Simulation and Analysis on Heat Transfer and Pre-cooling Characteristics of New Solar Power Vehicle Parking Ventilation System
Abstract When the vehicle parks in direct sunlight conditions, the cabin will form a high-temperature thermal environment in hot weather. Drivers would turn on the air-conditioning with relatively high gear in the most conditions to reduce the cabin temperature, which could affect the life of equipment, resulting in energy waste and increasing emissions. This study adopted solar energy in the ventilation system. When the car parks the cabin blower was driven by a solar panel mounted on the car roof to discharge heat inside the cabin real time, achieving the purpose of pre-cooling. Firstly, heat transfer model and ventilation cooling model for the cabin were established according to the theory of heat transfer, and models were modified through experiments. Besides, the impact of ventilation flow rate on the pre-cooling effect was studied based on simulation analysis.
This report provides data and general analysis methods for calculation of internal and external, pressurized and unpressurized airplane compartment pressures during rapid discharge of cabin pressure. References to the applicable current FAA and EASA rules and advisory material are provided. While rules and interpretations can be expected to evolve, numerous airplanes have been approved under current and past rules that will have a continuing need for analysis of production and field modifications, alterations and repairs. The data and basic principles provided by this report are adaptable to any compartment decompression analysis requirement.
Accelerated Exposure of Automotive Interior Trim Material Using Outdoor Under-Glass Controlled Sun-Tracking Temperature and Humidity Apparatus
This SAE Standard specifies operating procedure for the exposure of automotive interior trim materials in an outdoor behind-glass apparatus in which the temperature is controlled in a 24 h cycle. The humidity is controlled during the dark (night) portion of the cycle. Specimen preparation, test durations, and performance evaluation procedures are covered in material specifications of the different automotive manufacturers.
An "electronic assistant" with the capability to determine if the driver is capable of receiving information under safety critical conditions.
This standard is intended to apply to portable compressed gaseous oxygen equipment. When properly configured, this equipment is used either for the administration of supplemental oxygen, first aid oxygen or smoke protection to one or more occupants of either private or commercial transport aircraft.
This specification covers the general requirements for red and white individual instrument lights. This document has been streamlined. Appendix A to MIL-L-5057F lists those documents required for MIL-L-5057F acquisition and is a mandatory part of MIL-L-5057F. Those documents listed in Appendix A have the same status as those referenced directly in MIL-L-5057F (first tier documents). All other documents, referenced through tiering, may be used as guidance and information to supplement MIL-L-5057F. This document’s scope is limited to lamp source designs solely. Furthermore, the use of red lighting should not be considered for new design and included within this document to support requirements for existing military aircraft that still operate with this system of lighting.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) specifies minimum performance standards for Electronic Flight Information System (EFIS) displays that are head-down and intended for use in the flight deck by the flight crew in all 14 CFR Part 23, 25, 27, and 29 aircraft. This document is expected to be used by multiple regulatory agencies as the basic requirement for a technical standard order for EFIS displays.
Simulative Analysis of Secondary Loop Automotive Refrigeration Systems Operated with an HFC and Carbon Dioxide
Abstract Recent attempts to find energy-efficient thermal management systems for electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles have led to secondary loop systems as an alternative approach to meet dynamic heating and cooling demands and to reduce refrigerant charge. The choice of refrigerant for the primary refrigeration cycle is an important issue regarding the overall system performance. In this work, an HFC refrigerant (R-134a) and a natural refrigerant (R-744) are evaluated regarding a potential use in secondary loop systems. To meet the demands of R-744 cycles such as higher system pressure, most components have to be redeveloped. Nonetheless the use of the environmentally friendly refrigerant has advantages such as better applicability and performance in heat pump systems under cold ambient conditions.
Jeep Design is taking seven new concept vehicles, including two interesting pickups, to the Utah off-road festival where the hardest-core Jeep enthusiasts gather annually.
The purpose of this SAE Standard is to provide minimum performance and operating feature requirements for the recovery of HFC-134a (R-134a) refrigerant to be returned to a refrigerant reclamation facility that will process it to the appropriate AHRI 700 Standard or allow for on-site recycling of the recovered refrigerant to SAE J2788 specifications by using SAE J2788 or SAE J3030 -certified equipment. It is not acceptable that the refrigerant removed from a mobile air-conditioning (A/C) system with this equipment be directly returned to a mobile A/C system. An identifier certified to SAE J2912 is to be used to identify the contents of the system prior to recovery of the refrigerant.
