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2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0564
Pengfei Lu, Chris Brace, Bo Hu
Abstract The turbo-compounding has been extensively researched as a mean of improving the overall thermal efficiency of the internal combustion engine. Many of the studies aiming to optimize the turbo-compounding system lead to the unified conclusion that this approach is more suitable for the operation under constant high load condition, while it has little effect on improving the fuel economy under low load conditions. Besides, in a traditional series turbo-compounding engine, the increased back pressure unavoidably results in a serious parasitic load to the system by increasing the resistance to the scavenging process. In order to improve this situation, a novel turbo-compounding arrangement has been proposed, in which the turbocharger was replaced by a continuously variable transmission (CVT) coupled supercharger (CVT superchargedr) to supply sufficient air mass flow rate to the engine at lower engine speeds.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0450
Somnath Sen, Paulson Parayil
Abstract In order to ensure a comfortable space inside the cabin, it is very essential to design an efficient heating ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) system which can deliver uniform temperature distribution at the exit. There are several factors which impact on uniformity of temperature distribution. Airflow distribution is one of the key parameter in deciding the effectiveness of temperature distribution. Kinematics links and linkage system typically termed as ‘mechanism’ is one of the critical sub-systems which greatly affects the airflow distribution. It is not the temperature uniformity but also the HVAC temperature linearity also depends on airflow distribution. Hence the design of mechanism is incomparably of paramount importance to achieve the desired level of airflow distribution at HVAC exit. The present paper describes the design methodology of automotive HVAC mechanism system.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0480
Weiguo Zhang, Mark Likich, Mac Lynch, John White
Abstract The noise radiated from the snorkel of an air induction system (AIS) can be a major noise source to the vehicle interior noise. This noise source is typically quantified as the snorkel volume velocity which is directly related to vehicle interior noise through the vehicle noise transfer function. It is important to predict the snorkel volume velocity robustly at the early design stage for the AIS development. Design For Six Sigma (DFSS) is an engineering approach that supports the new product development process. The IDDOV (Identify-Define-Develop-Optimize-Verify) method is a DFSS approach which can be used for creating innovative, low cost and trouble free products on significant short schedules. In this paper, an IDD project which is one type of DFSS project using IDDOV method is presented on developing a robust simulation process to predict the AIS snorkel volume velocity. First, the IDDOV method is overviewed and the innovative tools in each phase of IDDOV are introduced.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0523
Lauren Abro
Abstract North American customer perception of Quality has changed over time and has shifted from Quality, Dependability, and Reliability (QDR) to Interior Sensory Quality (ISQ). ISQ is defined as the harmony of characteristics that combine to make an emotional connection to the vehicles’ interior. Vehicles need to correctly appeal to customers emotional side through providing class-leading ISQ. Hypotheses for specific interior areas were developed in order to identify key ISQ strengths, weaknesses, and preferences. These hypotheses were then tested at customer clinics held across the country. The key goals were to understand customer judgment of ISQ execution, understand customer ISQ priority, and understand customer preference of detailed component areas.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0524
Venkat Pisipati, Srikanth Krishnaraj, Amy McGuckin Webb, Pavankumar Reddy Kandukuri
Abstract The Automotive industry’s use of digital technology such as Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) to perform virtual validation has progressed to effectively replace a large percentage of physical validation. This is primarily due to the increased accuracy and cost/time efficiencies that virtual validation offers compared to conventional physical prototyping and testing. With product development (PD) cycles becoming more compressed, CAE has assumed a more significant role in early, advanced design and structural evaluation. One of the areas where CAE is widely employed is in development of the Instrument Panel (IP) commonly referred to as the dashboard. For the purposes of this study, the term IP represents the plastic/polymer structure only, and not the full IP sub-system. The IP sub-system includes the structural member, the Cross Car Beam (CCB) assembly and all the IP mounted modules.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0525
