This document is a guide to the application of magnesium alloys to aircraft interior components including but not limited to aircraft seats. It provides background information on magnesium, its alloys and readily available forms such as extrusions and plate. It also contains guidelines for “enabling technologies” for the application of magnesium to engineering solutions including: machining, joining, forming, cutting, surface treatment, flammability issues, and designing from aluminum to magnesium.
Plastic composite parts outnumber bio-based material vehicle applications, but "green" projects are making inroads by overcoming various hurdles.
This SAE Standard applies only to spark plugs used for ground vehicles and stationary engines. This document is intended to serve as a guide to dimensions common to the majority of current production spark plugs and future applications. It is not the intent of this document to prohibit the manufacture of spark plugs having dimensions differing from those presented. Many applications exist which require specialized or nonstandard spark plugs. It is recommended that this document be used in spark plug design and engine applications wherever possible. Whenever design situations arise that prevent the use of one of these standard spark plugs, a spark plug manufacturer should be contacted for guidance. Figures 1 to 13 and Tables 1A to 6 show typical configurations of unshielded and shielded spark plug designs, their dimensional characteristics, installation, threaded hole, and spark plug thread sizes.
Procedure for Certification that Requirements for Mobile Air Conditioning System Components, Service Equipment, and Service Technician Training Meet SAE J Standards
This SAE Standard provides manufacturers, testing facilities and providers of technician training with a procedure for certifying compliance with the appropriate standards. Manufacturers or seller who advertise their products as Certified to an SAE J standard shall follow this procedure. Certification of a product is voluntary; however, this certification process is mandatory for those advertising meeting SAE Standard(s) requirements. Only certifying to this standard allows those claiming compliance to advertise that their product (unit), component, or service meets all requirements of the specific SAE standard. Certification of compliance to this and the appropriate standard and use of the SAE label on the product shall only be permitted after all the required information has been submitted to SAE International and it has been posted on the SAE web site.
Ford recently unveiled its Sync 3 in-car infotainment system that will launch in select vehicles next year. In this episode of SAE Eye on Engineering, Senior Editor Lindsay Brooke looks at Ford's new system and its improvements over the previous version.
Thermo Pro 90 and Thermo Pro 50 engine-off coolant heating systems from Webasto are designed for use in specialty commercial vehicles and off-highway equipment.
Performance Requirements for R-134a and R-1234yf Refrigerant Diagnostic Identifiers (RDI) for Use with Mobile Air Conditioning Systems
This SAE Standard applies to refrigerant identification equipment to be used for identifying refrigerant HFC-134a (R-134a) and HFO-1234yf (R-1234yf) refrigerant when servicing a mobile A/C system or for identifying refrigerant in a container to be used to charge a mobile A/C system. Identification of other refrigerants is the option of the equipment manufacturer, although it shall not misidentify refrigerants, per 3.2.
This SAE Recommended Practice provides a standardized test procedure for heavy-duty truck sleeper berth restraints to determine whether they meet the FMCSR 393.76(h) requirements.
This SAE Recommended Practice describes two-dimensional 95th percentile truck driver side view, seated stomach contours for horizontally adjustable seats (see Figure 1). There is one contour and three locating lines to accommodate male-to-female ratios of 50:50, 75:25, and 90:10 to 95:5.
This SAE Recommended Practice describes two-dimensional, 95th percentile truck driver, side view, seated shin-knee contours for both the accelerator operating leg and the clutch operating leg for horizontally adjustable seats (see Figure 1). There is one contour for the clutch shin-knee and one contour for the accelerator shin-knee. There are three locating equations for each curve to accommodate male-to-female ratios of 50:50, 75:25, and 90:10 to 95:5.
Toyota today called for a coordinated industry-wide joint initiative to independently test Takata airbag inflators that have been the subject of recent recalls by several automakers. "By combining our collective efforts behind a coordinated, comprehensive testing program, we believe we can achieve greater results.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) will specify what type night vision goggles are required, minimum requirements for compatible crew station lighting, aircraft exterior lighting such as anticollision lights and position/navigation lights that are "NVG compatible." Also, this document is intended to set standards for NVG utilization for aircraft so that special use aircraft such as the Coast Guard, Border Patrol, Air Rescue, Police Department, Medivacs, etc., will be better equipped to chase drug smugglers and catch illegal immigrants, rescue people in distress, reduce high-speed chases through city streets by police, etc. Test programs and pilot operator programs are required. For those people designing or modifying civil aircraft to be NVG compatible, the documents listed in 2.1.3 are essential.