This document provides guidance for oxygen cylinder installation on commercial aircraft based on rules and methods practiced in aerospace industry and applicable in other associations. It covers considerations for oxygen systems from beginning of project phase up to production, maintenance, and servicing. The document is focused on requirements regarding DOT approved oxygen cylinders. However, its basic rules may also be applicable to new development pertaining to use of such equipment in an oxygen environment. For information regarding oxygen cylinders itself, reference should be made to AIR825/12 also.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines the overall requirements applicable to oxygen flow indicating devices intended to operate in conjunction with an oxygen regulator and mask system. Flow indicators covered by this document are for use with pressure demand, diluter-demand and continuous flow oxygen systems.
The scope of this document is related to the particular needs of oxygen equipment with regards to packaging and transportation. The document provides guidance for handling chemical, gaseous and liquid oxygen equipment. It summarizes national and international regulations to be taken into account for transportation on land, sea and air and provides information on classification of hazardous material. The aim of this document is to summarize information on packaging and transportation of oxygen equipment. Statements and references to regulations cited herein are for information only and should not be considered as interpretation of a law. Processes to maintain cleanliness of components and subassemblies during processing and assembly or storage of work-in-progress are outside the scope of this document.
Performance Standards for Side-Facing Seats in Civil Rotorcraft, Transport Aircraft, and General Aviation Aircraft
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines Minimum Performance Standards (MPS), qualification requirements, and minimum documentation requirements for side-facing seats in civil rotorcraft, transport aircraft, and general aviation aircraft. The goal is to achieve comfort, durability, and occupant protection under normal operational loads and to define test and evaluation criteria to demonstrate occupant protection when a side-facing seat/occupant/restraint system is subjected to statically applied ultimate loads and to dynamic test conditions set forth in Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 23, 25, 27, or 29. While this document addresses system performance, responsibility for the seating system is divided between the seat supplier and the installation applicant. The seat supplier’s responsibility consists of meeting all the seat system performance requirements and obtaining and supplying to the installation applicant all the data prescribed by this document.
Refrigerant Purity and Container Requirements for Carbon Dioxide (CO2 R-744) Used in Mobile Air-Conditioning Systems
This SAE Standard applies to Carbon Dioxide R-744 refrigerant used to service motor vehicle passenger air-conditioning (A/C) systems designed to use CO2 (R-744). Hermetically sealed, refrigerated cargo systems are not covered by this document.
Multi-material structures move mpg upward The quest to improve fuel economy is not waning, nor is the desire to achieve higher mpg through the use of just the right lightweight material for the right vehicle application. Cars poised to become 'a thing' Making automobiles part of the Internet of Things brings both risks and rewards. Agility training for cars Chassis component suppliers refine vehicle dynamics at the high end and entry level with four-wheel steering and adaptive damping. SAE 2016 World Congress Preview Technology trends and exhibitor products are highlighted in this special section, which features Toyota's plans for the show floor, tech sessions, and more.
This set is comprised of two titles, Aircraft Thermal Management: Systems Architectures and Aircraft Thermal Management: Integrated Energy Systems Analysis both edited by Mark Ahlers.
The simultaneous operation of all systems generating, moving, or removing heat on an aircraft is simulated using integrated analysis which is called Integrated Energy System Analysis (IESA) for this book. Its purpose is to understand, optimize, and validate more efficient system architectures for removing or harvesting the increasing amounts of waste heat generated in commercial and military aircraft. In the commercial aircraft industry IESA is driven by the desire to minimize airplane operating costs associated with increased system weight, power consumption, drag, and lost revenue as cargo space is devoted to expanded cooling systems. In military aircraft thermal IESA is also considered to be a key enabler for the successful implementation of the next generation jet fighter weapons systems and countermeasures. This book contains a selection of papers relevant to aircraft thermal management IESA published by SAE International.
