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Viewing 181 to 210 of 10051
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0045
Rico Baumgart, Joerg Aurich, Jan Ackermann, Christoph Danzer
Abstract The development of energy efficient air conditioning systems for electric vehicles is an ever increasing challenge, because the cooling as well as the heating of the passenger compartment reduces the cruising range dramatically. Electric cars are usually equipped with a scroll compressor and a separate electric motor with appropriate power electronics. However, this solution is critical in terms of the installation space, the weight and also the costs. Therefore, an innovative and energy efficient drivetrain structure for electric vehicles was developed, which integrates the motor of the A/C-compressor directly into the drivetrain. Thus it is possible to switch off the compressor motor and to use the main motor for the drive of the compressor at certain driving situations. As a result, the operating point of the main motor can be shifted to a better efficiency.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0125
Sambhaji Keshaw Jaybhay, Sudhakara Naidu, Prasanna Nagarhalli, J Saiprasad
Abstract This paper discusses various fruitful iterations / experiments performed to reduce air flow induced noise without compromising on total air flow requirement for thermal comfort and ways to avoid heat ingress inside the bus. Also the paper discusses the devised process for noise reduction through front loading of computer aided engineering and computational fluid dynamics analysis. Air conditioning buses in light commercial vehicle (LCV) segment is growing market in India, especially for applications like staff pick-up and drop, school applications and private fleet owners. The air-conditioning system is typically mounted on bus roof top and located laterally and longitudinally at center. It is an easiest and most feasible way to package air conditioning system to cater the large passenger space (32 to 40 seats) with the conditioned air. This makes air conditioning duct design simple and commercially viable.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0129
Kapil Gupta, MR Vikram, Eugenio Manta
Abstract A turbocharger unit mainly consists of a centrifugal compressor and a turbine coupled together by a solid shaft. This is employed to boost the charge air pressure of the engine. Turbocharging in modern diesel and gasoline engines have become a common and essential operation to result higher power outputs, lower emissions, improved efficiency and refinements from a similar capacity of naturally aspirated engines. The automotive turbocharger system is a source of synchronous and asynchronous noises that should be eliminated or reduced for passenger comfort. Subjectively, a high whistle noise was audible in the passenger cabin during in a mid-rpm range drive in all gears in a 4 cylinder diesel vehicle. Objective noise and vibration data confirm the issue as unbalance whistle. A detailed study has been carried out to identify the source and radiating part of the unbalance whistle noise generated in a 4 cylinder diesel engine running a passenger car.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0140
Milind Ambardekar, Adatiya Yogesh, Sudhakara Naidu
Abstract Production variations of a heavy duty truck for its vibrations were measured and then analyzed through an Ishikawa diagram. Noise and Control factors of the truck idle shake were indentified. The major cause was found to be piece to piece variations of its power-train (PT) rubber mounts. To overcome the same, a new nominal level of the mount stiffness was sought based on minimization of a cost function related to vibration transmissibility and fatigue damage of the mounts under dynamic loadings. Physical prototypes of such mounts were proved to minimize the variations of the driver's seat shake at idling among various trucks of the same design. These learning's are useful for design of various subsystems or components to refine the full vehicle-Noise Vibration Harshness (NVH) at the robust design level.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0130
Pradeep Kumar Singh, Sai Aditya Raman K
Abstract Gear noise and vibration in automobile transmissions is a phenomenon of great concern. Noise generated at the gearbox, due to gear meshing, also known as gear whine, gets transferred from the engine cabin to the passenger cabin via various transfer paths and is perceived as air borne noise to the passengers in the vehicle. This noise due to its tonal nature can be very uncomfortable to the passengers. Optimizing micro-geometry of a gear pair can help in improving the stress distribution on tooth flank and reducing the sound level of the tonal noise generated during the running of the gearbox when that gear pair is engaged. This technical paper contains the study of variation in noise level in passenger cabin and contact on tooth flank with change in micro-geometry parameters (involute slope and lead slope) of a particular gear pair. Further scope of study has been discussed at the end of the paper.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0139
Pradeep Kumar Singh
Abstract Noise generated in the driveline is mainly transferred inside the passenger cabin through air (air borne noise) and through the vehicle body structure, engine mounts, cables etc. Source of the noise generation in the vehicle is mainly through the engine fluctuation (engine combustion excitations). Any change in the engine characteristics results in the change in passenger cabin noise. Also, influence of the vehicle body structure due to change in material properties also affects the NVH performance. This technical paper explains the effect of change in engine characteristics as well as change in the transfer path (material property) on the NVH performance of the gearbox and subsequently the NVH performance of vehicle.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0158
