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Viewing 121 to 150 of 10344
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0080
Hiroyuki Miyake
Abstract This paper explains a performance enhancement of the lane guidance function in car navigation systems. In order to achieve intuitive lane guidance, a function is considered that displays lane guidance on an image of the front scene that matches what drivers actually see outside the vehicle. Therefore, two developed items were lane accurate positioning based on image recognition and augmented reality visualization that renders lane guidance images overlaid on the scenery of the road ahead. The eye glance time to the navigation screen has been reduced in a comparison test with a conventional lane guidance method. It is confirmed that this lane guidance function is more intuitive than the conventional method.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0100
Sushant Kishor Hingane
High-end vehicles with latest technology and autonomous driving experience have to bear the cost of increasing number of sensors on-board. It would be beneficial to reduce some of the sensors in the vehicle and make use of other available resources, retaining the same functionality. This paper discusses a novel technique of estimating the weight of seat occupant from an already existing DC motor without using additional pressure sensors. Passenger weight information is important for seat-belt reminder system as well as supplemental restraint system that will decide the air-bag deployment. The mathematical model for a series-type DC motor is analyzed and simulated using MATLAB. Further, results of the experiment performed on a lower capacity motor are shared and compared with the simulation results. Formulating a linear relation gives a possibility to develop a device for occupant weight measurement inside the high-end vehicles.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0525
Sameer Srivastava, Sandeep Raina, Kapil Kumar Pandey, Arnab Sandilya, Shankar Bose, Kumar Vivek
Abstract The aim of the research was to explore and establish aspects that affect ageing of non-woven fabrics used in automobiles. One of the most vulnerable parts in a vehicle, at the behest of the customer, is the Floor Carpet. Original Equipment manufacturers are continually binging at doable options for providing low cost carpets that are functionally and aesthetically durable throughout the vehicle life. [1] Car interiors, especially carpet, must remain in impeccable condition to uphold a good resale value. Targeting the analysis of causes that affect ageing of non-woven fabric material will form the core study of the literature to follow. The establishment of which shall ascertain some viable solutions to augment quality of the contemporary non-woven automotive carpet.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0450
Somnath Sen, Paulson Parayil
Abstract In order to ensure a comfortable space inside the cabin, it is very essential to design an efficient heating ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) system which can deliver uniform temperature distribution at the exit. There are several factors which impact on uniformity of temperature distribution. Airflow distribution is one of the key parameter in deciding the effectiveness of temperature distribution. Kinematics links and linkage system typically termed as ‘mechanism’ is one of the critical sub-systems which greatly affects the airflow distribution. It is not the temperature uniformity but also the HVAC temperature linearity also depends on airflow distribution. Hence the design of mechanism is incomparably of paramount importance to achieve the desired level of airflow distribution at HVAC exit. The present paper describes the design methodology of automotive HVAC mechanism system.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0480
Weiguo Zhang, Mark Likich, Mac Lynch, John White
Abstract The noise radiated from the snorkel of an air induction system (AIS) can be a major noise source to the vehicle interior noise. This noise source is typically quantified as the snorkel volume velocity which is directly related to vehicle interior noise through the vehicle noise transfer function. It is important to predict the snorkel volume velocity robustly at the early design stage for the AIS development. Design For Six Sigma (DFSS) is an engineering approach that supports the new product development process. The IDDOV (Identify-Define-Develop-Optimize-Verify) method is a DFSS approach which can be used for creating innovative, low cost and trouble free products on significant short schedules. In this paper, an IDD project which is one type of DFSS project using IDDOV method is presented on developing a robust simulation process to predict the AIS snorkel volume velocity. First, the IDDOV method is overviewed and the innovative tools in each phase of IDDOV are introduced.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1238
Paul Karoshi, Karin Tieber, Christopher Kneissl, Georg Peneder, Harald Kraus, Martin Hofstetter, Jurgen Fabian, Martin Ackerl
Abstract In hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), the operation strategy strongly influences the available system power, as well as local exhaust emissions. Predictive operation strategies rely on knowledge of future traction-force demands. This predicted information can be used to balance the battery’s state of charge or the engine’s thermal system in their legal operation limits and can reduce peak loads. Assuming the air and rolling drag-coefficient to be constant, the desired vehicle velocity, vehicle-mass and longitudinal driving resistances determine the vehicle’s traction-force demand. In this paper, a novel methodology, combining a history-based prediction algorithm for estimating future traction-force demands with the parameter identification of road grade angle and vehicle mass, is proposed. It is solely based on a route-history database and internal vehicle data, available on its on-board communication and measuring systems.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0084