The Automotive Seating Systems Report from IHS SupplierBusiness takes an in-depth look at the global seating market including the key changes currently underway in the industry and what the future holds for this sector. The report considers in-house seat manufacture and supply chain developments along with advances in safety, comfort and convenience. Fitment rates for various seat features such as powered and memory functions, lumbar support and massage have been increasing and will continue to do so as vehicle interiors become “smarter”. Much of the technology in today’s seats is electric or electronically driven, and can be remotely controlled via links on the dashboard or controllers located throughout the vehicle. The market is opening up to New Tier 1 suppliers as well as Tier 2 and specialist niche technology players, all of whom will intensify the competition for supplying the world’s leading seating companies.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers combustion heaters used in the following applications: a. Cabin heating (all occupied regions and windshield heating) b. Wing and empennage anti-icing c. Engine and accessory heating (when heater is installed as part of the aircraft) d. Aircraft de-icing
This recommended practice is a source of information for body and trim engineers and represents existing technology in the field of on-highway vehicle seating systems. It provides a more uniform system of nomenclature, definitions of functional requirements, and testing methods of various material components of motor vehicle seating systems.
Define and develop test parameters, test methods, measurements, and acceptable performance criteria for composite aircraft seat structures.
Oil debris monitoring in aero engines In a gas turbine engine, small particles or "chips" are generated at the point of wear, serving as an advanced warning that catastrophic failure will occur if the wear is not addressed. Health monitoring systems, such as oil debris monitoring, are used to find these small particles so that the wear can be resolved before it's too late. Indigenous powertrain development Customer needs and expectations on drivability, fuel economy, and safety has pushed Indian and multinational OEMs to think about the development of powertrains and gearboxes for local needs with global standards. The next wave of crash simulation As computing speed has improved and software itself has made significant speed and performance gains with each release, modeling tools are now quick enough to build high-quality, large, high-detail vehicle models in a very efficient manner.
Among the many premium interior features in the 2015 Hyundai Genesis is a “world-first” safety technology—an in-cabin CO2 sensor control system, located under the glove box, that combats occupant drowsiness.
This document provides guidance concerning the maintenance and serviceability of oxygen cylinders beginning with the quality of oxygen that is required, supplemental oxygen information, handling and cleaning procedures, transfilling and marking of serviced oxygen assemblies. This document attempts to outline in a logical sequence oxygen quality, serviceability and maintenance of oxygen cylinders.
Abstract The Instant Mileage Assistance (IMA), as the name indicates, is a system to guide the vehicle users to realize maximum fuel economy (mileage). This system is targeted to provide users with instantaneous mileage indication depending on the current driving pattern, correct gear operating zone (in case of a geared vehicle) through gear up/down shift assist indication and the accurate distance the vehicle can travel before the fuel tank is empty, thereby assisting the user in harnessing maximum fuel economy the vehicle can deliver and also safely reach the next refilling station. The instantaneous mileage is calculated by mapping the distance travelled by the vehicle and the respective amount of fuel consumed, during a particular period of time, and is displayed using an instrument cluster.
Abstract In this paper, a light-duty exhaust heat recovery heat exchanger prototype is proposed to enhance the heating capacity of an automobile cabin. Even though the prototype is a small and simple structure of offset fins installed on a double tube, it showed a heat recovery capacity of more than 800 W. Therefore, the prototype is expected to be used in vehicles such as recreational vehicles and light utility vehicles with a cabin roof. The prototype was compared with a mass-produced model in tests of heat transfer and pressure drop performance by using hot air and a coolant. The results showed that the overall heat transfer coefficient for the prototype exceeded that for the mass-produced model for a Reynolds number of less than 1500.
Development of Temperature Estimation Method of Whole Engine Considering Heat Balance under Vehicle Running Conditions
Abstract For detailed temperature estimates in the engine of a running motorcycle, newly researches were conducted on the method for calculation of temperature distribution using a three-dimensional (3D) thermal conductivity simulation after calculating the total balance of heat generation and heat dissipation of the engine using a one-dimensional (1D) thermal simulation. This project is targeted at air-cooled engines in which the cooling conditions vary significantly depending on the external shapes of the engines and the airflow around them. The heat balance is calculated using the 1D thermal simulation taking into account all the routes and processes for dissipation to the atmosphere of the heat that is generated by the combustion in the engine. The 1D engine cycle simulation is applied to calculate the heat transmission to the engine from the combustion. For the calculation of heat transfer within the engine, the engine components are converted to a one-dimensional model.