Sameer Srivastava, Sandeep Raina, Kapil Kumar Pandey, Arnab Sandilya, Shankar Bose, Kumar Vivek
Abstract The aim of the research was to explore and establish aspects that affect ageing of non-woven fabrics used in automobiles. One of the most vulnerable parts in a vehicle, at the behest of the customer, is the Floor Carpet. Original Equipment manufacturers are continually binging at doable options for providing low cost carpets that are functionally and aesthetically durable throughout the vehicle life. [1] Car interiors, especially carpet, must remain in impeccable condition to uphold a good resale value. Targeting the analysis of causes that affect ageing of non-woven fabric material will form the core study of the literature to follow. The establishment of which shall ascertain some viable solutions to augment quality of the contemporary non-woven automotive carpet.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0521
Ronald S. Grossman
Abstract The lightweighting of auto components is a crucial strategy for OEMs to achieve increasingly challenging CAFÉ requirements. Research from MIT has found that every 10% reduction in passenger vehicle weight reduces fuel consumption by about 7%. Since fuel economy requirements have already increased by 18% from MY 2012 to 2017, the weight savings strategies that are easiest to implement have largely been exhausted. Seating is the largest interior component by weight, but the foam is often overlooked from lightweighting consideration due to the perception that higher weight, higher density seating is an important aspect of the vehicle’s comfort. It has become almost a truism that the physical properties associated with seating comfort -- load bearing, resilience, durability - are directly related to foam density. A new auxiliary blowing agent known chemically as HFO 1233zd(E) is commercially available as Solstice® LBA.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0512
Chae-Hwan Hong
Polylactide (PLA), which is one of the most important biocompatible polyesters that are derived from annually renewable biomass such as corn and sugar beets, has attracted much attention for automotive parts application. The manufacturing method of PLA is the ring-opening polymerization of the dimeric cyclic ester of lactic acid, lactide. For the PLA composites including stereocomplexed with L- and D-PLA, we developed the unit processes such as fermentation, separation, lactide conversion, and polymerization. We investigated D-lactic acid fermentation with a view to obtaining the strains capable of producing D-lactic acid, and through catalyst screening test for polycondensation and depolymerization reactions, we got a new method which shortens the whole reaction time of lactide synthesis step. Poly(d-lactide) is obtained from the ring-opening polymerization of d-lactide. Also we investigated several catalysts and polymerization conditions.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0183
Taehoon Han, Hyunki Sul, John Hoard, Chih-Kuang Kuan, Daniel Styles
Abstract Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) coolers are commonly used in diesel and modern gasoline engines to reduce the re-circulated gas temperature. A common problem with the EGR cooler is a reduction of the effectiveness due to the fouling layer primarily caused by thermophoresis, diffusion, and hydrocarbon condensation. Typically, effectiveness decreases rapidly at first, and asymptotically stabilizes over time. There are several hypotheses of this stabilizing phenomenon; one of the possible theories is a deposit removal mechanism. Verifying such a mechanism and finding out the correlation between the removal and stabilization tendency would be a key factor to understand and overcome the problem. Some authors have proposed that the removal is a possible influential factor, while other authors suggest that removal is not a significant factor under realistic conditions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0185
Yangjie Ji, Jiaqi Wang, Yingxiao Xu, Ziang Liu, Yongchi Zhou, Jiawei Li
Abstract As an auxiliary braking device of heavy-duty vehicle, eddy current retarder can reduce the brake failure due to the high temperature of the main brake. Nevertheless, the eddy current retarder will generate high temperature locally during the working process of it, leading to the decline of the brake power. The study on the heating characteristics of eddy current retarder is advantageous to the layout and parameter design of the liquid cooling channel of the retarder body and prolong the effective time of the auxiliary brake. In this research, a new kind of integrated eddy current retarder has been established. The thermal-magnetic coupling characteristics are studied and the laws of variation in torque output of auxiliary brake affected by the body temperature of retarder are analyzed. The boundary conditions are provided for the construction of the cooling channel. Firstly, the distribution of magnetic field and the characteristics of eddy current are simulated.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0182