Paul Weindorf, James Krier, Carl Evans
Abstract An optical configuration has been developed which offers a seamless appearance where the display aperture is less visible in the “off” condition and is minimized in the “on” condition.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0180
Montassar Khammassi, Thierry Marimbordes, Judicael Aubry, Bertrand Barbedette, Mickael Cormerais, Cherif Larouci, Quentin Frossard
Abstract In order to cope with new regulations and find a better compromise between fuel consumption, pollutant emissions and comfort, thermal management technologies are getting more complex. This is especially true when it requires replacing a basic passive solution with a mechatronic system. A new Active Cooling Thermal-management (ACT) valve concept has been developed to specifically replace wax thermostat while keeping the same packaging and cost range and bringing closed loop temperature control, fast response time and precision. This new module is manufactured by assembling injected thermoplastic components. By essence it leads to dimension tolerances, deformation and wear over its life. Those uncertainties and deviations have to be taken into account when the nominal part is designed to ensure part efficiency till the end of its life.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0179
Meisam Mehravaran, Aurélien Levasseur, Yi Zhang, Manuel Henner
Abstract In this article, the behavior of a typical air-to-air heat exchanger (intercooler) during the thermal shock test has been recorded during which the heat exchanger is exposed to very high temperature gradients. Different CAE models have been built that have different levels of details and the sensitivity of the results to the details has been studied. Finally a comparison have been made between the results of the CAE/CFD model and the experimental data and the correlation study shows that in spite of being simple, the dual stream is very accurate and correlates pretty well with test data. Including all design details in the CAE model will not necessarily improve the accuracy of the model while adding up to the computational cost.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0200
Chunhui Zhang, Mesbah Uddin, Xu Song, Chen Fu, Lee Foster
Abstract The radiator is the key component of a vehicle’s cooling system. The cooling effectiveness of a radiator largely depends on the flow of fresh air through it. Thus, at high vehicle speeds, the mass flow rate and flow-distribution or flow-uniformity over the radiator surface are the major operating parameters influencing the performance of a radiator. Additionally, the mass of air coming from the front grille plays an important role on the total drag of the vehicle. This paper presents computational studies aiming at improving simultaneously the efficiency of a radiator and reducing the total drag of the vehicle; this is achieved using passive aerodynamic devices that alter the flow pattern approaching the radiator. The vehicle model considered is a Hyundai Veloster and all analyses were carried out using a commercial CFD code Star-CCM+ version 10.04 by CD-adapco.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0647
Azmi Osman, M. Khairul Arif Muhammad Yusof, Mohammad Rafi
Abstract Additional fuel consumption reduction during the NEDC test cycle and real life driving can be effectively achieved by quickly raising the temperatures of the powertrain’s parts, oils and coolant closer to the optimal operating temperatures. In particular, the engine cooling system today must play a bigger role in the overall thermal management of the powertrain’s fluids and metals during warm-up, idle and severe operating conditions. In responding to these additional requirements, the previously proposed cost effective split cooling system has been further evolved to expedite the powertrain’s warming up process without compromising the overall heat rejection performance during severe operating conditions. In achieving these warming and cooling functions, the coolant flow rate in the cylinder head is almost stagnant when the single thermostat is closed and at its maximum when the thermostat is fully opened.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0655
Farid Bahiraei, Amir Fartaj, Gholm-Abbas Nazri
In this work, a pseudo three-dimensional coupled thermal-electrochemical model is established to estimate the heat generation and temperature profiles of a lithium ion battery as functions of the state of the discharge. Then, this model is used to investigate the effectiveness of active and passive thermal management systems. The active cooling system utilizes cooling plate and water as the working fluid while the passive cooling system incorporates a phase change material (PCM). The thermal effects of coolant flow rate examined using a computational fluid dynamics model. In the passive cooling system, Paraffin wax used as a heat dissipation source to control battery temperature rise. The effect of module size and battery spacing is studied to find the optimal weight of PCM required. The results show that although the active cooling system has the capability to reduce the peak temperatures, it leads to a large temperature difference over the battery module.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0181
Yasuki Hirota, Ryuichi Iwata, Takafumi Yamauchi, Manabu Orihashi, Masaki Morita
