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2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0211
Wang Yiping, Shuai Li, Chunhua Liu, Tao Wang, Panqi Chu
Abstract For vehicle thermoelectric generator, heat would be directly transferred into electricity by thermoelectric modules because there was temperature difference between heat exchanger and water tank. The electrical power generation was deeply influenced by temperature difference, temperature uniformity and topological structure of TEG. In previous works, increasing the difference of temperature would significantly enhance the power generation of TEG and inserted fins were always applied to enhance heat transfer in parallel-plate heat exchanger. But fins would result in a large backpressure which was not conductive to efficiency of the engine.In current study, to enhance heat transfer rates and outside surface temperature, cylindrical grooves on the top and bottom surface in heat exchanger was proposed. The cylindrical grooves could increase the heat transfer area and enhance the turbulence intensity, meanwhile there was no inserts in the fluid to block the flow.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0208
Xuzhi Du, Zhigang Yang, Hua Zhou, Qiliang Li, Zheyan Jin
Abstract The effect of jet geometry on flow, heat transfer and defrosting characteristics was numerically investigated for elliptic and rectangular impinging jets on an automobile windshield. Initially, various turbulence models within the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package FLUENT were employed and validated for a single jet, and the results indicated that the impinging jet heat transfer was more accurately predicted by the SST k -ω turbulence model, which was then utilized for this study. The aspect ratios (AR) of elliptic and rectangular jets were respectively 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0, with jet-to-target spacing h/d=2, 4 and jet-to-jet spacing c/d=4, and all those situations were numerically analyzed with the same air mass flow and jet open area. It was observed that the heat transfer coefficient and defrosting performance of the inclined windshield were significantly affected by the shape of the jet, and the best results were obtained with the elliptic jet arrangements.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0209
Youcai Liang
Abstract This paper presents performance of a novel ECCS (electricity-cooling cogeneration system) based on cascade utilization of the waste heat of marine engines. The cogeneration system consists of a steam Rankine cycle and an NH3-H2O absorption refrigeration cycle with an expander. The steam Rankine cycle recycles the energy of both jacket coolant and exhaust gas of engine, while the absorption refrigeration cycle is employed to recover energy of the expanded steam at the turbine outlet in Rankine cycle. The performance of the waste heat recovery system is evaluated in terms of electricity, cooling capacity, equivalent electricity and exergy efficiency. The simulation results show that the novel ECCS exhibited a maximum net electricity output of 4561 kW, a maximum cooling capacity of 3197 kW, and a maximum equivalent electricity of 5233 kW.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0207
Ivan Arsie, Andrea Cricchio, Cesare Pianese, Vincenzo Ricciardi, Matteo De Cesare
Abstract In the last years, the research effort of the automotive industry has been mainly focused on the reduction of CO2 and pollutants emissions. In this scenario, concepts such as the engines downsizing, stop/start systems as well as more costly full hybrid solutions and, more recently, Waste Heat Recovery technologies have been proposed. These latter include Thermo-Electric Generator (TEG), Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) and Electric Turbo-Compound (ETC) that have been practically implemented on few heavy-duty applications but have not been proved yet as effective and affordable solutions for passenger cars. The paper deals with modeling of ORC power plant for simulation analyses aimed at evaluating the opportunities and challenges of its application for the waste heat recovery in a compact car, powered by a turbocharged SI engine.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0206
Ken T. Lan
An Air intake system (AIS) is a duct system which leads the airflow going into the internal combustion engine. Combustion requires oxygen, and the more oxygen is provided into the combustion process the more power it will produce. The lower the air temperature, the higher its density, and hence there is more oxygen in a unit volume. The quality of air entering engine can be measured with the air temperature. AIS design and routing influence the air charge temperature (ACT) at intake manifold runners and ACT is normally measured at AIS throttle body in reality. Higher ACT lead to inefficient combustion and can lead to spark retard. Optimization of AIS designs and reduction of ACT can improve engine performance and vehicle fuel economy. High ACT can be a result of two different phenomena: Recirculation - Hot air from the underhood environment ingested into the dirty side of the air intake system.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0205