Efficiency Optimization Using a Power-Guided Engine Control for Management of Thermal-and Mechanical Demands Using the Example of a Micro Combined Heat and Power Unit
Abstract At a micro-CHP unit the target size of the engine controller is not mechanical torque but thermal and mechanical power. Accordingly, these demands must be implemented by the engine controller. This means that on the one hand a mechanical demand is answered under the boundary condition of the highest actual efficiency and that on the other hand thermal demands have to be processed. Since the thermal- and mechanical power output is coupled with the actual efficiency, exceeding the nominal load of the thermal power, the actual efficiency can be regulated in order to answer the demand. This can be done in consideration of the maximum achievable actual efficiency. Limits are set by the combustion stability and thermal protection functions. The functions are modelled with Matlab/Simulink and the ECU code for a rapid control prototyping system is generated. A dynamic engine test bed for internal combustion engines up to 12 kW was built to verify the motor control functions.
A Potentiality of Dedicated EGR in SI Engines Fueled by Natural Gas for Improving Thermal Efficiency and Reducing NOx Emission
Abstract Recently, a potentiality of Dedicated EGR (D-EGR) concept SI engine has been studied. This concept engine had four cylinders and operated with exhaust gas supplied from the single cylinder to the intake manifold. Compared with conventional SI engines, it was able to increase thermal efficiency and decrease CO, HC, and NOx emission by the high D-EGR ratio 0.25. In this study, numerical analysis of a SI engine with D-EGR system with various D-EGR ratios was conducted for detailed understanding the potentiality of this concept in terms of thermal efficiency and NOx emission. #1 cylinder of assumed engine was used as D-EGR cylinder that equivalence ratio varied from 0.6 to 3.4. Entire exhaust gas from #1 cylinder was recirculated to the other cylinders. The other cylinders run with this exhaust gas and new premixed air and fuel with various equivalence ratios from 0.6-1.0.
Development of High Strength, High Thermal Conductivity Cold Sprayed Coatings to Improve Thermal Management in Hybrid Motorcycles
Abstract The deposition of thick, pore-free, high-performance copper alloy matrix composite coatings is a topic of interest for several industrial applications, including friction materials, high-strength electrical contacts, and welding electrodes, among others. This study investigates the use of cold spray to deposit CuCrZr/Al2O3 cermet coatings on aluminum alloy 6060. The objective is to integrate copper-based materials with aluminum-based materials, ensuring a high degree of mechanical and thermal contact, using a low temperature process that does not adversely affect the properties of the base materials. This technique can be used to produce integral coolers and aluminum-based bearings for automotive and motorcycle applications. Fused and crushed alumina and gas-atomized CuCrZr powder blends have been used as initial feedstocks, with compositional weight ratios of 65/35 and 80/20 (ceramic/metal).
This document defines the method for voltage identification by the use of color-coded insulators at the base of the lamps. Table 1 shows the design volts and corresponding insulator colors. The part numbers shown are for example purposes only, as an option. Insulator colors are to be easily distinguishable as green, yellow, red, and white. Additional colors may be added by a revision process as required.
2015 engines ride a technology tidal wave Powertrain engineers are diving deeper to find new ways to make light-duty power units more efficient without compromising performance. Connectivity for comfort Seat suppliers such as Continental, Johnson Controls, and Faurecia pursue 'networked' seats to enhance safety, personalization, and comfort. Assembling aluminum vehicles in volume Ford's 2015 F-150 pickup pioneers high-volume mass-production of lightweight aluminum car and truck structures.
Abstract Fuel consumption of vehicles has received increased attention in recent years; however one neglected area that can have a large effect on this is the energy usage for the interior climate. This study aims to investigate the energy usage for the interior climate for different conditions by measurements on a complete vehicle. Twelve different NEDC tests in different temperatures and thermal states of the vehicle were completed in a climatic wind tunnel. Furthermore one temperature sweep from 43° to −18°C was also performed. The measurements focused on the heat flow of the air, from its sources, to its sink, i.e. compartment. In addition the electrical and mechanical loads of the climate system were included. The different sources of heating and cooling were, for the tested powertrain, waste heat from the engine, a fuel operated heater, heat pickup of the air, evaporator cooling and cooling from recirculation.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) documents a common understanding of terms, compliance issues and occupant injury criteria to facilitate certification of oblique facing seat installations specific to Part 25 aircraft.
Solid chemical oxygen supplies of interest to aircraft operations are 'chlorate candles' and potassium superoxide (KO 2 ). Chlorate candles are used in passenger oxygen supply units and other emergency oxygen systems, such as submarines and escape devices. Potassium superoxide is not used in aircraft operations but is used in closed-cycle breathing apparatus. Characteristics and applications of both are discussed, with emphasis on chlorate candles.