Harish Kumar Gangwar, Ankur Sharma, S.B. Pathak, VIvek Dwivedi, Amit Nigam
Abstract Ever tightening emission limits and constant pressure for increasing engine power are resulting in increased engine operating temperature. This coupled with continuous drive for fuel economy improvement because of the stiff competition are forcing OEMs to explore alternative cooling solutions resulting in less power take off and quick response as cooling requirement shoots up. Aim of this paper is to analyze the relative benefits of incorporating a new cooling fan drive system concept over conventional viscous fan driven cooling system with step-less variable speed control independent of engine speed variation. Hydraulic fan drive system control fan rpm based on the fluid temperature as compared to air temperature in viscous coupling fan drive system. HFD system provides quick response when increase in coolant temperature is observed. HFD system in this way provide more control on fan rpm.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0184
Toshio Murata, Tadashi Nakagawa, Hisashi Nishino, Kazunari Matsuura
In order to speed up engine coolant warm-up, the exhaust heat recirculation system collects and reuses the heat from exhaust gases by utilizing the heat exchanger. The conventional system improves actual fuel economy at the scene of the engine restart in winter season only. The heat recirculation system becomes more effective at the low outside temperature because it takes longer time to warm up engine coolant. However, the heat recirculation system becomes less effective at the high outside temperature because it takes shorter time to warm up engine coolant. Therefore, the new exhaust heat recirculation system is developed, which adopted as follows: 1) a fin-type heat exchanger in order to enhance exhaust recirculation efficiency 2) a thinner heat exchanger component and smaller amount of engine coolant capacity in the heat exchanger in order to reduce the heat mass As a result, the actual fuel economy is more improved in winter season.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0179
Meisam Mehravaran, Aurélien Levasseur, Yi Zhang, Manuel Henner
Abstract In this article, the behavior of a typical air-to-air heat exchanger (intercooler) during the thermal shock test has been recorded during which the heat exchanger is exposed to very high temperature gradients. Different CAE models have been built that have different levels of details and the sensitivity of the results to the details has been studied. Finally a comparison have been made between the results of the CAE/CFD model and the experimental data and the correlation study shows that in spite of being simple, the dual stream is very accurate and correlates pretty well with test data. Including all design details in the CAE model will not necessarily improve the accuracy of the model while adding up to the computational cost.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0181
Yasuki Hirota, Ryuichi Iwata, Takafumi Yamauchi, Manabu Orihashi, Masaki Morita
Abstract In order to reduce the energy consumption of the automotive air conditioning system, adsorption heat pump (AHP) system is one of the key technologies. We have been developing compact AHP system utilizing the exhaust heat from the engine coolant system (80-100 °C), which can meet the requirements in the automotive application. However, AHP systems have not been practically used in automotive applications because of its low volumetric power density of the adsorber. The volumetric power density of the adsorber is proportional to sorption rate, packing density and latent heat. In general, the sorption rate is determined by mass transfer resistance in primary particle of an adsorbent and heat and mass transfer resistance in packed bed. In order to improve the volumetric power density of the adsorber, it is necessary to increase the production of the sorption rate and the packing density.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0180
Montassar Khammassi, Thierry Marimbordes, Judicael Aubry, Bertrand Barbedette, Mickael Cormerais, Cherif Larouci, Quentin Frossard
Abstract In order to cope with new regulations and find a better compromise between fuel consumption, pollutant emissions and comfort, thermal management technologies are getting more complex. This is especially true when it requires replacing a basic passive solution with a mechatronic system. A new Active Cooling Thermal-management (ACT) valve concept has been developed to specifically replace wax thermostat while keeping the same packaging and cost range and bringing closed loop temperature control, fast response time and precision. This new module is manufactured by assembling injected thermoplastic components. By essence it leads to dimension tolerances, deformation and wear over its life. Those uncertainties and deviations have to be taken into account when the nominal part is designed to ensure part efficiency till the end of its life.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0200
Chunhui Zhang, Mesbah Uddin, Xu Song, Chen Fu, Lee Foster