Abstract In order to reduce the energy consumption of the automotive air conditioning system, adsorption heat pump (AHP) system is one of the key technologies. We have been developing compact AHP system utilizing the exhaust heat from the engine coolant system (80-100 °C), which can meet the requirements in the automotive application. However, AHP systems have not been practically used in automotive applications because of its low volumetric power density of the adsorber. The volumetric power density of the adsorber is proportional to sorption rate, packing density and latent heat. In general, the sorption rate is determined by mass transfer resistance in primary particle of an adsorbent and heat and mass transfer resistance in packed bed. In order to improve the volumetric power density of the adsorber, it is necessary to increase the production of the sorption rate and the packing density.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0256
Hideaki Nagano, Kenji Tomita, Yasuhiro Tanoue, Yuji Kobayashi, Itsuhei Kohri, Shinsuke Kato
Abstract In the winter, windshield glass fogging must be prevented through the intake of outdoor air into a vehicle. However, the corresponding energy loss via the ventilation system cannot be ignored. In the present study, the defogging pattern on the windshield is evaluated and the water vapor transportation in the flow field in the vehicle is analyzed in order to investigate the ventilation load by means of a numerical simulation. Some examined cases involve new outlet positions. Additionally, a new, energy-saving air supply method for defogging, with so-called “double-layer ventilator”, is proposed. In this method, one air jet layer is obtained via a conventional defogging opening in the vicinity of the windshield, supplying an outdoor air intake. The other jet consists of recirculated air that covers the outdoor air, preventing it from mixing with the surrounding air.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1336
Hee Sang Park
Abstract Headliner module system implies that all components, including fasteners that are attached to the headliner substrate panel prior to vehicle assembly installation. The headliner substrate becomes an installation fixture which facilitates the assembly process. Since headliner module is an integration of many separate components into one more complex assembly, prior to vehicle assembly, a number of additional requirements must be considered. Many of these requirements are driven by the factors like shipping, handling and installation of a large panel with various componentry mounted for temporary installation retention or permanent retention. Substrate should be tough but, on the contrary it should be soft enough for the curtain airbag deployment. Tough substrate interferes with airbag deployment. Detachable reinforcement will enhance shipping and handling process. After installation, reinforcement can be detached from headliner module which will keep the substrate soft.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1430
Se Jin Park, Murali Subramaniyam, Seoung Eun Kim, Tae Hyun Kim, Hee Su Sin, Dong Hag Seo, Hyu Hyeong Nam, Jeong Cheol Lee
Abstract Seating comfort is associated with the various factors, and one of the principal components of a vehicle environment which can affect passenger’s comfort is vibration. The seat design plays a vital role in the vibration isolation. In recent years, automotive seat designers are paying more attention for the improvement of seat cushion properties. This paper provides information about a new automotive seat concept that use double-wall 3D air-mat in cushion along with foam cushion in the seat cushion system. To test the developed seat on vibration isolation characteristics, seating comfort, and ride quality experiments have been performed. This research is divided into two parts. At first, the newly developed seat tested on the motion simulator. In study 2, road tests were performed on the national highway. Two tri-axial accelerometers were used to measure acceleration at the foot and hip in two different seats (seat with and without double-wall 3D air-mat).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1435
Amber Hall, Michael Kolich
Abstract Many studies have been conducted and supporting literature has been published to better understand thermal comfort for the automotive environment, particularly, for the HVAC system within the cabin. However, reliable assessment of occupant thermal comfort for seating systems has lacked in development and understanding. Evaluation of seat system performance in terms of comfort has been difficult to quantify and thus most tests have been established such that the hardware components are tested to determine if the thermal feature does no harm to the customer. This paper evaluates the optimal seat surface temperature range to optimize human thermal comfort for an automotive seating system application for heated and ventilated seats.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1438
Alexander Siefert
Abstract The objective evaluation of occupant comfort is a complex task where numerous aspects such as posture, pressure distribution, internal tissue loads, handling of steering wheel or gear shift have to be taken into consideration. Currently the standard evaluation procedures are hardware tests with human subjects, who are sensitive to all these aspects. However, the reproducibility of subjective tests for the comparison of design variants is a questionable issue and the costs for each test cycle with new prototypes are very high. As an alternative, numerical approaches using human body models such as AnyBody [1], CASIMIR [2] or RAMSIS [3] are applied. Here the issue of reproducibility does not exist and only little effort is required to investigate new setups. However, the disadvantage is that each approach focuses only on one specific aspect of occupant comfort, while in reality the emotions of the occupant are always a combination of all impressions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1431
Subramanian Premananth, Ganesh Dharmar, Hareesh Krishnan, Riyaz Mohammed