Aircraft thermal management (ATM) is increasingly important to the design and operation of commercial and military aircraft due to rising heat loads from expanded electronic functionality, electric systems architectures, and the greater temperature sensitivity of composite materials compared to metallic structures. It also impacts engine fuel consumption associated with removing waste heat from an aircraft. More recently the advent of more electric architectures on aircraft, such as the Boeing 787, has led to increased interest in the development of more efficient ATM architectures by the commercial airplane manufacturers. The ten papers contained in this book describe aircraft thermal management system architectures designed to minimize airplane performance impacts which could be applied to commercial or military aircraft.
Ford begins its switch in April. GM expects most models to have R-1234yf by late 2016. And Mercedes is fitting an onboard fire-suppression system to allay engineers' fears of potential fire danger.
Three SAE standards are to be incorporated in EPA regulations, including refrigerant identification, built-in or via USB on hand-held units, incorporated in requirements for recovery/recycle/recharge equipment. There's also a standard for testing internal heat exchangers in development.
This ARP addresses the issue of passengers smoking in aircraft lavatories and the need to improve warnings about the danger of fire caused by smoking.
Autonomous vehicles: impact on society Self-driving technology offers plenty of promise, but not everything about autonomous vehicles will be a panacea. Crankshaft reliability by integrated design, simulation, and testing This testing method is proven and beneficial for the design and development of the crankshaft and could be applied to other critical engine components, thereby extending to system reliability. New Engines 2016 Highlighting the design, engineering, and technologies inside some of the most competitive gasoline and light-duty diesel ICEs. Touch and go Avionics developments are changing life in the cockpit and at airborne work stations. Improving heavy-duty engine component efficiencies Cylinder deactivation can improve fuel economy by using a reduced number of cylinders that operate at higher loads and thermal efficiency, while other cylinders are turned off, when the engine operates at partial load conditions.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides guidance to achieve the optimum integration of new aircraft systems which have an impact on the cockpit layout or crew operating procedures. This process may also be used for modification of existing cockpits.
The desired system for aircraft instrument panel and cockpit lighting is one that will furnishlight of adequate intensity and distribution under all conditions of external lighting so that the crew may read instrumentation, placards, check lists, manuals, maps, instrument color coding, distinguish controls, etc., without undue interference with their vision outside of the aircraft.
Off-highway hybrids: Opportunities and challenges With oil prices declining and emissions regulations in North America 'stabilized,' is there a place for hybrid powertrains in this new world of cheap oil? Looking for a better image Display advances are helping to reduce operator fatigue. Charging up electrified powertrains Control technologies race forward while batteries improve and adopt standard sizes. Measuring and accounting for suspension TARDEC teamed with SEA Ltd. to develop a system to measure the suspension parameters, center of gravity, and moments of inertia of wheeled vehicles in the never ending quest to model and predict vehicle dynamic behavior. Looking at mobility in 2050 Cuneyt L. Oge begins his term as 2016 SAE International President with a vision about the future of auto- and aero-mobility.
This SAE Recommended Practice is applicable to all liquid-to-air, liquid-to-liquid, air-to-liquid, and air-to-air heat exchangers used in vehicle and industrial cooling systems. This document outlines the tests to determine durability characteristics of the heat exchanger under thermal cycling.
Develop and propagate recommended practices for the design, development, testing and implementation of head worn displays in piloted airborne platforms
This recommended practice is intended to provide industry technical personnel with an overview of vehicle speedometer system accuracy and offset requirements and odometer system accuracy requirements. Speedometer and odometer systems covered by this document are integrated into a vehicle's electrical and electronics system, assembled directly into the vehicle by the OEM, and use rotational data from at least one vehicle wheel that is appropriately converted into longitudinal vehicle speed and distance traveled information. This standard is limited to radial ply tires on new (as manufactured) cars, light trucks, and medium duty trucks. Other methods for measuring vehicle speed and distance traveled may be used provided they meet the performance recommendations herein. Any local market regulatory requirements must be met and shall supersede this document. Service parts are beyond the scope of this recommended practice.
Abstract Our team aims towards designing, validating and fabricating an electro-mechanical device that can dynamically control the inside temperature of the vehicle depending upon the outside temperature conditions. This device purely uses non-conventional source of energy and is economical to install and operate. Vehicle temperature modulator is designed keeping in mind the environment and weather conditions of South East Asian Nations and can be further modified according to the norms of any other country. This unit is capable of being employed in any segment vehicle present in India i.e. A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A6, B1, B2 and SUV.