Abstract The radiator is the key component of a vehicle’s cooling system. The cooling effectiveness of a radiator largely depends on the flow of fresh air through it. Thus, at high vehicle speeds, the mass flow rate and flow-distribution or flow-uniformity over the radiator surface are the major operating parameters influencing the performance of a radiator. Additionally, the mass of air coming from the front grille plays an important role on the total drag of the vehicle. This paper presents computational studies aiming at improving simultaneously the efficiency of a radiator and reducing the total drag of the vehicle; this is achieved using passive aerodynamic devices that alter the flow pattern approaching the radiator. The vehicle model considered is a Hyundai Veloster and all analyses were carried out using a commercial CFD code Star-CCM+ version 10.04 by CD-adapco.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0201
Armin Traussnig, Wilko Jansen, Heinz Petutschnig, Sepp Steiner, Petra Gruen
Abstract In order to meet current and future emission and CO2 targets, an efficient vehicle thermal management system is one of the key factors in conventional as well as in electrified powertrains. Global vehicle simulation is already a well-established tool to support the vehicle development process. In contrast to conventional vehicles, electrified powertrains offer an additional challenge to the thermal conditioning: the durability of E-components is not only influenced by temperature peaks but also by the duration and amplitude of temperature swings as well as temperature gradients within the components during their lifetime. Keeping all components always at the preferred lowest temperature level to avoid ageing under any conditions (driving, parking, etc.) will result in very high energy consumption which is in contradiction to the efficiency targets.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0203
Yadong Deng, Chunhua Liu, Panqi Chu
Abstract In order to make full use of engine exhaust heat, the thermoelectric module been used to contribute to thermoelectric power generation in the automotive. At present, the thermoelectric generators (TEGs) have been developing with continuously advances in thermoelectric technology. And almost all of the existing thermoelectric technologies are adding a gas tank to the vehicle exhaust system which increases the exhaust back pressure and occupying excessive space of the vehicle chassis. In this study, a new TEG integrated with a front silencer muffler (FMTEG) is proposed. The muffler is reshaped as the heat exchanger which has a hexagon cross-section. The water tank and clamping mechanism have been redesigned for the new heat exchanger. The FMTEG system’s dimensions are small that can well meet the installation requirements and has a good compatibility with the vehicle exhaust system.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0202
Bjoern Franzke, Stefan Pischinger, Philipp Adomeit, Christof Schernus, Johannes Scharf, Tolga Uhlmann
Abstract A new approach is presented to modelling wall heat transfer in the exhaust port and manifold within 1D gas exchange simulation to ensure a precise calculation of thermal exhaust enthalpy. One of the principal characteristics of this approach is the partition of the exhaust process in a blow-down and a push-out phase. In addition to the split in two phases, the exhaust system is divided into several sections to consider changes in heat transfer characteristics downstream the exhaust valves. Principally, the convective heat transfer is described by the characteristic numbers of Nusselt, Reynolds and Prandtl. However, the phase individual correlation coefficients are derived from 3D CFD investigations of the flow in the exhaust system combined with Low-Re turbulence modelling. Furthermore, heat losses on the valve and the seat ring surfaces are considered by an empirical model approach.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0198
Sudhi Uppuluri, Hemant R. Khalane, Yogesh Umbarkar, Ajay Naiknaware
Abstract Vehicle development teams find it challenging to predict what their Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) module performance will be for cold ambient (∼ -20 deg. C) test cycles such as defrost and cabin warm-up before the car is built. This uncertainty in predictions comes from varying engine heat rejection to coolant due to cold cylinder wall temperatures, calibration changes and degraded performance of various components within the cooling system such as the coolant pump owing to higher viscosity of the coolant. Measuring engine heat rejection at cold ambient is extremely difficult as the engine warms up as soon as it is fired. Multiple measurement points require long lead time to soak to the cold target temperature. It is a common practice to adjust engine calibration parameters to warm up coolant as fast as possible for an adequate defrost and cabin warm-up performance.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0199
Bin Xu, Xiaobing Liu, John Shutty, Paul Anschel, Simona Onori, Zoran Filipi, Mark Hoffman