Abstract Virtual assessment of an occupant postural ergonomics has become an essential part of vehicle development process. To design vehicle for different market is one of the primary reason for manufacturers using digital tools to address the specific needs of the target market including cultural background, road and traffic conditions. RAMSIS is a widely used software for creating digital human models (DHM) of different target population which allows manufacturers to assess design with unique customer requirements in product design. Defining these requirements with RAMSIS human module helped development team to accurately define occupant targets such as occupant space, visibility and reachability etc. Occupant behavior and usage scenario are factors which are unique to target market and they influence the occupant posture and usage pattern inside the vehicle.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0648
Sinan Eroglu, Ipek Duman, Alp Ergenc, Rıfat Yanarocak
Abstract The exhaust manifold bridges the gap between the engine structure and the hot-end after-treatment system, the burned in-cylinder gases are disposed through the manifold. The automotive exhaust manifolds are designed and developed for providing a smooth flow with low/least back pressure and must be able to withstand extreme heating under very high temperatures and cooling under low temperatures. The paper presents a theoretical study aiming to investigate the feasibility of three different CAE approaches and techniques used for the simulation of exhaust manifold fluid flow and the accompanying thermal distribution. The main difficulty emanates from the pulsating nature of fluid flow inside the engine exhaust manifold. To verify the outcome of each solution experimental measurements of the manifold temperatures have been performed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0254
Gursaran D. Mathur
Field tests were conducted on a late full sized sedan with the HVAC unit operating in both Recirculation and OSA modes to monitor build-up of the CO2 concentration inside the cabin and its influence on occupant’s fatigue and alertness. These tests were conducted during 2015 summer on interstate highways with test durations ranging from 4 to 7 hours. During the above tests, fatigue or tiredness of the occupants (including CO2 levels) was monitored and recorded at 30 min intervals. Based on this investigation it is determined that the measured cabin concentration levels reaches ASHRAE (Standard 62-1999) specified magnitudes (greater than 700 ppm over ambient levels) with three occupants in the vehicle. Further, the occupants did show fatigue when the HVAC unit was operated in recirculation mode in excess of 5 hours. Further details have been presented in the paper.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0280
Alaa El-Sharkawy, Amr Sami, Abd El-Rahman Hekal, Dipan Arora, Masuma Khandaker
Abstract In this paper, the development of a transient thermal analysis model for the exhaust system is presented. Given the exhaust gas temperature out of the engine, a software tool has been developed to predict changes in exhaust gas temperature and exhaust surface temperature under various operating conditions. The software is a thermal solver that will predict exhaust gas and wall surface temperatures by modeling all heat transfer paths in the exhaust system which includes multi-dimensional conduction, internal forced/natural convection, external forced/natural convection, and radiation. The analysis approach involves the breaking down of the thermal system into multiple components, which include the exhaust system (manifold, takedown pipe, tailpipe, etc.), catalytic converter, DPF (diesel particulate filter), if they exist, thermal shields, etc. All components are modeled as 1D porous and 1D non-porous flow streams with 3D wall layers (solid and air gaps).
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0262
Matthew A. Jeffers, Larry Chaney, John P. Rugh
Abstract When operated, the cabin climate control system is the largest auxiliary load on a vehicle. This load has significant impact on fuel economy for conventional and hybrid vehicles, and it drastically reduces the driving range of all-electric vehicles (EVs). Heating is even more detrimental to EV range than cooling because no engine waste heat is available. Reducing the thermal loads on the vehicle climate control system will extend driving range and increase the market penetration of EVs. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory have evaluated strategies for vehicle climate control load reduction with special attention toward grid-connected electric vehicles. Outdoor vehicle thermal testing and computational modeling were used to assess potential strategies for improved thermal management and to evaluate the effectiveness of thermal load reduction technologies. A human physiology model was also used to evaluate the impact on occupant thermal comfort.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1474
Edward C. Fatzinger, Tyler L. Shaw, Jon B. Landerville
Abstract Six electronic needle-display speedometers from five different manufacturers were tested in order to determine the behavior of the gauges following a power interruption and impact. Subject motorcycles were accelerated to pre-determined speeds, at which point the speedometer wiring harness was disconnected. The observed results were that the dial indicator would move slightly up, down, or remain in place depending on the model of the speedometer. The observed change of indicated speed was within +/- 10 mph upon power loss. Additionally, the speedometers were subjected to impact testing to further analyze needle movement due to collision forces. Speedometers were attached to a linear drop rail apparatus instrumented with an accelerometer. A minimum acceleration due to impact which could cause needle movement was measured for each speedometer assembly.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0654
Lakshmaiah Brahmasani, Sarangapani K, Samson Solomon, Parvej Khan