Mattia De Rosa, Roy Douglas, Stephen Glover
Abstract The internal combustion (IC) engines exploits only about 30% of the chemical energy ejected through combustion, whereas the remaining part is rejected by means of cooling system and exhausted gas. Nowadays, a major global concern is finding sustainable solutions for better fuel economy which in turn results in a decrease of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) is one of the most promising techniques to increase the overall efficiency of a vehicle system, allowing the recovery of the heat rejected by the exhaust and cooling systems. In this context, Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs) are widely recognized as a potential technology to exploit the heat rejected by engines to produce electricity. The aim of the present paper is to investigate a WHR system, designed to collect both coolant and exhausted gas heats, coupled with an ORC cycle for vehicle applications.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0204
Igor Gritsuk, Yurii Gutarevych, Vasyl Mateichyk, Vladimir Volkov
Abstract The article discusses the features of applying vehicular engine heating system with phase-transitional thermal accumulator. The peculiarity of the presented system is that it uses thermal energy of exhaust gases from internal combustion engine during its operation to accumulate heat. The results of experimental studies of heating the vehicular engine are shown. The article describes the structure of information package for studying the internal combustion engine of a vehicle with heating system and thermal accumulator during the start and after-start heating. The package allows engine performance parameters and engine thermal development to be estimated from distance within intelligent transport systems. Using phase-transitional thermal accumulator in engine coolant heater system (case studied: G4GC (4FS 8.2 / 9.35) of KIA CEE'D 2.0 5MT2) reduces time for heating by 17.8 - 68.4% and fuel consumption by 19.5 - 56.25%.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0203
Yadong Deng, Chunhua Liu, Panqi Chu
Abstract In order to make full use of engine exhaust heat, the thermoelectric module been used to contribute to thermoelectric power generation in the automotive. At present, the thermoelectric generators (TEGs) have been developing with continuously advances in thermoelectric technology. And almost all of the existing thermoelectric technologies are adding a gas tank to the vehicle exhaust system which increases the exhaust back pressure and occupying excessive space of the vehicle chassis. In this study, a new TEG integrated with a front silencer muffler (FMTEG) is proposed. The muffler is reshaped as the heat exchanger which has a hexagon cross-section. The water tank and clamping mechanism have been redesigned for the new heat exchanger. The FMTEG system’s dimensions are small that can well meet the installation requirements and has a good compatibility with the vehicle exhaust system.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0234
Roberto Cipollone, Davide Di Battista, Andrea Perosino, Federica Bettoja
Abstract The use of reciprocating internal combustion engines (ICE) dominates the sector of the in-the-road transportation sector, both for light and heavy duties. CO2 reduction is the technological driver, considering the severe worldwide greenhouse commitments. In ICE more than one third of the fuel energy used is rejected to the environment as thermal waste through the exhaust gases. Therefore, a greater fuel economy could be achieved, recovering this energy and converting it into useful electric power on board. Financial benefits will be produced in terms of fuel cost which will rebound similar benefits in terms of CO2 emitted. For long hauling vehicles, which run for thousands of miles, frequently at fixed engine operating conditions, this recovery appears very worthy of attention. In this activity, an ORC-based power unit was designed, built and tested fed by a heavy duty diesel engine, so contributing to the huge efforts on going in that specific sector.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0232
Zhijia Yang, Edward Winward, Song Lan, Richard Stobart
Abstract Two identical commercial Thermo-Electric Modules (TEMs) were assembled on a plate type heat exchanger to form a Thermoelectric Generator (TEG) unit in this study. This unit was tested on the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) flow path of a test engine. The data collected from the test was used to develop and validate a steady state, zero dimensional numerical model of the TEG. Using this model and the EGR path flow conditions from a 30% torque Non-Road Transient Cycle (NRTC) engine test, an optimization of the number of TEM units in this TEG device was conducted. The reduction in fuel consumption during the transient test cycle was estimated based on the engine instantaneous Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC). The perfect conversion of TEG recovered electrical energy to engine shaft mechanical energy was assumed. Simulations were performed for a single TEG unit (i.e. 2 TEMs) to up to 50 TEG units (i.e. 100 TEMs).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0230