Abstract This paper presents an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system model for heavy-duty diesel (HDD) applications. The dynamic, physics-based model includes: heat exchangers for parallel exhaust and EGR circuits, compressible vapor working fluid, distribution and flow control valves, a high pressure pump, and a reservoir. A finite volume method is used to model the evaporator, and a pressure drop model is included to improve the accuracy of predictions. Experimental results obtained on a prototype ORC system are used for model calibration and validation. Comparison of predicted and measured values under steady-state conditions is pursued first, followed by the analysis of selected transient events. Validation reveals the model’s ability to track real-world temperature and pressure dynamics of the ORC system.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0191
Gursaran D. Mathur
Water drainage characteristics of an evaporator changes with the age of the vehicle. This is due to the fact that with time, a part of the hydrophilic coating washes off with the moisture that condenses over the evaporator core from the air-stream. Hence, the effectiveness of the evaporator for water drainage deteriorates with the age of the vehicle. At this condition more water is retained in the evaporator as the contact angle increases. Author has conducted experiments with evaporators from multiple vehicles from different OEMs. These evaporators were analyzed to determine the effectiveness of the hydrophilic coating as a function of time or vehicle age. This is the first paper in the open literature that deals with the vehicle mileage or vehicle age with the evaporator plate contact angle and surface coating of an evaporator.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0192
Alaa El-Sharkawy, Ahmed Uddin
Abstract Engine mount is one of the temperature sensitive components in the vehicle under-hood. Due to increasing requirements for improved fuel economy, the under-hood thermal management has become very challenging in recent years. In order to study the effects of material thermal degradation on engine mount performance and durability; it is required to estimate the temperature of engine mount rubber during various driving conditions. The effect of temperature on physical properties of natural rubber can then be evaluated and the life of engine mount can be estimated. In this paper, a bench test is conducted where the engine mount is exposed to a step change in the environment around it, and the temperature of the rubber section is recorded at several points till a steady state temperature is reached. A time response curve is generated, from which a time constant is determined.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0193
Shoichi Imahigashi, Masaharu Sakai, Etsuro Yoshino, Yasushi Mitsuishi
Abstract In recent years, the spread of eco-car has led to the demand for adaptation to low heat source, high efficiency and low noise in vehicle air conditioner. On the other hand, larger interior space of vehicle to assure passenger comfort is demanded, so that the car air-conditioner is required to be smaller. Therefore, we adopted 2-layer HVAC for the air conditioner which can respond to a low heat source. At the same time we have developed the compact high-efficiency 2-layer blower fan for HVAC in order to enable the 2-layer HVAC to be mounted on eco-car with smaller space than conventional HVAC. Generally, because axial flow velocity increases resulting from downsizing of the blower, the ununiform velocity distribution in the axial direction and the turbulent flow between fan blades occurs. It causes the efficiency decrease. To satisfy both downsizing and high-efficiency of the 2-layer blower, we have developed new technologies which can make the flow uniform between fan blades.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0186
Hyunki Sul, Taehoon Han, Mitchell Bieniek, John Hoard, Chih-Kuang Kuan, Daniel Styles
Abstract Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) coolers are used on diesel engines to reduce peak in-cylinder flame temperatures, leading to less NOx formation during the combustion process. There is an ongoing concern with soot and hydrocarbon fouling inside the cold surface of the cooler. The fouling layer reduces the heat transfer efficiency and causes pressure drop to increase across the cooler. A number of experimental studies have demonstrated that the fouling layer tends to asymptotically approach a critical height, after which the layer growth ceases. One potential explanation for this behavior is the removal mechanism derived by the shear force applied on the soot and hydrocarbon deposit surface. As the deposit layer thickens, shear force applied on the fouling surface increases due to the flow velocity growth. When a critical shear force is applied, deposit particles start to get removed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0187
Zizhen Yu, Gangfeng Tan, Tianming He, Xuexun Guo, MengYing Yang, Shengguang Xiong