Vijesh Chinnadurai, Hima Kiran Vithal Venna, Vinod Banthia
Abstract Expanding and improving road network in India has been a catalyst for increased use of road transport in both passenger and goods sector. With improved road quality, bigger commercials vehicles have entered the market. These provide a larger cabin area and better amenities in the truck driver cabin. One of the most welcome features is berths for lying down and sleeping. In most designs though, only the functionality of the berth has been taken into consideration. Safety of the occupants of the berths in the event of panic braking or collision of the vehicle, has not been given adequate consideration. In this work, design of such berths from occupant safety point of view has been assessed. Kinematics of occupants, sleeping in different typical postures, during frontal impact, has been simulated and resulting critical injury levels have been estimated. Based on this information, different arrangements of belts in “screen” type configuration were developed.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0156
Anil Kumar Jaswal, MV Rajasekhar, J Perumal, Samir Rawte
Abstract This paper details the methodology used to prevent Thermal events in a vehicle at design and development stages which can lead to vehicle fire or Thermal events. Vehicle Safety is always been in prime focus for designers while introducing newer products in markets for the customers. It is now common to see vehicles catching on fire in roads and in parking places leading to destruction of the surroundings as well as hazard to the passengers. Thermal events can take place due to the heat dissipated by the heat emitters such as Engine, Turbo, Alternator, Exhaust System etc. So the most critical area where Thermal event can take place are under hood which includes the complete engine compartment and under body. The extent of fire depends on the fire source, characteristics of the materials used in constructing and furnishing the vehicle.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0151
Ganesh Dharmar, Hareesh Krishnan, Riyaz Mohammed, Ravichandrika Bhamidipati
Abstract Recent trends in vehicle occupant protection have led to renewed interest in the perception of Roominess such as headroom, shoulder room and foot room etc. Occupants head room in vehicles is currently measured using tools, procedures and definitions described in SAE J1052 and J1100. “Head Position Contours” defined in SAE J1052 are useful in establishing accommodation requirements for head space [1]. With respect to the Indian Anthropometry database, the head position contour as per SAE J1052 will not be appropriate with Indian population. With this objective in mind a head movement envelope is generated using the software - RAMSIS Digital manikin. RAMSIS is widely used by Automobile Manufacturers for Digital Human Modeling. The head movement envelope is a collation of different movements of head during driving condition.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0235
Raju P Soudatti, Ragunathan Amarnath, Ramesh Harish
Abstract Generally it is observed that in city buses most of the time, passenger seat fails at the seat mounting area in buses which are used for more than 3 years. This fatigue failure doesn't get captured either in Anchorage Test or Limited Vibration Test. Passenger seats' durability should be equal to vehicle life which is 10L km or 12 Years of life span. Physical testing on the vibration test rig is time consuming and costly. Most of the time machine availability for testing will be an issue, to validate alternate seat proposals. So there is a need to establish a correlation between physical testing and CAE simulation so that alternate proposals can be easily and quickly verified using CAE alone. This paper deals with the verification and validation of passenger seat in buses for life cycle requirement, through various methodologies adopted from data collection, CAE verification and physical validation to simulate real-time environment.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0196
Soujanya C, V Sundaram, Sathish Kumar S
Abstract Cooling system is one of the important systems of an engine to maintain the optimum coolant temperature across engine and its components. Analysis of cooling system at initial phase of product development will help in optimum design of the system and there by achieving better performance of engine. For this purpose the traditional method followed is to run several bench tests and to analyze the engine performance and repeat the bench tests for validating any design changes. This results in increased lead time of engine development and overall cost. To reduce the lead time as well as reduce the overall cost, 1D (one dimension) simulation tools place a major role. Simulation of engine cooling system with special kind of engine coolant water jacket is challenging. It is difficult to achieve the simulation results close to bench test due to complexity of the system.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0210
Nilesh Daithankar, Kishor D Udawant, Nagesh Voderahobli Karanth
Abstract This paper presents a methodology for predicting thermal comfort inside Midibus cabin with an objective to modify the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) duct design and parametric optimization in order to have improved thermal comfort of occupant. For this purpose the bus cavity is extracted from baseline CAD model including fully seated manikins with various seating positions. Solar Load has been considered in the computational model and passenger heat load is considered as per BSR/ASHRAE 55-1992R standard. CFD simulation predicted the air temperature and velocity distribution inside passenger cabin of the baseline model. The experimental measurements have been carried out as per the guidelines set in APTA-BT-RP-003-07 standard.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0157