Gene Titov, Jason Lustbader, Daniel Leighton, Tibor Kiss
Abstract The National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL’s) CoolSim MATLAB/Simulink modeling framework was expanded by including a newly developed coolant loop solution method aimed at reducing the simulation effort for complex thermal management systems. The new approach does not require the user to identify specific coolant loops and their flow. The user only needs to connect the fluid network elements in a manner consistent with the desired schematic. Using the new solution method, a model of NREL's advanced combined coolant loop system for electric vehicles was created that reflected the test system architecture. This system was built using components provided by MAHLE Inc. and included both air conditioning and heat pump modes. Validation with test bench data and verification with the previous solution method were performed for 10 operating points spanning a range of ambient temperatures between -2°C and 43°C.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0228
Mengzuo Han, Gangfeng Tan, Xuexun Guo, Ruobing Zhan, Xuyang An, Weiye Xue, HongBo Kang
Abstract Vehicle exhaust waste-heat recovery with thermoelectric power generators can improve energy efficiency, as well as vehicle fuel economy. In the conventional structure, the hot-end of thermoelectric module is directly connected with the outer wall of the exhaust pipe, while the cold-end is connected with the water pipe’s outer wall of the vehicle engine cooling cycle. However, the variety of vehicle engine operating conditions leads to the instability of the hot-end temperature, which will reduce the generating efficiency of the thermoelectric modules and also shorten its service life. This research is on the basis of constructing a heat transfer oil circulation, and to study the action principles and implementation methods of it.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0229
Mohammed Ismail, Shahram Fotowat, Amir Fartaj
Abstract A numerical study is performed to investigate the transient heat transfer and flow characteristics of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) nanoparticles dispersed in 50:50 ethylene glycol/water (EG/W) base fluid in a multipass crossflow minichannel heat exchanger. The time dependent thermal responses of the system in a laminar regime are predicted by solving the conservation equations using the finite volume method and SIMPLE algorithm. The transient regime is caused by a step change of nanofluid mass flow rate at the inlet of the minichannel heat exchanger. This step change can be analogous with a thermostat operation. In this study, three volume fractions up to 3 percent of Al2O3 nanoparticles dispersed to the base fluid EG/W are modeled and analyzed. In the numerical simulation, Al2O3-EG/W nanofluid is considered as a homogenous single-phase fluid. An analysis of the transient response for the variation of nanofluids volume concentrations is conducted.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0227
Kaushal Kumar Jha, Imran Shaik
Abstract Heat exchangers are thermoregulatory system of an automotive air conditioning system. They are responsible for heat exchange between refrigerant and air. Sizing of the heat exchanger becomes critical to achieve the required thermal performance. In the present work, the behavior of heat exchanger with respect to change in size is studied in detail by developing a scaling model. The limited experiments have been conducted for 3 different condensers. Commercially available 1D tool GT Suite is used for simulations. The heat exchangers are modeled using COOL3D module of GT Suite. The experimental thermal capacities of heat exchanger are compared with the simulated values. A good agreement up to ±2.3% is found between the experiments and simulations. Then developed scaling model in GT Suite is used for predicting the thermal behavior of heat exchangers by changing the size of the heat exchanger.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0224
Robin Y. Cash, Edward Lumsdaine, Apoorv Talekar, Bashar AbdulNour
Abstract To address the need of increasing fuel economy requirements, automotive Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) are increasing the number of turbocharged engines in their powertrain line-ups. The turbine-driven technology uses a forced induction device, which increases engine performance by increasing the density of the air charge being drawn into the cylinder. Denser air allows more fuel to be introduced into the combustion chamber, thus increasing engine performance. During the inlet air compression process, the air is heated to temperatures that can result in pre-ignition resulting and reduced engine functionality. The introduction of the charge air cooler (CAC) is therefore, necessary to extract heat created during the compression process. The present research describes the physics and develops the optimized simulation method that defines the process and gives insight into the development of CACs.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0225