Abstract The paper presents the development of a proposed rear powertrain cooling system of a minivan. The packaging of cooling system is finalized such that the radiator faces towards the rear of the vehicle bumper which is opposite to the conventional rear cooling system (i.e. radiator faces towards the front of the vehicle). In the small minivan, the space ahead of the engine is used as a floor for passenger foot. Due to these space constraints, the cooling system has no choice, but to move rear of the vehicle and above the departure plane to meet packaging requirements. Furthermore, in the conventional rear cooling system, in front of the radiator, there is engine and exhaust system, which heats up the air going to the radiator and reduces radiator cooling performance. Thus the cooling system is placed such that the radiator faces the rear bumper to draw in cooler air.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0652
Ravi Ranjan, Lakshmaiah Brahmasani, Parvej Khan
Abstract This paper reports a study on Charge air cooler effectiveness, Air intake pressure drop, Acceleration Performance and Rise over ambient temperature of a utility vehicle for different layouts of Inter cooler, radiator, condenser and fan module in order to finalize an efficient Power train cooling system layout. The main objective is effective utilization of front end opening area, eliminating inter cooler heat load on the radiator, so that radiator size, fan size and fan motor wattage can be optimized to achieve desired cooling performance requirements with the cooling system (CRFM) module. Effect of the intercooler effectiveness, Intake pressure drop, Vehicle acceleration performance and Rise over ambient temperature are studied and both the advantages and disadvantages of the proposals are discussed to finalize the better position of inter-cooler along with other engine cooling components.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0214
Kaushal Kumar Jha, Ravi Ranjan, Parvej Khan, Lakshmaiah Brahmasani
Abstract For the thermal management of an automobile, the induced airflow becomes necessary to enable the sufficient heat transfer with ambient. In this way, the components work within the designed temperature limit. It is the engine-cooling fan that enables the induced airflow. There are two types of engine-cooling fan, one that is driven by engine itself and the other one is electrically driven. Due to ease in handling, reduced power consumption, improved emission condition, electrically operated fan is becoming increasingly popular compared to engine driven fan. The prime mover for electric engine cooling fan is DC motor. Malfunction of DC motor due to overheating will lead to engine over heat, Poor HVAC performance, overheating of other critical components in engine bay. Based upon the real world driving condition, 1D transient thermal model of engine cooling fan motor is developed. This transient model is able to predict the temperature of rotor and casing with and without holes.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0218
Balashunmuganathan Vasanth, Kumar Sathish, Mayur Sah
In an automotive air conditioning, aero-acoustic noise originating from HVAC (Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning) unit is one of the major concerns for the customer satisfaction. “Fan blower excessive noise” is one among the top issues for all automotive manufacturers. In this paper, a 3D computational analysis is carried out for a passenger car HVAC unit to predict the noise originated from the HVAC unit. HVAC modeling is done using uni graphics and ANSA and the analysis is carried out using the commercial CFD software STAR CCM+. The inputs for the analysis are the airflow at HVAC Inlet, blower speed and the pressure drop characteristics of evaporator, filter and heater core. The computational model is done by considering the blower region as MRF (Moving Reference Frame) and the air flow is considered incompressible. DES (Detached Eddy Simulation) model is used to resolve the eddies generated by the turbulent flow.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0207
Ivan Arsie, Andrea Cricchio, Cesare Pianese, Vincenzo Ricciardi, Matteo De Cesare
Abstract In the last years, the research effort of the automotive industry has been mainly focused on the reduction of CO2 and pollutants emissions. In this scenario, concepts such as the engines downsizing, stop/start systems as well as more costly full hybrid solutions and, more recently, Waste Heat Recovery technologies have been proposed. These latter include Thermo-Electric Generator (TEG), Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) and Electric Turbo-Compound (ETC) that have been practically implemented on few heavy-duty applications but have not been proved yet as effective and affordable solutions for passenger cars. The paper deals with modeling of ORC power plant for simulation analyses aimed at evaluating the opportunities and challenges of its application for the waste heat recovery in a compact car, powered by a turbocharged SI engine.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0234
Roberto Cipollone, Davide Di Battista, Andrea Perosino, Federica Bettoja
Abstract The use of reciprocating internal combustion engines (ICE) dominates the sector of the in-the-road transportation sector, both for light and heavy duties. CO2 reduction is the technological driver, considering the severe worldwide greenhouse commitments. In ICE more than one third of the fuel energy used is rejected to the environment as thermal waste through the exhaust gases. Therefore, a greater fuel economy could be achieved, recovering this energy and converting it into useful electric power on board. Financial benefits will be produced in terms of fuel cost which will rebound similar benefits in terms of CO2 emitted. For long hauling vehicles, which run for thousands of miles, frequently at fixed engine operating conditions, this recovery appears very worthy of attention. In this activity, an ORC-based power unit was designed, built and tested fed by a heavy duty diesel engine, so contributing to the huge efforts on going in that specific sector.
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