Kedar Madhukar Hendre, Yogesh Purohit
Abstract Curtain airbag design offers protection in side crash and it plays a critical role in safety of the vehicle. Curtain airbag provides protection to the occupant in many impact events like frontal offset, side barrier, and side pole and rollover condition. For a vehicle to be safe for any side impact condition, the curtain airbag should deploy and take its final shape before any injury happens to the occupant. During deployment, it is important that the airbag chooses a path of minimum resistance and does not get entangled in interior trims. In reality, the trims always do obstruct the path of airbag deployment in some way. Hence, special care has to be taken care for designing areas surrounding curtain like providing hinges, deflector components etc. to avoid being caught. There are about ten different factors on this deployment is dependent upon. This paper discusses these factors and the effect of the factors on the trims and airbag development.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0234
Ramesh Pathuri, Yuvraj Patil, Prasanna Vyankatesh Nagarhalli
Abstract This paper presents a method for Mobile Air Conditioning cool down simulation of passenger car with Multi Air Zone Cabin Model. This approach allows the prediction of zone wise (head, body and foot) temperature and humidity distribution in the cabin for parameter studies for transient analysis. The complete simulation model is set up in the 1D code. The same cabin model can deal with multiple inlets into the cabin, solar radiation, and other loads on Air Conditioning (AC) system and also allows detailed definition of cabin walls, like doors, floor, roof and windows. 3D air flow pattern within the cabin has been captured by diffusion fields and mass flow field. For a given flow field, these data are generated by conducting cabin air flow analysis in 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The simulation was done along with AC system, consisting of evaporator, compressor, condenser, thermostatic expansion device and connecting pipe network.
2015-01-14
Journal Article
2015-26-0136
Deepak Mahajan, Arnab Sandilya, Lokesh Khandelwal, Sameer Srivastava
Abstract Automotive floor carpet serves the purpose of insulating airborne noises like road-tire noise, transmission noise, fuel pump noise etc. Most commonly used automotive floor carpet structure is- molded sound barrier (PE, vinyl etc.) decoupled from the floor pan with an absorber such as felt. With increasing customer expectations and fuel efficiency requirements, the NVH requirements are increasing as well. The only possible way of increasing acoustic performance (Specifically, Sound Transmission Loss, STL) in the mentioned carpet structure is to increase the barrier material. This solution, however, comes at a great weight penalty. Theoretically, increasing the number of decoupled barrier layers greatly enhances the STL performance of an acoustic packaging for same weight. In practice, however, this solution presents problems like- ineffectiveness at lower frequencies, sudden dip in performance at modal frequencies.
2015-01-13
WIP Standard
J1052
This SAE Recommended Practice describes head position contours and procedures for locating the contours in a vehicle. Head position contours are useful in establishing accommodation requirements for head space and are required for several measures defined in SAE J1100. Separate contours are defined depending on occupant seat location and the desired percentage (95 and 99) of occupant accommodation. This document is primarily focused on application to Class A vehicles (see SAE J1100), which include most personal-use vehicles (passenger cars, sport utility vehicles, pick-up trucks). A procedure for use in Class B vehicles can be found in Appendix B.
2015-01-12
Standard
ARP5740
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) addresses the information content for the electronic presentation of data linked weather Meteorological (MET) information used in the cockpit. It defines guidelines for the electronic presentation of MET information (including text, graphics, textures, icons, and symbology) to the flight crew. This ARP is applicable to certified equipment for the electronic display (whether installed or portable) of MET information in the cockpit. This ARP also provides a set of symbols that illustrate the depiction of data linked MET information on flight deck display systems such as Navigation Displays, Multi-function Displays, and Electronic Flight Bags. These recommendations complement standard symbology guidelines for airborne applications already in existence (see reference section for applicable documents).
2015-01-08
Standard
J1791_201501
This SAE standard applies to self-propelled driver operated sweepers and scrubbers as defined in SAE J2130-1. 1.1 Purpose The purpose of this document is to establish the basic requirements associated with controls and displays for dual position driving controls as depicted in a typical installation shown in Figure 1. The control layout illustrated being of a conventional installation as associated with a normal on-road vehicle having a steering wheel to steer the machine and foot pedals to control the speed and braking functions. The document elaborates the requirements for an originally built machine with two driving positions but also where a proprietary commercial truck chassis is converted from a single driving position, it also advises recommendations in design, construction and safety related elements.