Peixiang Tang, Yunqing Zhang, Zhibao Xu, Qiming Tao
Abstract Vehicle Thermal Management System (VTMS) is a crosscutting technology affecting the fuel consumption, engine performance and emissions. With the new approved fuel economy targets and the enhanced vehicle performance requirements, the ability to predict the impact on the fuel consumption of different VTMS modifications is becoming an important issue in the pre-prototype phase of vehicle development. This paper presents a methodology using different simulation tools to model the entire VTMS in order to understand and quantify its behavior. The detailed model contains: engine cooling system, lubrication system, powertrain system, HVAC system and intake and exhaust system. A detail model of the power absorbed by the accessory components operating in VTMS such as pumps and condenser is presented. The power of the accessory components is not constant but changing with respect to engine operation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0222
Xingyu Zhang, Bo Yang, Gangfeng Tan, Binyu Mei, Zhilei Li, Zhongjie Yang, Can Wang
Abstract The heavy duty trucks have large engine power and drive continuously in mountainous area, so the heat dissipation of engine is very important. In the traditional cooling system with fixed transmission ratio fan, the cooling capacity is insufficient and the engine is easy to be over-heated when the engine is working in low speed and heavy load conditions. Owning to the bigger size of electric motor compared to the hydraulic motor, it is not suitably applied to the heavy duty trucks. Contrasted with the electric motor, the hydraulic drive cooling system is widely applied in heavy duty trucks due to smaller size, larger power, continuous speed modulation and flexible installation location. However, the low transmission efficiency of the pump-motor system results in high power consumption of the cooling system. In this paper, the mathematical and simulation model of hydraulic-driven fan cooling system is established for the specific engine.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0220
Ban Gu, Xiaohong Yuan
Abstract With great development of thermoelectric exhaust heat recovery technology, more and more attention has been paid to optimization of automotive thermoelectric generators (ATEGs). A lot of work has been done on optimization of flow field and thermal analysis. However, investigation on acoustic optimization is rather limited. In this paper, efforts have been paid to study the acoustic performance of a flat-plate TEG, and the feasibility of integration of automotive exhaust thermoelectric generator with muffler was discussed. The internal configuration of heat exchanger looks like “fishbone”. Four factors have been taken into consideration: the spacing of two fins, angle of the fins, the diameter of inlet and outlet of exchanger; and filling sound absorbing material in heat exchanger chamber. Based on these four factors, acoustic analysis was carried out.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0221
Roberto Monforte, Fabrizio Mattiello, Andrea Perosino, Fabrizio Porta, Susanna Paz, Pablo Lopez del Rincón
Abstract The adoption of a low-GWP refrigerant gas in MAC systems is mandatory from January 1st, 2017 according to the European Directive 2006/40/EC requirements for all new passenger cars, in order to gain their registration in the EU28 market. Following the work carried out in 2008 to support the FCA choice for the new types development, a further step was accomplished to evaluate the risk involved by the adoption of the low-GWP refrigerant gas R-1234yf in the MAC systems. This paper is focused on the activities held to enhance the 3D CFD method and its validation. In certain concentrations, R-1234yf could present a safety hazard to the vehicle occupants and, according to the ISO Standard Risk Scenario evaluation, 3D CFD tools are adopted to evaluate the ignition event associated with small or large leak in the passenger compartment. The method validation has been supported by both a simplified control volume “dummy cabin compartment” and an actual FCA vehicle.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0218
Balashunmuganathan Vasanth, Kumar Sathish, Mayur Sah
In an automotive air conditioning, aero-acoustic noise originating from HVAC (Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning) unit is one of the major concerns for the customer satisfaction. “Fan blower excessive noise” is one among the top issues for all automotive manufacturers. In this paper, a 3D computational analysis is carried out for a passenger car HVAC unit to predict the noise originated from the HVAC unit. HVAC modeling is done using uni graphics and ANSA and the analysis is carried out using the commercial CFD software STAR CCM+. The inputs for the analysis are the airflow at HVAC Inlet, blower speed and the pressure drop characteristics of evaporator, filter and heater core. The computational model is done by considering the blower region as MRF (Moving Reference Frame) and the air flow is considered incompressible. DES (Detached Eddy Simulation) model is used to resolve the eddies generated by the turbulent flow.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0219
