation. The purpose of this research was to develop a model that predicts the total energy use for the vehicle interior climate.
Uncertainty quantification The technique is a must for next-generation simulation tools. Oil-pump sizing Researchers from Hinduja Tech investigate options for low friction and power consumption. The future of Indian commercial aviation The growth in traffic that airport modernization has supported has also made a significant contribution to the local and national economies, while the improved infrastructure has been positive for the perception of India in the global market. Driving EVs toward lower cost The race ison to reduce battery and electric-drive systems cost while improving efficiency. Powering on Rolls-Royce's Chief Engineer discusses new technologies that inspire current R&D design and evaluation work as part of its strategic roadmap for future big commercial programs. HMIs extend beyond the cab Telematic functions are being integrated into multi-function user interfaces.