2015-01-08
Standard
J1658_201501
This SAE Recommended Practice applies to refrigerant blends (multicomponent refrigerants) intended for use as retrofit refrigerants to replace CFC-12 (R-12) in mobile air-conditioning (A/C) systems. Since the composition of non-azeotropic refrigerant mixtures changes as refrigerant is lost, either through the vapor phase or the liquid phase, the method of charging A/C systems is important. The purpose of this document is to determine the proper refrigerant phase, liquid or vapor, for system charging by relating system performance changes to the charging method. This document is complete only when combined with the requirements of SAE J1657.
2014-12-31
Standard
AIR1358C
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) indicates those dimensions, deemed critical by the manufacturer to assure proper mating of disconnect hose fittings. The dimensions are critical, but not necessarily complete, in defining these fittings since there are other criteria which must also be met.
2014-12-28
Standard
ARP6256
This document is a guide to the application of magnesium alloys to aircraft interior components including but not limited to aircraft seats. It provides background information on magnesium, its alloys and readily available forms such as extrusions and plate. It also contains guidelines for “enabling technologies” for the application of magnesium to engineering solutions including: machining, joining, forming, cutting, surface treatment, flammability issues, and designing from aluminum to magnesium.
2014-12-23
Article
Plastic composite parts outnumber bio-based material vehicle applications, but "green" projects are making inroads by overcoming various hurdles.
2014-12-22
WIP Standard
J548/1
This SAE Standard applies only to spark plugs used for ground vehicles and stationary engines. This document is intended to serve as a guide to dimensions common to the majority of current production spark plugs and future applications. It is not the intent of this document to prohibit the manufacture of spark plugs having dimensions differing from those presented. Many applications exist which require specialized or nonstandard spark plugs. It is recommended that this document be used in spark plug design and engine applications wherever possible. Whenever design situations arise that prevent the use of one of these standard spark plugs, a spark plug manufacturer should be contacted for guidance. Figures 1 to 13 and Tables 1A to 6 show typical configurations of unshielded and shielded spark plug designs, their dimensional characteristics, installation, threaded hole, and spark plug thread sizes.
2014-12-19
WIP Standard
J2911
This SAE Standard provides manufacturers, testing facilities and providers of technician training with a procedure for certifying compliance with the appropriate standards. Manufacturers or seller who advertise their products as Certified to an SAE J standard shall follow this procedure. Certification of a product is voluntary; however, this certification process is mandatory for those advertising meeting SAE Standard(s) requirements. Only certifying to this standard allows those claiming compliance to advertise that their product (unit), component, or service meets all requirements of the specific SAE standard. Certification of compliance to this and the appropriate standard and use of the SAE label on the product shall only be permitted after all the required information has been submitted to SAE International and it has been posted on the SAE web site.
2014-12-16
Article
Ford recently unveiled its Sync 3 in-car infotainment system that will launch in select vehicles next year. In this episode of SAE Eye on Engineering, Senior Editor Lindsay Brooke looks at Ford's new system and its improvements over the previous version. 
2014-12-15
Article
Thermo Pro 90 and Thermo Pro 50 engine-off coolant heating systems from Webasto are designed for use in specialty commercial vehicles and off-highway equipment.
2014-12-11
Standard
J2912_201412
This SAE Standard applies to refrigerant identification equipment to be used for identifying refrigerant HFC-134a (R-134a) and HFO-1234yf (R-1234yf) refrigerant when servicing a mobile A/C system or for identifying refrigerant in a container to be used to charge a mobile A/C system. Identification of other refrigerants is the option of the equipment manufacturer, although it shall not misidentify refrigerants, per 3.2.
2014-12-03
Standard
J1948_201412
This SAE Recommended Practice provides a standardized test procedure for heavy-duty truck sleeper berth restraints to determine whether they meet the FMCSR 393.76(h) requirements.
2014-12-03
Standard
J1522_201412
This SAE Recommended Practice describes two-dimensional 95th percentile truck driver side view, seated stomach contours for horizontally adjustable seats (see Figure 1). There is one contour and three locating lines to accommodate male-to-female ratios of 50:50, 75:25, and 90:10 to 95:5.
2014-12-03
Standard
J1521_201412
This SAE Recommended Practice describes two-dimensional, 95th percentile truck driver, side view, seated shin-knee contours for both the accelerator operating leg and the clutch operating leg for horizontally adjustable seats (see Figure 1). There is one contour for the clutch shin-knee and one contour for the accelerator shin-knee. There are three locating equations for each curve to accommodate male-to-female ratios of 50:50, 75:25, and 90:10 to 95:5.
Viewing 181 to 210 of 10051

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