Song Lan, Zhijia Yang, Richard Stobart, Edward Winward
Abstract An automotive engine can be more efficient if thermoelectric generators (TEG) are used to convert a portion of the exhaust gas enthalpy into electricity. Due to the relatively low cost of the incoming thermal energy, the efficiency of the TEG is not an overriding consideration. Instead, the maximum power output (MPO) is the first priority. The MPO of the TEG is closely related to not only the thermoelectric materials properties, but also the operating conditions. This study shows the development of a numerical TEG model integrated with a plate-fin heat exchanger, which is designed for automotive waste heat recovery (WHR) in the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) path in a diesel engine. This model takes into account the following factors: the exhaust gas properties’ variation along the flow direction, temperature influence on the thermoelectric materials, thermal contact effect, and heat transfer leakage effect. Its accuracy has been checked using engine test data.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0548
Estefanía Hervas-Blasco, Emilio Navarro-Peris, José Corberan, Alex Rinaldi
Abstract Nowadays, more than 50% of the fuel energy is lost in CNG Engines. While efforts to increase their efficiency have been focused mainly on the improvement of the combustion process, the combustion chamber and the reduction of friction losses, heat losses still remain the most important inefficient factor. A global strategy in which several energy recovery strategies are implemented could lead to engine improvements up to 15%. Therefore, the development of accurate models to size and predict the performance of the integrated components as well as to define an optimized control strategy is crucial. In this contribution, a model to analyze the potential of a new powertrain based on the electrification of the main auxiliaries, the integration of a kinetic energy recovery system and the exhaust gases heat recovery through a thermoelectric generator and a turbo-component is presented.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0555
Federico Millo, Sabino Caputo, Claudio Cubito, Antonella Calamiello, Davide Mercuri, Marcello Rimondi
The target for future cooling systems is to control the fluid temperatures and flows through a demand oriented control of the engine cooling to minimize energy demand and to achieve comfort, emissions, or service life advantages. The scope of this work is to create a complete engine thermal model (including both cooling and lubrication circuits) able to reproduce engine warm up along the New European Driving Cycle in order to assess the impact of different thermal management concepts on fuel consumption. The engine cylinder structure was modeled through a finite element representation of cylinder liner, piston and head in order to simulate the cylinder heat exchange to coolant or oil flow circuits and to predict heat distribution during transient conditions. Heat exchanges with other components (EGR cooler, turbo cooler, oil cooler) were also taken into account.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0564
Pengfei Lu, Chris Brace, Bo Hu
Abstract The turbo-compounding has been extensively researched as a mean of improving the overall thermal efficiency of the internal combustion engine. Many of the studies aiming to optimize the turbo-compounding system lead to the unified conclusion that this approach is more suitable for the operation under constant high load condition, while it has little effect on improving the fuel economy under low load conditions. Besides, in a traditional series turbo-compounding engine, the increased back pressure unavoidably results in a serious parasitic load to the system by increasing the resistance to the scavenging process. In order to improve this situation, a novel turbo-compounding arrangement has been proposed, in which the turbocharger was replaced by a continuously variable transmission (CVT) coupled supercharger (CVT superchargedr) to supply sufficient air mass flow rate to the engine at lower engine speeds.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0450
Somnath Sen, Paulson Parayil
Abstract In order to ensure a comfortable space inside the cabin, it is very essential to design an efficient heating ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) system which can deliver uniform temperature distribution at the exit. There are several factors which impact on uniformity of temperature distribution. Airflow distribution is one of the key parameter in deciding the effectiveness of temperature distribution. Kinematics links and linkage system typically termed as ‘mechanism’ is one of the critical sub-systems which greatly affects the airflow distribution. It is not the temperature uniformity but also the HVAC temperature linearity also depends on airflow distribution. Hence the design of mechanism is incomparably of paramount importance to achieve the desired level of airflow distribution at HVAC exit. The present paper describes the design methodology of automotive HVAC mechanism system.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0480