Abstract With the improvement of occupants’ awareness on the driving safety, hydraulic retarder applications increase quickly. The traditional hydraulic retarder, on the one hand, exhausts the waste heat of transmission oil by the engine cooling system; on the other hand, the engine power should be consumed to drive the water pump and the engine cooling fan for maintaining the normal operation of the auxiliary braking system. In this study, the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) instead of the traditional hydraulic retarder water-cooling system is applied to achieve the effective temperature control of the hydraulic retarder, while the waste heat of transmission oil could be recovered for saving vehicle energy consumption.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0189
Alaa El-Sharkawy, Ahmed Uddin
Abstract A heat pipe is a self-operating device which is capable of transferring large amounts of heat with a minimum temperature differences between the hot end (evaporator) and the cold end (condenser). However, a limited number of research work or analysis [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9] has been reported in automotive industry on the applications of heat pipes in power train cooling. The advantage of a heat pipe heat exchanger is the possibility to use a more compact and lighter radiator. In addition, the proposed radiator is expected to be more robust as it is less sensitive to variations in ambient temperatures. In this paper, a proposed design for an automotive heat exchanger is investigated. The proposed design is evaluated through thermal simulation of heat pipes using various design parameters. The analysis addresses the ability of the heat exchanger to maintain engine coolant temperature at acceptable limits under different loading conditions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0188
Elankathiravan Mathivanan, Liping Liu
In the present work, the effect of various nanofluids on convective heat transfer performance in an automotive radiator was analyzed based on measured nanofluid properties. Al2O3, TiC, SiC, MWNT (multi-walled nanotube) and SiO2 nanoparticles ranging between 1 and 100 nm in size were dispersed in distilled water to form nanofluids. An ultrasonic generator was used to provide uniform particle dispersion in the fluid and keep the mixture stable for a long period of time. The impact of various particle types and their volume concentration on fluid properties such as density, thermal conductivity and viscosity were experimentally analyzed. It is observed that the nanofluid properties increased with the increase in particle volume concentration. TiO2 nanofluids were observed to show the highest increase in density (2.6% higher than the base fluid at a 1% vol. concentration) and also the largest enhancement in thermal conductivity (7.5% augmentation at 1% concentration).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0219
Song Lan, Zhijia Yang, Richard Stobart, Edward Winward
Abstract An automotive engine can be more efficient if thermoelectric generators (TEG) are used to convert a portion of the exhaust gas enthalpy into electricity. Due to the relatively low cost of the incoming thermal energy, the efficiency of the TEG is not an overriding consideration. Instead, the maximum power output (MPO) is the first priority. The MPO of the TEG is closely related to not only the thermoelectric materials properties, but also the operating conditions. This study shows the development of a numerical TEG model integrated with a plate-fin heat exchanger, which is designed for automotive waste heat recovery (WHR) in the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) path in a diesel engine. This model takes into account the following factors: the exhaust gas properties’ variation along the flow direction, temperature influence on the thermoelectric materials, thermal contact effect, and heat transfer leakage effect. Its accuracy has been checked using engine test data.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0218
Balashunmuganathan Vasanth, Kumar Sathish, Mayur Sah
In an automotive air conditioning, aero-acoustic noise originating from HVAC (Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning) unit is one of the major concerns for the customer satisfaction. “Fan blower excessive noise” is one among the top issues for all automotive manufacturers. In this paper, a 3D computational analysis is carried out for a passenger car HVAC unit to predict the noise originated from the HVAC unit. HVAC modeling is done using uni graphics and ANSA and the analysis is carried out using the commercial CFD software STAR CCM+. The inputs for the analysis are the airflow at HVAC Inlet, blower speed and the pressure drop characteristics of evaporator, filter and heater core. The computational model is done by considering the blower region as MRF (Moving Reference Frame) and the air flow is considered incompressible. DES (Detached Eddy Simulation) model is used to resolve the eddies generated by the turbulent flow.
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