Weiguo Zhang, Mark Likich, Mac Lynch, John White
Abstract The noise radiated from the snorkel of an air induction system (AIS) can be a major noise source to the vehicle interior noise. This noise source is typically quantified as the snorkel volume velocity which is directly related to vehicle interior noise through the vehicle noise transfer function. It is important to predict the snorkel volume velocity robustly at the early design stage for the AIS development. Design For Six Sigma (DFSS) is an engineering approach that supports the new product development process. The IDDOV (Identify-Define-Develop-Optimize-Verify) method is a DFSS approach which can be used for creating innovative, low cost and trouble free products on significant short schedules. In this paper, an IDD project which is one type of DFSS project using IDDOV method is presented on developing a robust simulation process to predict the AIS snorkel volume velocity. First, the IDDOV method is overviewed and the innovative tools in each phase of IDDOV are introduced.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0525
Sameer Srivastava, Sandeep Raina, Kapil Kumar Pandey, Arnab Sandilya, Shankar Bose, Kumar Vivek
Abstract The aim of the research was to explore and establish aspects that affect ageing of non-woven fabrics used in automobiles. One of the most vulnerable parts in a vehicle, at the behest of the customer, is the Floor Carpet. Original Equipment manufacturers are continually binging at doable options for providing low cost carpets that are functionally and aesthetically durable throughout the vehicle life. [1] Car interiors, especially carpet, must remain in impeccable condition to uphold a good resale value. Targeting the analysis of causes that affect ageing of non-woven fabric material will form the core study of the literature to follow. The establishment of which shall ascertain some viable solutions to augment quality of the contemporary non-woven automotive carpet.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0512
Chae-Hwan Hong
Polylactide (PLA), which is one of the most important biocompatible polyesters that are derived from annually renewable biomass such as corn and sugar beets, has attracted much attention for automotive parts application. The manufacturing method of PLA is the ring-opening polymerization of the dimeric cyclic ester of lactic acid, lactide. For the PLA composites including stereocomplexed with L- and D-PLA, we developed the unit processes such as fermentation, separation, lactide conversion, and polymerization. We investigated D-lactic acid fermentation with a view to obtaining the strains capable of producing D-lactic acid, and through catalyst screening test for polycondensation and depolymerization reactions, we got a new method which shortens the whole reaction time of lactide synthesis step. Poly(d-lactide) is obtained from the ring-opening polymerization of d-lactide. Also we investigated several catalysts and polymerization conditions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1295
Atsushi Itoh, ZongGuang Wang, Toshikazu Nosaka, Keita Wada
Abstract Without engine noise, the cabin of an electric vehicle is quiet, but on the other hand, it becomes easy to perceive refrigerant-induced noise in the automotive air-conditioning (A/C) system. When determining the A/C system at the design stage, it is crucial to verify whether refrigerant-induced noise occurs in the system or not before the real A/C systems are made. If refrigerant-induced noise almost never occurs during the design stage, it is difficult to evaluate by vehicle testing at the development stage. This paper presents a 1D modeling methodology for the assessment of refrigerant-induced noise such as self-excitation noise generated by pressure pulsation through the thermal expansion valve (TXV). The GT-SUITE commercial code was used to develop a refrigerant cycle model consisting of a compressor, condenser, evaporator, TXV and the connecting pipe network.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0823
Jason Miwa, Darius Mehta, Chad Koci
Abstract Increasingly stringent emissions regulations require that modern diesel aftertreatment systems must warm up and begin controlling emissions shortly after startup. While several new aftertreatment technologies have been introduced that focus on lowering the aftertreatment activation temperature, the engine system still needs to provide thermal energy to the exhaust for cold start. A study was conducted to evaluate several engine technologies that focus on improving the thermal energy that the engine system provides to the aftertreatment system while minimizing the impact on fuel economy and emissions. Studies were conducted on a modern common rail 3L diesel engine with a custom dual loop EGR system. The engine was calibrated for low engine-out NOx using various combustion strategies depending on the speed/load operating condition.
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